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The oldest original cartographic artifact in the Library of Congress: a nautical chart of the Mediterranean Sea. Second quarter of the fourteenth century.

Cartography (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps (also can be called mapping). Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively.

The fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to:[citation needed]

  • Set the map's agenda and select traits of the object to be mapped. This is the concern of map editing. Traits may be physical, such as roads or land masses, or may be abstract, such as toponyms or political boundaries.
  • Represent the terrain of the mapped object on flat media. This is the concern of map projections.
  • Eliminate characteristics of the mapped object that are not relevant to the map's purpose. This is the concern of generalization.
  • Reduce the complexity of the characteristics that will be mapped. This is also the concern of generalization.
  • Orchestrate the elements of the map to best convey its message to its audience. This is the concern of map design.

Modern cartography is closely integrated with geographic information science (GIScience) and constitutes many theoretical and practical foundations of geographic information systems.

For fundamental problems of modern cartography, see ICA Research Agenda on Cartography and GIScience [3].



Copy (1475) of St. Isidore's TO map of the world.

The earliest known map is a matter of some debate, both because the definition of "map" is not sharp and because some artifacts speculated to be maps might actually be something else. A wall painting, which may depict the ancient Anatolian city of Çatalhöyük (previously known as Catal Huyuk or Çatal Hüyük), has been dated to the late 7th millennium BCE.[1][2] Other known maps of the ancient world include the Minoan “House of the Admiral” wall painting from c. 1600 BCE, showing a seaside community in an oblique perspective and an engraved map of the holy Babylonian city of Nippur, from the Kassite period (14th – 12th centuries BCE).[3]

The ancient Greeks and Romans created maps, beginning at latest with Anaximander in the 6th century BC.[4] In the 2nd century AD, Ptolemy produced his treatise on cartography, Geographia.[5] This contained Ptolemy's world map - the world then known to Western society (Ecumene). As early as the 700s, Arab scholars were translating the works of the Greek geographers into Arabic.[6]

In ancient China, geographical literature spans back to the 5th century BC. The oldest extant Chinese maps come from the State of Qin, dated back to the 4th century BC, during the Warring States Period. In the book of the Xin Yi Xiang Fa Yao, published in 1092 by the Chinese scientist Su Song, a star map on the equidistant cylindrical projection.[7][8] Although this method of charting seems to have existed in China even prior to this publication and scientist, the greatest significance of the star maps by Su Song, is that they represent the oldest existent star maps in printed form.

Early forms of cartography of India included legendary paintings; maps of locations described in Indian epic poetry, for example, the Ramayana.[9] Indian cartographic traditions also covered the locations of the Pole star, and other constellations of use.[10] These charts may have been in use by the beginning of the Common Era for purposes of navigation.[10]

Mappa mundi is the general term used to describe Medieval European maps of the world. Approximately 1,100 mappae mundi are known to have survived from the Middle Ages. Of these, some 900 are found illustrating manuscripts and the remainder exist as stand-alone documents (Woodward, p. 286).

The Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi produced his medieval atlas Tabula Rogeriana in 1154. He incorporated the knowledge of Africa, the Indian Ocean and the Far East, gathered by Arab merchants and explorers with the information inherited from the classical geographers to create the most accurate map of the world up until his time. It remained the most accurate world map for the next three centuries.[11]

In the Age of Exploration, from the 15th century to the 17th century, European cartographers both copied earlier maps (some of which had been passed down for centuries) and drew their own based on explorers' observations and new surveying techniques. The invention of the magnetic compass, telescope and sextant enabled increasing accuracy. In 1492, Martin Behaim, a German cartographer, made the oldest extant globe of the Earth.[12]

Johannes Werner refined and promoted the Werner map projection. In 1507, Martin Waldseemüller produced a globular world map and a large 12-panel world wall map (Universalis Cosmographia) bearing the first use of the name "America". Portuguese cartographer, Diego Ribero, was author of the first known planisphere with a graduated Equator (1527). Italian cartogapher Battista Agnese produced at least 71 manuscript atlases of sea charts.

Due to the sheer physical difficulties inherent in cartography, map-makers frequently lifted material from earlier works without giving credit to the original cartographer. For example, one of the most famous early maps of North America is unofficially known as the "Beaver Map", published in 1715 by Herman Moll. This map is an exact reproduction of a 1698 work by Nicolas de Fer. De Fer in turn had copied images that were first printed in books by Louis Hennepin, published in 1697, and François Du Creux, in 1664. By the 1700s, map-makers started to give credit to the original engraver by printing the phrase "After [the original cartographer]" on the work.[13]

Technological changes

A pre-Mercator nautical chart of 1571, from Portuguese cartographer Fernão Vaz Dourado (c. 1520-c.1580). It belongs to the so-called plane chart model, where observed latitudes and magnetic directions are plotted directly into the plane, with a constant scale, as if the Earth were plane (Portuguese National Archives of Torre do Tombo, Lisbon).

In cartography, technology has continually changed in order to meet the demands of new generations of mapmakers and map users. The first maps were manually constructed with brushes and parchment; therefore, varied in quality and were limited in distribution. The advent of magnetic devices, such as the compass and much later, magnetic storage devices, allowed for the creation of far more accurate maps and the ability to store and manipulate them digitally.

Advances in mechanical devices such as the printing press, quadrant and vernier, allowed for the mass production of maps and the ability to make accurate reproductions from more accurate data. Optical technology, such as the telescope, sextant and other devices that use telescopes, allowed for accurate surveying of land and the ability of mapmakers and navigators to find their latitude by measuring angles to the North Star at night or the sun at noon.

Advances in photochemical technology, such as the lithographic and photochemical processes, have allowed for the creation of maps that have fine details, do not distort in shape and resist moisture and wear. This also eliminated the need for engraving, which further shortened the time it takes to make and reproduce maps.

Advances in electronic technology in the 20th century ushered in another revolution in cartography. Ready availability of computers and peripherals such as monitors, plotters, printers, scanners (remote and document) and analytic stereo plotters, along with computer programs for visualization, image processing, spatial analysis, and database management, have democratized and greatly expanded the making of maps. The ability to superimpose spatially located variables onto existing maps created new uses for maps and new industries to explore and exploit these potentials. See also: digital raster graphic.

These days most commercial-quality maps are made using software that falls into one of three main types: CAD, GIS and specialized illustration software. Spatial information can be stored in a database, from which it can be extracted on demand. These tools lead to increasingly dynamic, interactive maps that can be manipulated digitally.

Map types


General vs thematic cartography

Small section of an orienteering map.
Topographic map of Easter Island.
Relief map Sierra Nevada

In understanding basic maps, the field of cartography can be divided into two general categories: general cartography and thematic cartography. General cartography involves those maps that are constructed for a general audience and thus contain a variety of features. General maps exhibit many reference and location systems and often are produced in a series. For example, the 1:24,000 scale topographic maps of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) are a standard as compared to the 1:50,000 scale Canadian maps. The government of the UK produces the classic 1:63,360 (1 inch to 1 mile) "Ordnance Survey" maps of the entire UK and with a range of correlated larger- and smaller-scale maps of great detail.

Thematic cartography involves maps of specific geographic themes, oriented toward specific audiences. A couple of examples might be a dot map showing corn production in Indiana or a shaded area map of Ohio counties, divided into numerical choropleth classes. As the volume of geographic data has exploded over the last century, thematic cartography has become increasingly useful and necessary to interpret spatial, cultural and social data.

An orienteering map combines both general and thematic cartography, designed for a very specific user community. The most prominent thematic element is shading, that indicates degrees of difficulty of travel due to vegetation. The vegetation itself is not identified, merely classified by the difficulty ("fight") that it presents.

Topographic vs topological

A topographic map is primarily concerned with the topographic description of a place, including (especially in the 20th century) the use of contour lines showing elevation. Terrain or relief can be shown in a variety of ways (see Cartographic relief depiction).

A topological map is a very general type of map, the kind you might sketch on a napkin. It often disregards scale and detail in the interest of clarity of communicating specific route or relational information. Beck's London Underground map is an iconic example. Though the most widely used map of "The Tube," it preserves little of reality: It varies scale constantly and abruptly, it straightens curved tracks, and it contorts directions haphazardly. The only topography on it is the River Thames, letting the reader know whether a station is north or south of the river. That and the topology of station order and interchanges between train lines are all that is left of the geographic space.[14] Yet those are all a typical passenger wishes to know, so the map fulfills its purpose.[15]

Map design

Illustrated map.

Arthur H. Robinson, an American cartographer influential in thematic cartography, stated that a map not properly designed "will be a cartographic failure." He also claimed, when considering all aspects of cartography, that "map design is perhaps the most complex."[16] Robinson codified the mapmaker's understanding that a map must be designed foremost with consideration to the audience and its needs.

From the very beginning of mapmaking, maps "have been made for some particular purpose or set of purposes".[17] The intent of the map should be illustrated in a manner in which the percipient acknowledges its purpose in a timely fashion. The term percipient refers to the person receiving information and was coined by Robinson.[18] The principle of figure-ground refers to this notion of engaging the user by presenting a clear presentation, leaving no confusion concerning the purpose of the map. This will enhance the user’s experience and keep his attention. If the user is unable to identify what is being demonstrated in a reasonable fashion, the map may be regarded as useless.

Making a meaningful map is the ultimate goal. Alan MacEachren explains that a well designed map "is convincing because it implies authenticity" (1994, pp. 9). An interesting map will no doubt engage a reader. Information richness or a map that is multivariate shows relationships within the map. Showing several variables allows comparison, which adds to the meaningfulness of the map. This also generates hypothesis and stimulates ideas and perhaps further research. In order to convey the message of the map, the creator must design it in a manner which will aid the reader in the overall understanding of its purpose. The title of a map may provide the "needed link" necessary for communicating that message, but the overall design of the map fosters the manner in which the reader interprets it (Monmonier, 1993, pp. 93).

In the 21st century it is possible to find a map of virtually anything from the inner workings of the human body to the virtual worlds of cyberspace. Therefore there are now a huge variety of different styles and types of map - for example, one area which has evolved a specific and recognisable variation are those used by public transport organisations to guide passengers, namely urban rail and metro maps, many of which are loosely based on 45 degree angles as originally perfected by Harry Beck and George Dow.

Naming conventions

Most maps use text to label places and for such things as a map title, legend and other information. Maps are often made in specific languages, though names of places often differ between languages. So a map made in English may use the name Germany for that country, while a German map would use Deutschland and a French map Allemagne. A word that describes a place, using a non-native terminology or language is referred to as an exonym.

In some cases the proper name is not clear. For example, the nation of Burma officially changed its name to Myanmar, but many nations do not recognize the ruling junta and continue to use Burma. Sometimes an official name change is resisted in other languages and the older name may remain in common use. Examples include the use of Saigon for Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok for Krung Thep and Ivory Coast for Côte d'Ivoire.

Difficulties arise, when transliteration or transcription between writing systems is required. National names tend to have well established names in other languages and writing systems, such as Russia for Росси́я, but for many placenames a system of transliteration or transcription is required. In transliteration, the symbols of one language are represented by symbols in another. For example, the Cyrillic letter Р is traditionally written as R in the Latin alphabet. Systems exist for transliteration of Arabic, but the results may vary. For example, the Yemeni city of Mocha is written variously in English as Mocha, Al Mukha, al-Mukhā, Mocca and Moka. Transliteration systems are based on relating written symbols to one another, while transcription is the attempt to spell in one language the phonetic sounds of another. Chinese writing is transformed into the Latin alphabet through the Pinyin phonetic transcription systems. Other systems were used in the past, such as Wade-Giles, resulting in the city being spelled Beijing on newer English maps and Peking on older ones.

Further difficulties arise when countries, especially former colonies, do not have a strong national geographic naming standard. In such cases, cartographers may have to choose between various phonetic spellings of local names versus older imposed, sometimes resented, colonial names. Some countries have multiple official languages, resulting in multiple official placenames. For example, the capital of Belgium is both Brussels and Bruxelles. In Canada, English and French are official languages and places have names in both languages. British Columbia is also officially named la Colombie-Britannique. English maps rarely show the French names outside of Quebec, which itself is spelled Québec in French.[19]

The study of placenames is called toponymy, while that of the origin and historical usage of placenames as words is etymology.

In order to improve legibility or to aid the illiterate, some maps have been produced using pictograms to represent places. The iconic example of this practice is Lance Wyman's early plans for the Mexico City Metro, on which stations were shown simply as stylized logos. Wyman also prototyped such a map for the Washington Metro, though ultimately the idea was rejected. Other cities experimenting with such maps are Fukuoka, Guadalajara and Monterrey.[20]

Map symbology

A map of the southwest coast of Ireland created in the early 18th century. Notice the north arrow at the bottom of the map. Also, colors are used in the map to distinguish different geographical areas.

The quality of a map’s design affects its reader’s ability to extract information and to learn from the map. Cartographic symbology has been developed in an effort to portray the world accurately and effectively convey information to the map reader. A legend explains the pictorial language of the map, known as its symbology. The title indicates the region the map portrays; the map image portrays the region and so on. Although every map element serves some purpose, convention only dictates inclusion of some elements, while others are considered optional. A menu of map elements includes the neatline (border), compass rose or north arrow, overview map, scale bar, projection and information about the map sources, accuracy and publication.

When examining a landscape, scale can be intuited from trees, houses and cars. Not so with a map. Even such a simple thing as a north arrow is crucial. It may seem obvious that the top of a map should point north, but this might not be the case.

Color, likewise, is equally important. How the cartographer displays the data in different hues can greatly affect the understanding or feel of the map. Different intensities of hue portray different objectives the cartographer is attempting to get across to the audience. Today, personal computers can display up to 16 million distinct colors at a time, even though the human eye can distinguish only a minimum number of these (Jeer, 1997). This fact allows for a multitude of color options for even for the most demanding maps. Moreover, computers can easily hatch patterns in colors to give even more options. This is very beneficial, when symbolizing data in categories such as quintile and equal interval classifications.

Quantitative symbols give a visual measure of the relative size/importance/number that a symbol represents and to symbolize this data on a map, there are two major classes of symbols used for portraying quantitative properties. Proportional symbols change their visual weight according to a quantitative property. These are appropriate for extensive statistics. Choropleth maps portray data collection areas, such as counties or census tracts, with color. Using color this way, the darkness and intensity (or value) of the color is evaluated by the eye as a measure of intensity or concentration (Harvard Graduate School of Design, 2005).

Map generalization

A good map has to provide a compromise between portraying the items of interest (or themes) in the right place for the map scale used, against the need to annotate that item with text or a symbol, which takes up space on the map medium and very likely will cause some other item of interest to be displaced. The cartographer is thus constantly making judgements about what to include, what to leave out and what to show in a slightly incorrect place - because of the demands of the annotation. This issue assumes more importance as the scale of the map gets smaller (i.e the map shows a larger area), because relatively, the annotation on the map takes up more space on the ground. A good example from the late 1980s was the Ordnance Survey's first digital maps, where the absolute positions of major roads shown at scales of 1:1250 and 1:2500 were sometimes a scale distance of hundreds of metres away from ground truth, when shown on digital maps at scales of 1:250000 and 1:625000, because of the overriding need to annotate the features.

Cartographic errors

Some maps contain deliberate errors or distortions, either as propaganda or as a "watermark" helping the copyright owner identify infringement if the error appears in competitors' maps. The latter often come in the form of nonexistent, misnamed, or misspelled "trap streets".[21] Other names and forms for this are paper townsites, fictitious entries, and copyright easter eggs.[22]

Another motive for deliberate errors is simply cartographic graffiti or prank: a mapmaker wishing to leave his or her mark on the work. Mount Richard, for example, was a fictitious peak on the Rocky Mountains' continental divide that appeared on a Boulder County, Colorado map in the early 1970s. It is believed to be the work of drafts man Richard Ciacci. The fiction was not discovered until two years later.

See also


  1. ^ [1] "A Tale of two obsessed archeologists, one ancient city, and nagging doubts about whether science can ever hope to reveal the past" by Robert Kunzig. Discover Magazine, May 1999.
  2. ^ [2] "A bird’s eye view - of a leopard’s spots. The Çatalhöyük ‘map’ and the development of cartographic representation in prehistory" by Stephanie Meece. Anatolian Studies, 56:1-16, 2006.
  3. ^ The Nippur Expedition
  4. ^ "History of Cartography". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. 
  5. ^ J. L. Berggren, Alexander Jones; Ptolemy's Geography By Ptolemy, Princeton University Press, 2001 ISBN 0691092591
  6. ^ "Geography". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. 
  7. ^ Miyajima, Kazuhiko (1997). Projection Methods in Chinese, Korean and Japanese Star Maps from "Highlights of Astronomy" vol. 11B p. 714. Ed. J. Andersen. Norwell: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  8. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 3, 569.
  9. ^ Sircar 327
  10. ^ a b Sircar 330
  11. ^ S. P. Scott (1904), History of the Moorish Empire, pp. 461-2.
  12. ^ Globes and Terrain Models -- Geography and Maps: An Illustrated Guide, Library of Congress
  13. ^ "Map Imitation" in Detecting the Truth: Fakes, Forgeries and Trickery, a virtual museum exhibition at Library and Archives Canada
  14. ^ Ovenden, Mark. "Transit Maps of the World". New York, New York: Penguin Books, 2007. Page 22.
  15. ^ Devlin, Keith. The Millennium Problems. New York, New York: Basic Books, 2002. Pages 162-163.
  16. ^ Robinson, A.H. (1953). Elements of Cartography. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN. 
  17. ^ Robinson, A.H. (1982). Early Thematic Mapping: In the History of Cartography.. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.. ISBN. 
  18. ^ MacEachren, A.M. (1995). How Maps Work. New York: The Guilford Press. ISBN. 
  19. ^ This section based on: "Transliteration Systems". Illustrated Atlas of the World. Rand McNally. 1992. pp. A16-A17. ISBN 0-528-83492-4. 
  20. ^ Ovenden, Mark. "Transit Maps of the World". New York, New York: Penguin Books, 2007. Pages 60, 131, 132, 135.
  21. ^ Monmonier, Mark (1996). How to Lie with Maps. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 51. ISBN 0226534219. 
  22. ^ Copyright Easter Eggs

Further reading

  • Belyea, B. 1992. Amerindian Maps: the Explorer as Translator. Journal of Historical Geography 18, no.3 :267-277.
  • Bender, B. 1999. Subverting the Western Gaze: mapping alternative worlds. In The Archaeology and Anthropology of Landscape: Shaping your landscape (eds) P.J. Ucko & R. Layton. London: Routledge.
  • Crawford, P.V. 1973. The perception of graduated squares as cartographic symbols. Cartographic Journal 10, no.2:85-88.
  • J. B. Harley and David Woodward (eds) (1987). The History of Cartography Volume 1: Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean.. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-31633-5. 
  • J. B. Harley and David Woodward (eds) (1992). The History of Cartography Volume 2, Book 1: Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies.. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-31635-1. 
  • J. B. Harley and David Woodward (eds) (1994). The History of Cartography Volume 2, Book 2: Cartography in the Traditional East and Southeast Asian Societies.. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-31637-8. 
  • J. B. Harley and David Woodward (eds) (1998). The History of Cartography Volume 2, Book 3: Cartography in the Traditional African, American, Arctic, Australian, and Pacific Societies. [Full text of the Introduction by David Woodward and G. Malcolm Lewis]. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-90728-7. 
  • J. B. Harley and David Woodward (eds) (2005). The History of Cartography Volume 3 (in press, 2005): Cartography in the European Renaissance.. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-90733-3. 
  • J. B. Harley and David Woodward (eds) (1987). The History of Cartography Volume 4 (edited by D. Graham Burnett, Matthew Edney, and Mary G. Sponberg Pedley with Founding Editor David Woodward): Cartography in the European Enlightenment.. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-31633-5. 
  • J. B. Harley and David Woodward (eds). The History of Cartography Volume 5: Cartography in the Nineteenth Century. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. ISBN. 
  • J. B. Harley and David Woodward (eds). The History of Cartography Volume 4: Cartography in the Twentieth Century. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. ISBN. 
  • MacEachren, A.M. (1994). Some Truth with Maps: A Primer on Symbolization & Design. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University. ISBN. 
  • Monmonier, Mark (1991). How to Lie with Maps. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-53421-9. 
  • Monmonier, Mark (1993). Mapping It Out. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN. 
  • ESRI. 2004. ESRI Cartography: Capabilities and Trends. Redlands, CA. White Paper
  • Harvard Graduate School of Design, 2005.
  • Jeer, S. 1997. Traditional Color Coding for Land Uses. American Planning Association. pp. 4–5
  • Kent, A.J. 2005. "Aesthetics: A Lost Cause in Cartographic Theory?" The Cartographic Journal 42(2) pp. 182–188
  • Kraak, Menno-Jan and Ormeling, Ferjan (2002). Cartography: Visualization of Spatial Data. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-130-88890-7. 
  • Lewi, P.J. (2006). Speaking of Graphics. 
  • Imus, D. and Dunlavey, P. 2002. Back to the Drawing Board: Cartography vs the Digital Workflow. MT. Hood, Oregon.
  • Oliver, J. 2007. The Paradox of Progress: Land Survey and the Making of Agrarian Society in Colonial British Columbia. In Contemporary and Historical Archaeology in Theory (eds) L. McAtackney, M. Palus & A. Piccini, pp. 31–38. Oxford: BAR, International Series 1677
  • Olson, Judy M. 1975. Experience and the improvement of cartographic communication. Cartographic Journal 12, no. 2:94-108
  • Peterson, Michael P. (1995). Interactive and Animated Cartography. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0130791047. 
  • Phillips, R., De Lucia, A., and Skelton, A. 1975. Some Objective Tests of the Legibility of Relief Maps. The Cartographic Journal. 12, pp. 39–46
  • Phillips, R. 1980. A Comparison of Color and Visual Texture as Codes for use as Area Symbols on Relief Maps. Ergonomics. 23, pp. 1117–1128.
  • Pickles, John (2003). A History of Spaces: Cartographic Reason, Mapping, and the Geo-Coded World. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-14497-3. 
  • Rice, M., Jacobson, R., Jones. D. 2003. Object Size Discrimination and Non-visual Cartographic Symbolization. CA. pp. 1–12.
  • Slocum, T. (2003). Thematic Cartography and Geographic Visualization. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-130-35123-7. 
  • Wilford, John Noble (2000). The Mapmakers. Vintage Books. ISBN 0-375-70850-2. 
  • "Map Imitations" in Detecting the Truth: Fakes, Forgeries and Trickery, a virtual museum exhibition at Library and Archives Canada
  • Sircar, D.C.C. (January 1990). Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 8120806905. 
  • Wood, Denis, The Power of Maps, New York/London, The Guilford Press, 1992

External links

See Maps for more links to modern and historical maps; however, most of the largest sites are listed at the sites linked below.


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