Carol II of Romania: Wikis

  
  
  

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Carol II
King of the Romanians
Reign 8 June 1930–6 September 1940
Predecessor Michael I
Successor Michael I
Spouse Zizi Lambrino
Helen of Greece and Denmark
Magda Lupescu
Issue
Carol Lambrino
Michael of Romania
Father Ferdinand of Romania
Mother Marie of Edinburgh
Born 15 October 1893(1893-10-15)
Sinaia, Romania
Died 4 April 1953 (aged 59)
Estoril, Portugal
Burial 1953
2004
Estoril, Portugal (1953)
Curtea de Argeş, Romania (2004)

Carol II (15 October/16 October 1893 – 4 April 1953) reigned as King of Romania from 8 June 1930 until 6 September 1940. Eldest son of Ferdinand I, King of Romania, and his wife, Queen Marie, a daughter of Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, the second eldest son of Queen Victoria. He was the first of the Romanian royal family who was baptized in the Orthodox rite.[1]

Crown Prince Carol (foreground, with machine gun) training during World War I.

Carol was born in Peleş Castle. In November 1914, Carol joined the Romanian Senate, as the 1866 Constitution guaranteed him a seat there upon reaching majority.[2] Known rather for his romantic misadventures than for any leadership skills, Carol (Romanian for "Charles") was first married in the Cathedral Church of Odessa, Ukraine, 31 August 1918, in contravention of royal law, to Joanna Marie Valentina Lambrino, ("Zizi" Lambrino) (1898–1953), daughter of a Romanian general; they had one son, Mircea Gregor Carol Lambrino, and the marriage was annulled by decision of the Ilfov Tribunal in 1919. He next married, in Athens, Greece, on 10 March 1921, Princess Helen of Greece and Denmark (who was known in Romania as Crown Princess Elena), but the marriage soon collapsed in the wake of Carol's affair with Elena "Magda" Lupescu (1895?–1977), the Roman Catholic daughter of a Jewish pharmacist and his Roman Catholic wife. Magda Lupescu had formerly been the wife of Army officer Ion Tâmpenu. As a result of the scandal, he renounced his right to the throne on 28 December 1925 in favour of his son by Crown Princess Helen, Michael (Mihai), who became King in July 1927. Helena divorced Carol in 1928. Carol also had a son and a daughter by his mistress Maria Martini, a high-school student.

Contents

Rule

Returning to the country unexpectedly on 7 June 1930, Carol reneged on the renunciation and was proclaimed King the following day. For the next decade he sought to influence the course of Romanian political life, first through manipulation of the rival Peasant and Liberal parties and anti-Semitic factions, and subsequently (January 1938) through a ministry of his own choosing (the National Renaissance Front), with a constitution (27 February) reserving ultimate power to the Crown. In 1938, he banned the Iron Guard, which he had supported in the 1930s.

House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Kingdom of Romania - Big CoA.svg

Carol I
Queen Consort:
    Elisabeth
Children:
   Princess Maria
Ferdinand I
Queen Consort:
    Marie
Children:
    Prince Carol
    Elisabeth, Queen of Greece
    Maria, Queen of Yugoslavia
    Prince Nicholas
    Ileana, Archduchess of Austria
    Prince Mircea
Carol II
Children:
    Prince Michael
Michael I
Queen Consort:
    Anne
Children
    Princess Margarita
    Princess Elena
    Princess Irina
    Princess Sophie
    Princess Maria

Carol also sought to build up his own personality cult to counter the growing influence of the Iron Guard, for instance by setting up a paramilitary youth organization known as Straja Ţării in 1935.

An excellent fictionalized account of life in Bucharest in the final years of Carol's reign can be found in Olivia Manning's novels The Great Fortune and The Spoilt City.


He was the 892nd Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1938.

Exile

King Carol II of Romania.jpg

Forced under first Soviet and subsequently Hungarian, Bulgarian, Italian and German pressure to surrender parts of his kingdom to foreign rule, he was outmaneuvered at last by the pro-German administration of Marshal Ion Antonescu, and abdicated in favour of Michael, settling ultimately in Portugal.

Carol and Magda Lupescu were married in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on 3 June 1947, Magda taking the title of Princess Elena von Hohenzollern. Carol remained in exile for the rest of his life. He was never to see his son, King Michael, after his 1940 departure from Romania. Michael refused to meet his father ever again.[3]

Remains returned to Romania

Carol died and was buried in Estoril, Portugal, in 1953; his remains were returned to Romania in 2003, at the Curtea de Argeş monastery. They lie outside the cathedral that is the burial place of most Romanian kings. Neither of his sons participated in either ceremony. His younger son and successor, King Michael, was represented by his daughter, Princess Margarita, and her husband, Radu Duda, Prince of Hohenzollern-Veringen. His eldest son, Carol Lambrino was forbidden (since 1940) to enter Romanian territory.

Foreign honors

Monarchical styles of
King Carol II of Romania
Kingdom of Romania - Big CoA.svg
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Sir

The UK awarded Carol the Order of the Garter.

Ancestry

See also

References

External links

Carol II of Romania
Cadet branch of the House of Hohenzollern
Born: 15 October 1893 Died: 4 April 1953
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Michael
King of Romania
1930-1940
Succeeded by
Michael









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