The Full Wiki

Casimir II of Poland: Wikis

Advertisements

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Casimir II the Just article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the 12th century Polish king. For other uses, please see Casimir.
Casimir II the Just
High Duke of Poland
Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy 2.jpg
Portrait by Jan Matejko.
Reign 1177–1191
1191–1194
Born 1138
Died May 5, 1194 [aged 56]
Place of death Kraków
Buried Wawel Cathedral
Predecessor Mieszko III the Old (first and second time)
Successor Mieszko III the Old (first time)
Leszek the White (second time)
Wife Helena of Znojmo
Offspring With Helena:
Maria, Grand Princess of Kiev
Casimir
Bolesław
Odon
Adelaide
Leszek the White
Konrad
Royal House Piast
Father Bolesław III Wrymouth
Mother Salomea of Berg

Casimir II the Just (Polish: Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy; 1138 - 5 May 1194), was a Duke of Wiślica during 1166-1173, Duke of Sandomierz since 1173 and Duke of Kraków and High Duke of Poland (see Seniorate Province) from 1177 until his death. The surname "the Just" wasn't contemporary; this only appears in the 16th century.

He was the youngest son of Bolesław III Wrymouth, Duke of Poland, by his second wife Salomea, daughter of Henry, Count of Berg.

Contents

Life

Advertisements

Early Years

Casimir, the sixth but fourth surviving son of the Ducal couple, was born in 1138, shortly before his father's death, but also is possible that he born shortly after, and in consequence, was posthumous. Maybe this was the reason that in the Bolesław III's Testament, he was omitted and left without any land.

During his first years, Casimir and his sister Agnes (born in 1137) lived with their mother Salome in her widow land, Łęczyca. There, the young prince remained far away from the struggles of his older brothers Bolesław IV the Curly and Mieszko III the Old with their older half-brother Władysław II, who tried to reunite all Poland under his rule.

Salome of Berg died in 1144. Casimir and Agnes were cared by his older brother Bolesław IV and, although under his tutelage he could feel safe, he had any guarantee to receive part of the paternal inheritance in the future. When in 1154 he reached the proper age (according to the standards of that time), to take control over the lands of the family, he remained with nothing. Even worse, three years later (1157) his fate was decided in the successfully campaign of the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. As a part of the treaty between Bolesław and Barbarossa, Casimir was sent to Germany as a hostage in order to secure the loyalty of his brother to the Emperor.

It's unknown the fate of Casimir in the Imperial court. He returned to Poland certainly before 21 May 1161, because that day he appears in a document with two of his brothers, Bolesław IV and Henry of Sandomierz. The former opposition of his brothers caused that Casimir remained without lands.

Duke of Wiślica

The situation changed in 1166, when his brother Henry was killed in battle during the crusade against the Prussians; without issue, in his will he named Casimir the only heir of Sandomierz. However, Bolesław IV decided to divided the Duchy in three parts: the largest (who included the capital, Sandomierz) to him; the second (whithout any name) to Mieszko III and the third part, the district of Wiślica, was given to Casimir.

Angry and disappointed with the decision of the High Duke, Casimir rebelled against him, with the support of by his brother Mieszko III the Old, the magnate Jaksa of Miechów and Sviatoslav, son of Piotr Włostowic, as well as Jan I, Archbishop of Gniezno and Gedko, Bishop of Kraków; also, almost all Lesser Poland was on his side. The quick actions of the High Duke finally stopped the rebellion. At the end, Casimir retain only Wiślica.

In 1172, Mieszko III rebelled against the High Duke, and tried to persuaded his younger brother to join him. For unknown reasons, Casimir refused to participate.

Bolesław IV died in 1173 and was succeeded by Mieszko III as High Duke. He decided to give the rest of Sandomierz to Casimir, then his only surviving brother, who finally could take the Ducal title after the illegal usurpation of the late High Duke.

Revolt against the rule of High Duke Mieszko III

The strong and dictatorial rule of the new High Duke caused a deep disaffection among the nobility. This time the new revolt prepared in 1177 had a real chance of victory. The rebellion, apart of the Lesser Poland nobility, count with the support of Gedko, Bishop of Krakow, Mieszko's eldest son Odon, Bolesław I the Tall and Casimir. The reasons about his inclusion in the revolt, after being reconciled with Mieszko, are unknown.

The battle for the supreme power had a quite strange course: Mieszko, completely surprised by the rebels in Greater Poland, withdrew to Poznan, where he stay for almost two years going heavy fighting with his son Odon. Finally, he was defeated and was forced to escape. Bolesław the Tall failed in conquest Krakow and with this the Seniorate, because he was busy fighting against his brother Mieszko I Tanglefoot and his own son Jarosław; soon defeated, he asked Casimir for help. After a successfully action in Silesia, he marched to Kraków, who was quickly conquest. Casimir, now Duke of Kraków, decided to conclude a treaty under which the Bolesław the Tall obtain the full authority over the Lower Silesia, in return for what Casimir granted to the then deposed Mieszko Tanglefoot the Lesser Poland districts of Bytom and Oświęcim, who formerly were a gift for Casimir's godson and namesake: Casimir, the only son of Mieszko Tanglefoot.

Casimir II, High Duke of Poland

The rebellion against Mieszko III in 1177 ended in a full success to Casimir, which not only conquest Kraków (including the districts of Sieradz and Łęczyca)-and with this the title of High Duke-, but also managed to extend his sovereignty over Silesia (then divided between four princes: Bolesław the Tall, Mieszko I Tanglefoot, Konrad Spindleshanks and Jarosław of Opole), Greater Poland (ruled by Odon), Masovia and Kuyavia (ruled by Leszek the White, then a minor and under the tutelage of his mother and the voivode Żyrona, one of his followers) and Gdańsk Pomerania (ruled by the Duke Sambor I as a vassal).

However, Mieszko III worked intensively for their return, firstly in Bohemia, then in Germany and Pomerania. To achieve his ambitious of made hereditary the throne of Kraków (and with this the Seniorate) on his descendants, Casimir called an assembly of nobles at Łęczyca in 1180. He granted privileges to the nobles and the Church, lifting a tax on the profits of the clergy and relinquishing his rights over the lands of deceased bishops. By these acts, he won acceptance of the principle of hereditary succession to Kraków, though it would take more than a century to restore the Polish Kingship.

In less than a year after the assembly of Łęczyca (first half of 1181), Mieszko III, with the assistance of Mestwin I of Pomerania conquest the Eastern greater Poland (including Gniezno and Kalisz) and managed to persuade his son Odon to submit (according to some historians, was there when Odon received from his father Poznań as a Duchy, on the borders of the Obra River). At the same time, Leszek of Masovia decided to escape from the influence of Casimir and named Mieszko the Younger (Mieszko III's son), as a governor of Masovia and Kuyavia, and with this, a tacit promise of succession over that lands.

Foreign Politics. Relations with Kiev and the Succession of Halych

For unknown reasons, Casimir didn't react to these events and decided only secure his authority over Lesser Poland. A diplomatic meeting occurred only in 1184 at the court of the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa where Casimir (wanting to neutralize the actions of Mieszko III and retain the power over the country), paid homage to Barbarossa and give to him a high tribute.

The most important issue during the reign of Casimir, in addition to his relations with his brother Mieszko III, was the issue of the politics towards Russian principalities. The first task before which he became in High Duke was his attempts to create diplomatic bonds with the Kievan Russians. The Grand Princes of Kiev were strongly associated with the previous High Dukes through marriages with Kievan princesses (Bolesław IV with Princess Wierzchosławą and Mieszko III with Princess Evdokia). For this purpose, in November 1178 Casimir arranged the marriage of his daughter Maria with Prince Vsevolod IV of Kiev[1].

His first major intervention in the affairs of the Russian princes occurred in 1180, when the beginning of the dispute between Prince Vasilko, Prince of Shumsk and Dorohychyn (also son-in-law of Bolesław IV) and Leszek of Masovia for the region of Wlodzimierz (Duchy of Minsk), as support of the former. The war ended with the success of Casimir, who conquest Wlodimierz and Brest, while Wasylko remained in Drohiczyn.

The war has not definitively settled about the matter of the property of Brest, which was granted as a vassal state to Prince Sviatoslav, Vasilko's cousin and also Casimir's nephew (son of his sister Agnes). In 1182 was a new revolt against Svyatoslav's rule. Thanks to Casimir's intervention, Sviatoslav was restored in the throne. Nevertless, shortly after Casimir saw that the situation was unstable and finally decided to give the power to Sviatoslav's brother, Roman.

In 1187 Prince Yaroslav Osmomysl of Halych died, and began a long struggle for his succession. Initially, the authority over the principality was taken by his younger son, Oleg, but soon he was murdered by the boyards and Halych was taken by the eldest son of Yaroslav, Vladimirko. Vladimirko's reign was also far from stability, a situation used by Prince Roman of Brest, who, with the help of his uncle Casimir, deposed him and take full control over Halych. The deposed Vladimirko escape to Hungary under the protection of King Béla III (his relative; Vladimirko's paternal grandmother was an Hungarian princess), who decided to send his army to Halych. After his defeat, Roman escape to Kraków and Vladimirko, as act of revenge, invaded the Lesser Poland. However, soon Béla III decided to join Halych to Hungary, and deposed Vladimirko, who was placed as Prince of Halych by the King's second son, Andrew.

The war continue until two years later, when Casimir, after follow the instructions of Emperor Frederick, who decided to help Vladimirko after he declared himself his subject, restored his authority over Halych.

Internal Politics. Brief Restoration of Mieszko III and the Succession over Masovia and Kuyavia

In 1186 Leszek, Duke of Masovia and Kuyavia died. Before his death the sickly Duke decided to give all his lands to Casimir. Previously, Leszek had promise the inheritance to his older uncle Mieszko III, but his dictatorial proceedings had changed his mind and decided in Casimir's favor. Shortly after Leszek's death, Mieszko occupied Kuyavia, and Casimir only could take possession over Masovia. However, thanks to Masovian inheritance, Casimir became in the most powerful ruler of Poland.

The involvement of Casimir in the Russian affairs was used in 1191 by Mieszko III, who could take control over Wawel and with this, the title of High Duke and the control over the Seniorate. Immediately, he declared Kraków an hereditary fief to his descendants, leaving his son Mieszko the Younger as a governor. The conflict was finally ended peacefully, as Casimir - after his return from Russia - regained the capital without fight, after Mieszko escape at the side of his father.

He planned to found a University in Kraków, he had already started to build the building, but his sudden death balked Casimir II's plans. The university was later established by Casimir III.

The last goal of Casimir's reign was at the beginning of 1194, when he organized an expedition against the Yotvingians. The expedition ended with a full success, and Casimir had a triumphant return to Kraków. After a banquet made to celebrate his return, Casimir died unexpectedly, on 5 May 1194. Some historians believed that he was poisoned.

Relations with the Church

During his reign, Casimir was very generous to the Church, especially with the Cistercians monasteries of Wąchocku, Jędrzejow, Koprzywnicy and Sulejów; with the Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Miechów and Regular Canonry of Czerwińsk nad Wisłą and Trzemeszno and the Order of the Knights Hospitaller in Zagość. He also tried to expand the cult of Saint Floriana, whose remains were brought to Kraków by Bishop Gedko.

Marriage and Issue

Around 1163, Casimir married with Helena (ca. 1140/42 - ca. 1202/06), daughter of Conrad II, Duke of Znojmo, member of the Přemyslid dynasty of Bohemia.[2][3][4] They had seven children:[5][6]

  1. Maria (1164 - 1194), married in November 1178 to Prince Vsevolod IV of Kiev.
  2. Casimir (ca. 1165? - 1 March 1167).
  3. Bolesław (ca. 1168/71 - 16 April 1182). He died accidentally, after falling from a tree.
  4. Odon, died in infancy.[7]
  5. Adelaide (ca. 1177/84 - 8 December 1211), foundress of the convent of St. Jakob in Sandomierz.
  6. Leszek the White (ca. 1186/87 - Marcinkow, 23 November 1227).
  7. Konrad (ca. 1187/88 - 31 August 1247).

References

  1. ^ Through this union, Casimir was a direct ancestor of the last Přemyslid Kings of Bohemia and the Holy Roman Emperors of the House of Luxemburg.
  2. ^ http://homepage.mac.com/crowns/pl/avtxt.html
  3. ^ Complete Genealogy of the Přemyslids
  4. ^ RUSSIA, Rurik. The Ipatiewskaia Chronicle records that Prince Mstislav was the first cousin of Leszek the White, son of Helena. In consequence, and after a genealogical reconstruction, the wife of Casimir maybe was Yelena Rostislavna of Kiev. But, according to Europäische Stammtafeln, Helena of Znojmo was the only wife of Casimir the Just.
  5. ^ Complete Genealogy of the House of Piast
  6. ^ POLAND
  7. ^ K. Jasiński, Rodowód Piastów małopolskich i kujawskich, p. 247.
Casimir II the Just
Born: 1138 Died: 5 May 1194
Preceded by
Bolesław IV the Curly
Duke of Sandomierz
1173–1194
Succeeded by
Leszek the White
and Konrad
Preceded by
Mieszko III the Old
High Duke of Poland
1177–1191
Succeeded by
Mieszko III the Old
Preceded by
Mieszko III the Old
High Duke of Poland
1191–1194
Succeeded by
Leszek the White
Preceded by
new creation
Duke of Kalisz
1177–1182
Succeeded by
Mieszko III the Old
Preceded by
new creation
Duke of Gniezno
1177–1182
Succeeded by
Mieszko III the Old
Preceded by
Leszek
Duke of Masovia
1186–1194
Succeeded by
Leszek the White
and Konrad

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message