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Carl Maria von Weber

Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber (18-19 November 1786 – 4-5 June 1826) was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school.

Weber's works, especially his operas Der Freischütz, Euryanthe and Oberon greatly influenced the development of the Romantic opera in Germany. He was also an innovative composer of instrumental music. His compositions for the clarinet, which include two concertos, a concertino, a quintet and a duo concertante, are regularly performed, while his piano music—including four sonatas, two concertos and the Konzertstück (Concert Piece) in F minor—influenced composers such as Frédéric Chopin, Franz Liszt and Felix Mendelssohn. The Konzertstück provided a new model for the one-movement concerto in several contrasting sections (such as Liszt's, who often played the work), and was acknowledged by Igor Stravinsky as the model for his Capriccio for piano and orchestra.

Weber's contribution to vocal and choral music is also significant. His body of Catholic religious music was highly popular in 19th century Germany, and he composed one of the earliest song-cycles, Die Temperamente beim Verluste der Geliebten (Four Temperaments on the Loss of a Lover).

Weber's orchestration has also been highly praised and emulated by later generations of composers - Hector Berlioz referred to him several times in his Treatise on Instrumentation while Claude Debussy remarked that the sound of the Weber orchestra was obtained through the scrutiny of the soul of each instrument.

His operas influenced the work of later opera composers, especially in Germany, such as Heinrich Marschner, Giacomo Meyerbeer and Richard Wagner, as well as several nationalist 19th-century composers such as Mikhail Glinka, and homage has been paid him by 20th century composers such as Debussy, Stravinsky, Gustav Mahler (who completed Weber's unfinished comic opera Die drei Pintos and made revisions of Euryanthe and Oberon) and Paul Hindemith (composer of the popular Symphonic Metamorphoses on Themes of Weber).

Weber also wrote music journalism and was interested in folksong, and learned lithography to engrave his own works.

Contents

Life

Weber was born in Eutin, Holstein, the eldest of the three children of Franz Anton von Weber (who seems to have had no real claim to a "von" denoting nobility), and his second wife, Genovefa Brenner, an actress. Franz Anton started his career as a military officer in the service of the Duchy of Holstein; later he held a number of musical directorships; and in 1787 he went on to Hamburg, where he founded a theatrical company. Weber's cousin Constanze was the wife of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

Weber's father gave him a comprehensive education, which was however interrupted by the family's constant moves. In 1796, Weber continued his musical education in Hildburghausen, where he was instructed by the oboist Johann Peter Heuschkel.

On 13 March 1798, Weber's mother died of tuberculosis. That same year, Weber went to Salzburg, to study with Michael Haydn; and later to Munich, to study with the singer Johann Evangelist Wallishauser, and organist J. N. Kalcher.

1798 also saw Weber's first published work, six fughettas for piano, published in Leipzig. Other compositions of that period, amongst them a mass, and his first opera, Die Macht der Liebe und des Weins (The Power of Love and Wine), are lost; but a set of Variations for the Pianoforte was later lithographed by Weber himself, under the guidance of Alois Senefelder, the inventor of the process.

Carl Maria von Weber

In 1800, the family moved to Freiberg, in Saxony, where Weber, then 14 years old, wrote an opera called Das stumme Waldmädchen (The silent forest maiden), which was produced at the Freiberg theatre. It was later performed in Vienna, Prague, and St. Petersburg. Weber also began to write articles as a critic, e.g. in the Leipziger Neue Zeitung (1801).

In 1801, the family returned to Salzburg, where Weber resumed his studies with Michael Haydn. He later continued studying in Vienna with Abbé Vogler (Georg Joseph Vogler), founder of three important music schools (in Mannheim, Stockholm, and Darmstadt); another famous pupil of Vogler was Giacomo Meyerbeer, who became a close friend of Weber.

In 1803, Weber's opera, Peter Schmoll und seine Nachbarn (Peter Schmoll and his Neighbors) was produced in Augsburg, and gave Weber his first success as a popular composer.

Vogler, impressed by his pupil's talent, recommended him to the post of Director at the Opera in Breslau (1806), and from 1807 to 1810, Weber held a post at the court of the Duke of Württemberg, in Stuttgart.

He left his post in Breslau in a fit of frustration, he was on one occasion arrested for debt and fraud and expelled from Württemberg, and was involved in various scandals. However he remained successful as a composer, and also wrote a quantity of religious music, mainly for the Catholic mass. This however earned him the hostility of reformers working for the re-establishment of traditional chant in liturgy.

In 1810, Weber visited several cities throughout Germany; from 1813 to 1816 he was director of the Opera in Prague; from 1816 to 1817 he worked in Berlin, and from 1817 onwards he was director of the prestigious Opera in Dresden, working hard to establish a German Opera, in reaction to the Italian Opera which had dominated the European music scene since the 18th century. On 4 November 1817, he married Caroline Brandt, a singer who created the title role of Silvana.[1]

The successful premiere of Der Freischütz on 18 June 1821 in Berlin led to performances all over Europe. On the very morning of the premiere, Weber finished his Konzertstück for Piano and Orchestra in F minor, and he premiered it a week later.

The bust of Weber in Eutin

In 1823, Weber composed the opera Euryanthe to a mediocre libretto, but containing much rich music, the overture of which in particular anticipates Richard Wagner. In 1824, Weber received an invitation from Covent Garden, London, to compose and produce Oberon, based on Christoph Martin Wieland's poem of the same name. Weber accepted the invitation, and in 1826 he travelled to England, to finish the work and conduct the premiere on 12 April.

Other famous works by Weber include: Invitation to the Dance (later orchestrated by Hector Berlioz); Polacca Brillante (later orchestrated by Franz Liszt); two symphonies, a concertino and two concertos for clarinet, a quintet for clarinet and strings, and a concertino for horn (during which the performer is asked to simultaneously produce two notes by humming while playing - a technique known in brass playing as multiphonics).

Weber was already suffering from tuberculosis when he visited London; he died at the house of Sir George Thomas Smart during the night of 4-5 June 1826.[1] Weber was 39 years old. He was buried in London, but 18 years later his remains were transferred on an initiative of Richard Wagner and re-buried in Dresden.

His unfinished opera Die drei Pintos ('The Three Pintos') was originally given by Weber's widow to Meyerbeer for completion; it was eventually completed by Gustav Mahler, who conducted the first performance in this form in Leipzig on 20 January 1888.

Weber's grave in Dresden.

Legacy

Weber's mastery of the orchestra was equaled in his time only by Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert. During the 19th century, his 'Polacca Brillante', 'Invitation to the Dance, Second Piano Sonata and Konzertstück for piano and orchestra were frequently heard. Liszt frequently performed Weber's music and made editions of his piano sonatas. Other 19th-century admirers included Wagner, Meyerbeer and Berlioz.

Weber's piano music all but disappeared from the repertoire, but there has been a revival of interest in these works in recent times. One possible reason for its earlier lack of attention is that Weber had very large hands and delighted in writing music that suited them.[2] There are several recordings of the major works for the solo piano (including complete recordings of the piano sonatas and the shorter piano pieces, by Garrick Ohlsson, Alexander Paley and others), and there are recordings of the individual sonatas by Claudio Arrau (1st Sonata), Alfred Brendel (2nd Sonata), Sviatoslav Richter (3rd Sonata) and Leon Fleisher (4th Sonata). The Invitation to the Dance, although better known in Berlioz's orchestration (as part of the ballet music for a Paris production of Der Freischütz), has long been played and recorded by pianists (e.g. Benno Moiseiwitsch [in Carl Tausig's arrangement]). Invitation to the Dance also served as the thematic basis for Benny Goodman's swing tune Lets Dance.

His orchestral music, clarinet works, the opera Der Freischütz (his most famous composition), as well as the overtures to Oberon and Euryanthe are still performed. The last two operas have, in fact, been performed more and more often since the 1990s.

Works

Operas

See List of operas by Weber.

Church music

  • Missa sancta No. 1 in E flat, J. 224 (1818)
  • Missa sancta No. 2 in G, Op. 76, J. 251 (1818-19)

Symphonies

  • Symphony No. 1 in C (1812)
  • Symphony No. 2 in C (1813)

Vocal works with orchestra

  • Cantata Der erste Ton for chorus and orchestra, Op. 14, J. 58 (1808 / revised 1810)
  • Recitative and rondo Il momento s'avvicina for soprano and orchestra, Op. 16, J. 93 (1810)
  • Hymn In seiner Ordnung schafft der Herr for soloists, chorus and orchestra, Op. 36, J. 154 (1812)
  • Cantata Kampf und Sieg for soloists, chorus and orchestra, Op. 44, J. 190 (1815)
  • Scene and Aria of Atalia Misera me! for soprano and orchestra, Op. 50, J. 121 (1811)
  • Jubel-Cantata for the 50th royal jubilee of King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony for soloist, chorus and orchestra, Op. 58, J. 244 (1818)

Concertos

  • Bassoon Concerto in F major, Op. 75, J. 127 (1811 / revised 1822)
  • Andante and Rondo Hungarian (Andante e Rondo Ongarese) for Bassoon and Orchestra in C minor, Op. 35, J. 158 (1813),revised as J. 79
  • Grand pot-pourri for Cello and Orchestra in D major, Op. 20, J. 64 (1808)
  • Variations for Cello and Orchestra in D minor, J. 94 (1810)
  • Romanza Siciliana for Flute and Orchestra, J. 47 (1805)
  • Six variations on the theme A Schüsserl und a Reind'rl for Viola and Orchestra, J. 49 (1800 / revised 1806)
  • Andante and Rondo Hungarian for die Viola and Orchestra, J. 79 (1809)
  • Adagio and Rondo for Harmonichord and Orchestra in F major, J. 115 (1811)

Media

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References

  1. ^ a b Masters Of Music - Carl Maria Von Weber
  2. ^ Andrew Fraser, Limelight magazine, June 2009, p. 60

Notes

  • Friese-Greene, A. (1993) Weber, The Illustrated lives of the great composers, New ed., London : Omnibus, ISBN 0-7119-2081-8
  • Henderson, D.G. and Henderson, A.H. (1990) Carl Maria von Weber : a guide to research, Garland composer resource manuals 24, New York ; London : Garland, ISBN 0-82404-118-6
  • Meyer, S.C. (2003) Carl Maria Von Weber and the Search for a German Opera, Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-34185-X
  • Reynolds, D. (Ed.) (1976) Weber in London, 1826, London : Wolff, ISBN 0-85496-403-7
  • Warrack, J.H. (1976) Carl Maria Von Weber, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-241-91321-7
  • Warrack, J.H., Macdonald, H. and Köhler, K-.H. (1985) Early romantic masters 2: Weber, Berlioz, Medelssohn, The composer biography series, London : Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-39014-8

External links


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Simple English

Carl Maria von Weber (born Eutin, Holstein, baptised 20 November 1786[1]; died London), 5 June, 1826 in London, was one of the most important German composers of the early Romantic period. He wrote many operas, of which Der Freischütz, Euryanthe and Oberon are especially famous. He wrote instrumental music, especially for the clarinet, and wrote very well for orchestra.

Contents

Early life

Weber was the eldest of the three children of Franz Anton von Weber. The word “von” in front of a German surname normally means that the family had noble ancestry, but the Weber family do not appear to be of noble blood. Weber was never a strong, healthy child. He had a damaged hip-bone and always walked with a limp. His father worked in the theatre, and the family often moved from one town to another. This was difficult for his education. His mother was called Rosa, she influenced him to go to military school at the age of 20, but his love for music meant that he would go to Cranbrook in Germany. His daughter Laurel was well known for playing the viola in many Orchestras.

Weber’s mother died of tuberculosis when he was eleven. Later that year Weber went to Salzburg, to study with Michael Haydn (the brother of the famous Joseph Haydn), and later to Munich. He started to publish some piano music, and even composed an opera. When he was 14 the family moved to Freiberg in Saxony. He had an opera performed there, and he started to write articles as a critic in a Leipzig newspaper.

In 1801 the family went back to Salzburg and Weber had more lessons from Michael Haydn. He also studied in Vienna with a famous musician called Abbé Vogler. Through him he got to know another of his pupils, Giacomo Meyerbeer, who became a famous composer and was a close friend of Weber.

Success

Vogler thought Weber was very talented, and helped him to get a job in Breslau. Weber had lots of good ideas about how to improve the music there: by changing the way that the orchestra sat, having more rehearsal time, not playing bad pieces of music, and pensioning off old singers. A lot of people there did not like these ideas and made life difficult for him. One night he absent-mindedly drank from a wine bottle. The bottle had engraving-acid inside, and it made him ill for two months. He was never able to sing again. When he tried to go back to work all the good changes he had made had been undone, so he resigned. He had a job in Karlsruhe for a short time, then went briefly back to Breslau, but because he owed people money there he disappeared and got a job in Stuttgart.

His lifestyle was rather wild, and he even got arrested once for debt and fraud. However, he continued to become well-known as a composer and wrote a lot of instrumental and religious music. He spent some time in several large cities including Prague and Berlin. In Dresden he worked hard to make German Opera a success (most operas were still Italian in those days).

Weber was not well. He was suffering from tuberculosis, but needed money to support his family. So when he was invited to go to London to compose and produce his opera Oberon he accepted the offer. He had already been having English lessons and learned to speak the language quite well. In 1826 he travelled to England where he finished composing Oberon and conducted its first performance on 12 April. He stayed on in England to earn some more money. He was looking forward to going home, but on 5 June, the night before he was due to go back to Germany, he died. He was buried in London. 18 years later Richard Wagner arranged for Weber’s body to be brought back to Germany to be buried in Dresden.

Weber left an opera Die Drei Pintos ('The Three Pintos') unfinished. Meyerbeer was going to finish it, but in the end it was Gustav Mahler who finished it and conducted the first performance of the completed work in Leipzig in 1888.

His music

Weber was not only a great composer, but a very skilled pianist and conductor. He wrote a very large number of works including cantatas and songs, but most of these are not often heard today. One of his most popular works is called Invitation to the Dance. It was written for piano, but later Hector Berlioz arranged it for orchestra and this is how it is often heard nowadays.

Weber wrote two Concertos for clarinet and orchestra and also a Concertino (a small concerto in one movement). Another one-movement concerto was the Konzertstück in F minor for piano and orchestra. His opera Der Freischütz is probably his best work, and the overture is often heard separately as a concert piece. The story of the opera is full of magic. It is written in German and has some spoken words as well as sung music (this kind of opera was called a Singspiel). This opera in particular influenced Richard Wagner who developed German opera in the 19th century.

References

  1. The date of birth is unknown, only the date of baptism is recorded. Children were usually baptised a few days after birth, at that time, both 18 and 19 November have been named for the date of his birth



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