Caroline of Ansbach: Wikis

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Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
Queen Caroline, painted in 1735 by Jacopo Amigoni.
Queen consort of Great Britain and Ireland
Tenure 11 June 1727 – 20 November 1737
Coronation 11 October 1727
Spouse George II of Great Britain
Issue
Frederick, Prince of Wales
Anne, Princess Royal, Princess of Orange
Princess Amelia
Princess Caroline
Prince George William
Prince William, Duke of Cumberland
Princess Mary, Landgravine of Hesse
Louise, Queen of Denmark and Norway
Full name
Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline
House House of Hanover (by marriage)
House of Hohenzollern (by birth)
Father Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach
Mother Eleonore Erdmuthe of Saxe-Eisenach
Born 1 March 1683(1683-03-01)
Ansbach, Germany
Died 20 November 1737 (aged 54)
England St. James's Palace, London
Burial 17 December 1737
Westminster Abbey, London

Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach (Wilhelmina Charlotte Caroline; 1 March 1683 – 20 November 1737) was the queen consort of King George II of Great Britain.

Contents

Early life

Margravine Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach was born at Ansbach in Germany, the daughter of Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, and his second wife, Princess Eleonore Erdmuthe of Saxe-Eisenach. Orphaned at an early age, Caroline grew up an intelligent, cultured and attractive woman, and was much sought-after as a bride.

Marriage

When the opportunity to become wife of the future Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, presented itself, she turned it down because it would have meant renouncing her Protestant faith.[1] Shortly afterwards, she met and married Georg August, son of the Elector of Hanover, who would later become heir to the throne of Great Britain and eventually George II of Great Britain. Their wedding took place in Hanover on 22 August 1705, and their first child, Prince Frederick, was born on 1 February 1707.

Princess of Wales

The Princess of Wales, painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller in 1717.

On the accession of George I in 1714, Caroline's husband automatically became Duke of Cornwall, and was invested, shortly afterwards, as Prince of Wales, whereupon she became Princess of Wales. They moved to England at this time. She was the first Princess of Wales for over two hundred years, the last one being Catherine of Aragon.

As the King had repudiated his wife Sophia Dorothea of Celle in 1694, there was no Queen consort of Great Britain, and Caroline was the highest ranking woman in the kingdom. Within three years of their arrival in England, however, her husband fell out with his father at the 1717 baptism of her fifth living child, George William.

Caroline had struck up a friendship with Sir Robert Walpole, politician and occasional Prime Minister, and his influence ensured that the Prince and Princess of Wales were able to maintain their position and lifestyle during the estrangement. He also played a role in the 1720 reconciliation.

Caroline's intellect far outstripped George's. As a young woman, she corresponded with Gottfried Leibniz, the intellectual colossus who was courtier and factotum to the House of Hanover. She also helped initiate the Leibniz-Clarke correspondence, arguably the most important of all 18th century philosophy of physics discussions, which is still widely read today.

By and large, however, George and Caroline had a successful marriage, though he continued to keep mistresses, as was customary for the time. The best-known of these was Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk, one of Caroline's ladies of the bedchamber.

Queen

Caroline Wilhelmina of Brandenburg-Ansbach by Charles Jervas.jpg

.

Caroline became Queen consort on the death of her father-in-law in 1727. In the course of the next few years, she and her husband fought a constant battle against their eldest son, Frederick, Prince of Wales, who had been left behind in Germany when they came to England. He joined the family in 1728, by which time he was an adult and had formed many bad habits. He opposed his father's political beliefs, and, once married, applied to Parliament for the increase in financial allowance which had been denied him. Caroline, despite having personally selected her new daughter-in-law, Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, seemed determined that the marriage should not be a happy one, and was dismayed when she learned, in 1736, that Augusta was pregnant. A peculiar episode followed, in which the prince, on discovering that his wife had gone into labour, sneaked her out of Hampton Court Palace in the middle of the night, in order to ensure that the queen could not be present at the birth.

Queen Caroline held a powerful position; she was made Guardian of the Kingdom of Great Britain, and His Majesty's Lieutenant within the same during His Majesty's absence, thus acting as regent when her husband was in Hanover. She was co-heiress to Sayn-Altenkirchen through her mother, whose mother Johanette reigned as Countess of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn-Altenkirchen, but ultimately never inherited it. Her grandson, George III, was compensated for this in 1803.

Styles of
Queen Caroline as consort
UK Arms 1714.svg
Reference style Her Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Ma'am


As Queen, Caroline continued to surround herself with artists, writers, and intellectuals, commissioning works such as terracotta busts of the kings and queens of England and even cottages. She collected jewellery, especially cameos and intaglios, acquired important portraits and miniatures, and enjoyed the visual arts.

A satirical verse of the period went:

You may strut, dapper George, but 'twill all be in vain,
We all know 'tis Queen Caroline, not you, that reign.

She is also subject of the popular children's nursery rhyme:

Queen, Queen Caroline
Washed her hair in turpentine.
Turpentine made it shine,
Queen, Queen Caroline.

Later life

Further quarrels with her son followed the birth of the Prince of Wales's daughter, and a complete estrangement between them occurred in the remaining months before Caroline's death.

She died of complications following a rupture of the womb on 20 November 1737, and was buried at Westminster Abbey. Handel composed an elaborate 10-section anthem for the occasion, The ways of Zion do mourn / Funeral Anthem for Queen Caroline. The King had arranged for a pair of matching coffins with removable sides, so that when he followed her to the grave (twenty-three years later), they could lie together again.

Queen Caroline famously asked him to remarry on her deathbed, to which he replied "No, I shall only have mistresses" or in French, "Non, j'aurai seulement des maîtresses!".

It is probable that, alongside Anne Boleyn, who promoted the Reformation, Mary of Modena, who was a chief cause of the Glorious Revolution, and Prince Albert, who determined foreign policy, Queen Caroline was one of the most influential consorts in British history.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

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Titles and styles

Queen Caroline's arms
  • 1 March 1683 – 22 August 1705: Her Serene Highness Margravine Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
  • 22 August 1705 – 9 November 1706: Her Serene Highness The Hereditary Princess of Hanover
  • 9 November 1706 – 1 August 1714: Her Serene Highness The Duchess of Cambridge
  • 1 August – 27 September 1714: Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Cornwall and Cambridge
  • 27 September 1714 – 11 June 1727: Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales
  • 11 June 1727 – 20 November 1737: Her Majesty The Queen

Honours

Caroline County in the British Colony of Virginia was named in her honour when it was formed in 1728.

Arms

The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom are impaled with those of her father, Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach.[2]

Ancestry

Children

Caroline's nine pregnancies (from 1707-1724) resulted in eight live births - one of whom, Prince George William (13 November 1717 – 17 February 1718), died in infancy, and seven of whom lived to adulthood:

Name Birth Death Notes
Frederick, Prince of Wales 1 February 1707 31 March 1751 married 1736, Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha-Altenberg; had issue
Anne, Princess Royal 2 November 1709 12 January 1759 married 1734, Prince Willem IV of Orange-Nassau; had issue
Princess Amelia 10 July 1711 31 October 1786  
Princess Caroline 21 June 1713 28 December 1757  
Prince Augustus George 9 November 1716 9 November 1716 stillborn
Prince George William 13 November 1717 17 February 1718 died in infancy
Prince William, Duke of Cumberland 26 April 1721 31 October 1765  
Princess Mary 5 March 1723 14 January 1772 married 1740, Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel); had issue
Princess Louise 18 December 1724 19 December 1751 married 1743, Frederick V, King of Denmark and Norway; had issue

Notes and sources

  1. ^ Mahan, J. Alexander (2007). Maria Theresa of Austria. READ BOOKS. ISBN 1406733709.  
  2. ^ Maclagan, Michael; Louda, Jiří (1999), Line of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, London: Little, Brown & Co, pp. 30, ISBN 0-85605-469-1  

References

Caroline of Ansbach
Born: 1 March 1683 Died: 20 November 1737
British royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
George of Denmark
as Prince consort of Great Britain
Queen consort of Great Britain and of Ireland
1727–1737
Vacant
Title next held by
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
German nobility
Vacant
Title last held by
Sophia of Hanover
Electress of Hanover
1727-1737
Succeeded by
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

Simple English

Caroline of Ansbach was the Queen Consort of the Kingdom of Great Britain during the reign of her husband George II of Great Britain. During her time as Queen she wiled a fair amount of power within the realm. She was the first Queen of England since the Middle Ages to hold a considerable amount of power.

File:Caroline Wilhelmina of Brandenburg-Ansbach by Jacopo
Queen Caroline, painted in 1735 by Jacopo Amigoni.

Contents

Early Life

Caroline of Ansbach was born Ansbach in Germany, the daughter of Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach, and his second wife, Princess Eleanor Erdmuthe Louise of Saxe-Eisenach. Orphaned at an early age, Caroline grew up an intelligent, cultured and attractive woman, and was much sought-after as a bride.

Possible Marriages and Marriage to George

She turned down the King of Spain because it would cause her to turn renounce the Protestant faith. Shortly after she met the son of the elector of Hanover They married in 1705. Over the next 30 years they had nine kids.

Queen

George I of Great Britain died June 11, 1727. George Augustus ascended the throne as George II of Great Britain. Caroline held George on a string. When the Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole met with the King he and Caroline had signs to communicate with each other. George never noticed.

Relations with Frederick, Prince of Wales

[[File:|thumb|left|150px| Frederick the Prince of Wales, ca. 1724.]]Both the King and Queen truly disliked their eldest son the Prince of Wales. Caroline once called him the Greatest Ass the world has ever known. They preferred Prince William, Duke of Cumberland over Fredrick.

Later years

Caroline died 20 November 1737. George was at her side. Caroline asked him to remarry on her deathbed, to which he replied "No, I shall only have mistresses" or in French, "Non, j'aurai seulement des maîtresses!" in tears.
File:Caroline Wilhelmina of Brandenburg-Ansbach by Sir Godfrey Kneller,
The Princess of Wales, painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller in 1717.

After Death

George had Caroline buried in Westminster Abby. He bought to coffins with removable sides ,so after he died they would lie together again.George went to be with Caroline upon his death in 1760.

Children

Caroline's nine pregnancies (from 1707-1724) resulted in eight live births - one of whom, Prince George William (13 November 1717-17 February 1718), died in infancy, and seven of whom lived to adulthood:

NameBirthDeathNotes
Frederick, Prince of Wales1 February 170731 March 1751married 1736, Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha-Altenberg; had issue
Anne, Princess Royal2 November 170912 January 1759married 1734, Prince Willem IV of Orange-Nassau; had issue
Princess Amelia10 July 171131 October 1786 
Princess Caroline21 June 171328 December 1757 
Prince Augustus George9 November 17169 November 1716stillborn
Prince George WilliamNovember 13, 1717February 17, 1718died in infancy
Prince William, Duke of Cumberland26 April 1721[needs proof]31 October 1765 
Princess Mary5 March 172314 January 1772married 1740, Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel); had issue
Princess Louise18 December 172419 December 1751married 1743, Frederick V, King of Denmark and Norway; had issue

Legacy

Caroline along side Prince Albert , and Mary of Modena is regarded one of the most powerul British consorts in History.


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