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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cartilage is a stiff yet flexible connective tissue found in many areas in the bodies of humans and other animals, including the joints between bones, the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the elbow, the knee, the ankle, the bronchial tubes and the intervertebral discs. It is not as hard and rigid as bone but is stiffer and less flexible than muscle.

Cartilage is composed of specialized cells called chondrocytes that produce a large amount of extracellular matrix composed of collagen fibers, abundant ground substance rich in proteoglycan, and elastin fibers. Cartilage is classified in three types, elastic cartilage, hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage, which differ in the relative amounts of these three main components.

Unlike other connective tissues, cartilage does not contain blood vessels. The chondrocytes are supplied by diffusion, helped by the pumping action generated by compression of the articular cartilage or flexion of the elastic cartilage. Thus, compared to other connective tissues, cartilage grows and repairs more slowly.

Contents

Growth and development

In embryogenesis, the skeletal system is derived from the mesoderm germ layer. Chondrification (also known as chondrogenesis) is the process by which cartilage is formed from condensed mesenchyme tissue, which differentiates into chondrocytes and begins secreting the molecules that form the extracellular matrix.

Skeletal blast cells that express the Sox9 transcription factor, followed by continued expression of Sox5 and Sox6, develop into chondroblast precursors, while those that express Runx2, followed by osterix develop into osteogenic precursors. The condroblastic differentiation is favored in regions under compressive forces and low pO2 because these downregulate BMP3, which normally inhibits cartilage differentiation. Osteogenic differentiation is favored under neutral or mild, intermittent tensile forces and relatively high pO2, which leads to upregulation of BMP4. High tensile strength favors the formation of tendinous connective tissue.[1]

Diseases and treatment

There are several diseases which can affect the cartilage. Chondrodystrophies are a group of diseases characterized by disturbance of growth and subsequent ossification of cartilage. Some common diseases affecting/involving the cartilage are listed below.

  • Osteoarthritis: The cartilage covering bones (articular cartilage) is thinned, eventually completely worn out, resulting in a "bone against bone" joint, reduced motion and pain. Ost, affects the joints exposed to high stress and is therefore considered the result of "wear and tear" rather than a true disease. It is treated by Arthroplasty, the replacement of the joint by a synthetic joint often made of a Stainless Steel alloy (cobalt chromoly) and High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (HMWPE). Chondroitin sulfate, a monomer of the polysaccharide portion of proteoglycan, has been shown to reduce the symptoms of osteoarthritis, possibly by increasing the synthesis of the extracellular matrix.
  • Traumatic rupture or detachment: The cartilage in the knee is frequently damaged, and can be partially repaired through knee cartilage replacement therapy
  • Achondroplasia: Reduced proliferation of chondrocytes in the epiphyseal plate of long bones during infancy and childhood, resulting in dwarfism.
  • Costochondritis: Inflammation of cartilage in the ribs, causing chest pain.
  • Spinal disc herniation : Asymmetrical compression of an intervertebral disc ruptures the sac-like disc, causing a herniation of its soft content. The hernia often compresses the adjacent nerves and causes back pain.
  • Relapsing polychondritis: a destruction, probably autoimmune, of cartilage, especially of the nose and ears, causing disfiguration. Death occurs by suffocation as the larynx loses its rigidity and collapses.

Tumors made up of cartilage tissue, either benign or malignant, can occur. They usually appear in bone, rarely in pre-existing cartilage. The benign tumors are called chondroma, the malignant ones chondrosarcoma. Tumors arising from other tissues may also produce a cartilage-like matrix, the best known being pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary glands.

The matrix of cartilage acts as a barrier, preventing the entry of lymphocytes or diffusion of immunoglobulins. This property allows for the transplantation of cartilage from one individual to another without fear of tissue rejection.

Repair

Cartilage has limited repair capabilities, because chondrocytes are bound in lacunae, they cannot migrate to damaged areas. Therefore if damaged, it is difficult to heal. Also, because hyaline cartilage does not have a blood supply, the deposition of new matrix is slow. Damaged hyaline cartilage is usually replaced by fibrocartilage scar tissue. Over the last years, surgeons and scientists have elaborated a series of cartilage repair procedures that help to postpone the need for joint replacement.

Bioengineering techniques are being developed to generate new cartilage, using a cellular "scaffolding" material and cultured cells to grow artificial cartilage. [2]

Cartilage in animals

Cartilaginous fish

Cartilaginous fish (chondrichthyes) like sharks, rays and skates have a skeleton composed entirely of cartilage. Shark cartilage is a popular but unproven dietary supplement.

Invertebrate cartilage

Cartilage tissue can also be found among invertebrates such as horseshoe crabs, marine snails, and cephalopods.

See also

References

  1. ^ Salentijn, L. Biology of Mineralized Tissues: Cartilage and Bone, Columbia University College of Dental Medicine post-graduate dental lecture series, 2007
  2. ^ International Cartilage Repair Society ICRS
General references

External links

  • KUMC.edu, Cartilage tutorial, University of Kansas Medical Center
  • Bartleby.com, text from Gray's anatomy
  • MadSci.org, I've heard 'Ears and nose do not ever stop growing.' Is this false?
  • CartilageHealth.com, Information on Articular Cartilage Injury Prevention, Repair and Rehabilitation
  • Cartilage.org, International Cartilage Repair Society

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

CARTILAGE (Lat. cartilago, gristle), the firm elastic and gristly connective tissue in vertebrates. (See CONNECTIVE TISSUES and JOINTS.)


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Simple English

Cartilage is the hard substance that the body uses to connect bones together. It also allows joints to move smoothly and protects against shocks to the body. It is found in the joints, the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the throat and between the bones of the back. The main purpose of cartilage is to create a place on which bones can form when they are first created. It also protects the places where bones rub against each other.

Parts

Cartilage has cells and fibres (tiny strings) that cross over each other like fabric.

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