Caroline County, Virginia: Wikis

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Caroline County, Virginia
Seal of Caroline County, Virginia
Map of Virginia highlighting Caroline County
Location in the state of Virginia
Map of the U.S. highlighting Virginia
Virginia's location in the U.S.
Seat Bowling Green
Area
 - Total
 - Land
 - Water

539 sq mi (1,396 km²)

6 sq mi (16 km²), 1.18%
Population
 - (2000)
 - Density

22,121
41/sq mi (16/km²)
Founded 1728
Website www.co.caroline.va.us

Caroline County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2000 census, the population was 22,121. Its county seat is Bowling Green[1]. Caroline County is also home to Meadow Farms Stables, the birthplace of the renowned racehorse Secretariat, winner of the 1973 Kentucky Derby and Triple Crown.

Contents

History

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founding, colonial era

Caroline County was established in the British Colony of Virginia in 1728 from Essex, King and Queen, and King William counties. It was named for Caroline of Ansbach, the wife of King George II of Great Britain.

During the Colonial Period, Caroline County was the birthplace of Thoroughbred Horse Racing in North America. Arabian horses were imported from England to provide the basis for American breeding stock.

Patriot Edmund Pendleton played a large role in the Virginia Resolution for Independence (1775) and Caroline native, John Penn, was a signer of the Declaration of Independence [2], albeit as a delegate from North Carolina.

19th century

Explorers William Clark and his slave York, were members of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1803-1805); both were born near what is now Ladysmith.

In 1847, after being a member of the first graduating class of Virginia Military Institute (VMI), William "Little Billy" Mahone (1826-1895) of Southampton County began teaching at Rappahannock Academy in Caroline County. He was to become prominent as a railroad builder and developer, Confederate General, leader of Virginia's short-lived Readjuster Party, and served as a United States Senator.

The following year, during Union General Ulysses S. Grant's Overland Campaign, Confederate troops under General George E. Pickett fought Union troops near Milford.

Just as the Civil War was concluding in April, 1865, President Lincoln was assassinated in Washington, DC as part of a conspiracy to kill the leaders of the United States. As the conspirators fled, a manhunt was launched. After 10 days, in the wee hours of April 26, John Wilkes Booth, Lincoln's assassin, and fellow conspirator David E. Herold were tracked down to Garrett's farm about 3 miles west of Port Royal, where they had taken refuge in a barn. Booth was fatally shot during their capture by federal troops. Herold was returned to Washington, where he was executed by hanging with 3 co-conspirators on July 7, 1865.

20th century

In 1958, Richard and Mildred Loving successfully challenged miscegenation laws in Caroline County, Virginia when they married. The Supreme Court of the United States found anti-miscegenation statutes to be unconstitutional in Loving v. Virginia in 1967.

At the southern edge of the county, The Meadow, a farm originally established in 1810, became a premier facility for breeding, raising and training race horses. In 1972, Riva Ridge, raised at The Meadow, won the Kentucky Derby and the Belmont Stakes, two of the three events of the Triple Crown. The following year, Secretariat born at The Meadow won the famous Triple Crown for the Chenery family's Meadow Stable.

21st century

In 2003, The State Fair of Virginia purchased Meadow Farm, and began planning and developing the facility to become a new home for the annual Virginia State Fair, which was held for many years at locations in Richmond and Henrico County, and was increasingly squeezed out of the various locations by expanding development around it and growth of the event itself. Most recently, it was held at Strawberry Hill in central Henrico County at the facility which also became Richmond International Raceway. Beginning in September, 2009, the annual Virginia State Fair will be held at the new Meadow Event Park in Caroline County. [3] The annual Richmond Celtic Games and Festival will also be held at the new facility. [4] June 19, 2009 The National Civic League presented Caroline County with one of ten All-America City Awards given each year. [5]

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 539 square miles (1,396 km²), of which, 533 square miles (1,379 km²) of it is land and 6 square miles (16 km²) of it (1.18%) is water. Caroline County is 30 miles (48 km) north of the capitol in Richmond and 32 miles (51 km) South of Fredericksburg.

Caroline County is bounded on the north by Stafford and King George counties; on the south by Hanover County; on the east by King William, King and Queen, and Essex counties; and on the west by Spotsylvania County.

The county is also home to a quarry that has proved a rich source of pre-historic whale and shark skeletons. The whole county is located in what was in ancient times an ocean and is now known to palaentologists as the middle Miocene Calvert Formation of Virginia. A whale skeleton discovered there in 1990 was later proved to be a new whale species (see Eobalaenoptera harrisoni).

Caroline County is serviced by Interstate 95, US 1 and US 301. These three routes are very important for interregional travel.

National protected area

Demographics

As of the census[6] of 2000, there were 22,121 people, 8,021 households, and 6,007 families residing in the county. The population density was 42 people per square mile (16/km²). There were 8,889 housing units at an average density of 17 per square mile (6/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 62.57% White, 34.37% Black or African American, 0.78% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.52% from other races, and 1.37% from two or more races. 1.33% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 8,021 households out of which 31.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.30% were married couples living together, 13.20% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.10% were non-families. 20.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.08.

In the county, the population was spread out with 24.80% under the age of 18, 7.40% from 18 to 24, 29.90% from 25 to 44, 25.00% from 45 to 64, and 12.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 99.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.50 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $39,845, and the median income for a family was $43,533. Males had a median income of $31,701 versus $22,455 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,342. About 7.20% of families and 9.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.00% of those under age 18 and 11.70% of those age 65 or over.

Economic growth in Caroline in the last five years have been rapid, mostly due to affordable housing and close proximity to Northern Virginia and Washington D.C. In 2005, Caroline was recognized as the 10th Fastest Growing County in America. Also in 2005, Caroline County won the Virginia Community Economic Development Award (CEDA) for Business Recruitment and the CEDA Award for the entire south from the Southern Economic Development Council.

Among recent Economic Development successes in Caroline have been the recruitment of the State Fair of Virginia, to open in 2009 (previously in Richmond since 1854 when the first State Fair opened in Monroe Park), Remuda Programs for Eating Disorders, The Virginia Sports Complex, and the multi-national electronics firm, M.C. Dean.

Towns

There are two incorporated towns in Caroline County. They are:

Bowling Green

The town of Bowling Green was earlier known as New Hope Village. One of the earliest stage roads in the colony ran through the area from Richmond to the Potomac River, where a ferry crossing was operated to Charles County, Maryland. One of the first stage lines in America to maintain a regular schedule operated along this road. New Hope Tavern was built along the road prior to 1700, and the area around it became known as New Hope Village. [7]

The town was renamed for "Bowling Green" which was the estate of town founder, Colonel John Waller Hoomes, who donated a considerable amount of land when the community became the county seat in 1803. The Bowling Green estate took its name from the Hoomes family's ancestral seat back in England, "Bolling Green". Such naming was a tradition in the Colony of Virginia. The Bowling Green Estate was the site of the first track built to race horses in America. [8 ] The mansion of Major Thomas Hoomes, built in 1667, is now called the "Old Mansion". A prominent town landmark, it is the oldest continuously inhabited residence in Virginia. [7] The Old Mansion is now on the Virginia Landmarks Register and the National Register of Historic Places. [8 ]

The present Caroline County Court House was built in 1835 and Bowling Green was incorporated as a town about 2 years later, in 1837. The town is best-known as the "cradle of American horse racing" and as the home of the second oldest Masonic Lodge.

The Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad (chartered in 1834) was built through nearby Milford (just west of town) and reached Fredericksburg by 1837. This important rail link between several major northern railroads at Washington, D.C. and other major southern railroads at Richmond was long partially-owned by the Commonwealth of Virginia, and became part of CSX Transportation in the 1990s. It is a major freight railroad line for north-south traffic and the corridor also hosts many Amtrak trains. Although the closest Virginia Railway Express (VRE) commuter passenger rail service to Northern Virginia is currently accessed at Fredericksburg, future VRE extensions southward may include service at Milford which would be very convenient for Bowling Green and the surrounding area.

In modern times, Bowling Green is located along Virginia State Route 2, one of the two earlier highways between Richmond and Fredericksburg. In later years, U.S. Route 301 was built through the area, connecting Richmond with Baltimore, Maryland with what was effectively an eastern bypass of the Washington, D.C. area for north-south traffic along the U.S. east coast. A new road, Virginia State Route 207 was established from Bowling Green west to Carmel Church, where it intersects Interstate 95 and U.S. Route 1, major north-south highways.

In 1941, the United States government acquired 77,000 acres (310 km2) of Caroline County to the north and east of Bowling Green and established the A.P. Hill Military Reservation. Known in modern times as Fort A.P. Hill, it was named for a Virginia military hero United States Army and later Confederate General Ambrose Powell Hill, who was killed just prior to the end of the War in 1865. At the massive complex, thousands of regular military and reserve troops undergo training each year. It has also been the site of national Jamboree gatherings of the Boy Scouts of America. [9]

Port Royal

Port Royal is one of the area's more historic towns. It was first established in 1652 as a port on a navigable portion of the Rappahannock River during an era when waterways were the major method of transportation of people and property in the British Colony of Virginia. It was an important point for export of tobacco, Virginia's cash crop.

Local tradition holds that Port Royal was named after the Roy family. Dorothy Roy and her husband John owned a warehouse chartered by the crown, a ferry service across the Rappahannock River to King George County and a tavern. In the 21st century, the chimneys of the Roy house are preserved landmarks in the town. [10]

Port Royal was incorporated as a town in 1744. The "town green", upon which stands today the Town Hall and the firehouse, was forever reserved "for public and civic use". [11]

Shipping of property from the port began to decline after completion of railroads which began in Virginia in the 1830s. The last scheduled passenger ship service ended in 1932, supplanted by highways. However, Port Royal was served by the new highways which became U.S. Route 17 and U.S. Route 301, with their crossroads at Port Royal.

Notable people

Ashlry Collins (1995- ) Caroline County High School Student

See Also

References

  1. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Template.cfm?Section=Find_a_County&Template=/cffiles/counties/usamap.cfm. Retrieved 2008-01-31.  
  2. ^ http://www.foundersofamerica.org
  3. ^ http://www.themeadoweventpark.com/
  4. ^ http://www.richmondceltic.com/site.asp
  5. ^ http://www.ncl.org
  6. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.  
  7. ^ a b History
  8. ^ a b Acknowledgment For Codification
  9. ^ Fort AP Hill, Va • History
  10. ^ Welcome to Historic Port Royal, Inc
  11. ^ Welcome to Historic Port Royal!
  12. ^ a b Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who. 1963.  
  13. ^ http://www.co.caroline.va.us/colonial.html
  14. ^ Thomas Katheder, The Baylors of Newmarket: The Decline and Fall of a Virginia Planter Family, (Bloomington, Ind., and London, 2009)

External links

Coordinates: 38°02′N 77°21′W / 38.03°N 77.35°W / 38.03; -77.35


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

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Caroline County, Virginia
Seal of Caroline County, Virginia
Map
File:Map of Virginia highlighting Caroline County.png
Location in the state of Virginia
Map of the USA highlighting Virginia
Virginia's location in the USA
Statistics
Founded 1728
Seat Bowling Green
Area
 - Total
 - Land
 - Water

1,396 km² (539 mi²)
 sq mi ( km²)
16 km² (6 mi²), 1.18%
wikipedia:Population
 - (2000)
 - Density

22,121
16/km² 
Website: www.co.caroline.va.us

Caroline County is a county located in the U.S. state — officially, "Commonwealth" — of Virginia. As of the 2000 census, the population was 22,121. Its county seat is Bowling Green6. Caroline County is also home to Meadow Farms Stables, the birthplace of perhaps the greatest racehorse of all time, Secretariat, winner of the 1973 Kentucky Derby and Triple Crown.

Contents

History

Caroline County was established in 1728 from Essex, King and Queen, and King William counties. It was named for Caroline of Ansbach, the wife of King George II of Great Britain.

During the Colonial Period, Caroline County was the birthplace of Thoroughbred Racing in North America. Arabian horses were imported from England to provide the basis for American breeding stock.

Patriot Edmund Pendleton played a large role in the Virginia Resolution for Independence (1775) and Caroline native, John Penn, was a signer of the Declaration of Independence (www.foundersofamerica.org).

Explorers, William Clark and his slave, York, were members of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1803); both were born near what is now Ladysmith, Virginia in Caroline.

During the Civil War Confederate troops under General George E. Pickett fought Union troops near Milford in 1864. Confederate General Stonewall Jackson died at Guinea Station in Spotsylvania County after being accidentally shot by his own troops at the Battle of Chancellorsville. He survived the gun shot wound but died later from infection due to the unsterile conditions of medical treatments of that era. John Wilkes Booth, the assassin of President Lincoln, was shot by federal troops in Caroline County.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,396 km² (539 mi²). 1,379 km² (533 mi²) of it is land and 16 km² (6 mi²) of it (1.18%) is water. Caroline County is 30 miles (50 km) north of the capitol in Richmond and 32 miles (35 km) South of Fredericksburg.

Caroline County is bounded on the north by Stafford and King George counties; on the south by Hanover County; on the east by King William, King and Queen, and Essex counties; and on the west by Spotsylvania County.

The county is also home to a quarry that has proved a rich source of pre-historic whale and shark skeletons. The whole county is located in what was in ancient times an ocean and is now known to palaentologists as the middle Miocene Calvert Formation of Virginia. A whale skeleton discovered there in 1990 was later proved to be a new whale species (see Eobalaenoptera harrisoni).

Caroline County is serviced by US Interstate 95 and has the second most profitable interchange in Virginia at Carmel Church, exit 104.

Demographics

As of the census² of 2000, there were 22,121 people, 8,021 households, and 6,007 families residing in the county. The population density was 16/km² (42/mi²). There were 8,889 housing units at an average density of 6/km² (17/mi²). The racial makeup of the county was 62.57% White, 34.37% Black or African American, 0.78% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.52% from other races, and 1.37% from two or more races. 1.33% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 8,021 households out of which 31.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.30% were married couples living together, 13.20% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.10% were non-families. 20.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.08.

In the county, the population was spread out with 24.80% under the age of 18, 7.40% from 18 to 24, 29.90% from 25 to 44, 25.00% from 45 to 64, and 12.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 99.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.50 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $39,845, and the median income for a family was $43,533. Males had a median income of $31,701 versus $22,455 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,342. About 7.20% of families and 9.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.00% of those under age 18 and 11.70% of those age 65 or over.

Economic growth in Caroline in the last five years have been rapid, mostly due to affordable housing and close proximity to Northern Virginia and Washington D.C. In 2005, Caroline was recognized as the 10th Fastest Growing County in America. Also in 2005, Caroline County won the Virginia Community Ecomomic Development Award (CEDA) for Business Recruitment and the CEDA Award for the entire south from the Southern Economic Development Council.

Among recent Economic Development successes in Caroline have been the recruitment of the State Fair of Virginia, to open in 2009 (previously in Richmond since 1854 when the first State Fair opened in Monroe Park), Remuda Programs for Eating Disorders, The Virginia Sports Complex, and the multi-national electronics firm, M.C. Dean.

Towns

There are two incorporated towns in Caroline County. They are:

Bowling Green

The town of Bowling Green was earlier known as New Hope Village. One of the earliest stage roads in the colony ran through the area from Richmond to the Potomac River, where a ferry crossing was operated to Charles County. One of the first stage lines in America to maintain a regular schedule operated along this road. New Hope Tavern was built along the road prior to 1700, and the area around it became known as New Hope Village. [1]

The town was renamed for "Bowling Green" which was the estate of town founder, Colonel John Waller Hoomes, who donated a considerable amount of land when the community became the county seat in 1803. The Bowling Green estate took its name from the Hoomes family's ancestral seat back in England, "Bolling Green". Such naming was a tradition in the Colony of Virginia. The Bowling Green Estate was the site of the first track built to race horses in America. [2] The mansion of Major Thomas Hoomes, built in 1667, is now called the "Old Mansion". A prominent town landmark, it is the oldest continuously inhabited residence in Virginia. [3] The Old Mansion is now on the Virginia Landmarks Register and the National Register of Historic Places. [4]

The present Caroline County Court House was built in 1835 and Bowling Green was incorporated as a town about 2 years later, in 1837. The town is best-known as the "cradle of American horse racing" and as the home of the second oldest Masonic Lodge.

The Richmond (chartered in 1834) was built through nearby Milford (just west of town) and reached Fredericksburg by 1837. This important rail link between several major northern railroads at Washington and other major southern railroads at Richmond was long partially-owned by the Commonwealth of Virginia, and became part of CSX Transportation in the 1990s. It is a major freight railroad line for north-south traffic and the corridor also hosts many Amtrak trains. Although the closest Virginia Railway Express (VRE) commuter passenger rail service to Northern Virginia is currently accessed at Fredericksburg, future VRE extensions southward may include service at Milford which would be very convenient for Bowling Green and the surrounding area.

In modern times, Bowling Green is located along Virginia State Route 2, one of the two earlier highways between Richmond and Fredericksburg. In later years, U.S. Route 301 was built through the area, connecting Richmond with Baltimore with what was effectively an eastern bypass of the Washington area for north-south traffic along the U.S. east coast. A new road, Virginia State Route 207 was established from Bowling Green west to Carmel Church, where it intersects Interstate 95 in Virginia|Interstate 95 and U.S. Route 1, major north-south highways.

In 1941, the United States government acquired 77,000 acres of Caroline County to the north and east of Bowling Green and established the A.P. Hill Military Reservation. Known in modern times as Fort A.P. Hill, it was named for a Virginia military hero U.S. Army and later Confederate General Ambrose Powell Hill, who was killed just prior to the end of the War in 1865. At the massive complex, thousands of regular military and reserve troops undergo training each year. It has also been the site of national Jamboree gatherings of the Boy Scouts of America. [5]

For more details on this topic, see Bowling Green, Virginia.

Port Royal

Port Royal is one of the area's more historic towns. It was first established in 1652 as a port on a navigable portion of the Rappahannock River during an era when waterways were the major method of transportation of people and property in the British Colony of Virginia. It was an important point for export of tobacco, Virginia's cash crop.

Local tradition holds that Port Royal was named after the Roy family. Dorothy Roy and her husband John owned a warehouse chartered by the crown, a ferry service across the Rappahannock River to King George County and a tavern. In the 21st century, the chimneys of the Roy house are preserved landmarks in the town. [6]

Port Royal was incorporated as a town in 1744. The "town green", upon which stands today the Town Hall and the firehouse, was forever reserved "for public and civic use". [7]

Shipping of property from the port began to decline after completion of railroads which began in Virginia in the 1830s. The last scheduled passenger ship service ended in 1932, supplanted by highways. However, Port Royal was served by the new highways which became U.S. Route 17 and U.S. Route 301, with their crossroads at Port Royal.

For more details on this topic, see Port Royal, Virginia.

Notable people

References

See also

External links

Coordinates: 38°02′N 77°21′W / 38.03, -77.35

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Caroline County, Virginia. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
Facts about Caroline County, VirginiaRDF feed
County of country United States  +
County of subdivision1 Virginia  +
Short name Caroline County  +

This article uses material from the "Caroline County, Virginia" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

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