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Carl Gustav Jung

Jung in 1910
Born 26 July 1875(1875-07-26)
Kesswil, Thurgau, Switzerland
Died 6 June 1961 (aged 85)
Zürich, Switzerland
Residence Switzerland
Citizenship Swiss
Fields Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychotherapy, Analytical psychology
Institutions Burghölzli, Swiss Army (as a commissioned officer in World War I)
Doctoral advisor Eugen Bleuler, Sigmund Freud
Known for Analytical psychology
Influences Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottfried von Herder, Arthur Schopenhauer, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Nietzche, Sigmund Freud, Victor White (Dominican).
Influenced New Age Movement, Psychoanalysis, Adam Philips, Jackson Pollock, Northrop Frye, Oxford Group, Alcoholics Anonymous,Barbara Hannah

Carl Gustav Jung (German pronunciation: [ˈkaːɐ̯l ˈgʊstaf ˈjʊŋ]; 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist, an influential thinker and the founder of analytical psychology (also known as Jungian psychology). Jung's approach to psychology has been influential in the field of depth psychology and in countercultural movements across the globe. Jung is considered as the first modern psychologist to state that the human psyche is "by nature religious" and to explore it in depth.[1] He emphasized understanding the psyche through exploring the worlds of dreams, art, mythology, religion and philosophy. Though not the first to analyze dreams, he has become perhaps the most well known pioneer in the field of dream analysis. Although he was a theoretical psychologist and practicing clinician, much of his life's work was spent exploring other areas, including Eastern and Western philosophy, alchemy, astrology, sociology, as well as literature and the arts.

Jung emphasized the importance of balance and harmony. He cautioned that modern people rely too heavily on natural science and logical positivism and would benefit from integrating spirituality and appreciation of unconscious realms. He considered the process of individuation necessary for a person to become whole. This is a psychological process of integrating the conscious with the unconscious while still maintaining conscious autonomy.[2] Individuation was the central concept of analytical psychology.[3]

Jungian ideas are not typically included in curriculum of most major universities' psychology departments, but are occasionally explored in humanities departments.[citation needed] Many pioneering psychological concepts were originally proposed by Jung, including the Archetype, the Collective Unconscious, the Complex, and synchronicity. A popular psychometric instrument, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), has been principally developed from Jung's theories.

Contents

Early years

Carl Jung was born Karle Gustav II Jung [4] in Kesswil, the Swiss canton (or county) of Thurgau, as the fourth but only surviving child of Paul Achilles Jung and Emilie Preiswerk. His father was a poor rural pastor in the Swiss Reformed Church while his mother came from a wealthy and established Swiss family.

Jung at age six

When Jung was six months old his father was appointed to a more prosperous parish in Laufen. Meanwhile, the tension between his parents was growing. An eccentric and depressed woman, Emilie Jung spent much of the time in her own separate bedroom, enthralled by the spirits that she said visited her at night.[5] Jung had a better relationship with his father because he thought him to be predictable and thought his mother to be very problematic. Although during the day he also saw her as predictable, at night he felt some frightening influences from her room. At night his mother became strange and mysterious. Jung claimed that one night he saw a faintly luminous and indefinite figure coming from her room, with a head detached from the neck and floating in the air in front of the body.[5]

His mother left Laufen for several months of hospitalization near Basel for an unknown physical ailment. Young Carl Jung was taken by his father to live with Emilie Jung's unmarried sister in Basel, but was later brought back to the pastor's residence. Emilie's continuing bouts of absence and often depressed mood influenced her son's attitude towards women—one of "innate unreliability," a view that he later called the "handicap I started off with"[6] and that resulted in his sometimes patriarchal views of women.[7] After three years of living in Laufen, Paul Jung requested a transfer and was called to Kleinhüningen in 1879. The relocation brought Emilie Jung in closer contact to her family and lifted her melancholy and despondent mood.

A solitary and introverted child, Jung was convinced from childhood that he had two personalities—a modern Swiss citizen and a personality more at home in the eighteenth century.[8] "Personality Number 1," as he termed it, was a typical schoolboy living in the era of the time, while "Personality Number 2" was a dignified, authoritative and influential man from the past. Although Jung was close to both parents he was rather disappointed in his father's academic approach to faith.

A number of childhood memories had made a life-long impression on him. As a boy he carved a tiny mannequin into the end of the wooden ruler from his pupil's pencil case and placed it inside the case. He then added a stone which he had painted into upper and lower halves and hid the case in the attic. Periodically he would come back to the mannequin, often bringing tiny sheets of paper with messages inscribed on them in his own secret language.[9] This ceremonial act, he later reflected, brought him a feeling of inner peace and security. In later years he discovered that similarities existed in this memory and the totems of native peoples like the collection of soul-stones near Arlesheim, or the tjurungas of Australia. This, he concluded, was an unconscious ritual that he did not question or understand at the time, but which was practiced in a strikingly similar way in faraway locations that he as a young boy had no way of consciously knowing about.[10] His findings on psychological archetypes and the collective unconscious were inspired in part by these experiences.

Shortly before the end of his first year at the Humanistisches Gymnasium in Basel, at age twelve, he was pushed to the ground by another boy so hard that he was for a moment unconscious (Jung later recognized that the incident was his fault, indirectly). The thought then came to him that "now you won't have to go to school any more."[11] From then on, whenever he started off to school or began homework, he fainted. He remained at home for the next six months until he overheard his father speaking worriedly to a visitor of his future ability to support himself, as they suspected he had epilepsy. With little money in the family, this brought the boy to reality and he realized the need for academic excellence. He immediately went into his father's study and began poring over Latin grammar. He fainted three times, but eventually he overcame the urge and did not faint again. This event, Jung later recalled, "was when I learned what a neurosis is."[12]

Jung had no plans to study psychiatry, because it was held in contempt in those days. But as he started studying his psychiatric textbook, he became very excited when he read that psychoses are personality diseases. Immediately he understood this was the field that interested him the most. It combined both biological and spiritual facts and this was what he was searching for.[13]

In 1895, Jung studied medicine at the University of Basel. In 1900, he worked in the Burghölzli, a psychiatric hospital in Zürich, with Eugen Bleuler. His dissertation, published in 1903, was titled "On the Psychology and Pathology of So-Called Occult Phenomena." In 1906, he published Studies in Word Association and later sent a copy of this book to Sigmund Freud, after which a close friendship between these two men followed for some six years (see section on Relationship with Freud). In 1912 Jung published Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido (known in English as Psychology of the Unconscious) resulting in a theoretical divergence between him and Freud and consequently a break in their friendship, both stating that the other was unable to admit he could possibly be wrong. After this falling-out, Jung went through a pivotal and difficult psychological transformation, which was exacerbated by news of the First World War. Henri Ellenberger called Jung's experience a "creative illness" and compared it to Freud's period of what he called neurasthenia and hysteria.

During World War I Jung was drafted as an army doctor and soon made commandant of an internment camp for British officers and soldiers. (Swiss neutrality obliged the Swiss to intern personnel from either side of the conflict who crossed their frontier to evade capture.) Jung worked to improve the conditions for these soldiers stranded in neutral territory; he encouraged them to attend university courses.[14]

Later life

Emma Jung, Jung's wife of 52 years

In 1903, Jung married Emma Rauschenbach, who came from a wealthy family in Switzerland. They had five children: Agathe, Gret, Franz, Marianne, and Helene. The marriage lasted until Emma's death in 1955, but he had more-or-less open relationships with other women. The most well-known women with whom Jung is believed to have had extramarital relationships were patient and friend Sabina Spielrein[15] and Toni Wolff.[16]

Jung continued to publish books until the end of his life, including Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies, which analyzed the archetypal meaning and possible psychological significance of the reported observations of UFOs.[17] He also enjoyed a friendship with an English Roman Catholic priest, Father Victor White, who corresponded with Jung after he had published his controversial Answer to Job.[18]

Jung's work on himself and his patients convinced him that life has a spiritual purpose beyond material goals. Our main task, he believed, is to discover and fulfill our deep innate potential, much as the acorn contains the potential to become the oak, or the caterpillar to become the butterfly. Based on his study of Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Gnosticism, Taoism, and other traditions, Jung perceived that this journey of transformation, which he called individuation, is at the mystical heart of all religions. It is a journey to meet the self and at the same time to meet the Divine. Unlike Sigmund Freud, Jung thought spiritual experience was essential to our well-being.[19]

In 1944 Jung published “Psychology and Alchemy,” where he analyzed the alchemical symbols and showed a direct relationship to the psychoanalytical process. He argued that the alchemical process was the transformation of the impure soul (lead) to perfected soul (gold), and a metaphor for the individuation process.[13]

Jung died in 1961 at Küsnacht, after a short illness.[20][21]

Relationship with Freud

Jung was thirty when he sent his Studies in Word Association to Sigmund Freud in Vienna. The first conversation between Jung and Freud is reported to have lasted over 13 hours. Six months later, the then 50 year-old Freud sent a collection of his latest published essays to Jung in Zürich, which marked the beginning of an intense correspondence and collaboration that lasted six years and ended in May 1910. At this time Jung resigned as the chairman of the International Psychoanalytical Association, where he had been elected with Freud's support.

Today Jung's and Freud's theories have diverged. Nevertheless, they influenced each other during intellectually formative years of Jung's life. As Freud was already fifty years old at their meeting, he was well beyond the formative years. In 1906 psychology as a science was still in its early stages. Jung, who had become interested in psychiatry as a student by reading Psychopathia Sexualis by Richard von Krafft-Ebing, professor in Vienna, now worked as a doctor under the psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in Burghölzli and became familiar with Freud's idea of the unconscious through Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) and was a proponent of the new "psycho-analysis." At the time, Freud needed collaborators and pupils to validate and spread his ideas. Burghölzli was a renowned psychiatric clinic in Zürich at which Jung was a young doctor whose research had already given him international recognition.

Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University. Front row: Sigmund Freud, G. Stanley Hall, Jung; back row: Abraham A. Brill, Ernest Jones, Sandor Ferenczi.

In 1908, Jung became editor of the newly founded Yearbook for Psychoanalytical and Psychopathological Research. The following year, Jung traveled with Freud and Sandor Ferenczi to the U.S. to spread the news of psychoanalysis and in 1910, Jung became Chairman for Life of the International Psychoanalytical Association. While Jung worked on his Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido (Psychology of the Unconscious), tensions grew between Freud and Jung, due in a large part to their disagreements over the nature of libido and religion. In 1912 these tensions came to a peak because Jung felt severely slighted after Freud visited his colleague Ludwig Binswanger in Kreuzlingen without paying him a visit in nearby Zürich, an incident Jung referred to as the Kreuzlingen gesture. Shortly thereafter, Jung again traveled to the United States and gave the Fordham lectures, which were published as The Theory of Psychoanalysis. While they contain some remarks on Jung's dissenting view on the nature of libido, they represent largely a "psychoanalytical Jung" and not the theory Jung became famous for in the following decades.

In November 1912, Jung and Freud met in Munich for a meeting among prominent colleagues to discuss psychoanalytical journals.[22]. At a talk about a new psychoanalytic essay on Amenhotep IV, Jung expressed his views on how it related to actual conflicts in the psychoanalytic movement. While Jung spoke, Freud suddenly fainted and Jung carried him to a couch.

Jung and Freud personally met for the last time in September 1913 for the Fourth International Psychoanalytical Congress, also in Munich. Jung gave a talk on psychological types, the introverted and the extraverted type, in analytical psychology. This constituted the introduction of some of the key concepts which came to distinguish Jung's work from Freud's in the next half century.

In the following years Jung experienced considerable isolation in his professional life, exacerbated through World War I. His Seven Sermons to the Dead (1917) reprinted in his autobiography Memories, Dreams, Reflections (see bibliography) can also be read as expression of the psychological conflicts which beset Jung around the age of forty after the break with Freud.

Jung's primary disagreement with Freud stemmed from their differing concepts of the unconscious. Jung saw Freud's theory of the unconscious as incomplete and unnecessarily negative. According to Jung (though not according to Freud), Freud conceived the unconscious solely as a repository of repressed emotions and desires. Jung agreed with Freud's model of the unconscious, what Jung called the "personal unconscious," but he also proposed the existence of a second, far deeper form of the unconscious underlying the personal one. This was the collective unconscious, where the archetypes themselves resided, represented in mythology by a lake or other body of water, and in some cases a jug or other container. Freud had actually mentioned a collective level of psychic functioning but saw it primarily as an appendix to the rest of the psyche.

Travels

Jung's first trip outside of Europe was the 1909 conference at Clark University. The event was planned by psychologist G. Stanley Hall and included twenty-seven distinguished psychiatrists, neurologists and psychologists. It represented a watershed in the acceptance of psychoanalysis in North America. For Jung especially, the experience forged welcome links with influential Americans.[23] Jung returned to the United States the next year for a brief visit, and again for a six-week lecture series at Fordham University in 1912. He made a more extensive trip westward in the winter of 1924-5, financed and organized by Fowler McCormick and George Porter. Of particular value to Jung was a visit with chieftain Mountain Lake at the Taos Pueblo in New Mexico.[24]

Jung spoke at meetings of the Psycho-Medical Society in London in 1913 and 1914. His travels were soon interrupted by the war, but his ideas continued to receive attention in England primarily through the efforts of Constance Long. She translated and published the first English volume of his collected writings [25] and arranged for him to give a seminar in Cornwall in 1920. Another seminar was held in 1923, this one organized by Helton Godwin Baynes (known as Peter), and another in 1925.[24]

In October 1925, Jung embarked on his most ambitious expedition, the "Bugishu Psychological Expedition" to East Africa. He was accompanied by Peter Baynes and an American associate, George Beckwith. On the voyage to Africa, they became acquainted with an English woman named Ruth Bailey, who joined their safari a few weeks later. The group traveled through Kenya and Uganda to the slopes of Mount Elgon, where Jung hoped to increase his understanding of "primitive psychology" through conversations with the culturally-isolated residents of that area. He was later to conclude that the major insights he had gleaned had to do with himself and the European psychology in which he had been raised.[26]

Jung made another trip to America in 1936, giving lectures in New York and New England for his growing group of American followers. He returned in 1937 to deliver the Terry Lectures, Psychology and Religion, at Yale University. In December 1937, Jung left Zurich again for an extensive tour of India with Fowler McCormick. In India, he felt himself "under the direct influence of a foreign culture" for the first time. In Africa, his conversations had been strictly limited by the language barrier, but in India he was able to converse extensively. Hindu philosophy became an important element in his understanding of the role of symbolism and the life of the unconscious. Unfortunately, Jung became seriously ill on this trip and endured two weeks of delirium in a Calcutta hospital. After 1938, his travels were confined to Europe.[27]

Political views

"Giving laws, wanting improvements, making things easier, has all become wrong and evil. May each one seek out his own way, the way leads to mutual love in community. Men will come to see and feel the similarity and communality of their ways." - Carl Jung in 'The Red Book'[28]

Jung stressed the importance of individual rights in a persons relation to the state and society. He saw that the state was treated as "a quasi-animate personality from whom everything is expected" but that this personality was "only camouflage for those individuals who know how to manipulate it",[29] and referred to the state as a form of slavery.[30][31][32][33] He also thought that the state "swallowed up [people's] religious forces",[34] and therefore that the state had "taken the place of God"—making it comparable to a religion in which "state slavery is a form of worship".[35] Jung observed that governments "stage acts of state" comparable to religious displays: "Brass bands, flags, banners, parades and monster demonstrations are no different in principle from ecclesiastical processions, cannonades and fire to scare off demons".[36] From Jung's perspective, this replacement of God with the state in a mass society led to the dislocation of the religious drive and resulted in the same fanaticism of the church-states of the dark ages—wherein the more the state is 'worshiped', the more freedom and morality are suppressed;[37] this ultimately leaves the individual psychically undeveloped with extreme feelings of marginalization.[38]

Red Book

In 1913 at the age of thirty-eight, Jung experienced a horrible "confrontation with the unconscious". He saw visions and heard voices. He worried at times that he was "menaced by a psychosis" or was "doing a schizophrenia". He decided that it was valuable experience, and in private, he induced hallucinations, or, in his words, "active imaginations". He recorded everything he felt in small journals. Jung began to transcribe his notes into a large, red leather-bound book, on which he worked intermittently for sixteen years.[7]

Jung left no posthumous instructions about the final disposition of what he called the "Red Book". His family eventually moved it into a bank vault in 1984. Sonu Shamdasani, a historian from London, for three years tried to persuade Jung's heirs to have it published, to which they declined every hint of inquiry. As of mid-September 2009, less than two dozen people had seen it. But Ulrich Hoerni, Jung's grandson who manages the Jung archives, decided to publish it. To raise the additional funds needed, the Philemon Foundation was founded.[7]

In 2007, two technicians for DigitalFusion, working with the publisher, W. W. Norton & Company, painstakingly scanned one-tenth of a millimeter at a time with a 10,200-pixel scanner. It was published on October 7, 2009 (ISBN 978-0-393-06567-1) in German with "separate English translation along with Shamdasani's introduction and footnotes" at the back of the book, according to Sara Corbett for The New York Times. She wrote, "The book is bombastic, baroque and like so much else about Carl Jung, a willful oddity, synched with an antediluvian and mystical reality."[7]

The Rubin Museum of Art in New York City will display the original and Jung's original small journals from October 7, 2009 to January 25, 2010.[39] According to them, "During the period in which he worked on this book Jung developed his principal theories of archetypes, collective unconscious, and the process of individuation." Two-thirds of the pages bear Jung's illuminations of the text.[39]

Response to Nazism

Jung had many friends and respected colleagues who were Jewish and he maintained relations with them through the 1930s when anti-semitism in Germany and other European nations was on the rise. However, until 1939, he also maintained professional relations with psychotherapists in Germany who had declared their support for the Nazi régime and there were allegations that he himself was a Nazi sympathizer. In his work 'Civilisation in Transition, Collected Works Volume X', however, Jung wrote of “... the Aryan bird of prey with his insatiable lust to lord it in every land, even those that concern him not at all." [40]

There are writings that show that Jung's sympathies were against, rather than for, Nazism.[41] In his 1936 essay "Wotan", Jung described Germany as "infected" by "one man who is obviously 'possessed'...", and as "rolling towards perdition",[42] and wrote "...what a so-called Führer does with a mass movement can plainly be seen if we turn our eyes to the north or south of our country." [43] The essay does, however, speak in more positive terms of Jakob Wilhelm Hauer and his German Faith Movement [44] which was loyal to Hitler. In April 1939, the Bishop Of Southwark asked Jung if he had any specific views on what was likely to be the next step in religious development. Jung's reply was:

We do not know whether Hitler is going to found a new Islam. He is already on the way; he is like Mohammed. The emotion in Germany is Islamic; warlike and Islamic. They are all drunk with wild god. That can be the historic future.[45]

He would later describe the Führer thus: "Hitler seemed like the 'double' of a real person, as if Hitler the man might be hiding inside like an appendix, and deliberately so concealed in order not to disturb the mechanism ... You know you could never talk to this man; because there is nobody there ... It is not an individual; it is an entire nation."[46] In 1943, Jung aided the United States Office of Strategic Services by analyzing the psychology of Nazi leaders.[citation needed]

In an interview with Carol Baumann in 1948, Jung denied rumors regarding any sympathy for the Nazi movement, saying:

It must be clear to anyone who has read any of my books that I have never been a Nazi sympathizer and I never have been anti-Semitic, and no amount of misquotation, mistranslation, or rearrangement of what I have written can alter the record of my true point of view. Nearly every one of these passages has been tampered with, either by malice or by ignorance. Furthermore, my friendly relations with a large group of Jewish colleagues and patients over a period of many years in itself disproves the charge of anti-Semitism.[47]

A full response from Jung discounting the rumors can be found in C.G Jung Speaking, Interviews and Encounters, Princeton University Press, 1977.

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Jung and professional organizations in Germany, 1933 to 1939

In 1933, after the Nazis gained power in Germany, Jung took part in restructuring of the General Medical Society for Psychotherapy (Allgemeine Ärztliche Gesellschaft für Psychotherapie), a German-based professional body with an international membership. The society was reorganized into two distinct bodies:

  • A strictly German body, the Deutsche Allgemeine Ärztliche Gesellschaft für Psychotherapie, led by Matthias Heinrich Göring, an Adlerian psychotherapist [48] and a cousin of the prominent Nazi Hermann Göring;
  • An International General Medical Society for Psychotherapy, led by Jung. The German body was to be affiliated to the international society, as were new national societies being set up in Switzerland and elsewhere.[49]
C. G. Jung Institute, Küsnacht, Switzerland

The International Society's constitution permitted individual doctors to join it directly, rather than through one of the national affiliated societies, a provision to which Jung drew attention in a circular in 1934.[50] This implied that German Jewish doctors could maintain their professional status as individual members of the international body, even though they were excluded from the German affiliate, as from other German medical societies operating under the Nazis.[51]

As leader of the international body, Jung assumed overall responsibility for its publication, the Zentralblatt für Psychotherapie. In 1933, this journal published a statement endorsing Nazi positions [52] and Hitler's book Mein Kampf.[53] In 1934, Jung wrote in a Swiss publication, the Neue Zürcher Zeitung, that he experienced "great surprise and disappointment" [54] when the Zentralblatt associated his name with the pro-Nazi statement.

Jung went on to say "the main point is to get a young and insecure science into a place of safety during an earthquake".[55] He did not end his relationship with the Zentralblatt at this time, but he did arrange the appointment of a new managing editor, Carl Alfred Meier of Switzerland. For the next few years, the Zentralblatt under Jung and Meier maintained a position distinct from that of the Nazis, in that it continued to acknowledge contributions of Jewish doctors to psychotherapy.[56]

In the face of energetic German attempts to Nazify the international body, Jung resigned from its presidency in 1939,[56] the year the Second World War started.

Influence

Jung has had an enduring influence on psychology as well as wider society. He founded a new school of psychotherapy, called analytical psychology or Jungian psychology. He gave us:

Spirituality as a cure for alcoholism

Jung recommended spirituality as a cure for alcoholism and he is considered to have had an indirect role in establishing Alcoholics Anonymous.[58] Jung once treated an American patient (Rowland Hazard III), suffering from chronic alcoholism. After working with the patient for some time and achieving no significant progress, Jung told the man that his alcoholic condition was near to hopeless, save only the possibility of a spiritual experience. Jung noted that occasionally such experiences had been known to reform alcoholics where all else had failed.

Rowland took Jung's advice seriously and set about seeking a personal spiritual experience. He returned home to the United States and joined a Christian evangelical Re-Armament movement known as the Oxford Group. He also told other alcoholics what Jung had told him about the importance of a spiritual experience. One of the alcoholics he brought into the Oxford Group was Ebby Thacher, a long-time friend and drinking buddy of Bill Wilson, later co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Thacher told Wilson about the Oxford Group, and through them Wilson became aware of Hazard's experience with Jung. The influence of Jung thus indirectly found its way into the formation of Alcoholics Anonymous, the original twelve-step program, and from there into the whole twelve-step recovery movement, although AA as a whole is not Jungian and Jung had no role in the formation of that approach or the twelve steps.

The above claims are documented in the letters of Jung and Bill W., excerpts of which can be found in Pass It On, published by Alcoholics Anonymous.[59] Although the detail of this story is disputed by some historians, Jung himself made reference to its substance — including the Oxford Group participation of the individual in question — in a talk that was issued privately in 1954 as a transcript from shorthand taken by an attender (Jung reportedly approved the transcript), later recorded in Volume 18 of his Collected Works, The Symbolic Life ("For instance, when a member of the Oxford Group comes to me in order to get treatment, I say, 'You are in the Oxford Group; so long as you are there, you settle your affair with the Oxford Group. I can't do it better than Jesus.'" Jung goes on to state that he has seen similar cures among Roman Catholics.[60])

Art therapy

Jung proposed that Art can be used to alleviate or contain feelings of trauma, fear, or anxiety and also to repair, restore and heal.[9] In his work with patients and in his own personal explorations, Jung wrote that art expression and images found in dreams could be helpful in recovering from trauma and emotional distress. Jung often drew, painted, or made objects and constructions at times of emotional distress, which he recognized as recreational.[9] A strand of Dance Movement Therapy named Authentic Movement by its creator, Mary Starks Whitehouse, was developed after several years of undergoing jungian analysis, through applying -and slightly adapting- Jung's techniques of Active Imagination to movement.

Works

Jung was a prolific writer. His collected works fill 19 volumes. Many of his works were not translated into English until after his death. His best known works are Psychology of the Unconscious (1912) and Psychological Types (1921).

Influences on culture

Literature

  • Laurens van der Post claimed to have had a 16-year-long friendship with Jung, from which a number of books and a film were created about Jung's life.[61] The accuracy of van der Post's claims about the closeness of his relationship to Jung have been questioned.[62]
  • Hermann Hesse, author of works such as Siddhartha and Der Steppenwolf, was treated by Dr. Joseph Lang, a student of Jung. This began for Hesse a long preoccupation with psychoanalysis, through which he came to know Jung personally.[63]
  • James Joyce in his Finnegans Wake, asks "Is the Co-education of Animus and Anima Wholly Desirable?" his answer perhaps being contained in his line "anama anamaba anamabapa". The book also ridicules Jung's analytical psychology and Freud's psychoanalysis by referring to "psoakoonaloose". Jung had been unable to help Joyce's daughter, Lucia, who Joyce claimed was a girl "yung and easily freudened".[citation needed] Lucia was diagnosed as schizophrenic and was eventually permanently institutionalized.[64]
  • Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man can be read as an ironic parody of Jung's "four stages of eroticism".[65]
  • Jung appears as a character in the novel Possessing the Secret of Joy by Alice Walker. He appears as the therapist of Tashi, the novel's protagonist. He is usually called "Mzee" but is identified by Alice Walker in the afterword.[66]
  • Morris West's 1983 novel The World is Made of Glass investigates Jung's relationships with a mysterious woman patient, Toni Wolf, and Emma Jung.
  • Robertson Davies alludes to Jung's ideas in his novel Fifth Business and gives a layman's introduction to Jungian analysis in The Manticore.

Art

Original statute of Jung in Mathew Street, Liverpool, a half-body on a plinth captioned "Liverpool is the pool of life"
  • American Abstract Expressionist Jackson Pollock underwent Jungian psychotherapy in 1939. His therapist made the decision to engage him through his art, leading to the appearance of many Jungian concepts in his paintings.[68]
  • Contrary to some sources,[69] Jung did not visit Liverpool but recorded a dream in which he had, and of which he wrote "Liverpool is the pool of life, it makes to live."[70] As a result a statute of Jung was erected in Mathew Street in 1987, but being made of plaster, was vandalised and replaced by a more durable version in 1993.[70]

Television and film

  • Federico Fellini brought to the screen an exuberant imagery shaped by his encounter with the ideas of Carl Jung, especially Jungian dream interpretation. Fellini preferred Jung to Freud because Jungian analysis defined the dream not as a symptom of a disease that required a cure but rather as a link to archetypal images shared by all of humanity.[71]
  • In 1984, an edition of the BBC documentary Sea of Faith was about Jung.[citation needed]
  • In the American TV Series "Frasier" the main character, Frasier Crane (Kelsey Grammer) and his brother, Niles Crane (David Hyde Pierce), are both psychiatrists. While Frasier is a disciple of Freud, Niles bases his therapies on Jungian principles.
  • In 2007, Roberto Faenza directed the movie 'The Soulkeeper' which was based on the story of Sabina Spielrein — the mistress and first patient of Jung.

Music

  • Jung appears on the cover of The Beatles' album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band on the top row, between W.C. Fields and Edgar Allan Poe.
  • Peter Gabriel's song "Rhythm of the Heat" (Security, 1982), tells about Jung's visit to Africa, during which he joined a group of tribal drummers and dancers and became overwhelmed by the fear of losing control of himself. At the time Jung was exploring the concept of the collective unconscious and was afraid he would come under control of the music. Gabriel learned about Jung's journey to Africa from the essay Symbols and the Interpretation of Dreams (ISBN 0-691-09968-5). In the song Gabriel tries to capture the powerful feelings the African tribal music evoked in Jung by means of intense use of tribal drumbeats. The original song title was Jung in Africa.[72]
  • On the cover of The Police's final album, Synchronicity, which was named after Carl Jung's theory, Sting is seen reading a book called "Synchronicity" by Carl Jung.[73]

See also

Topics
People
Organizations

Notes and references

  1. ^ Dunne, Clare (2002). "Prelude". Carl Jung: Wounded Healer of the Soul: An Illustrated Biography. pp. 3. http://books.google.com/books?id=uegLZklR0fEC&pg=PA3. 
  2. ^ Jung's Individuation process Retrieved on 2009-2-20
  3. ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections. p. 209. 
  4. ^ As a university student Jung changed the modernized spelling of his name to the original family form. Bair, Deirdre (2003). Jung: A Biography. New York: Back Bay Books. pp. 7–8, 53. ISBN 0-316-15938-7. 
  5. ^ a b Memories, Dreams, Reflections. p. 18. 
  6. ^ Jung, C.G.; Aniela Jaffé (1965). Memories, Dreams, Reflections. New York: Random House. pp. 8. 
  7. ^ a b c d Corbett, Sara (September 16, 2009). "The Holy Grail of the Unconscious". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/20/magazine/20jung-t.html. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  8. ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections. pp. 33–34. 
  9. ^ a b c Malchiodi, Cathy A.. The Art Therapy Sourcebook. pp. 134. http://books.google.com/books?id=Vno0XgRuRhcC&pg=PA134. 
  10. ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections. pp. 22–23. 
  11. ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections. pp. 30. 
  12. ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections. pp. 32. 
  13. ^ a b Carl Jung Retrieved on 2009-3-7
  14. ^ Crowley, Vivianne (1999). Jung: A Journey of Transformation. Quest Books. pp. 56. 
  15. ^ Hayman, Ronald (1999). A Life of Jung. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.. pp. 84–5, 92, 98–9, 102–7, 121, 123, 111, 134–7, 138–9, 145, 147, 152, 176, 177, 184, 185, 186, 189, 194, 213–4. ISBN 0393019675. 
  16. ^ A Life of Jung. pp. 184–8, 189, 244, 261, 262. 
  17. ^ The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Volumes 10 and 18
  18. ^ In Psychology and Religion, v.11, Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Princeton. It was first published as "Antwort auf Hiob," Zürich, 1952 and translated into English in 1954, in London.
  19. ^ Crowley, Vivianne (2000). Jung: A Journey of Transformation:Exploring His Life and Experiencing His Ideas. Wheaton Illinois: Quest Books. ISBN 978-0835607827. 
  20. ^ Hayman, Ronald (2001). A Life of Jung. New York: W.W. Norton. p. 450. ISBN 0393019675. 
  21. ^ Bair, Deirdre (2003). Jung. Boston: Little, Brown. pp. 622–3. ISBN 0316076651. 
  22. ^ Jonest, Ernest, ed. Lionel Trilling and Steven Marcus. The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud New York: Anchor Books, 1963.
  23. ^ Rosenzwieg, Saul (1992). Freud, Jung and Hall the King-Maker. ISBN 0-88937-110-5. 
  24. ^ a b McGuire, William (1995). "Firm Affinities: Jung's relations with Britain and the United States". Journal of Analytical Psychology 40: 301–326. 
  25. ^ Jung, C.G. (1916). Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology. Bailliere, Tindall and Cox. 
  26. ^ Burleson, Blake W. (2005). Jung in Africa. ISBN 0-8264-6921-3. 
  27. ^ Bair, Deirdre (2003). Jung: A Biography. p. 417–430. ISBN 0-316-07665-1. 
  28. ^ Jung, Carl (2009). The Red Book. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 231. ISBN 9780393065671. 
  29. ^ Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library. p. 15-16. ISBN 0451218604. 
  30. ^ C.G. Jung, Die Beziehungen zwishen dem Ich und dem UnbewBten, chapter one, second section, 1928. Also, C.G. Jung Aufsatze zur Zeitgeschichte, 1946. Speeches made in 1933 and 1937 are excerpted.
  31. ^ Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library. p. 14. ISBN 0451218604. 
  32. ^ Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library. p. 23-24. ISBN 0451218604. 
  33. ^ Jung, Carl (1960). Psychology and Religion. The Vail-Ballou Press ic.. p. 59. ISBN 030000171. 
  34. ^ Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library. p. 23. ISBN 0451218604. 
  35. ^ Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library. p. 23-24. ISBN 0451218604. 
  36. ^ Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library. p. 25. ISBN 0451218604. 
  37. ^ Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library. p. 24. ISBN 0451218604. 
  38. ^ Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library. p. 14 & 45. ISBN 0451218604. 
  39. ^ a b "The Red Book of C.G. Jung". Rubin Museum of Art. http://www.rmanyc.org/nav/exhibitions/view/308. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  40. ^ Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul, London; ISBN 0710016409; p 89
  41. ^ C.GJung,‘ Die Beziehungen zwishen dem Ich und dem UnbewBten’, chapter one,second section, 1928. Also,C.G. Jung‘ Aufsatze zur Zeitgeschichte’, 1946. Speeches made in 1933,1937 are excerpted. He was protesting the "slavery by the government" and the "chaos and insanity" of the mob, because of the very fact that they were the part of the mob and were under its strong influence. He wrote that because of the speeches he delivered he was blacklisted by Nazis. They eliminated his writings.
  42. ^ Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul, London; ISBN 0710016409; p 185.
  43. ^ Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul, London; ISBN 0710016409; p 190.
  44. ^ Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul, London; ISBN 0710016409; p 190-191.
  45. ^ The Collected Works Volume 18, The Symbolic Life, Princeton University Press p. 281
  46. ^ C.G. Jung Speaking: Interviews and Encounters, edited by William McGuire and R.F.C. Hull (London: Thames and Hudson, 1978), pp. 91-93, 115-135, 136-40.
  47. ^ Interview with Carol Baumann, published in the Bulletin of Analytical Psychology Club of New York, December 1949
  48. ^ Lifton, Robert Jay (27 January 1985) "Psychotherapy in the Third Reich" New York Times
  49. ^ Jaffé, Aniela (1972); From the Life and Work of C.G.Jung; Hodder and Stoughton, London. ISBN 0340125152; pages 79 - 80.
  50. ^ An English translation of the circular is in Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul, London; ISBN 0710016409; p 545 – 546.
  51. ^ Jaffé, Aniela (1972); From the Life and Work of C.G.Jung; Hodder and Stoughton, London. ISBN 0340125152; page 82.
  52. ^ Jaffé, Aniela (1972); From the Life and Work of C.G.Jung; Hodder and Stoughton, London. ISBN 0340125152; page 80.
  53. ^ Mark Medweth.« Jung and the Nazis », in Psybernetika, Winter 1996.
  54. ^ Article republished in English in Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul, London; ISBN 0710016409; p 538.
  55. ^ Article republished in English in Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul, London; ISBN 0710016409; p 538. See also Stevens, Anthony, "Jung: a very short introduction", Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0192854585
  56. ^ a b Jaffé, Aniela (1972); From the Life and Work of C.G.Jung; Hodder and Stoughton, London. ISBN 0340125152; page 83.
  57. ^ Jung, C.G. and Wolfgang Pauli, The Interpretation of Nature and Psyche, New York: Pantheon Books, 1955
  58. ^ Levin, Jerome David (1995). "Other etiological theories of Alcoholism". Introduction to Alcoholism Counseling. Taylor & Francis. pp. 167. http://books.google.com/books?id=_y7H9Sq5g6kC&pg=PA167. 
  59. ^ Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc. (1984) Pass It On: The Story of Bill Wilson and how the A.A. message reached the world. New York: Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc. ISBN 0-916856-12-7, pp. 381-386
  60. ^ Jung, C. G.; Adler, G. and Hull, R. F. C., eds. (1977) Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Volume 18: The Symbolic Life: Miscellaneous Writings, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-09892-0, p. 272, as noted 2007-08-26 at http://www.stellarfire.org/additional.html
  61. ^ ""Laurens van der Post"". http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/LvdP/. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  62. ^ name=jones>Jones, J.D.F. (2001). Storyteller: The Many Lives of Laurens van der Post. ISBN 0-7867-1031-4. 
  63. ^ ""Hermann Hesse"". http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/hhesse.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  64. ^ Bair, Deirdre. Jung: A Biography. 
  65. ^ Hiromi Yoshida, Joyce & Jung: The "Four Stages of Eroticism" in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (New York: Peter Lang, 2007).
  66. ^ ""Possessing the Secret of Joy"". http://www.biblio.com/details.php?dcx=53037639&aid=frg. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  67. ^ Birkhäuser, Peter; Marie-Louise von Franz, Eva Wertanschlag and Kaspar Birkhäuser (1980-1991). Light from the Darkness: The Paintings of Peter Birkhäuser. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser Verlag. ISBN 3764311908. 
  68. ^ Stockstad, Marilyn (2005). Art History. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.. ISBN 0131455273. 
  69. ^ "'History broke Liverpool, and it broke my heart'". guardian.co.uk. http://www.guardian.co.uk/culture/2003/jun/05/artsfeatures.europeancapitalofculture2008. Retrieved 2010-02-24. 
  70. ^ a b "Public sculpture of Liverpool". books.google.co.uk. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=05hJrW5yuakC&pg=PA111&lpg=PA111&dq=statue+Jung+liverpool&source=bl&ots=BMmrgbtskV&sig=I0eulO4ygPK4xHeORr_L2v-7kbo&hl=en&ei=z6WFS9SeE4n80wT4g5zvBg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CA4Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=statue%20Jung%20liverpool&f=false. Retrieved 2010-02-24. 
  71. ^ Bondanella, Peter E.. The Films of Federico Fellini. p. 94. 
  72. ^ ""Rhythm Of The Heat by Peter Gabriel", Song Facts". http://www.songfacts.com/detail.php?id=756. Retrieved 2006-12-16. 
  73. ^ Police, The. Synchronicity (album artwork).

Further reading

Introductory texts include:

  • The Portable Jung, edited by Joseph Campbell (Viking Portable), ISBN 0-14-015070-6
  • Edward F Edinger, Ego and Archetype, (Shambhala Publications), ISBN 0-87773-576-X
  • Another recommended tool for navigating Jung's works is Robert Hopcke's book, A Guided Tour of the Collected Works of C.G. Jung, ISBN 1-57062-405-4. He offers short, lucid summaries of all of Jung's major ideas and suggests readings from Jung's and others' work that best present that idea.
  • Edward C. Whitmont, The Symbolic Quest: Basic Concepts of Analytical Psychology, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1969, 1979, ISBN 0-691-02454-5
  • Anthony Stevens, Jung. A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1994, ISBN 0-19-285458-5
  • O'Connor, Peter A. (1985). Understanding Jung, understanding yourself. New York, NY: Paulist Press. ISBN 0809127997. 
  • The Cambridge Companion to Jung, second edition, edited by Polly Young-Eisendrath and Terence Dawson, published in 2008 by Cambridge University Press.

Texts in various areas of Jungian thought:

  • Robert Aziz, C.G. Jung’s Psychology of Religion and Synchronicity (1990), currently in its 10th printing, is a refereed publication of The State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-0166-9.
  • Robert Aziz, Synchronicity and the Transformation of the Ethical in Jungian Psychology in Carl B. Becker, ed. Asian and Jungian Views of Ethics. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1999. ISBN 0-313-30452-1.
  • Robert Aziz, The Syndetic Paradigm:The Untrodden Path Beyond Freud and Jung (2007), a refereed publication of The State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-6982-8.
  • Robert Aziz, Foreword in Lance Storm, ed. Synchronicity: Multiple Perspectives on Meaningful Coincidence. Pari, Italy: Pari Publishing, 2008. ISBN 978-88-95604-02-2
  • Wallace Clift, Jung and Christianity: The Challenge of Reconciliation. New York: The Crossroad Publishing Company, 1982. ISBN 0-8245-0409-7
  • Edward F. Edinger, The Mystery of The Coniunctio, ISBN 0-919123-67-8. A good explanation of Jung's foray into the symbolism of alchemy as it relates to individuation and individual religious experience. Many of the alchemical symbols recur in contemporary dreams (with creative additions from the unconscious e.g. space travel, internet, computers)
  • James A Hall M.D., Jungian Dream Interpretation, ISBN 0-919123-12-0. A brief, well structured overview of the use of dreams in therapy.
  • James Hillman, "Healing Fiction", ISBN 0-88214-363-8. Covers Jung, Adler, and Freud and their various contributions to understanding the soul.
  • Andrew Samuels, Critical Dictionary of Jungian Analysis, ISBN 0-415-05910-0
  • June Singer, Boundaries of the Soul, ISBN 0-385-47529-2. On psychotherapy
  • Marion Woodman, The Pregnant Virgin: A Process of Psychological Transformation ISBN 0-919123-20-1. The recovery of feminine values in women (and men). There are many examples of clients' dreams, by an experienced analyst.
  • Frederic Fappani," Education and Archetypal Psychology ", Ed.Cursus, Paris.

Academic texts:

  • Andrew Samuels, The Political Psyche (Routledge), ISBN 0-415-08102-5.
  • Lucy Huskinson, Nietzsche and Jung: The Whole Self in the Union of Opposites (Routledge), IBSN 1583918337 Excellent analysis of the highly significant anticipation and influence of the philosophy of Nietzsche on Jung.

Jung-Freud relationship:

  • Kerr, John. A Most Dangerous Method : The Story of Jung, Freud, and Sabina Spielrein. Knopf 1993. ISBN 0-679-40412-0.

Other people's recollections of Jung:

  • van der Post, Laurens, "Jung and the story of our time", New York : Pantheon Books, 1975. ISBN 0394492072
  • Hannah, Barbara, "Jung, his life and work; a biographical memoir", New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1976. SBN: 399-50383-8

Critical scholarship on Jung by historians:

  • Richard Noll, The Jung Cult: Origins of a Charismatic Movement (Princeton University Press, 1994); and
  • Richard Noll, The Aryan Christ: The Secret Life of Carl Jung (Random House, 1997)[1]
  • Sonu Shamdasani, Cult Fictions, ISBN 0-415-18614-5. Critique of the above works by Noll.
  • Sonu Shamdasani, Jung and the Making of Modern Psychology : The Dream of a Science, ISBN 0-521-53909-9. A comprehensive study of the origins of Jung's psychology which places it in a historical and philosophical context. The author calls this a "Cubist history".
  • Sonu Shamdasani, Jung Stripped Bare, ISBN 1-85575-317-0. Critique of Jung biographies.
  • Bair, Deirdre. Jung: A Biography. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 2003.


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Your vision will become clear only when you look into your heart ... Who looks outside, dreams. Who looks inside, awakens.

Carl Gustav Jung (IPA: [ˈkarl ˈgʊstaf ˈjʊŋ]) (26 July 18756 June 1961 was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology.

Contents

Sourced

The dream is the small hidden door in the deepest and most intimate sanctum of the soul, which opens to that primeval cosmic night that was soul long before there was conscious ego and will be soul far beyond what a conscious ego could ever reach.
No one can flatter himself that he is immune to the spirit of his own epoch, or even that he possesses a full understanding of it.
Our blight is ideologies — they are the long-expected Antichrist!
  • The little world of childhood with its familiar surroundings is a model of the greater world. The more intensively the family has stamped its character upon the child, the more it will tend to feel and see its earlier miniature world again in the bigger world of adult life. Naturally this is not a conscious, intellectual process.
    • The Theory of Psychoanalysis (1913)
  • This whole creation is essentially subjective, and the dream is the theater where the dreamer is at once scene, actor, prompter, stage manager, author, audience, and critic.
    • General Aspects of Dream Psychology (1928)
  • The dream is the small hidden door in the deepest and most intimate sanctum of the soul, which opens to that primeval cosmic night that was soul long before there was conscious ego and will be soul far beyond what a conscious ego could ever reach.
    • The Meaning of Psychology for Modern Man (1934)
  • Emotion is the chief source of all becoming-conscious. There can be no transforming of darkness into light and of apathy into movement without emotion.
    • Psychological Aspects of the Modern Archetype (1938)
  • There is no question but that Hitler belongs in the category of the truly mystic medicine man. As somebody commented about him at the last Nürnberg party congress, since the time of Mohammed nothing like it has been seen in this world. His body does not suggest strength. The outstanding characteristic of his physiognomy is its dreamy look. I was especially struck by that when I saw pictures taken of him in the Czechoslovakian crisis; there was in his eyes the look of a seer. This markedly mystic characteristic of Hitler's is what makes him do things which seem to us illogical, inexplicable, and unreasonable. ... So you see, Hitler is a medicine man, a spiritual vessel, a demi-deity or, even better, a myth.
    • During an interview with H. R. Knickerbocker, first published in Hearst's International Cosmopolitan (January 1939), in which Jung was asked to diagnose Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, and Joseph Stalin, later published in Is Tomorrow Hitler's? (1941), by H. R. Knickerbocker, also published in The Seduction of Unreason : The Intellectual Romance with Fascism (2004) by Richard Wolin, Ch. 2 : Prometheus Unhinged : C. G. Jung and the Temptations of Aryan Religion, p. 75
  • No nation keeps its word. A nation is a big, blind worm, following what? Fate perhaps. A nation has no honour, it has no word to keep. ... Hitler is himself the nation. That incidentally is why Hitler always has to talk so loud, even in private conversation — because he is speaking with 78 million voices.
    • During an interview with H. R. Knickerbocker (1939), quoted in A Life of Jung (2002) by Ronald Hayman, p. 360
  • No one can flatter himself that he is immune to the spirit of his own epoch, or even that he possesses a full understanding of it. Irrespective of our conscious convictions, each one of us, without exception, being a particle of the general mass, is somewhere attached to, colored by, or even undermined by the spirit which goes through the mass. Freedom stretches only as far as the limits of our consciousness.
    • Paracelsus the Physician (1942)
  • That higher and "complete" man is begotten by the "unknown" father and born from Wisdom, and it is he who, in the figure of the puer aeternus—"vultu mutabilis albus et ater"—represents our totality, which transcends consciousness. It was this boy into whom Faust had to change, abandoning his inflated onesidedness which saw the devil only outside. Christ's "Except ye become as little children" is a prefiguration of this, for in them the opposites lie close together; but what is meant is the boy who is born from the maturity of the adult man, and not the unconscious child we would like to remain.
    • Answer to Job, R. Hull, trans. (1984), pp. 157-158
  • The unconscious is not just evil by nature, it is also the source of the highest good: not only dark but also light, not only bestial, semihuman, and demonic but superhuman, spiritual, and, in the classical sense of the word, "divine."
    • The Practice of Psychotherapy, p. 364 (1953)
  • Our blight is ideologies — they are the long-expected Antichrist!
    • The Tibetan Book of the Great Liberation (1954)
  • Even if the whole world were to fall to pieces, the unity of the psyche would never be shattered. And the wider and more numerous the fissures on the surface, the more the unity is strengthened in the depths.
    • Civilization in Transition (1964)
  • One of the most difficult tasks men can perform, however much others may despise it, is the invention of good games and it cannot be done by men out of touch with their instinctive selves.
    • Jung and the Story of Our Time, Laurens van der Post (1977)

The Undiscovered Self (1958)

Consciousness is a precondition of being.
  • Any theory based on experience is necessarily statistical; that is to say, it formulates an ideal average which abolishes all exceptions at either end of the scale and replaces them by an abstract mean. This mean is quite valid though it need not necessarily occur in reality. Despite this it figures in the theory as an unassailable fundamental fact. ... If, for instance, I determine the weight of each stone in a bed of pebbles and get an average weight of 145 grams, this tells me very little about the real nature of the pebbles. Anyone who thought, on the basis of these findings, that he could pick up a pebbles of 145 grams at the first try would be in for a serious disappointment. Indeed, it might well happen that however long he searched he would not find a single pebble weighing exactly 145 grams. The statistical method shows the facts in the light of the ideal average but does not give us a picture of their empirical reality. While reflecting an indisputable aspect of reality, it can falsify the actual truth in a most misleading way.
    • p 6
  • The bigger the crowd, the more negligible the individual.
    • p 14
  • Just as man as a social being, cannot in the long run exist without a tie to the community, so the individual will never find the real justification for his existence, and his own spiritual and moral autonomy, anywhere except in an extramundane principle capable of relativizing the overpowering influence of external factors.
    • p 23
  • It is astounding that man, the instigator, inventor and vehicle of all these developments, the originator of all judgements and decisions and the planner of the future, must make himself such a quantité negligeable.
    • p 45
  • Without consciousness there would, practically speaking, be no world, for the world exists as such only in so far as it is consciously reflected and considered by a psyche. Consciousness is a precondition of being.
    • p 48
  • You can take away a man's gods, but only to give him others in return.
    • p 63
  • The seat of faith, however, is not consciousness but spontaneous religious experience, which brings the individual's faith into immediate relation with God. Here we must ask: Have I any religious experience and immediate relation to God, and hence that certainty which will keep me, as an individual, from dissolving in the crowd?
    • p 85
  • Reason alone does not suffice.
    • p 98
  • We are living in what the Greeks called the right time for a "metamorphosis of the gods," i.e. of the fundamental principles and symbols. This peculiarity of our time, which is certainly not of our conscious choosing, is the expression of the unconscious man within us who is changing. Coming generations will have to take account of this momentous transformation if humanity is not to destroy itself through the might of its own technology and science.
    • p 110

Psychological Types, or, The Psychology of Individuation (1921)

  • Without this playing with fantasy no creative work has ever yet come to birth. The debt we owe to the play of imagination is incalculable.
    • Ch. 1, p. 82
  • The great problems of life — sexuality, of course, among others — are always related to the primordial images of the collective unconscious. These images are really balancing or compensating factors which correspond with the problems life presents in actuality. This is not to be marvelled at, since these images are deposits representing the accumulated experience of thousands of years of struggle for adaptation and existence.
    • Ch. 5, p. 271
  • We should not pretend to understand the world only by the intellect; we apprehend it just as much by feeling. Therefore, the judgment of the intellect is, at best, only the half of truth, and must, if it be honest, also come to an understanding of its inadequacy.
    • Variant translation: We should not pretend to understand the world only by the intellect. The judgement of the intellect is only part of the truth.
    • Conclusion, p. 628

Contributions to Analytical Psychology (1928)

  • The woman is increasingly aware that love alone can give her full stature, just as the man begins to discern that spirit alone can endow his life with its highest meaning. Fundamentally, therefore, both seek a psychic relation to the other, because love needs the spirit, and the spirit love, for their fulfillment.
    • p. 185
  • Seldom, or perhaps never, does a marriage develop into an individual relationship smoothly and without crises; there is no coming to consciousness without pain.
    • p. 193
  • The growth of the mind is the widening of the range of consciousness, and ... each step forward has been a most painful and laborious achievement.
    • p. 340

Modern Man in Search of a Soul (1933)

  • No language exists that cannot be misused... Every Interpretation is hypothetical, for it is a mere attempt to read an unfamiliar text.
    • p 11 & 14
  • The meeting of two personalities is like the contact of two chemical substances: if there is any reaction, both are transformed.
    • p. 49
  • It is in applied psychology, if anywhere, that today we should be modest and grant validity to a number of apparently contradictory opinions; for we are still far from having anything like a thorough knowledge of the human psyche, that most challenging field of scientific enquiry. For the present we have merely more or less plausible opinions that defy reconciliation.
    • p. 57
  • The great decisions of human life have as a rule far more to do with the instincts and other mysterious unconscious factors than with conscious will and well-meaning reasonableness. The shoe that fits one person pinches another; there is no recipe for living that suits all cases. Each of us carries his own life-form—an indeterminable form which cannot be superseded by any other.
    • p. 69
  • Aging people should know that their lives are not mounting and unfolding but that an inexorable inner process forces the contraction of life. For a young person it is almost a sin — and certainly a danger — to be too much occupied with himself; but for the aging person it is a duty and a necessity to give serious attention to himself.
    • p. 125
  • Every civilized human being, whatever his conscious development, is still an archaic man at the deeper levels of his psyche. Just as the human body connects us with the mammals and displays numerous relics of earlier evolutionary stages going back to even the reptilian age, so the human psyche is likewise a product of evolution which, when followed up to its origins, show countless archaic traits.
    • p.126
  • No psychic value can disappear without being replaced by another of equivalent intensity.
    • p. 209

The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious (1934)

Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Vol. 9, Part 1. 2nd ed. (1968), Princeton University Press ISBN 0691018332
I have chosen the term "collective" because this part of the unconscious is not individual but universal; in contrast to the personal psyche, it has contents and modes of behaviour that are more or less the same everywhere and in all individuals.
  • A more or less superficial layer of the unconscious is undoubtedly personal. I call it the "personal unconscious". But this personal layer rests upon a deeper layer, which does not derive from personal experience and is not a personal acquisition but is inborn. This deeper layer I call the "collective unconscious". I have chosen the term "collective" because this part of the unconscious is not individual but universal; in contrast to the personal psyche, it has contents and modes of behaviour that are more or less the same everywhere and in all individuals.
    • p. 3-4
  • Why is psychology the youngest of the empirical sciences? Why have we not long since discovered the unconscious and raised up its treasure-house of eternal images? Simply because we had a religious formula for everything psychic — and one that is far more beautiful and comprehensive than immediate experience. Though the Christian view of the world has paled for many people, the symbolic treasure-rooms of the East are still full of marvels that can nourish for a long time to come the passion for show and new clothes. What is more, these images — be they Christian or Buddhist or what you will — are lovely, mysterious, richly intuitive.
    • p.7-8
  • Whereas the personal unconscious consists for the most part of "complexes", the content of the collective unconscious is made up essentially of "archetypes". The concept of the archetype, which is an indispensable correlate of the idea of the collective unconscious, indicates the existence of definite forms in the psyche which seem to be present always and everywhere. Mythological research calls them 'motifs'; in the psychology of primitives they correspond to Levy-Bruhl's concept of "representations collectives," and in the field of comparative religion they have been defined by Hubert and Mauss as 'categories of the imagination'... My thesis, then, is as follows: In addition to our immediate consciousness, which is of a thoroughly personal nature and which we believe to be the only empirical psyche (even if we tack on the personal unconscious as an appendix), there exists a second psychic system of a collective, universal, and impersonal nature which is identical in all individuals.
    • p.42-43
  • We must now turn to the question of how the existence of archetypes can be proved. Since archetypes are supposed to produce certain psychic forms, we must discuss how and where one can get hold of the material demonstrating these forms. The main source, then, is dreams, which have the advantage of being involuntary, spontaneous products of nature not falsified by any conscious purpose. By questioning the individual one can ascertain which of the motifs appearing in the dream are known to him... Consequently, we must look for motifs which could not possibly be known to the dreamer and yet behave functionally of the archetype known from historical sources.
    • p. 48

The Integration of the Personality (1939)

  • All ages before ours believed in gods in some form or other. Only an unparalleled impoverishment in symbolism could enable us to rediscover the gods as psychic factors, which is to say, as archetypes of the unconscious. No doubt this discovery is hardly credible as yet.
    • p. 72
  • If there is anything that we wish to change in the child, we should first examine it and see whether it is not something that could better be changed in ourselves.
    • p. 285

The Psychology of the Unconscious (1943)

Where love rules, there is no will to power; and where power predominates, there love is lacking. The one is the shadow of the other.
  • This world is empty to him alone who does not understand how to direct his libido towards objects, and to render them alive and beautiful for himself, for Beauty does not indeed lie in things, but in the feeling that we give to them.
  • Where love rules, there is no will to power; and where power predominates, there love is lacking. The one is the shadow of the other.
  • The erotic instinct is something questionable, and will always be so whatever a future set of laws may have to say on the matter. It belongs, on the one hand, to the original animal nature of man, which will exist as long as man has an animal body. On the other hand, it is connected with the highest forms of the spirit. But it blooms only when the spirit and instinct are in true harmony. If one or the other aspect is missing, then an injury occurs, or at least there is a one-sided lack of balance which easily slips into the pathological. Too much of the animal disfigures the civilized human being, too much culture makes a sick animal.

Psychology and Alchemy (1952)

  • Every archetype is capable of endless development and differentiation. It is therefore possible for it to be more developed or less. In an outward form of religion where all the emphasis is on the outward figure (hence where we are dealing with a more or less complete projection) the archetype is identical with externalized ideas but remains unconscious as a psychic factor. When an unconscious content is replaced by a projected image to that extent, it is cut off from all participation in an influence on the conscious mind. Hence it largely forfeits its own life, because prevented from exerting the formative influence on consciousness natural to it; what is more, it remains in its original form — unchanged, for nothing changes in the unconscious.
  • The conscious mind allows itself to be trained like a parrot, but the unconscious does not — which is why St. Augustine thanked God for not making him responsible for his dreams.
    • p. 51

Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle (1960)

  • We Shall Naturally look round in vain the macrophysical world for acausal events, for the simple reason that we cannot imagine events that are connected non-causally and are capable of a non-causal explanation. But that does not mean that such events do not exist... The so-called "scientific view of the world" based on this can hardly be anything more than a psychologically biased partial view which misses out all those by no means unimportant aspects that cannot be grasped statistically.
    • p. 5
  • Primitive superstition lies just below the surface of even the most tough-minded individuals, and it is precisely those who most fight against it who are the first to succumb to its suggestive effects.
    • p. 25
  • Naturally, every age thinks that all ages before it were prejudiced, and today we think this more than ever and are just as wrong as all previous ages that thought so. How often have we not seen the truth condemned! It is sad but unfortunately true that man learns nothing from history.
    • p. 33
  • This grasping of the whole is obviously the aim of science as well, but it is a goal that necessarily lies very far off because science, whenever possible, proceeds experimentally and in all cases statistically. Experiment, however, consists in asking a definite question which excludes as far as possible anything disturbing and irrelevant. It makes conditions, imposes them on Nature, and in this way forces her to give an answer to a question devised by man. She is prevented from answering out of the fullness of her possibilities since these possibilities are restricted as far as practible. For this purpose there is created in the laboratory a situation which is artificially restricted to the question which compels Nature to give an unequivocal answer. The workings of Nature in her unrestricted wholeness are completely excluded. If we want to know what these workings are, we need a method of inquiry which imposes the fewest possible conditions, or if possible no conditions at all, and then leave Nature to answer out of her fullness.
    • p. 35
  • My example concerns a young woman patient who, in spite of efforts made on both sides, proved to be psychologically inaccessible. The Difficulty lay in the fact that she always knew better about everything. Her excellent education had provided her with a weapon ideally suited to this purpose, namely a highly polished Cartesian rationalism with an impeccably "geometrical" idea of reality. After several fruitless attempts to sweeten her rationalism with a somewhat more human understanding, I had to confine myself to the hope that something unexpected and irrational would turn up, something that burst the intellectual retort into which she had sealed herself. Well, I was sitting opposite of her one day, with my back to the window, listening to her flow of rhetoric. She had an impressive dream the night before, in which someone had given her a golden scarab-a costly piece of jewellery. While she was still telling me this dream, I heard something behind me gently tapping on the window. I turned round and saw that it was a fairly large flying insect that was knocking against the window from outside in the obvious effort to get into the dark room. This seemed to me very strange. I opened the window and immediately and caught the insect in the air as it flew in. It was a scarabaeid beetle, or common rose-chafer, whose colden green color most nearly resembles that of a golden scarab. I handed the beetle to my patient with the words "Here is your scarab." This broke the ice of her intellectual resistance. The treatment could now be continued with satisfactory results.
    • p. 110

Memories, Dreams, Reflections (1963)

Jung's autobiography, recorded and edited by Aniela Jaffé. (Pantheon Books, 1963)
  • Life has always seemed to me like a plant that lives on its rhizome. Its true life is invisible, hidden in the rhizome. The part that appears above ground lasts only a single summer. What we see is the blossom, which passes. The rhizome remains.
    • Closing lines of the preface.
  • I know every numbskull will babble on about "black man," "maneater," "chance," and "retrospective interpretation," in order to banish something terribly inconvenient that might sully the familiar picture of childhood innocence. Ah, these good, efficient, healthy-minded people, they always remind me of those optimistic tadpoles who bask in a puddle in the sun, in the shallowest of waters, crowding together and amiably wriggling their tails, totally unaware that the next morning the puddle will have dried up and left them stranded.
    • On a phallic dream he had as a young child. p. 14
  • Sometimes I had an overwhelming urge to speak, not about that, but only to hint that there were some curious things about me which no one knew of. I wanted to find out whether other people had undergone similar experiences. I never succeeded in discovering so much as a trace of them in others. As a result, I had the feeling that I was either outlawed or elect, accursed or blessed.
    • p. 41
  • My interests drew me in different directions. On the one hand I was powerfully attracted by science, with its truths based on facts; on the other hand I was fascinated by everything to do with comparative religion. [...] In science I missed the factor of meaning; and in religion, that of empiricism.
    • p. 72
  • As far as we can discern, the sole purpose of human existence is to kindle a light of meaning in the darkness of mere being.
    • p. 326 (this quote also appears in Watchmen by Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons, Chapter 9, p. 28)

Man and His Symbols (1964)

C.G. Jung, M.-L. von Franz, Joseph L. Henderson, Jolande Jacobi, Aniela Jaffé (Aldus Books, 1964, ISBN 978-0440351832)
  • Because we cannot discover God's throne in the sky with a radiotelescope or establish (for certain) that a beloved father or mother is still about in a more or less corporeal form, people assume that such ideas are "not true." I would rather say that they are not "true" enough, for these are conceptions of a kind that have accompanied human life from prehistoric times, and that still break through into consciousness at any provocation.
  • Modern man may assert that he can dispense with them, and he may bolster his opinion by insisting that there is no scientific evidence of their truth. But since we are dealing with invisible and unknowable things (for God is beyond human understanding, and there is no mean of proving immortality), why should we bother with evidence?
    • p. 75-76

Misattributed

  • Vocatus atque non vocatus, Deus aderit.
    • Called or uncalled, God is present.
    • This is actually a statement that Jung discovered among the Latin writings of Desiderius Erasmus, who declared the statement had been an ancient Spartan proverb. Jung popularized it, having it inscribed over the doorway of his house, and upon his tomb.
    • Variant translations:
      Summoned or not summoned, God is present.
      Invoked or not invoked, God is present
      Called or not called, the god will be there.
      Bidden or unbidden, God is present.
      Bidden or not bidden, God is present.
      Bidden or not, God is present.
      Bidden or not bidden, God is there.
      Called or uncalled, God is there.

See also

External links

Wikipedia
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Simple English

File:Jung
Jung outside Burghölzli Clinic, Switzerland 1910

Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and writer. He created many theories and ideas that are still used in psychology today. Psychology is the science of how people think and feel. His kind of psychology was called analytical psychology or Jungian Analysis.

Jung worked for years with Sigmund Freud, but they stopped working together. This was because they had some arguments about what was more important in psychology.

Jung is famous for many things that he did for psychology. The work he did was important for measuring what kind of personality people have. The test called the Myers Briggs Type Indicator is based on his ideas. He is also famous because of his ideas about the ancients - people from many years ago.

Jung liked to study strange books and sciences. He thought he could learn important things about psychology from them. For example, he liked to study alchemy. Alchemy was an old science that tried to create gold. This is very hard to do. Sometimes alchemy was less science and more magic. Jung did not believe that alchemy was a good science. He was interested in how alchemy was like normal human life.

He wrote in academic German, for doctors and psychologists. This means he can be hard to understand. Most people who study Jung start with his book Man and His Symbols. Jung wrote this book so that most people could understand him.

Works

  • Jung, C. G. 1953. Psychiatric Studies. The Collected Works of C. G. Jung Vol. 1. 1953, ed. Michael Fordham, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, and Princeton, N.J.: Bollingen. This was the first of 18 volumes plus separate bibliography and index. Not including revisions the set was completed in 1967.

Trivia


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