Carp: Wikis

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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Carp
Common carp, Cyprinus carpio
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Cyprinidae
Genera

Abramis
Aristichthys
Barbodes
Carassius
Cirrhinus
Ctenopharyngodon
Cyprinus
Epalzeorhynchos
Henicorhynchus
Hypophthalmichthys
Labeo
Mylopharyngodon
and others

Carp is a common name for various species of an oily[1] freshwater fish of the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia. Some consider all cyprinid fishes carp, and the family Cyprinidae itself is often known as the carp family. In colloquial use, however, carp usually refers only to several larger cyprinid species such as Cyprinus carpio (common carp), Carassius carassius (Crucian carp), Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp), Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp), and Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp). Carp have long been an important food fish to humans, as well as popular ornamental fishes such as the various goldfish breeds and the domesticated common carp variety known as koi. As a result, carp have been introduced to various locations, though with mixed results. Several species of carp are listed as invasive species by the U.S. Department of Agriculture,[2] and worldwide large sums of money are spent on carp control.

Contents

Aquaculture

Carp can be very harmful to other types of freshwater fish. They may feed on the oxygen-producing vegetation in a body of water, thus making it difficult for other species to live there. In areas that are distant from the sea, carp may be the most common fish eaten, although the prevalence of inexpensive frozen fish products has made them less important.

Various species of carp have been domesticated and reared as food fish across Europe and Asia for thousands of years. These various species appear to have been domesticated independently, as the various domesticated carp species are native to different parts of Eurasia. For example, the Common carp Cyprinus carpio are originally from Central Europe.[3] Several carp species (collectively known as Asian carp) were domesticated in East Asia. Carp that are originally from South Asia, for example catla (Gibelion catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus cirrhosus), are known as Indian carp. Their hardiness and adaptability have allowed domesticated species to be propagated all around the world.

As ornamental fish

An unusual goldfish breed: An oranda-type variegated pearlscale.

Carp, along with many of their cyprinid relatives, are popular ornamental aquarium and pond fish. The two most notable ornamental carps are goldfish and koi. Goldfish and koi have advantages over most other ornamental fishes, in that they are tolerant of cold (they can survive in water temperatures as low as 4 degrees Celsius), can survive at low oxygen levels, and can tolerate low water quality.

Six different colored koi and a smaller goldfish.

Goldfish (Carassius auratus) were originally domesticated from the Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio), a dark greyish brown carp native to Asia. They were first bred for color in China over a thousand years ago. Due to selective breeding, goldfish have been developed into many distinct breeds and are found in various colors, color patterns, forms and sizes far different from those of the original carp. Goldfish were kept as ornamental fish in China for hundreds of years before being introduced to Japan in the 15th century, and to Europe in the late 17th century.

Koi are a domesticated variety of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) that have been selectively culled for color. The common carp was introduced from China to Japan, where selective breeding of the common carp in the 1820s in the Niigata region resulted in koi.[4] In Japanese culture, koi are treated with affection, and seen as good luck. They are popular in other parts of the world as outdoor pond fish.

As sport fish

An angler with 17 kg mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Izaak Walton said about carp in The Compleat Angler, "The Carp is the queen of rivers; a stately, a good, and a very subtil fish; that was not at first bred, nor hath been long in England, but is now naturalised."

Carp are variable in terms of angling value.

  • In Europe, even when not fished for food, they are eagerly sought by anglers, being considered highly prized coarse fish that are difficult to hook.[5] The UK has a thriving carp angling market.
  • In the United States, the carp is also classified as a rough fish as well as damaging naturalized exotic species but with sporting qualities.

Types of carp

Carp swarm in great numbers to eat feed thrown by tourists in Urfa, Turkey.

See also

References

External links

  • Chistiakov D, Voronova N (2009). "Genetic evolution and diversity of common carp Cyprinus carpio L.". Cent. Eur. J. Biol. 4 (3): 304–312. doi:10.2478/s11535-009-0024-2.  
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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Carp is a historic village west of Ottawa, Ontario.

Get in

Carp is about 10 km north of exit 144 of Highway 417 West from Ottawa. The trip takes about 40 minutes.

The small Ottawa/Carp airfield (IATA: YRP ICAO: CYRP) is a popular general aviation facility just south of Carp.

Get around

There is no public transportation in the town of Carp, although due to the to town's size, walking or biking will allow you to see much of what the town has to offer.

  • Diefenbunker, 3911 Carp Road, 613-839-0007 (), [1]. English tours at 2 PM daily all year around, more on weekends and in the summer. Built at the height of the Cold War as the Central Emergency Government Headquarters, this giant four-story underground bunker reinforced to stand a 5-megaton nuclear blast was designed as the site where Canada's leadership could ride out a nuclear holocaust. Decommissioned in 1994, the site is now run by a dedicated group of volunteers working to preserve and restore it to its glory days in those paranoid days, complete with period maps showing what parts of Canada (and the US) would have faced nuclear doom in the event of World War III. Access by guided tour only (90-120 minutes), so book in advance. Bring a sweater, and no photography allowed. $14.  edit
  • Attend the Carp Fair in late September
  • Carp Farmers' Market, 3790 Carp Road, [2]. Saturdays 8 AM-1 PM. The largest farmers' market in Eastern Ontario.  edit
  • Indulge in the delicacies at the main bakery on Donald B. Munro Dr.

Eat

"Downtown" Carp amounts to a handful of local spots. You've got your ice cream stand named "Twisty Freeze", owned by local entrepreneur Helen Hood, Carp Pizza, a Chinese take-out, and a chicken and potatoes shop. There are some dining out options but your best bet is probably:

  • The Swan, 108 Falldown Rd., +1 613839-7926. In 2004, two Cordon-Bleu trained chefs turned new owners brought this traditionally styled pub a menu with international fare. An impressive drink selection awaits. Try also, one of their homemade desserts. $12-$25 (not including drinks, tax, or tip).
  • JD's Dining Lounge, 111 Walgreen,+1 613 831-2144
  • Main Street Pub, 1408 Main St., +1 613 839-2684

Drink

(see "Eat" above)

  • LCBO located in the main strip
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

CARP, the typical fish of a large family (Cyprinidae) of Ostariophysi, as they have been called by M. Sagemehl, in which the airbladder is connected with the ear by a chain of small bones (socalled Weberian ossicles). The mouth is usually more or less protractile and always toothless; the lower pharyngeal bones, which are large and falciform, subparallel to the branchial arches, are provided with teeth, often large and highly specialized, in one, two or three series (pharyngeal teeth), usually working against a horny plate attached to a vertical process of the basioccipital bone produced under the anterior vertebrae, mastication being performed in the gullet. These teeth, adapted to various requirements, vary according to the genus, being conical, hooked, spoon-shaped, molariform, &c.

The species are extremely numerous, about 1400 being known, nearly entirely confined to fresh water, and feeding on vegetable substances or small animals. They are dispersed over the whole world with the exception of South America, Madagascar, Papuasia, and Australasia. Remains of several of the existing genera have been found in Oligocene and later beds of Europe, Sumatra and North America. One member of the Cyprinidae is at present known to be viviparous, but no observations have as yet been made on its habits. It is a small barbel discovered in Natal by Max Weber, and described by him under the name Barbus viviparus. The Cyprinidae' are divided into four subfamilies: - Catostosninae (mostly from North America, with a few species from China and eastern Siberia), in which the maxillary bones take a share in the border of the mouth, and the pharyngeal teeth are very numerous and form a single, comb-like series; Cyprininae, the great bulk of the family, more or less conforming to the type of the carp; Cobitinae, or loaches (Europe, Asia, Abyssinia), which are dealt with in a separate article (see LoAcH); and the Homalopterinae (China and south-eastern Asia), mountain forms allied to the loaches, with a quite rudimentary air-bladder.

For descriptions of other Cyprinids than the carp, see Goldfish, Barbel, Gudgeon, Rudd, Roach, Chub, Dace, Minnow, Tench, Bream, Bleak, Bitterling, Mahseer.

The carp itself, Cyprinus carpio, has a very wide distribution, having spread, through the agency of man, over nearly the whole of Europe and a part of North America, where it lives in lakes, ponds, canals, and slow-running rivers with plenty of The Common Carp.

vegetation. The carp appears to be a native of temperate Asia and perhaps also of south-eastern Europe, and to have been introduced into other parts in the 12th and 13th century; it was first mentioned in England in 1496. The acclimatization of the carp in America has been a great success, especially in the northern waters, where, the growth continuing throughout the entire year, the fish soon attains a remarkable size. The presence of carp in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago is probably also to be ascribed to human agency. In the British Isles the 1 The name of the fishes of the genus Cyprinus is derived from the island of Cyprus, the ancient sanctuary of Venus; this name is supposed to have arisen from observations of the fecundity and vivacity of carp during the spawning period.

carp seldom reaches a length of 21 ft., and a weight of 201h, whilst examples of that size are quite frequent on the continent, and others measuring 41 ft. and weighing 60 lb or more are on record. The fish is characterized by its large scales (34 to 40 in the lateral line), its long dorsal fin, the first ray of which is stiff and serrated, and the presence of two small barbels on each side of the mouth. But it varies much in form and scaling, and some most aberrant varieties have been fixed by artificial selection, the principal being the king-carp or mirror-carp, in which the scales are enlarged and reduced in number, forming more or less regular longitudinal series on the sides, and the leather-carp, in which the scales have all but disappeared, the fish being covered with a thick, leathery skin. Deformed examples are not of rare occurrence.

Although partly feeding on worms and other small forms of animal life, the carp is principally a vegetarian, and the great development of its pharyngeal apparatus renders it particularly adapted to a graminivorous regime. The longevity of the fish has probably been much exaggerated, and the statements of carp of 200 years living in the ponds of Pont-Chartrain and other places in France and elsewhere do not rest on satisfactory evidence.

A close ally of the carp is the Crucian carp, Cyprinus carassius, chiefly distinguished by the absence of barbels. It inhabits Europe and northern and temperate Asia, and is doubtfully indigenous to Great Britain. It is a small fish, rarely exceeding a length of 8 or 9 in. It has many varieties. One of these, remarkable for its very short, thick head and deep body, is the socalled Prussian carp, C. gibelio, often imported into English ponds, whilst the best known is the goldfish, C. auratus, first produced in China. (G. A. B.)


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Simple English

Common carp
File:Common
Conservation status
Data deficient (IUCN)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Cyprinidae
Genus: Cyprinus
Species: C. carpio
Binomial name
Cyprinus carpio
(Linnaeus, 1758)

[[File:|thumb|left|Koi in a pond]]

The Carp is a fish that lives in fresh water, such as rivers and lakes. In Europe and Asia carp are loved as a fishing and eating fish. However, carp are a really big problem in countries such as the U.S. and Australia. They cause the mud at the bottom of the river to move and in these countries people hate them.

Carp have been a source of food to humans, as well as popular ornamental fishes like the koi and goldfish.

Types of carp

[[File:|thumb|right|300px|Carp swarm in great numbers to eat feed thrown by tourists in Urfa, Turkey.]]

  • Genus Abramis
    • Carp bream (Abramis brama)
  • Genus Barbodes:
    • Carnatic carp (Barbodes carnaticus)
  • Genus Carassius:
    • Crucian carp (Carassius carassius )
    • Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio)
    • Goldfish (Carassius auratus)
  • Genus Cirrhinus:
    • Chinese mud carp (Cirrhinus chinensis)
    • Deccan white carp (Cirrhinus fulungee)
    • Hora white carp (Cirrhinus macrops)
    • Small scale mud carp (Cirrhinus microlepis)
    • Mud carp (Cirrhinus molitorella)
    • Man carp (Cirrhinus saprian)
  • Genus Ctenopharyngodon:
    • Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus)
  • Genus Culter:
    • Predatory carp (Culter erythropterus)
  • Genus Cyprinus:
    • Common carp, Koi (Cyprinus carpio)
  • Genus Epalzeorhynchos:
    • Red-tailed black shark (Epalzeorhynchos bicolor)
    • Red-finned black shark or Rainbow shark (Epalzeorhynchos frenatus)
  • Genus Henicorhynchus:
    • Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis)
  • Genus Hypophthalmichthys:
    • Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis)
    • Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)
  • Genus Labeo:
    • African carp (Labeo coubie)
    • Fringed-lipped peninsula carp (Labeo fimbriatus)
    • Bigmouth carp (Labeo kontius)
  • Genus Mylopharyngodon:
    • Black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus)
  • Genus Tinca:
    • Tench (Tinca tinca)

Other websites

Simple English Wiktionary has the word meaning for:
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pcd:Càrpe

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