Carol Gilligan: Wikis


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Carol Gilligan
Born November 28, 1936
Occupation Professor
Nationality United States
Subjects Psychology, Ethics, Feminism
Notable work(s) In a Different Voice

Carol Gilligan (born November 28, 1936) is an American feminist, ethicist, and psychologist best known for her work with and against Lawrence Kohlberg on ethical community and ethical relationships, and certain subject-object problems in ethics. She is currently a Professor at New York University and a Visiting Professor at the University of Cambridge. She is best known for her 1982 work, In a Different Voice.


Background and career

Carol Gilligan was raised in a Jewish family in New York City.[1] She was the only child of a lawyer, William Friedman, and nursery school teacher, Mabel Caminez. She played piano and pursued a career in modern dance during her graduate studies. Gilligan received her B.A. summa cum laude in English literature from Swarthmore College, a master's degree in clinical psychology from Radcliffe College, and a Ph.D. in social psychology from Harvard University. [1]

She began her teaching career at Harvard University in 1967, receiving tenure with the Harvard Graduate School of Education in 1986. Gilligan taught for two years at the University of Cambridge (from 1992-1994) as the Pitt Professor of American History and Institutions. In 1997, she was the to be appointed to the Patricia Albjerg Graham Chair in Gender Studies.[2]

Gilligan left Harvard in 2002 to join New York University as a full professor with the School of Education and the School of Law. [3] She is currently a visiting professor with the University of Cambridge (Centre for Gender Studies).[4]

She is married to James Gilligan, M.D., who directed the Center for the Study of Violence at Harvard Medical School. [5]



Best known for her work, In a Different Voice, Gilligan studied women’s psychology and girls’ development and co-authored or edited a number of texts with her students. [6] She published her first novel, Kyra in 2008. [7] [8]


  • In a Different Voice, Harvard University Press, (1982)
  • Mapping the Moral Domain: A Contribution of Women's Thinking to Psychological Theory and Education, Harvard University Press, (1989)
  • Making Connections: The Relational Worlds of Adolescent Girls at Emma Willard School, Harvard University Press, (1990)
  • Meeting at the Crossroads: Women's Psychology and Girls' Development, Harvard University Press, (1992)
  • Between Voice and Silence: Women and Girls, Race and Relationships, Harvard University Press, (1997)
  • The Birth of Pleasure, Knopf, (2002)
  • Kyra, Random House, (2008)
  • The Deepening Darkness: Patriarchy, Resistance, & Democracy's Future, Cambridge University Press, (2009) (with co-author David A.J. Richards)

See also


External links

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