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Carpathians
Range
Inner Western Carpathians, High Tatras, Poland
Countries Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia[1]
Highest point Gerlachovský štít
 - elevation 2,655 m (8,711 ft)
Satellite image of the Carpathians

The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a range of mountains forming an arc roughly 1,500 km (932 mi) long across Central and Eastern Europe, making them the largest mountain range in Europe. They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania,[2] as well as over one third of all European plant species.[3]

The chain of mountain ranges stretches in an arc from the Czech Republic in the northwest to Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Ukraine and Romania in the east, to the Iron Gates on the Danube River between Romania and Serbia in the south. The highest range within the Carpathians are the Tatras, on the border of Poland and Slovakia, where the highest peaks exceed 2,600 m (8,530 ft), followed by the Southern Carpathians in Romania, where the highest peaks exceed 2,500 m (8,202 ft).

The Carpathian chain is usually divided into three major parts: the Western Carpathians (Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary), the Eastern Carpathians (southeastern Poland, eastern Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania), and the Southern Carpathians (Romania, Serbia[1]).

The most important cities in or near the Carpathians are Bratislava and Košice in Slovakia; Kraków in Poland; Cluj-Napoca, Sibiu and Braşov in Romania; and Miskolc in Hungary.

Contents

Name

Inner Western Carpathians, High Tatras, Slovakia.
Hoverla in Ukraine.

The range is called Karpaty in Czech, Polish and Slovak, Karpaten in German and Dutch, Kárpátok in Hungarian, Carpaţi in Romanian, Karpaty (Карпаты) in Russian, Karpati (Карпати) in Serbian and Karpaty (Карпати) in Ukrainian.

The name 'Karpetes' may ultimately be from the Proto Indo-European root *sker-/*ker-, from which comes the Albanian word kar (rock), and Czech word skála (rock, cliff). perhaps by Dacian cognate which meant 'mountain,' rock, or rugged (cf. Old Norse harfr "harrow", Middle Low German scharf "potsherd", Lithuanian kar~pas "cut, hack, notch", Latvian cìrpt "to shear, clip"). Archaic Polish word karpa meant "rugged irregularities, underwater obstacles/rocks, rugged roots or trunks". The more common word skarpa is sharp cliff or other vertical terrain. Otherwise, the name may instead come from IE *kwerp "to turn", akin to Old English hweorfan "to turn, change" and Greek karpós "wrist", perhaps referring to the way the mountain range bends or veers in an L-shape[4].

In late Roman documents, the Eastern Carpathian Mountains were referred to as Montes Sarmatici. The Western Carpathians were called Carpates. The name Carpates is first recorded in Ptolemy's second century book Geographia. Around 310 AD the Carpathians are mentioned as Montes Serrorum by the Flavius Galerius Valerius Licinianus Licinius.

The name of the Carpi, a Dacian tribe may have been derived from the name of the Carpathian Mountains. Name recorded in late Roman Empire documents (Zosimus) as living until 381 on the Eastern Carpathian slopes. Alternatively the mountain range's name may be derived from the Dacian tribe.

In Hungarian XIII- i XIV century Hungarian documents named the mountains Thorchal, Tarczal or less frequently Montes Nivium.

In the Scandinavian Hervarar saga, which describes ancient Germanic legends about battles between Goths and Huns, the name Karpates appears in the predictable Germanic form as Harvaða fjöllum (see Grimm's law).

Geography

Lake Bucura, Southern Carpathians, Romania.

The Carpathians begin on the Danube near Bratislava. They surround Transcarpathia and Transylvania in a large semicircle, sweeping towards the south-east, and end on the Danube near Orşova, in Romania. The total length of the Carpathians is over 1,500 km (932 mi), and the mountain chain's width varies between 12 and 500 km (7 and 311 mi). The greatest width of the Carpathians corresponds with its highest altitudes. The system attains its greatest breadth in the Transylvanian plateau and in the meridian of the Tatra group (the highest range, with Gerlachovský štít, at 2,655 m (8,705 feet) above sea level in Slovak territory near the Polish border). It covers an area of 190,000 km2 (73,359 sq mi) and, after the Alps, is the most extensive mountain system in Europe.

Although commonly referred to as a mountain chain, the Carpathians do not actually form an uninterrupted chain of mountains. Rather, they consist of several orographically and geologically distinctive groups, presenting as great a structural variety as the Alps. The Carpathians, which in only a few places attain an altitude of over 2,500 m (8,202 ft), lack the bold peaks, extensive snow-fields, large glaciers, high waterfalls, and numerous large lakes that are common in the Alps. No area of the Carpathian range is covered in snow year-round and there are no glaciers. The Carpathians at their highest altitude are only as high as the Middle Region of the Alps, with which they share a common appearance, climate, and flora.

The Carpathians are separated from the Alps by the Danube. The two ranges meet only at one point: the Leitha Mountains at Bratislava. The river also separates them from the Stara Planina, or "Balkan Mountains," at Orşova, Romania. The valley of the March and Oder separates the Carpathians from the Silesian and Moravian chains, which belong to the middle wing of the great Central Mountain System of Europe. Unlike the other wings of the system, the Carpathians, which form the watershed between the northern seas and the Black Sea, are surrounded on all sides by plains, namely the Pannonian plain on the southwest, the plain of the Lower Danube (Romania) on the south, and the Galician plain on the northeast.

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Cities and towns

Important cities and towns in or near the Carpathians are, ordered by decreasing population: Bratislava (Slovakia, 426,091), Cluj-Napoca (Romania, 310,243), Braşov (Romania, 284,596), Košice (Slovakia, 234,596), Oradea (Romania, 206,614), Miskolc (Hungary, 178,950), Sibiu (Romania, 154,892), Târgu Mureş (Romania, 146,000), Baia Mare (Romania, 137,976), Tarnów (Poland, 117,109), Râmnicu Vâlcea (Romania, 111,497), Uzhhorod (Ukraine, 111,300), Piatra Neamţ (Romania, 105,865), Suceava (Romania, 104,914), Drobeta-Turnu Severin (Romania, 104,557), Reşiţa (Romania, 86,383), Žilina (Slovakia, 85,477), Bistriţa (Romania, 81,467), Banská Bystrica (Slovakia, 80,730), Deva (Romania, 80,000), Zlín (Czech Republic, 79,538), Hunedoara (Romania, 79,235), Zalău (Romania, 71,326), Przemyśl (Poland, 66,715), Alba Iulia (Romania, 66,369), Zaječar (Serbia, 65,969), Sfântu Gheorghe (Romania, 61,543), Turda (Romania, 57,381), Bor (Serbia, 55,817), Mediaş (Romania, 55,153), Poprad (Slovakia, 55,042), Petroşani (Romania, 45,194), Negotin (Serbia, 43,551), Miercurea Ciuc (Romania, 42,029), Făgăraş (Romania, 40,126), Odorheiu Secuiesc (Romania, 36,926), Petrila (Romania, 33,123), Sighişoara (Romania, 32,287), Zakopane (Poland, 27,486), Câmpulung Moldovenesc (Romania, 20,076), Gheorgheni (Romania, 20,018), Vatra Dornei (Romania, 17,864), and Rakhiv (Ukraine, 15,241).

Geology

The Carpathian Mountains were formed during the Alpine orogeny.

Divisions of the Carpathians

Map of the main divisions of the Carpathians.
1. Outer Western Carpathians
2. Inner Western Carpathians
3. Outer Eastern Carpathians
4. Inner Eastern Carpathians
5. Southern Carpathians
6. Western Romanian Carpathians
7. Transylvanian Plateau
8. Serbian Carpathians

The largest range is the Tatras.

A major part of the western and northeastern Outer Carpathians in Poland, Ukraine and Slovakia is traditionally called Beskids.

The geological border between the Western and Eastern Carpathians runs approximately along the line (south to north) between the towns Michalovce - Bardejov - Nowy Sącz - Tarnów. In older systems the border runs more in the east – at the line (north to south) along the rivers San and Osława (PL) – the town of Snina (SK) – river Tur'ia (UA). Biologists, however, shift the border even further to the east.

The border between the Eastern and Southern Carpathians is formed by the Predeal Pass, south of Braşov and the Prahova Valley.

The Ukrainians sometimes denote as "Eastern Carpathians" only the Ukrainian Carpathians (or Wooded Carpathians), i.e., basically the part situated largely on their territory (i.e., to the north of the Prislop Pass), while the Romanians sometimes denote as "Eastern Carpathians" only the other part, which lies on their territory (i.e., from the Ukrainian border or from the Prislop Pass to the south).

Also, the Romanians divide the Eastern Carpathians on their territory into three simplified geographical groups (north, center, south), instead of Outer and Inner Eastern Carpathians. These are:

  • Carpaţii Maramureşului şi ai Bucovinei (Carpathians of Maramureş and Bucovina)
  • Carpaţii Moldo-Transilvani (Moldavian-Transylvanian Carpathians)
  • Carpaţii de Curbură/Carpaţii Curburii

Also included are the Călimani Mountains and Pietrosu Peak.

Notable people

See also

References

  1. ^ a b ABOUT THE CARPATHIANS - Carpathian Heritage Society
  2. ^ [1] [2] [3]
  3. ^ Carpathian montane conifer forests - Encyclopedia of Earth
  4. ^ Room, Adrian. Placenames of the World. London: MacFarland and Co., Inc., 1997.

External links

Coordinates: 47°00′N 25°30′E / 47°N 25.5°E / 47; 25.5


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Central Europe : Carpathian Mountains

The Carpathian Mountains are mountains in Central Europe from Poland to Romania.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS 2 (Lat. Monies Sarmatici; Med. Lat. Monies Nivium), the eastern wing of the great central. mountain system of Europe. With the exception of the extreme southern and south-eastern ramifications, which belong to Rumania, the Carpathians lie entirely within Austrian and 2 The name is derived from the Slavonic word Chrb, which means mountain-range. As Chrawat, it was first applied to the inhabitants of the region, whence it passed in the form Krapat or Karpa as the name of mountain system. In official Hungarian documents of the 13th and 14th centuries the Carpathians are named Thorchal or Tarczal, and also Monies Nivium. Hungarian territory. They begin on the Danube near Pressburg, surround Hungary and Transylvania in a large semicircle, the concavity of which is towards the south-west, and end on the Danube near Orsova. The total length of the Carpathians is over Boo m., and their width varies between 7 and 230 m., the greatest width of the Carpathians corresponding with its highest altitude. Thus the system attains its greatest breadth in the Transylvanian plateau, and in the meridian of the Tatra group. It covers an area of 72,600 sq. m., and after the Alps is the most extensive mountain system of Europe. The Carpathians do not form an uninterrupted chain of mountains, but consist of several orographically and geologically distinctive groups; in fact they present as great a structural variety as the Alps; but as regards magnificence of scenery they cannot compare with the Alps. The Carpathians, which only in a few places attain an altitude of over 8000 ft., lack the bold peaks, the extensive snow-fields, the large glaciers, the high waterfalls and the numerous large lakes which are found in the Alps. They are nowhere covered by perpetual snow, and glaciers do not exist, so that the Carpathians, even in their highest altitude, recall the middle region of the Alps, with which, however, they have many points in common as regards appearance, structure and flora. The Danube separates the Carpathians from the Alps, which they meet only in two points, namely, the Leitha Mountains at Pressburg, and the Bakony Mountains at Vacz (Waitzen), while the same river separates them from the Balkan Mountains at Orsova. The valley of the March and Oder separates the Carpathians from the Silesian and Moravian chains, which belong to the middle wing of the great central mountain system of Europe. The Carpathians separate Hungary and Transylvania from Lower Austria, Moravia, Silesia, Galicia, Bukovina and Rumania, while its ramifications fill the whole northern part of Hungary, and form the quadrangular mass of the Transylvanian plateau. Unlike the other wings of the great central system of Europe, the Carpathians, which form the watershed between the northern seas and the Black Sea, are surrounded on all sides by plains, namely the great Hungarian plain on the south-west, the plain of the Lower Danube (Rumania) on the south, and the Galician plain on the north-east.

The Carpathian system can be divided into two groups: the Carpathians proper, and the mountains of Transylvania. The Carpathians proper consist of an outer wall, which forms the frontier between Hungary and the adjacent provinces of Austria, and of an inner wall which fills the whole of Upper Hungary, and forms the central group. The outer wall is a complex, roughly circular mass of about 600 m. extending from Pressburg to the valley of the Viso, and the Golden Bistritza, and is divided by the Poprad into two parts, the western Carpathians and the eastern or wooded Carpathians. Orographically, therefore, the proper Carpathians are divided into: (a) the western Carpathians, (b) the eastern or wooded Carpathians, and (c) the central groups.

(a) The western Carpathians, which begin at the Porta Hungarica on the Danube, just opposite the Leitha Mountains, and extend to s. the Poprad river, are composed of four principal groups: the Little Carpathians (also called the Pressburg group) with the highest peak Bradlo (2670 ft.); the White Carpathians or Miava group, with the highest peak Javornik (3325 ft.), and the Zemerka (3445 ft.); the Beskid proper or western Beskid group, which extends from a little west of the Jablunka pass to the river Poprad, with the highest peaks, Beskid (3115 ft.), Smrk (4395 ft.), Lissa Hora (4350 ft.) and Ossus (5106 ft.); and the Magura or Arva Magura group, which extends to the south of Beskid Mountains, and contains the Babia Gora (5650 ft.), the highest peak in the whole western Carpathians.

(b) The eastern or wooded Carpathians extend from the river Poprad to the sources of the river Viso and the Golden Bistritza, whence the Transylvanian Mountains begin, and form the link between these mountains and the central groups or High Carpathians. They are a monotonous sandstone range, covered with extensive forests, which up to the sources of the rivers Ung and San are also called the eastern Beskids, and are formed of small parallel ranges. The northern two-thirds of this range has a mean altitude of 3250 ft., and only in its southern portion it attains a mean altitude of 5000 ft. The principal peaks are Rusky Put (4264 ft.), Popadje (5690 ft.), Bistra (5936 ft.), Pop Ivan (6214 ft.), Tomnatik (5035 ft.), Giumaleu (6077 ft.) and Cserna Gora (6505 ft.), the culminating peak of the whole range. To the eastern Carpathians belongs also the range of mountains extending between the Laborcza and the Upper Theiss, called Vihorlat, which attains in the peak of the same name an altitude of 3495 ft. As indicated by its name, which means " burnt," it is of volcanic origin, and plays an important part in the folklore and in the superstitious legends of the Hungarian people.

(c) The central groups or the High Carpathians extend from the confluence of the rivers Arva and Waag to the river Poprad, and include the highest group of the Carpathian system. They consist of the High Tatra group (see TAT RA Mountains), where is found the Gerlsdorfer or Franz Josef peak (Hung. Gerlachfalvi-Csucs), with an altitude of 8737 ft., the highest peak in the whole Carpathian Mountains. On its west are the Liptauer Magura, with the highest peak the Biela Szkala (6900 ft.), and on its east are the Zipser Magura, which have a mean altitude of 3000 ft. South of the central groups lies a widely extending mountain region, which fills the whole of northern Hungary, and is known as the Hungarian highland. It is composed of several groups, which are intersected by the valleys of numerous rivers, and which descend in sloping terraces towards the Danube and the Hungarian plain. The principal groups are: the Neutra or Galgoc Mountains (4400 ft.), between the rivers Waag and Neutra; the Low or Nizna Tatra, which extends to the south of the High Tatra, and has its highest peaks, the Djumbir (6700 ft.) and the Kralova Hola (6400 ft.); this group is continued towards the east up to the confluence of the Gollnitz with the Hernad, by the so-called Carpathian foot-hills, with the highest peak the Zelesznik (2675 ft.). West of the Low Tatra extend the Fatra group, with the highest peak, the Great Fatra (5825 ft.), to the south and east of which lie the Schemnitz group, the Ostrowsky group, and several other groups, all of which are also called the Hungarian Ore Mountains, on account of their richness in valuable ores. South-east of the Low Tatra extend the Zips - Gomor Ore Mountains, while the most eastern group is the Hegyalja Mountains, between the Topla, Tarcza and Hernad rivers, which run southward from Eperjes to Tokaj. In their northern portion, they are also called S6var Mountains, and reach in their highest peak, Simonka, an altitude of 3350 ft., while their southern portion, which ends with the renowned Tokaj Hill (1650 ft.), is also called Tokaj Mountains. The smaller groups of the Hungarian highland are: on the south-west the Neograd Mountains (2850), whose offshoots reach the Danube; to the east of them extends the Matra group, with the highest peak the Sasko (3285 ft.). The Matra group is of volcanic origin, rising abruptly in the great Hungarian plain, and constitutes one of the most beautiful groups of the Carpathians; lastly, to its east extend the thicklywooded Biikk Mountains (3100 ft.).

Throughout the whole of the Carpathian system there are numerous mountain lakes, but they cannot compare with the Alpine lakes either in extension or beauty. The largest and most numerous are found in the Tatra Mountains. These lakes are called by the people " eyes of the sea," through their belief that they are in subterranean communication with the sea.

The western and central Carpathians are much more accessible than the eastern Carpathians and the Transylvanian Mountains. The principal passes in the western Carpathians are: Strany, Hrozinkau, Wlara, Lissa and the Jablunka pass (1970 ft.), the principal route between Silesia and Hungary, crossed by the Breslau-Budapest railway; and the Jordanow pass. In the central Carpathians are: the road from Neumarkt to Kesmark through the High Tatra, the Telgart pass over the Kralova Hola from the Poprad to the Gran, and the Tylicz pass from Bartfeld to Tarnow. In the eastern Carpathians are: the Dukla pass, the Mezo-Laborcz pass crossed by the railway from Tokaj to Przemysl; the Uszok pass, crossed by the road from Ungvar to Sambor; the Vereczke pass, crossed by the railway from Lemberg to Munkacs; the Delatyn or Korosmezo pass (3300 ft.), also called the Magyar route, crossed by the railway from Kolomea to Debreczen; and the Stiol pass in Bukovina.

The Carpathians consist of an outer zone of newer beds and an inner zone of older rocks. Between the two zones lies a row of Klippen, while towards the Hungarian plain the inner zone is bordered by a fringe of volcanic eruptions of Tertiary age. The outer zone is continuous throughout the whole extent of the chain, and is remarkably uniform both in composition and structure. It is formed almost entirely of a succession of sandstones and shales of Cretaceous and Tertiary age - the so-called Carpathian Sandstone - and these are thrown into a series of isoclinal folds dipping constantly to the south. The folding of this zone took place during the Miocene period. The inner zone is not continuous, and is"much more complex in structure. It is visible only in the west and in the east, while in the central Carpathians, between the Hernad and the headwaters of the Theiss, it is lost beneath the modern deposits of the Hungarian plain. In the western Carpathians the inner zone consists of a foundation of Carboniferous and older rocks, which were folded and denuded before the deposition of the succeeding strata. In the outer portion of the zone the Permian and Mesozoic beds are crushed and folded against the core of ancient rocks; in the inner portion of the zone they rest upon the old foundation with but little subsequent disturbance. In the eastern Carpathians also, the Permian and Mesozoic beds are not much folded except near the outer margin of the zone. The Klippen are isolated hills, chiefly of Jurassic limestone, rising up in the midst of the later and softer deposits on the inner border of the sandstone zone. Their relations to the surrounding beds are still obscure. They may be " rootless " masses brought upon the top of the later beds by thrustplanes. They may be the pinched-up summits of sharp anticlinals, which in the process of folding have been forced through the softer rocks which lay upon them. Or, finally, they may have been islands rising above the waters, in which were deposited the later beds which now surround them. The so-called Klippen of the Swiss Alps are now usually supposed to rest upon thrustplanes, but they are not strictly analogous, either in structure or in position, with those of the Carpathians. Of all the peculiar features of the Carpathian chain, perhaps the most remarkable is the fringe of volcanic rocks which lies along its inner margin. The outbursts began in the later part of the Eocene period, and continued into the Pliocene, outlasting the period of folding. They appear to be associated with faulting upon the inner margin of the chain. Trachytes, rhyolites, andesites and basalts occur, and a definite order of succession has been made out in several areas; but this order is not the same throughout the chain.

The Carpathians, like the Alps, form a protective wall to the regions south of them, which enjoy a much milder climate than those, situated to the north. The vegetation of these regions is naturally subjected to the different climateric conditions. Flora . The mountains themselves are mostly covered with forests, and their vegetation presents four zones: that of the beech extends to an altitude of 4000 ft.; that of the Scottish fir to 1000 ft. higher. Above this grows a species of pine, which becomes dwarfed and disappears at an altitude of about 6000 ft., beyond which is a zone of lichen and moss covered or almost bare rock. The highest parts in the High Tatra and in the Transylvanian Mountains have a flora similar to that of the Alps, more specially that of the middle region. Remarkable is the sea-shore flora, which is found in the numerous salt-impregnated lakes, ponds and marshes in Transylvania. As regards the fauna, the Carpathians still contain numerous bears, wolves and lynxes, as well as birds of prey. It presents a characteristic feature in its mollusc fauna, which contains many species not found in the neighbouring regions, and only found in the Alpine region. Cattle and sheep are pastured in great numbers on its slopes.

The Carpathian system is richer in metallic ores than any other mountain system of Europe, and contains large quantities of gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, coal, petroleum, salt, zinc, &c., besides a great variety of useful mineral. A great number of mineral springs and thermal waters are found in the Carpathians, many of which have become frequented watering-places.

The systematic and scientific exploration of the Carpathians dates only from the beginning of the 19th century. The first ascen- H?story. sion of the Lomnitzer peak in the High Tatra was made by one David or Johann Frohlich in 1615. The first account of the Tatra Mountains was written by Georg Buchholz, a resident of Kesmark in 1664. The English naturalist, Robert Townson, explored the Tatra in 1793 and 1794, and was the first to make a few reliable measurements. The results of his exploration appeared in his book, Travels in Hungary, published in 1797. But the first real important work was undertaken by the Swedish naturalist, Georg Wahlenberg (1780-1851), who in 1813 explored the central Carpathians as a botanist, but afterwards also made topographical and geological studies of the system. The results of all the former explorations were embodied by A. von Sydow in an extensive work published in 1827. During the 19th century the measurements of the various parts of the Carpathians was undertaken by the ordnance survey of the Austrian army, which published their first map of the central Carpathians in 1870. A great stimulus to the study of this mountain system was given by the foundation of the Hungarian Carpathian Society in 1873, and a great deal of information has been added to our knowledge since. In 1880 two new Carpathian societies were formed: a Galician and a Transylvanian.

Authorities

F.W. Hildebrandt, Karpathenbilder(Glogau,1863); E. Sagorski and G. Schneider, Flora Carpatorum Centralium (2 vols., Leipzig, 1891); Muriel Dowie, A Girl in the Carpathians (London, 1891); Orohydrographisches Tableau der Karpathen (Vienna, 1886), in six maps of scale 1: 750,000; V. Uhlig, "Bau and Bild der Karpaten," in Bau and Bild Osterreichs (Vienna, 1903). (0. BR.; P. LA.)


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Proper noun

Singular
Carpathian Mountains

Plural
-

Carpathian Mountains

  1. Carpathians

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|220px|Satellite image of the Carpathians.]]

The Carpathian Mountains[1] are the eastern wing of the great Central Mountain System of Europe, curving 1500 km (~900 miles) along the borders of Romania, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine, Austria, Serbia, and northern Hungary.

Contents

Geography

The Carpathians begin on the Danube near Bratislava. They surround Transcarpathia and Transylvania in a large semicircle, sweeping towards the south-west, and end on the Danube near Orşova, in Romania. The total length of the Carpathians is over 1,500 km, and the mountain chain's width varies between 12 and 500 km.

The Carpathians are separated from the Alps by the Danube.

Divisions

[[File:|right|thumb|300px|Map of the Carpathian subdivisions.]]

Horizontal division

  • Outer Carpathians, containing the Outer Western Carpathians and Outer Eastern Carpathians, usually including the corresponding Outer Carpathian Depressions
  • Inner Carpathians, containing the Inner Western Carpathians, Inner Eastern Carpathians, and all the remaining Carpathians

A major part of the western and northeastern Outer Carpathians in Poland, Ukraine and Slovakia is traditionally called Beskids.

Vertical and general division

[[File:|thumb|220px|Inner Western Carpathians, High Tatras, Poland.]]

File:Tatry
Inner Western Carpathians, High Tatras, Slovakia.


What follows is a practical outline of the Carpathian subdivisions (clockwise from the west, numbers refer to the map):

  • Western Carpathians:
    • 1 Outer Western Carpathians:
      • Austrian - South-Moravian Carpathians
      • Central Moravian Carpathians
      • Slovak-Moravian Carpathians
      • West-Beskidian Piedmont
      • Western Beskids
      • Central Beskids
      • Eastern Beskids
      • Podhale-Magura Area
    • 2 Inner Western Carpathians:
      • Slovenské rudohorie (Slovak Ore Mountains)
      • Fatra-Tatra Area
      • Slovenské stredohorie
      • Lučensko-košická zníženina
      • Mátra-Slanec Area/Northern Medium Mountains
  • South Eastern Carpathians (= Eastern Carpathians in a wider sense):
    • Eastern Carpathians:
      • 3 Outer Eastern Carpathians:
        • Central Beskidian Piedmont
        • Low Beskids
        • Eastern Beskids
        • Moldavian-Muntenian Carpathians
        • Eastern Subcarpathians
      • 4 Inner Eastern Carpathians:
        • Vihorlat-Gutin Area
        • Bistriţa Mountains
        • Căliman-Harghita Mountains
        • Giurgeu-Braşov Depression
        • Rakhiv Massif and Maramureş Mountains
        • Maramureş Depression
        • Rodna Mountains
    • 5 Southern Carpathians (also known as Transylvanian Alps):
      • Făgăraş Mountains group
      • [arâng Mountains group
      • Retezat-Godeanu Mountains group
    • 6 Romanian Western Carpathians:
      • Apuseni Mountains
      • Poiana Ruscă Mountains (sometimes considered part of the Southern Carpathians)
      • Banat Mountains (sometimes considered part of the Southern Carpathians)
    • 7 Transylvanian Plateau (sometimes not considered part of the Carpathians at all):
      • Transylvanian Plateau
      • Mureş-Turda Depression
      • Făgăraş Depression
      • Sibiu Depression
    • 8 Serbian Carpathians (sometimes considered part of the Southern Carpathians, or not considered part of the Carpathians at all)
  • Outer Carpathian Depressions (they surround the Carpathians and are normally considered part of the corresponding adjacent above main groups)

Notes

  1. (Romanian: Munţii Carpaţi; Polish, Czech, and Slovak: Karpaty; Ukrainian: Карпати (Karpaty); German: Karpaten; Serbian: Karpati / Карпати; Hungarian: Kárpátok)

Other websites

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Coordinates: 47°00′N 25°30′E


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