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Catalonia
Catalunya (Catalan)
Cataluña (Spanish)
Catalonha (Occitan)
—  Autonomous Community  —
Flag of Catalonia
Flag
Coat-of-arms of Catalonia
Coat of arms
Map of Catalonia
Coordinates: 41°49′N 1°28′E / 41.817°N 1.467°E / 41.817; 1.467Coordinates: 41°49′N 1°28′E / 41.817°N 1.467°E / 41.817; 1.467
Country Spain Spain
Capital Barcelona
Government
 - President José Montilla Aguilera (PSC)
Area (6.3% of Spain; Ranked 6th)
 - Total 32,114 km2 (12,399.3 sq mi)
Population (2009)
 - Total 7,475,420
 Density 232.8/km2 (602.9/sq mi)
 - Pop. rank 2nd
 - Percent 16% of Spain
ISO 3166-2 CT
Anthem Els Segadors
Official languages Catalan, Spanish
and Aranese.
Statute of Autonomy 9 September 1932,
31 December 1979 current: 9 August 2006
Parliament of Catalonia 135 members
Spanish Congress seats 47 members (out of 350)
Spanish Senate seats 16 members (out of 264)
Website Generalitat de Catalunya
The Medieval church of Sant Climent in Taüll, located at the foothills of the Pyrenees.
The quaint town of Cadaqués, a popular tourist destination, is located on the Mediterranean coast.
.Catalonia (Catalan: Catalunya; Spanish: Cataluña; Aranese; Catalonha) is one of the seventeen Autonomous Communities of the Kingdom of Spain.^ Catalan is the language of Catalonia (Catalunya).
  • Possible Fallen Angel In Catalonia (Spain) - Video 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is spoken not only in Catalonia, Valencia and the Balearic Islands (Autonomous Communities where it has the same legal status as Spanish), but also in the eastern part of Aragón, the Principality of Andorra (where it is the only official language), the historically Catalan territories of southern France and the city of Alguer (Alguerho, Italy).
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Catalonia is famous for its own unique customs, including its language, Catalan, which is far more than an accented Spanish.
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - Triporati : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.triporati.com [Source type: General]
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - AAA Destination Discovery : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC aaacarolinas.triporati.com [Source type: News]

Its capital city is Barcelona. Catalonia covers an area of 32,114 km² and has an official population of 7,475,420[1]. .It borders France and Andorra to the north, Aragon to the west, the Valencian Community to the south, and the Mediterranean Sea to the east (580 km coastline).^ In the Middle Ages, as a central component to the Crown of Aragon, it became one of the most important powers in the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Representatives from every Catalonian land, including Catalonian Aragon (even Monzon/Montsó) and the Valencian North come to pay homage to the Archduke.

^ These areas include Ile-de-France, Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg, South East England, Stockholm, Emilia-Romagna and Lombardy.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The official languages are Catalan, Spanish and Aranese.^ Catalonia is famous for its own unique customs, including its language, Catalan, which is far more than an accented Spanish.
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - Triporati : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.triporati.com [Source type: General]
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - AAA Destination Discovery : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC aaacarolinas.triporati.com [Source type: News]



Contents

Etymology

From the 12th century, this is thought to be the first written document in the Catalan language.
.The name Catalunya (Catalonia) began to be used in the 12th century[2] in reference to the group of counties that comprised the Marca Hispanica.^ Use the filters below to narrow down the 259 Apartments and rentals we have in Catalunya (Catalonia) Featured Property .
  • Holiday Rentals Catalonia - Rent Holiday Accommodation in Catalunya 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.vacationrentalpeople.com [Source type: General]

The origin of the term is subject to diverse interpretations. A theory suggests that Catalunya derives from the term "Land of Castles",[3] having evolved from the term castlà, the ruler of a castle (see castellan).[4] This theory, therefore, suggests that the term castellà ("Castilian") would have been synonymous. Though critics usually consider it rather limited.[5][6]
Another theory suggests that Catalunya derives from Gothia, "Land of the Goths", since the Spanish March was one of the places known as Gothia, whence Gothland and Gothlandia theoretically derived,[7]
Yet another theory less accepted, points to the Lacetani, an Iberian tribe that lived in the area, and whose name, due to the Roman influence, could have evolved to Katelans and then Catalans.[8]

Climate

The climate of Catalonia is diverse. .The populated areas lying by the coast in Tarragona, Barcelona and Girona feature a Mediterranean climate.^ The universities in Lleida, Barcelona, Girona, Tarragona, and Vic are permanently shut down.

The inland part (including the Lleida province and the inner part of Barcelona) show a mostly continental Mediterranean climate. The Pyreneean peaks have a mountain or even Alpine climate at the highest summits.
.In the Mediterranean area, summers are dry and hot with sea breezes, and the maximum temperature is around 25-30 °C. Winter is cool or cold depending on the location.^ We were between two and three thousand feet above sea-level, it was mid winter and the cold was unspeakable.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

It snows frequently in the Pyrenees, and it occasionally snows at lower altitudes, even by the coastline. .Spring and autumn are typically the rainiest seasons, except for the Pyrenean valleys, where summer is typically stormy.^ Catalonia Weather Best time to visit: Summer — Beaches\n Spring/autumn — hiking, exploring, backpacking, general interest\n Winter — Skiing .
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - Triporati : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.triporati.com [Source type: General]
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - AAA Destination Discovery : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC aaacarolinas.triporati.com [Source type: News]

The inland part of Catalonia is hotter and drier in summer. .Temperature may reach 35 °C, some days even 40 °C. Nights are cooler there than at the coast with the temperature of around 14° to 16 °C. Fog is not uncommon in valleys and plains, it can be especially resilient and with freezing drizzle episodes during winter by the Segre and other river valleys.^ The days grew hotter and even the nights grew tolerably warm.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ There was also a boy of not more than twelve; they were even arresting children, apparently.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ And all day and night the meaningless bullets wandering across the empty valleys and only by some rare improbable chance getting home on a human body.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

Legal status within Spain

.Catalonia, alongside Basque Country and Galicia was set apart from the rest of Spain as a Historical nationality and given the ability to accede to autonomy automatically, which resulted in the 1979 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia.^ There are also other less convincing arguments such as the populist claim that Catalonia has a historical debt to the rest of Spain, or the economically mistaken opinion that such a fiscal imbalance is necessary as a means to finance Catalonia's large trade surplus with the rest of Spain.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This has led to Catalonia being a relatively rich and dynamic region within Spain, a country that is relatively poor by E.U. standards.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are already dates set for referendums on independence across Europe with the Basque Country set to be the first in 2008, with a non legally binding (according to Madrid) referendum .

.The rest of Spain, in a process spearheaded by Andalusia and completed by 1985, carved itself into 14 additional Autonomous Communities by drafting their own Statutes of Autonomy.^ Actually it's the only region which has a large autonomy in Spain , they have even own police , institutions ...etc .
  • Cruyff to coach Catalonia side - Soccerway 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.soccerway.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And thirdly, it is not necessary to venture into economic cooperation with the rest of the European countries from Spain .

After 2003 there has been a round of amendments to the various Statutes of Autonomy (notably, alongside Catalonia's, those of Aragon, the Valencian Community, the Balearic Islands and the Canary Islands)
Both the 1979 Statute of Autonomy and the current one, approved in 2006, state that Catalonia, as a nationality, exercises its self-government constituted as an autonomous community in accordance with the Constitution and with the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, which is its basic institutional law.[9]
.The Preamble of the 2006 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia states the Parliament of Catalonia defined Catalonia as a nation, but that the Spanish Constitution recognizes Catalonia's national reality as a nationality[10].^ Final reflections Unlike many nations in Europe that have flourished due to the creation of a nation-state, Catalonia exists despite a unitary and centralist Spanish state that has repeatedly tried to eliminate it as a separate cultural entity.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Year 1978 the Constitution was approved to the Spanish general cuts, that fixed the ordering legal-political of the Spanish state.

^ The regionalized investment of the Spanish state in Catalonia from 1982 to 1998 represented only about 8.5 percent of the total.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Preamble of the Statute lacks legal value, thus the constitutional status is the same as it was in 1979, which is an Autonomous Community.^ It is spoken not only in Catalonia, Valencia and the Balearic Islands (Autonomous Communities where it has the same legal status as Spanish), but also in the eastern part of Aragón, the Principality of Andorra (where it is the only official language), the historically Catalan territories of southern France and the city of Alguer (Alguerho, Italy).
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.While this Statute was approved by and sanctioned by both the Catalan and the Spanish parliaments, and later by referendum in Catalonia, it has been legally contested by the surrounding Autonomous Communities of Aragon, Balearic Islands and the Valencian Community,[11] as well as by the Partido Popular.^ It is spoken not only in Catalonia, Valencia and the Balearic Islands (Autonomous Communities where it has the same legal status as Spanish), but also in the eastern part of Aragón, the Principality of Andorra (where it is the only official language), the historically Catalan territories of southern France and the city of Alguer (Alguerho, Italy).
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Catalonia is famous for its own unique customs, including its language, Catalan, which is far more than an accented Spanish.
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - Triporati : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.triporati.com [Source type: General]
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - AAA Destination Discovery : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC aaacarolinas.triporati.com [Source type: News]

^ At the beginning both the Central Government and the Generalite de Cataluña (the semi-autonomous Catalan Government) could definitely be said to represent the working class.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

.The objections are based on various issues such as disputed cultural heritage but, especially, on the Statute's alleged breaches of the principle of "solidarity between regions" enshrined by the Constitution in fiscal and educational matters.^ The central argument supporting the past and present fiscal imbalance is a so-called inter-regional solidarity.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The difference between what is paid by the region and what is received back in the form of public spending is the fiscal balance, which can be positive (a 'fiscal surplus' for Catalonia) or negative (a 'fiscal deficit' for Catalonia).
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Autonomous Government and Parliament have substantial responsibilities in areas such as education and culture, its own health care system, its own police, etc.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

As of December 2009, the Constitutional Court of Spain is assessing the constitutionality of the challenged articles; its binding conclusion is expected in 2010.
Roman aqueduct in Tarragona.

History

Roman amphitheatre in Tarragona.
Counties of the Marca Hispanica.
Catalan Court.
Carrer del Bisbe (Bishop Street) in Barcelona's Barri Gòtic.
Monastery of Our Lady of Montserrat Santa Maria de Montserrat.
Palau de la Música Catalana, built between 1905–1908.
.Like some other parts in the rest of the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula, Catalonia was colonised by Ancient Greeks, who settled around the Roses area.^ I understand separation in some countries should be done without arguing like East Comor which once belonged to Indonesia , but if their beliefs are different and killing each others then they have to separate them .
  • Cruyff to coach Catalonia side - Soccerway 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.soccerway.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Such feelings raise eyebrows in other parts of Spain, Europe and elsewhere, but are widely accepted as legitimate within Catalonia.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In some countries like France where Corsicans , Basques , Bretons ...etc who can seek for independance also , I have the same idea about it .
  • Cruyff to coach Catalonia side - Soccerway 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.soccerway.com [Source type: Original source]

Both Greeks and Carthaginians (who, in the course of the Second Punic War, briefly ruled the territory) interacted with the main Iberian substratum. After the Carthaginian defeat, it became, along with the rest of Hispania, a part of the Roman Empire, Tarraco being one of the main Roman posts in the Iberian Peninsula
It then came under Visigothic rule for four centuries after Rome's collapse. In the eighth century, it came under Moorish al-Andalus control. Still, after the defeat of Emir Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi's troops at Tours in 732, the Franks conquered former Visigoth states which had been captured by the Muslims or had become allied with them in what today is the northernmost part of Catalonia. Charlemagne created in 795 what came to be known as the Marca Hispanica, a buffer zone beyond the province of Septimania made up of locally administered separate petty kingdoms which served as a defensive barrier between the Umayyad Moors of Al-Andalus and the Frankish Kingdom.
.The Catalan culture started to develop in the Middle Ages stemming from a number of these petty kingdoms organised as small counties throughout the northernmost part of Catalonia.^ The membership of these unions throughout Spain now numbered about a million and a half.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Jaume Vicens Vives, Catalan historian Many citizens of Flanders in Belgium, Scotland in the United Kingdom and Catalonia in Spain do not consider themselves merely part of a region but an independent nation that has no state of its own.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is looking like Catalonia is telling fibs when they say that the bull is not part of ‘Catalan Fiestas’.
  • Catalonia Weblog - news, stories, travel articles and opinions from Catalonia a region in north east Spain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.lifeincatalonia.com [Source type: General]

.The counts of Barcelona were Frankish vassals nominated by the emperor then the king of France, to whom they were feudatories (801–987).^ The Vicar General in Barcelona, appointed by the invaders, commands they "obey, serve, and venerate our king of Spain".

^ The Great Alliance declares war on France and FelipeV. 1703: Emperor Leopold proclaims the Archduke Karl as king of Spain in Vienna.

.In 987 the count of Barcelona did not recognize the French king Hugh Capet and his new dynasty which put it effectively out of the Frankish rule.^ News about his death arrives in Paris when the "Sun-King" is out hunting with “his ladies".

^ Once again, Catalonia lost, and as a consequence, the new Bourbon king wiped out all Catalan institutions and forbade the official use of the Catalan language.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All word of it was kept out of the Barcelona papers (the Valencia papers, which were running the spy stories, did not reach the Aragon front), and no doubt one reason for arresting all the P.O.U.M. militiamen on leave in Barcelona was to prevent them from getting back to the front with the news.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

.Two years later, in 989, Catalonia declared its independence.^ (Even a year later it was computed that the Anarcho-Syndicalists in Catalonia possessed 30,000 rifles.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ I am a foreigner living in Catalonia for many years, and though I am strongly in favour of its independence, I feel this long article is not going to convince many people around these forums...
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In a few places independent Anarchist communes were set up, and some of them remained in being till about a year later, when they were forcibly suppressed by the Government.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

.Then, in 1137, Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona married Queen Petronila of Aragon establishing the dynastic union of the County of Barcelona with the Kingdom of Aragon which was to create the Crown of Aragon.^ With Catholic Kings there is dynastic but non legal union: the different kingdoms continue being independent, only that with common king (in the case of Corona d’Aragó (Aragon Crown) they even reserved the right to change of king in certain circumstances).

.It was not until 1258, by means of the Treaty of Corbeil, that the king of France formally relinquished his feudal lordship over the counties of the Principality of Catalonia to the king of Aragon James I, descendant of Ramon Berenguer IV. This Treaty transformed the region's de facto independence into a de jure direct transition from French to Aragonese rule.^ It was a possession of the Crown of Aragon, but when Casanova tried to figure out why that gave Catalonia a claim, he thought they were stooping to France's level.
  • Catalonia's Struggle - A New Nations Mod AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ France outlaws the Catalan language: "The Sun-king" decrees the French language as the only legal language.

^ The Red Cross in e region of Catalonia, Spain are to distribute thousands of donated toys on The Day of the King festivities on 5th...
  • blogBCN.com | blogging in Barcelona, Catalonia and Spain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.blogbcn.com [Source type: General]

.As part of the Crown of Aragon, Catalonia became a maritime power, helping expand the Crown by trade and conquest into the Kingdom of Valencia, the Balearic Islands, and even Sardinia, Sicily, Corsica, Naples, Athens, Canary Islands and America.^ In the Middle Ages, as a central component to the Crown of Aragon, it became one of the most important powers in the Mediterranean Sea.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is spoken not only in Catalonia, Valencia and the Balearic Islands (Autonomous Communities where it has the same legal status as Spanish), but also in the eastern part of Aragón, the Principality of Andorra (where it is the only official language), the historically Catalan territories of southern France and the city of Alguer (Alguerho, Italy).
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was a possession of the Crown of Aragon, but when Casanova tried to figure out why that gave Catalonia a claim, he thought they were stooping to France's level.
  • Catalonia's Struggle - A New Nations Mod AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

In 1410, King Martin I died without surviving descendants. .As a result, by the Pact of Caspe, Ferdinand of Antequera from the Castilian dynasty of Trastamara, received the Crown of Aragon as Ferdinand I of Aragon.^ Just like when the Barcelona Dynasty ended without any direct heirs and the Castilian Dynasty of the Trastamara seized the Catalonian crown (1412) in violation of signed treaties, so now does a French anti-Catalonian Dynasty seize the Spanish crowns in violation of signed treaties.

His grandson, King Ferdinand II of Aragon married Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1469; retrospectively, this is seen as the dawn of the Kingdom of Spain. At that point both Castile and Aragon remained distinct territories, each keeping its own traditional institutions, Parliaments and laws. .Political power began to shift away from Aragon toward Castile and, subsequently, from Castile to the Spanish Empire.^ But it would not be fair to attribute it solely to the shift of political power.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

For an extended period, Catalonia, as part of the former Crown of Aragon, continued to retain its own usages and laws, but these gradually eroded in the course of the transition from feudalism to a modern state, fueled by the kings' struggle to have more centralized territories. .Over the next few centuries, Catalonia was generally on the losing side of a series of local conflicts that led steadily to more centralization of power in Spain, like the Reapers' War (1640–1652).^ Army troglodytes in Spain Hostage to Catalonia Spain´s old guard defiant as general sacked Manifestation 18 of february in Barcelona, under t...

^ I suppose there is no one who spent more than a few weeks in Spain without being in some degree disillusioned.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ As before, if you are not interested in political controversy and the mob of parties and sub-parties with their confusing names (rather like the names of the generals in a Chinese war), please skip.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

In 1652 the Spanish Crown offers the Roussillon county to the Kingdom of France. Now this territory is the Department of Pyrénées-Orientales, and also is named Northern Catalonia (Catalunya Nord).
.The most significant conflict was the War of the Spanish Succession, which began when Charles II of Spain (the last Spanish Habsburg) died without a successor in 1700. Catalonia, as the other territories which used to form the Crown of Aragon in the Middle Ages, mostly rose up in support of the Habsburg pretender Charles of Valencia, while the rest of Spain mostly adhered to the French Bourbon claimant, Philip V.^ He was the last Spanish Habsburg monarch.

^ The king of Castile and Aragon / Catalonia, Carlos II, drafts his last will in favor of the Duke of Anjou, totally violating the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) between Madrid and Paris, which explicitly excluded any rights from the French Royal Dynasty over any Spanish crowns through marriage; the Duke is Carlos II's nephew by marriage.

^ In order to achieve this goal, the most demanding and drastic measures are drawn up and put into effect without considerations for anyone" ("Dictated Instructions sent to the Correctors in Catalonia").

.Following the fall of Barcelona on 11 September 1714, the 'special status' of the territories belonging to the former Crown of Aragon and its institutions were abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees, under which all its lands were incorporated to Crown of Castile, as provinces, into a united Spanish administration, as Spain moved towards a centralised government under the new Bourbon dynasty.^ By dawn all Barcelona was under fire.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) currently governs the province, along with the local Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG), with security provided by the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR).

^ Villarroel delivered his last speech at a rally for independence of all Spanish Kingdoms, Catalonian freedoms aimed at France (economic competitor) and Castile (political competitor), and for all stolen lands.

.In the latter half of the 19th century Catalonia became an industrial center; to this day it remains one of the most industrialised parts of Spain.^ Most if not all of you will one day soon KNOW this for yourself.
  • Possible Fallen Angel In Catalonia (Spain) - Video 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When we went on leave I had been a hundred and fifteen days in the line, and at the time this period seemed to me to have been one of the most futile of my whole life.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ In Catalonia, for the first few months, most of the actual power was in the hands of the Anarcho-syndicalists, who controlled most of the key industries.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

.In the first third of the 20th century, Catalonia gained and lost varying degrees of autonomy several times, receiving its first statute of autonomy during the Second Spanish Republic (1931).^ Cataluña was one of the first to become independent against the muslim invaders , and I do appreciate that , they also belonged to Spain and was one of the sites of the Hispanic mark during the 8th century .
  • Cruyff to coach Catalonia side - Soccerway 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.soccerway.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During that first week, before the street-fighting began, I had several preoccupations which interacted upon one another in a curious way.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The Catalonia Princesa will be my first choice property during my next visit to Barcelona.
  • Catalonia Princesa Hotel, Barcelona, Spain - Reviews & Official Contact Details - Travel Library 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.travel-library.com [Source type: General]

.This period was marked by political unrest and the preeminence of the Anarchists during the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939).^ During the first two months of the war it was the Anarchists more than anyone else who had saved the situation, and much later than this the Anarchist militia, in spite of their indiscipline, were notoriously the best fighters among the purely Spanish forces.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ And beware of exactly the same things when you read any other book on this period of the Spanish war.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ For weeks on end, during the dull period when nothing was happening round Huesca, I found myself in the middle of a political discussion that practically never ended.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

.They were also active throughout the early 20th century, achieving the first eight-hour workday in the world in 1919. After the defeat of the Republic in the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) which brought General Francisco Franco to power, his regime suppressed any kind of public activities associated with Catalan nationalism, Anarchism, Socialism, Democracy or Communism, such as publishing books on the matter or simply discussing them in open meetings.^ Cataluña was one of the first to become independent against the muslim invaders , and I do appreciate that , they also belonged to Spain and was one of the sites of the Hispanic mark during the 8th century .
  • Cruyff to coach Catalonia side - Soccerway 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.soccerway.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the Daily Worker (6 August 1936) those who said that the Spanish people were fighting for social revolution, or for anything other than bourgeois democracy, were’ downright lying scoundrels’.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The general swing to the Right dates from about October-November 1936, when the U.S.S.R. began to supply arms to the Government and power began to pass from the Anarchists to the Communists.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

As part of this suppression the use of Catalan in government-run institutions and in public events was banned. During later stages of the Francoist régime certain folkloric and religious celebrations in Catalan resumed and were tolerated. Use of Catalan in the mass media was forbidden, but was permitted from the early 1950s[12] in the theatre. Publishing in Catalan continued throughout the dictatorship.[13]
.After Franco's death (1975) and with the adoption of a democratic Spanish constitution (1978), Catalonia recovered political and cultural autonomy.^ Year 1978 the Constitution was approved to the Spanish general cuts, that fixed the ordering legal-political of the Spanish state.

^ The 1978 constitution does not recognise Catalonia as a nation, though it ambiguously refers to "nationalities" within Spain.

^ On the other hand, Juan López, a member of the Valencia Government, declared in February 1937 that ‘the Spanish people are shedding their blood, not for the democratic Republic and its paper Constitution, but for ...
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

.Today, Catalonia is one of the most economically dynamic regions of Spain.^ But in Spain, especially in Catalonia, it was an attitude that no one could or did keep up indefinitely.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ World Holiday Homes Europe Holiday Homes Holiday Homes in Spain Catalunya (Catalonia) (259 properties) This special corner of Spain boasts the spectacular region of Barcelona and Tarragona.
  • Holiday Rentals Catalonia - Rent Holiday Accommodation in Catalunya 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.vacationrentalpeople.com [Source type: General]

^ About Holiday Rentals Catalonia - Rent Holiday Accommodation in Catalunya: This special corner of Spain boasts the spectacular region of Barcelona and Tarragona.
  • Holiday Rentals Catalonia - Rent Holiday Accommodation in Catalunya 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.vacationrentalpeople.com [Source type: General]

.The Catalan capital and largest city, Barcelona, is a major international cultural centre and a major tourist destination.^ Old Town 1, Barcelona city centre .
  • Holiday Rentals Catalonia - Rent Holiday Accommodation in Catalunya 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.vacationrentalpeople.com [Source type: General]

^ Large, modern apartment for up to 12 guests in the city centre of Barcelona.
  • Holiday Rentals Catalonia - Rent Holiday Accommodation in Catalunya 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.vacationrentalpeople.com [Source type: General]

^ It said Cruyff would be officially unveiled on November 9 in the Catalan capital of Barcelona.
  • Cruyff to coach Catalonia side - Soccerway 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.soccerway.com [Source type: Original source]

Languages

.Originating in the historic territory of Catalonia, Catalan is one of the three official languages and has enjoyed special status since the approval of the Statute of Autonomy of 1979 which declares it to be the "native language of Catalonia".[14] The other languages with official status are Spanish, which has official status throughout Spain, and Aranese, a dialect of Gascon Occitan spoken in the Aran Valley.^ Catalan is the language of Catalonia (Catalunya).
  • Possible Fallen Angel In Catalonia (Spain) - Video 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Catalan is the dialect of catalunia, that zone of Spain.
  • Possible Fallen Angel In Catalonia (Spain) - Video 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Catalonia is famous for its own unique customs, including its language, Catalan, which is far more than an accented Spanish.
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - Triporati : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.triporati.com [Source type: General]
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - AAA Destination Discovery : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC aaacarolinas.triporati.com [Source type: News]

.Under the Franco dictatorship Catalan was, until the 1970s, excluded from the state education system and all other official and public use, including the prohibition of giving children Catalan names[citation needed].^ It is when current Spain is formed like a single kingdom, and it does with the name of Kingdom of Castile, using the numeration of the names of the kings of Castile and the shield of Castile like own of all Spain until 1868, with the rising of the I Republic, in which the arms of Catalunya-Aragón and Navarre are incorporated to the shield of the state, as it can be verified simply with the currencies of legal course from 1714 to 1868.

^ Half-way down we met a Frenchman — I am not going to give his name, for though he had no connexion with the P.O.U.M. he was a good friend to us all during the trouble.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The waiter at the café I frequented was a pro-Franco Spaniard and used to give me lowering glances as he served me with an aperitif.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

During the 1940s the use of Catalan was restricted to private conversations, and the publication of books in Catalan was forbidden. .Rural-urban migration originating in other parts of Spain also reduced the social use of the language in urban areas, while increasing the use of Spanish.^ Holly, it is immaterial if there are people of Catalan descent in other areas of Spain it is ultimately the people of the region that should have the right to decide how they are governed.
  • Cruyff to coach Catalonia side - Soccerway 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.soccerway.com [Source type: Original source]

Lately, a similar sociolinguistic phenomenon has occurred with foreign immigration. From the 1950s onwards, restrictions were relaxed, and some publishing houses were allowed to publish books in Catalan. Subsequently, Catalan cultural activity increased in the 1960s and Catalan classes began thanks to the initiative of associations such as Òmnium Cultural.
.After the end of Franco's dictatorship, the newly established self-governing democratic institutions in Catalonia embarked on a long-term language policy to increase the use of Catalan[15] and has, since 1983, enforced laws which attempt to protect, and extend, the use of Catalan.^ The Barcelona fighting had given the Valencia Government the long-wanted excuse to assume fuller control of Catalonia.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The auto-governed population was being forced to speak and use two (or more) languages.

^ Did the Catalans on December 13, set a new world record in democratic self-organization?
  • blogBCN.com | blogging in Barcelona, Catalonia and Spain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.blogbcn.com [Source type: General]

.Some groups consider these efforts a way to discourage the use of Spanish,[16][17][18][19] while some others, including the Catalan government[20] and the European Union[21] consider the policies respectful,[22] or even as an example which "should be disseminated throughout the Union".[23].^ Catalonia is famous for its own unique customs, including its language, Catalan, which is far more than an accented Spanish.
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - Triporati : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.triporati.com [Source type: General]
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - AAA Destination Discovery : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC aaacarolinas.triporati.com [Source type: News]

^ Friday December 18, 2009, 2:39 pm Congratulations to the Catalan government for banning bullfighting and to Brigitte Bardot.
  • Catalonia to become first Spanish region to ban 'sadistic sp... - Care2 News Network 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: General]

^ The impression given is that some hours elapsed between the building of the barricades and the firing of the first volleys; whereas — naturally — it was the other way about.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

.Recently, some of these policies have been criticized for trying to promote Catalan by imposing fines on businesses.^ I tried some of these once.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

The United Nations Human Rights Committee ruled in 1993 against similar policies in Quebec stating that "A State may choose one or more official languages but it may not exclude outside the spheres of public life, the freedom to express oneself in a certain language".[24]
.Today, Catalan is the main language of the Catalan autonomous government and the other public institutions that fall under its jurisdiction.^ At the beginning both the Central Government and the Generalite de Cataluña (the semi-autonomous Catalan Government) could definitely be said to represent the working class.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ There were areas where the institutions of local government remained almost untouched, and others where they existed side by side with revolutionary committees.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

Basic public education is given in Catalan except for two hours per week of Spanish medium instruction. Businesses are required to display all information (e.g. menus, posters) at least in .Catalan under penalty of fines; there is no obligation to display this information in either Occitan or Spanish, although there is no restriction on doing so in these or other languages and this is often done, in particular in Spanish.^ There is no mention of where these ‘premises’ were.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Catalonia is famous for its own unique customs, including its language, Catalan, which is far more than an accented Spanish.
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - AAA Destination Discovery : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC aaacarolinas.triporati.com [Source type: News]

^ There were no private motor-cars, they had all been commandeered, and all the trams and taxis and much of the other transport were painted red and black.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

The use of fines was introduced in a 1997 linguistic law[25] that aims to increase the use of Catalan. .The law ensures that both Catalan and Spanish – being official languages – can be used by the citizens without prejudice in all public and private activities[26], but primary education can only be taken in Catalan language.^ Catalonia is famous for its own unique customs, including its language, Catalan, which is far more than an accented Spanish.
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - AAA Destination Discovery : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC aaacarolinas.triporati.com [Source type: News]

^ All this time I was having the usual struggles with the Spanish language.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ There are four official languages in Spain: Spanish, Catalan (from Catalunya), Gallego (from Galicia) and Euskaro (from Euskadi).
  • Possible Fallen Angel In Catalonia (Spain) - Video 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Generalitat uses Catalan in its communications and notifications addressed to the general population, but citizens can also receive information from the Generalitat in Spanish if they so desire.^ If you can immobilize a certain number of men by making them desert, so much the better; deserters are actually more useful to you than corpses, because they can give information.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ They were very useful to us, for they had an extraordinary dexterity at rolling the dried-up Spanish tobacco into cigarettes.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ In general ETA it makes a call to the Basque citizens so that they are implied in the process and so that they fight by the rights of our town.

[27]
.According to the most recent linguistic census held by the Government of Catalonia as of 2009, a plurality claims Spanish as "their own language" (37.26% Catalan compared to 46.53% Spanish).^ Catalan is the language of Catalonia (Catalunya).
  • Possible Fallen Angel In Catalonia (Spain) - Video 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Catalonia is famous for its own unique customs, including its language, Catalan, which is far more than an accented Spanish.
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - Triporati : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.triporati.com [Source type: General]
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - AAA Destination Discovery : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC aaacarolinas.triporati.com [Source type: News]

^ Friday December 18, 2009, 2:39 pm Congratulations to the Catalan government for banning bullfighting and to Brigitte Bardot.
  • Catalonia to become first Spanish region to ban 'sadistic sp... - Care2 News Network 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: General]

.In everyday use, 11,95% of the population claim to use both languages equally, while 35,54% use mainly Catalan and 45,92% use mainly Spanish.^ The auto-governed population was being forced to speak and use two (or more) languages.

[28]
Also, starting with the Statute of Autonomy of 1979, Aranese (a dialect of Gascon Occitan) has been official and subject to special protection in the Aran Valley. This small area of 7,000 inhabitants was the only place where a dialect of Occitan has received full official status. Then, on 9 August 2006, when the new Statute came into force, Occitan became official throughout Catalonia.
.Due to the intense immigration which Spain in general and Catalonia in particular experienced in the first decade of the twentyfirst century, many foreign languages are spoken in various cultural communities in Catalonia, of which Tarifit Berber [29], Moroccan Arabic, and Urdu are the more common[30].^ Cataluña was one of the first to become independent against the muslim invaders , and I do appreciate that , they also belonged to Spain and was one of the sites of the Hispanic mark during the 8th century .
  • Cruyff to coach Catalonia side - Soccerway 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.soccerway.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Army troglodytes in Spain Hostage to Catalonia Spain´s old guard defiant as general sacked Manifestation 18 of february in Barcelona, under t...

^ Cataluña want more respect about their language , culture , history , and in Spain there are millions of people who are originally Catalans and not only people of Cataluña who are Catalans , it's unfair to let some people decide and not all the people .
  • Cruyff to coach Catalonia side - Soccerway 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.soccerway.com [Source type: Original source]

Economy

[31] The distribution of sectors is the following one:
.In 2008 the regional GDP of Catalonia was 216.9 € billion ($314.4 billion) and per capita GDP was 29,757 € ($42,858) - similar to that of countries such as the United Kingdom or Austria.^ French traders take over control of Valencian trading (the Kingdom of Valencia is in the region of southern Catalonia).

[32]. In this year, the GDP growth was 3.7%,[33]. In the context of the 2008 financial crisis, Catalonia is expected to suffer a recession amounting to almost a 2% contraction of its regional GDP in 2009[34]
.The main tourist destinations in Catalonia are the city of Barcelona, the beaches of the Costa Brava at Girona and the Costa Daurada at Tarragona.^ The universities in Lleida, Barcelona, Girona, Tarragona, and Vic are permanently shut down.

^ Over-developed tourist sections of Costa Brava Top Rated Activities .
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - Triporati : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.triporati.com [Source type: General]

^ Figs, olive-oil, ham and salad, Costa Brava, Catalonia, Spain .
  • Catalonia Stock Photo Images. 6752 Catalonia royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

In the Pyrenees there are several ski resorts.
.Many savings banks are based in Catalonia: 10 of the 46 Spanish savings banks are Catalan and "La Caixa" is Europe's premier savings bank [35] The first private bank in Catalonia is Banc Sabadell, now fourth of the Spanish private banks.^ Catalonia is famous for its own unique customs, including its language, Catalan, which is far more than an accented Spanish.
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - Triporati : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.triporati.com [Source type: General]
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - AAA Destination Discovery : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC aaacarolinas.triporati.com [Source type: News]

^ In the first months of revolution there must have been many thousands of people who deliberately put on overalls and shouted revolutionary slogans as a way of saving their skins.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ A bill in Catalonia to ban bullfighting in the Spanish region has cleared its first obstacle today in the local legislature Friday.
  • blogBCN.com | blogging in Barcelona, Catalonia and Spain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.blogbcn.com [Source type: General]

[36]
.The stock market of Barcelona, which in 2004 traded almost 205,000 million €[citation needed]., is the second largest of Spain after Madrid, and Fira de Barcelona organizes international exhibitions and congresses to do with different sectors of the economy.^ Barcelona, the first city of Spain, was plunged into bloodshed by agents provocateurs using this subversive organization.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The Barcelona Traction Company, for instance, represented ten millions of British capital; and meanwhile the trade unions had seized all the transport in Catalonia.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ It was otherwise in Perpignan, which was stiff with Government partisans and where all the different factions were caballing against one another almost as in Barcelona.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

The main economic cost for the Catalan families is the purchase of a house. .According to daof ta the Society of Appraisal on the 31 December 2005 Catalonia is, after Madrid, the second most expensive region in Spain for housing: 3,397 €/m² on average(See Spanish property bubble).^ The Red Cross in e region of Catalonia, Spain are to distribute thousands of donated toys on The Day of the King festivities on 5th...
  • blogBCN.com | blogging in Barcelona, Catalonia and Spain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.blogbcn.com [Source type: General]

^ Spain Papers Review – Thursday December 31 2009 .
  • blogBCN.com | blogging in Barcelona, Catalonia and Spain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.blogbcn.com [Source type: General]

^ More » - Lura Seavey for Triporati Nestled in the Northeastern corner of Spain, bordering France along the Pyrenees mountains and the Iberian Peninsula on the coast, the region of Catalonia is most often associated with its grand city, Barcelona.
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - Triporati : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.triporati.com [Source type: General]

Politics

After Franco's death in 1975 and the adoption of a democratic constitution in Spain in 1978, Catalonia recovered, and extended, the powers that it had gained in the statute of autonomy of 1932[37] but lost with the fall of the Second Spanish Republic[38] at the end of the Spanish Civil War in 1939.
.The region has gradually achieved more autonomy since 1979. The Generalitat holds exclusive jurisdiction in culture, environment, communications, transportation, commerce, public safety and local government, and shares jurisdiction with the Spanish government in education, health and justice.^ All Environment US Politics & Gov't World Business Green Lifestyle Society & Culture Animals Health & Wellness Science & Tech Offbeat .
  • Catalonia to become first Spanish region to ban 'sadistic sp... - Care2 News Network 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: General]

[39]
.There is some nationalist sentiment present in a part of the population of Catalonia,[40] which ranges from the desire for independence from Spain expressed by Catalan separatists,[40] to a more generic demand for further autonomy.^ Catalonia is famous for its own unique customs, including its language, Catalan, which is far more than an accented Spanish.
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - Triporati : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.triporati.com [Source type: General]
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - AAA Destination Discovery : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC aaacarolinas.triporati.com [Source type: News]

^ Can I ask you what problem you have with the people of Catalonia wanting to become independent from Spain?
  • Cruyff to coach Catalonia side - Soccerway 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.soccerway.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It has pushed more Catalans into the arms of the independence movement.

[40] .Some non-binding private referendums on independence with local character and consultative nature were taken in the 13th of December 2009 in 167 different towns [5].^ There are already dates set for referendums on independence across Europe with the Basque Country set to be the first in 2008, with a non legally binding (according to Madrid) referendum .

^ Monday December 14, the program Agora on Catalan TV3 organized a debate on the outcome of the unofficial referendum on independence.
  • blogBCN.com | blogging in Barcelona, Catalonia and Spain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.blogbcn.com [Source type: General]

^ The first wave of referendums on the independence of Catalonia celebrated last 13th December has proved rather successful, both for the turn out (an average...
  • blogBCN.com | blogging in Barcelona, Catalonia and Spain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.blogbcn.com [Source type: General]

.Similar referendums are planned for year 2010 in other places.^ This will be followed by the planned 2010 referendum on independence in Scotland and a possible referendum in Catatonia in 2014.

Law and government of Catalonia

.The Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia is the fundamental organic law, second only to the Spanish Constitution from which the Statute originates.^ That could represent a greater threat to Spanish unity than Catalonia's autonomy ambitions.

^ The only thing which fundamentally it worries to the Spanish oligarchy is not to lose territory not to lose taxes.

.The Catalan Statute of Autonomy establishes that Catalonia is organized politically through the Generalitat de Catalunya, conformed by the Parliament, the Presidency of the Generalitat, the Government or Executive Council and the other institutions created by the Parliament.^ There were areas where the institutions of local government remained almost untouched, and others where they existed side by side with revolutionary committees.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result he has backtracked on a pledge to approve whatever fresh autonomy demands the Catalan parliament made, as long as they were constitutional.

^ Yet in a speech last Friday Gen Mena referred to the Catalan regional government's plans to expand its powers as a repetition of pre-civil war history (he referred to the May 1932 debates on the Catalan autonomy statute).

The seat of the Executive Council is the city of Barcelona. Since the restoration of the Generalitat on the return of democracy in Spain, the presidents of Catalonia have been Jordi Pujol (1980-2003), Pasqual Maragall (2003-2006) and José Montilla Aguilera, incumbent as of 2009.
.Catalonia is divided into four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona, which are subdivided into comarques (roughly equivalent to counties), and further into local municipalities.^ The universities in Lleida, Barcelona, Girona, Tarragona, and Vic are permanently shut down.

^ World Holiday Homes Europe Holiday Homes Holiday Homes in Spain Catalunya (Catalonia) (259 properties) This special corner of Spain boasts the spectacular region of Barcelona and Tarragona.
  • Holiday Rentals Catalonia - Rent Holiday Accommodation in Catalunya 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.vacationrentalpeople.com [Source type: General]

^ Any P.O.U.M. militiaman who returned to Barcelona at this time had the choice of going straight into hiding or into jail — not a pleasant reception after three or four months in the line.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

Security forces

.Catalonia has its own police force, the Mossos d'Esquadra, whose origins date back to the eighteenth century.^ In England you would have to go back to the eighteenth century to find anything comparable.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The workers' patrols had been ordered to dissolve and the pre-war police forces were back on the streets.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Stunning Cataloninan farmhouse dating back to the 16th century.
  • Holiday Rentals Catalonia - Rent Holiday Accommodation in Catalunya 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.vacationrentalpeople.com [Source type: General]

.Since 1980 they have been under the command of the Generalitat, and since 1994 they have expanded in number in order to replace the national Guardia Civil and Policía Nacional, which report directly to the Homeland Department of Spain.^ The Vicar General in Barcelona, appointed by the invaders, commands they "obey, serve, and venerate our king of Spain".

^ Who are for distributing our money lavishly to Catalan parties that the only thing that they want is to command to Spain to take wind?

^ No doubt they were acting under orders, but it was a stupid and cowardly thing to do, for if they had kept the gun in place they could have slaughtered the whole lot of us.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

.The national bodies retain personnel within Catalonia to exercise functions of national scope such as overseeing ports, airports, coasts, international borders, custom offices, the identification of documents and arms control amongst others.^ At Puigcerda, on the French frontier, a band of Carabineros were sent to seize the Customs Office, previously controlled by Anarchists and Antonio Martin, a well-known Anarchist, was killed.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The 1978 constitution does not recognise Catalonia as a nation, though it ambiguously refers to "nationalities" within Spain.

^ Obviously the only guarantee that the workers could have of retaining their winnings was to keep some of the armed forces under their own control.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

Most of the justice system is administered by national judicial institutions. .The criminal justice system is uniform throughout Spain, while "civil law" is administered separately within Catalonia.^ The 1978 constitution does not recognise Catalonia as a nation, though it ambiguously refers to "nationalities" within Spain.

^ The bill, which has the backing of 90% of the Catalan parliament, calls for Catalonia to be formally recognised as a nation within Spain, collect its own taxes and to have its own supreme court.

[41]
.After Navarre and the Basque Country, Catalonia is the Spanish region with the highest degree of autonomy in terms of law enforcement.^ Catalonia to become first Spanish region to ban 'sadistic sp...
  • Catalonia to become first Spanish region to ban 'sadistic sp... - Care2 News Network 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.care2.com [Source type: General]

^ Gen Mena's crime was to warn Spaniards of what he claimed was growing military anger over moves to give greater autonomy to the wealthy eastern region of Catalonia.

^ Wales is also likely to hold a referendum on gaining greater powers of autonomy for the country within their term Government.

Demographics

The autonomous community of Catalonia covers an area of 32,114 km² with an official population of 7,354,411 (2008) from which immigrants represent an estimated 12.3%.[42][43]
.The Urban Region of Barcelona includes 5,217,864 people and covers an area of 2.268 km² and about 1.7 million people live in a radius of 15 km from Barcelona.^ Holly, it is immaterial if there are people of Catalan descent in other areas of Spain it is ultimately the people of the region that should have the right to decide how they are governed.
  • Cruyff to coach Catalonia side - Soccerway 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.soccerway.com [Source type: Original source]

^ About Holiday Rentals Catalonia - Rent Holiday Accommodation in Catalunya: This special corner of Spain boasts the spectacular region of Barcelona and Tarragona.
  • Holiday Rentals Catalonia - Rent Holiday Accommodation in Catalunya 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.vacationrentalpeople.com [Source type: General]

^ The poll I was talking about was made after Barcelona's board engaged in the march for independance and 60% of local people were against Laporta's action .
  • Cruyff to coach Catalonia side - Soccerway 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.soccerway.com [Source type: Original source]

The metropolitan area of the Urban Region includes cities like l'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Badalona, Santa Coloma de Gramenet and Cornellà.
In 1900 the population of Catalonia was 1,984,115 people and in 1970 it was 5,107,606.[44] That increase was produced due to the demographic boom produced in Spain during the 60s and early 70s and also due to the large-scale internal migration produced from the rural interior of Spain to its industrial cities. .In Catalonia that wave of internal migration arrived from several regions of Spain, especially Andalusia, Murcia and Extremadura.^ The Red Cross in e region of Catalonia, Spain are to distribute thousands of donated toys on The Day of the King festivities on 5th...
  • blogBCN.com | blogging in Barcelona, Catalonia and Spain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.blogbcn.com [Source type: General]

^ But in Spain, especially in Catalonia, it was an attitude that no one could or did keep up indefinitely.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ MADRID (AFP) - Former Holland and Barcelona star Johan Cruyff is to take over as coach of the Catalonia regional team in Spain, the Catalonia Football Federation said Monday.
  • Cruyff to coach Catalonia side - Soccerway 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.soccerway.com [Source type: Original source]

Transport

Airports

Commercial and passenger ports

Roads

see also List of autopistes and autovies in Catalonia
.There are 12,000 km of roads throughout Catalonia.^ For some time past there had been tension throughout Catalonia.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Throughout this time there were rumours, always vague and contradictory owing to newspaper censorship, of minor clashes that were occurring all over Catalonia.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

The principal highway is AP-7 known also as Autopista del Mediterrani. It follows the coast from the French Border to Valencia, located south of Tarragona. The main roads generally radiate from Barcelona. The A-2 and AP-2 connect inland and onward to Madrid.
Other major roads are:

Railways

Catalonia saw the first railway construction in Iberian Peninsula in 1848, linking Barcelona with Mataró. Given the topography most lines radiate from Barcelona. The city has both suburban and inter-city services. The main east coast line runs through the province connecting with the SNCF (French Railways) at Portbou on the coast.
.There are two publicly owned railway companies operating in Catalonia: the Catalan FGC and the Spanish national RENFE.^ There are four official languages in Spain: Spanish, Catalan (from Catalunya), Gallego (from Galicia) and Euskaro (from Euskadi).
  • Possible Fallen Angel In Catalonia (Spain) - Video 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bill, which has the backing of 90% of the Catalan parliament, calls for Catalonia to be formally recognised as a nation within Spain, collect its own taxes and to have its own supreme court.

.High speed AVE (Alta Velocidad Española) services from Madrid currently reach Lleida, Tarragona and Barcelona.^ The universities in Lleida, Barcelona, Girona, Tarragona, and Vic are permanently shut down.

^ After his arrest Nin was transferred to Valencia and thence to Madrid, and as early as 21 June the rumour reached Barcelona that he had been shot.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

.The official opening between Barcelona and Madrid took place 20 February 2008. The journey between Barcelona and Madrid now takes about 2 and a half hours.^ The impression given is that some hours elapsed between the building of the barricades and the firing of the first volleys; whereas — naturally — it was the other way about.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Everyone who has made two visits, at intervals of months, to Barcelona during the war has remarked upon the extraordinary changes that took place in it.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Dominican Republic Nightlife Learn about all the best places for the Dominican Republic after hours parties.
  • Catalonia Royal Bavaro - All Inclusive Adults ONLY - Punta Cana 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC bookit.com [Source type: General]
  • Catalonia Bavaro Beach Golf and Casino - All Inclusive - Punta Cana 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.bookit.com [Source type: General]

Construction has commenced to extend the high speed line northwards to connect with the French high speed TGV network. This new line passes through Girona and there is a tunnel through the Pyrenees.

Some symbols of Catalonia

Catalonia has its own representative and distinctive symbols such as:[45]
.
The flag of Catalonia
  • The flag of Catalonia or Senyera (flag in Catalan), is a vexillological symbol[citation needed] based on the heraldic emblem of Counts of Barcelona and the coat of arms of the Crown of Aragon, which consists of four red stripes on a golden background.^ Over the P.O.U.M. buildings the red flags had been torn down, Republican flags were floating in their place, and knots of armed Civil Guards were lounging in the doorways.
    • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They had hauled down their red flag and hoisted the Catalan national flag.
    • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

    .It is an official symbol since the Statute of Catalonia of 1932. It is also used on the captain's armband in both FC Barcelona and RCD Espanyol.
  • The National Day of Catalonia[46] is on 11 September, and it is commonly called La Diada.^ And before someone calls both of us an idiot most Europeans use day/month/year as the format for their dates.
    • Possible Fallen Angel In Catalonia (Spain) - Video 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I used to wash one day and shave the next; there was never enough water for both.
    • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

    .It commemorates the 1714 Siege of Barcelona defeat during the War of the Spanish Succession.
  • The anthem of Catalonia is Els Segadors and was written in its present form by Emili Guanyavents in 1899. The song is official by law from 25 February 1993.[47][48] It is based on the events of 1639 and 1640 during the Catalan Revolt.
  • La Diada de Sant Jordi is widely celebrated in all the towns of Catalonia on 23 April.^ El Port de la Selva .
    • Holiday Rentals Catalonia - Rent Holiday Accommodation in Catalunya 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.vacationrentalpeople.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Catalonia Bavaro Beach has it all for celebrating the wedding of your dreams!!
    • Catalonia Bavaro Beach Golf and Casino - All Inclusive - Punta Cana 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.bookit.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Narcís Feliu de la Penya publishes "Anales", a story about the war, which is confiscated by the Bourbon censorship.

    It is a day where in addition to the exchange of books and roses, Catalans will proudly display their senyeres.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Catalonia

There are several UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Catalonia:
Dalí Museum, Figueres

Popular culture

Gegants and Capgrossos in la Seu d'Urgell festival
.Castellers are one of the main manifestations of Catalan popular culture.^ The one that we needed is a popular and democratic constituent process, by so constructing a new model of political, social, economic and labor relations to the Catalan Countries.

The activity consists in constructing human towers by competing colles castelleres (teams). This practice originated in the southern part of Catalonia during the 18th century.
.The sardana is the most characteristic Catalan popular dance, other groups also practice Ball de bastons, moixiganga or jota in the southern part.^ Els blogs de la cultura popular als Països Catalans - XTECBlocs .

.Musically the Havaneres are also characteristic in the marine localities of the Costa Brava specially during the summer months when these songs are sung outdoors accompanied by a cremat of burned rum.^ Why would the Spanish people buy our own cava and spend their summer holidays in the Costa Brava ?

.As opposed to other parts of Spain, flamenco is not popularly performed, but rather the rumba is a more prevalent dance style.^ More rain across the western part of Spain...
  • blogBCN.com | blogging in Barcelona, Catalonia and Spain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.blogbcn.com [Source type: General]

In the greater celebrations other elements of the Catalan popular culture are usually present: the parades of gegants (giants) and correfocs of devils and firecrackers. Another traditional celebration in Catalonia is La Patum de Berga declared oral and immaterial patrimony of the Humanity by UNESCO in the 25 November 2005.[49]
.In addition to the traditional local Catalan culture, people can enjoy traditions from other parts of Spain as a result of sizeable migration from other regions.^ Even more in Spain than elsewhere it seemed to be the tradition to stuff sick people with heavy food.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ I had got to start earning some money sooner or later, and there did not seem much sense in staying in Spain and eating food that was needed for other people.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ As soon as it was dawn the people downstairs began building two barricades, one outside the Comite Local and the other outside the Hotel Falcón.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

See also

Torre Agbar in Barcelona.

References

  1. ^ [1] (catalan)
  2. ^ Enciclopèdia Catalana online: Catalunya ("Geral de Cataluign, Raimundi Catalan and Arnal Catalan appear in 1107/1112") in Catalan
  3. ^ La formació de Catalunya
  4. ^ Curiositats sobre Catalunya i el català
  5. ^ La Catalogne : son nom et ses limites historiques. Histoire de Roussillon.
  6. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=nUABAAAAMAAJ&q=gotholandia&dq=gotholandia&hl=es&pgis=1
  7. ^ Bulke, Ulrich. (1900). A History of Spain from the Earliest Times to the Death of Ferdinand the Catholic. Longman, Greens and Co. London, UK
  8. ^ El Misteri de la Paraula Cathalunya
  9. ^ First article of the Statute of Autonomy of Catalunya
  10. ^ Constitución Española, Título Preliminar
  11. ^ Admitidos los recursos de Aragón, Valencia y Baleares contra el Estatuto catalán. hoy.es
  12. ^ Marc Howard Ross, "Cultural Contestation in Ethnic Conflict", page 139. Cambridge University Press, 2007
  13. ^ The Resurgence of Catalan Earl W. Thomas Hispania, Vol. 45, No. 1 (Mar., 1962), pp. 43-48 doi:10.2307/337523
  14. ^ Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia (Article 6)
  15. ^ Multilingualism in Spain: Sociolinguistic and Psycholinguistic Aspects of Linguistic Minority Groups
  16. ^ http://medios.mugak.eu/noticias/noticia/150764 Diario El Mundo, Spanish Only
  17. ^ http://www.elimparcial.es/contenido/19605.html Diario El Imparcial, Spanish Only
  18. ^ http://blogs.periodistadigital.com/ultimahora.php/2006/06/17/llaman_lputo_inmigrante_espanolr_al_padr Diario Periodista Digital, Spanish Only
  19. ^ http://blogs.periodistadigital.com/ultimahora.php/2006/02/02/la_justicia_obliga_a_una_escuela_de_bada Diario Periodista Digital, Spanish Only
  20. ^ Page 13: Catalan Deputy of Education Ernest Maragall declares respect from the Catalan Government to Spanish language and to everyone's rights. Catalan only
  21. ^ EU takes Basque Country, Galicia, Catalonia and Valencia as examples of bilingualism.
  22. ^ The President Montilla promises to look after the use and respect both for Spanish and Catalan languages.
  23. ^ Report from the Commission of the European Communities in which Catalan immersion is taken as an example which "should be disseminated throughout the Union" (page 18)
  24. ^ http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2009/10/22/f-quebec-language-laws-bill-101.html CBC News Online | March 30, 2005
  25. ^ Catalonia's linguistic law
  26. ^ Second article of Catalonia's linguistic law
  27. ^ Ninth article of Catalonia's Linguistic Law
  28. ^ http://www.idescat.cat/dequavi/?TC=444&V0=15&V1=2
  29. ^ http://www.radiocatalunya.ca/noticia/1612/
  30. ^ http://www.europapress.es/cultura/noticia-catalunya-arabe-urdu-aparecen-lenguas-habituales-catalunya-creando-peligro-guetos-20090629150020.html
  31. ^ European Structural Funds in Spain (2000-2006)
  32. ^ [2] CIDEM
  33. ^ [3] CIDEM
  34. ^ http://www.elpais.com/articulo/economia/BBVA/descarta/economia/catalana/caiga/elpepuespcat/20090114elpepueco_7/Tes
  35. ^ Ranking of Savings Banks
  36. ^ [4] Profile of "Banc Sabadell" in Euroinvestor]
  37. ^ Beginnings of the autonomous regime, 1918-1932
  38. ^ The republican Government of Catalonia, 1931-1939
  39. ^ Title IV. Powers (articles 110-173)of the 2006 Statute
  40. ^ a b c CIS Poll covering, among others, nationalist opinions.
  41. ^ Legislació civil catalana
  42. ^ "Catalunya arriba a set milions d'habitants", Diari El Punt.
  43. ^ "Catalans grapple with migrant influx", BBC News. 3 January 2007
  44. ^ http://www15.gencat.net/pres_catalunya_dades/AppPHP/cat/poblacio.htm (Catalan)
  45. ^ Statute of Catalonia (Article 8)
  46. ^ Law 1/1980 where the Parlamient of Catalonia declares that 11th of September is the National Day of Catalonia
  47. ^ Law 1/1993 National Anthem of Catalonia
  48. ^ Law 1/1993 in the BOE
  49. ^ Patum de Berga
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

External links

.

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

.Catalonia [1] (Spanish: Cataluña, Catalan: Catalunya) is an autonomous region in the northeast of Spain which is host to the famous city of Barcelona.^ Barcelona is Spain's second city and the capital of the proud and distinct region of Catalonia.
  • Catalonia: News & Videos about Catalonia - CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Throughout Catalonia (Catalunya in Catalan, Cataluña in Castilian Spanish) the sense of difference from the rest of Spain is intense, not only in the use of Catalan (although everyone speaks Castilian too) but in the festivals, cuisine and reminders of the region’s unique history.
  • Catalonia Travel Information and Travel Guide - Spain - Lonely Planet 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

^ There are two official languages spoken in Barcelona: Catalan, generally spoken in all of Catalonia, and Castillian Spanish.
  • Barcelona Travel Guide, Catalonia, Spain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.aboutbarcelona.com [Source type: General]

.It borders France and Andorra to the north along the Pyrenees, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, the Valencian region to the south and the Aragon region to the west.^ It borders France and Andorra to the north, Aragon to the west, the Valencian Community to the south, and the Mediterranean Sea to the east (580 km coastline).
  • Catalonia - Spain - IFMSA SCOPE Wiki 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC wiki.ifmsa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The autonomous community of Catalonia occupies a triangular area in the northeastern corner of Spain and is bordered by France and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, the autonomous community of Valencia to the south, and the autonomous community of Aragon to the west.
  • Catalonia (region, Spain) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Catalonia borders Andorra and France to the north, the Mediterranean to the east, the Valencia region to the south and Aragón to the west.

.
  • The Costa Brava (Wild/Rugged Coast), in the northeast of the country, has rocky cliffs and a mix of pebble beaches and sandy beaches.
  • The Costa Daurada (Golden Coast), in the southeast of the country, has sandy beaches.
  • The Pyrenees, in the north of the country, on the border with France.^ Catalonia is in Northern Spain and borders France, best known for it's capital Barcelona but also offers spectacular countryside including the mountain ranges of the Pyrenees to the North.

    ^ The campers will have the choice between beach and mountain camp-sites: To find a camp-site in Costa Daurada the Joan camp-site is a very accessible establishment near to the town of Cambrils.
    • rent house or villa in Catalonia Spain visit barcelona tourist office for holidays July August 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.location-vacances-en-espagne.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Geography Spain shares the Iberian Peninsula with its smaller neighbor, Portugal, and is bordered to the northeast by the Pyrenees Mountains, which separate Spain from France.
    • Catalonia Moratin Hotel - Madrid Spain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.iexplore.com [Source type: General]

    It's a quiet place, ideal for nature walks, and adventure sports. A lot of national parks. .A place where you should go.
  • The Terres de l'Ebre, in the south of the country.^ Servei de blocs de la comunitat jove de les Terres de l'Ebre - Parlamentaris.info .

    ^ It is always beneficial to find out something about the place where you are going to live before actually setting foot there.
    • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Bloc del metabloc de les Terres de l'Ebre - Blocsmenorca.com .

    With two national parks and a river delta, it's a quiet place with traditions and nature.
Provinces of Catalonia north east of Spain
.
Provinces of Catalonia north east of Spain
  • Barcelona -- It's worth the whole trip
  • Girona -- Nice old town with an impressive Jewish quarter.^ Spain, Catalonia, Barcelona, ad for a corrida .
    • Catalonia Stock Photo Images. 6752 Catalonia royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Top-floor duplex in historic old quarter of Girona, Spain .
    • Catalonia Vacation Rentals | Vacation & Holiday Rentals - Villas, Condos, Cottages | PerfectPlaces.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.perfectplaces.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Spain, Catalonia, Barcelona, Triumph arch .
    • Catalonia Stock Photo Images. 6752 Catalonia royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

    Close to Costa Brava.
  • Tarragona -- Roman age capital, has beaches, close to Costa Dorada.
  • Lleida -- Door to the west Pyrenees mountains, has a Cathedral
  • Figueres -- Home to the Dalí museum
  • Mataró
  • Salou
  • El Prat de Llobregat
  • Santa Coloma de Cervelló
  • Sant Boi de Llobregat
  • Hospitalet de Llobregat
  • Begues
  • Viladecans
  • La Palma de Cervelló
Narrow Streets in Girona
Narrow Streets in Girona
.Catalonia has a great variety of different landscapes very close to each other, mountains on the Pyrenees (at the border with France), green hills on north of the country, agricultural planes on the west and beaches on the east.^ It is worth seeing… – Catalonia offers their visitors a variety of different landscapes: Mountains on the Pyrenees, green hills on north, agricultural planes on the west and beaches on the east of the country.
  • Shared services in the heart of Catalonia | Outsource Portfolio 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC outsourceportfolio.com [Source type: News]

^ Catalonia borders Andorra and France to the north, the Mediterranean to the east, the Valencia region to the south and Aragón to the west.

^ The campers will have the choice between beach and mountain camp-sites: To find a camp-site in Costa Daurada the Joan camp-site is a very accessible establishment near to the town of Cambrils.
  • rent house or villa in Catalonia Spain visit barcelona tourist office for holidays July August 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.location-vacances-en-espagne.com [Source type: General]

What to visit;
  • Reus
  • Montserrat - A unusual rock mountain, with a Sanctuary on top. It is very popular among Catalans. .You can travel there by train (take Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat from Plaça d'Espanya to Montserrat-Aeri) or by bus (they leave from the Plaça de la Universitat in the morning).
  • Volcanoes near the city of Olot, and La Fageda d'en Jordà, a very nice forest and extinct volcanoes.
  • Adventure sports (in a lot of places in Catalonia like Llavorsí in the Pirineus)
  • Verdú - Museum of Toys and Automata
  • La Llacuna- Beautiful Mediterranean outback village, with typical gastronomy and landscapes.
  • Les Alexandrias - Rugged western hamlet located near the Aragonese mountain range.^ Beautiful Villa near the Mediterranean .
    • Catalonia Spain Vacation Rentals by Holiday.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rentals.holiday.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The weather was so hot and beautiful that neither of us really wanted to eat much anyway so I personally dont place a whole lot of weight on this area.
    • Catalonia Riviera Maya Resort & Spa Reviews, Customer comments 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cancuntravel.com [Source type: General]

    ^ AVE (high Speed train) stops at Atocha station, just 1 Km from the hotel; it just takes 5 minutes by taxi or 15 minutes if you decide to walk there.
    • Hotel Catalonia Moratin – Madrid - Book now with 30Madrid 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.30madrid.com [Source type: General]

    Famous for its bull fighting festivals in which the bull holds a red cape and bullfighters run after it.

Understand

.Catalonia is today an autonomous region within Spain, but in fact has an older history as an independent territory of the Crown of Aragon which in some ways historically predates Spain itself.^ This year, it took the unusual step of turning to a region rather than a country, in this case Catalonia in northeast Spain.
  • German Book Fair's Choice of Catalonia Angers Spaniards | Culture & Lifestyle | Deutsche Welle | 09.08.2007 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.dw-world.de [Source type: General]

^ It has a strong identity and is different from all the other regions in Spain having a cosmopolitan history.

^ The region has been part of Spain for hundreds of years yet it has historically maintained a differentiated cultural and political personality, pride in its history, language and culture, and a constant commitment to self-government.
  • 'Catalonia Is a Nation' - WSJ.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

.The region gained its current autonomous status first in the Republican era (1930s) and then again after Franco's death in 1975 and continues to press for more political and economic autonomy, mainly in the form of the right to collect and spend larger and larger portions of tax money locally.^ After Franco's death in 1975, regional languages, including Catalan, Basque and Galician, started reasserting their place in Spanish culture.
  • German Book Fair's Choice of Catalonia Angers Spaniards | Culture & Lifestyle | Deutsche Welle | 09.08.2007 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.dw-world.de [Source type: General]

^ That this will be the fate of Centelles’ lifework is a travesty of history but more than anything is a clear example of the precarious situation of Catalonia at all levels, politically, economically and culturally.

^ It is simply false that larger countries are more economically successful.

.This has been the source of some conflict with other regions of Spain that don't have these expectations.^ It has a strong identity and is different from all the other regions in Spain having a cosmopolitan history.

^ In Catalonia, the main languages used for communication are Catalan and Spanish (in some regions of Spain, the latter is also called "castellano" or Castilian).
  • Where are you from? ESP 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ub.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Indeed, in comparing Spain to other E.U. countries we see that the regional differences in Spain are not as abysmal as claimed.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Steer clear from political debates, as these usually don't lead anywhere.
  • Catalunya Turisme [2] - Official tourist board

Talk

.The main languages of Catalonia are Catalan and Spanish.^ Catalan is the language of Catalonia (Catalunya).
  • Possible Fallen Angel In Catalonia (Spain) - Video 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two official languages spoken in Barcelona: Catalan, generally spoken in all of Catalonia, and Castillian Spanish.
  • Barcelona Travel Guide, Catalonia, Spain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.aboutbarcelona.com [Source type: General]

^ After Franco's death in 1975, regional languages, including Catalan, Basque and Galician, started reasserting their place in Spanish culture.
  • German Book Fair's Choice of Catalonia Angers Spaniards | Culture & Lifestyle | Deutsche Welle | 09.08.2007 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.dw-world.de [Source type: General]

.Catalan (Català), spoken in Catalonia, Balearic Islands, most of Valencia region, a strip in Aragon, Andorra, Alguer-Alghero (little city of Sardinia - Italy) and, Roussillon (an area in the south of France sometimes called Catalunya Nord that corresponds roughly with the department of Pyrénées-Orientales).^ The variety of Catalan spoken in Valencia is normally called "Valencian".
  • Where are you from? ESP 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ub.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Catalan is the language of Catalonia (Catalunya).
  • Possible Fallen Angel In Catalonia (Spain) - Video 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Catalan is spoken in Catalonia, the autonomous communities of Valencia and the Balearic Islands, a strip of the autonomous community of Aragon along the border with Catalonia, and in certain parts of the autonomous community of Murcia that are on the border with Valencia.
  • Where are you from? ESP 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ub.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It is a Romance language which sounds similar to Portuguese and is similar in structure to French.^ Some of the remaining 20 percent resemble corresponding words in Spanish, Galician and Portuguese, while others are more similar to French, Occitan or even Italian.
  • Where are you from? ESP 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ub.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There are a handful of complex pronunciation rules, but in terms of grammar and vocabulary, Catalan is very similar to other Romance languages.
  • Where are you from? ESP 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ub.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Catalan is a Romance language, which means it stems from Latin, just like Spanish, French, Italian, Occitan, Galician, Portuguese, Romanian and other, less common languages.
  • Where are you from? ESP 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ub.edu [Source type: Original source]

.You will be very welcome if you try to say some words in Catalan while you are in Catalonia, and phrases such as "Bon Dia" and "Adéu" are heard even when people then go on to speak Castillian.^ Catalan society is not a very religious one, even old people.
  • Catalonia - Spain - IFMSA SCOPE Wiki 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC wiki.ifmsa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What you say about Catalonia Restaurant .
  • Catalonia Restaurant, Kirribilli - Restaurant Information And Reviews - yourRestaurants.com.au 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.yourrestaurants.com.au [Source type: General]

^ How many people speak Catalan?
  • Where are you from? ESP 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ub.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Visitors who speak Spanish should note that it is called "Castellano" (Catalan Castellà), and that while it is widely understood, some people may be reluctant to answer in that language, especially away from Barcelona and areas frequented by many tourists.^ Catalans know how to speak Spanish, but many of them prefer to use Catalan.
  • Where are you from? ESP 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ub.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We met some people who were bored a .
  • Catalonia Bavaro Hotel Punta Cana Dominican Republic. Best Hotel Deals & Reviews 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

^ The region’s capital is somewhat unsurprisingly Spain’s second city Barcelona and due to the community’s privileged autonomy, rivalled only by Andalucia (please link when online), the Basque Country and Galicia, it speaks its own language – Catalans – which is a variant of Spanish.
  • www.e-travelguide.info Hotel Reservations - Catalonia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.e-travelguide.info [Source type: News]

.This is due the historic fact that during the Francisco Franco dictatorship the Spanish language was for a time imposed on Catalonia by law and the native Catalan language prohibited.^ Francisco Franco's 36-year dictatorship.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Catalan is the language of Catalonia (Catalunya).
  • Possible Fallen Angel In Catalonia (Spain) - Video 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to Catalan, another historical language is also used in Catalonia.
  • Where are you from? ESP 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ub.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Normally, answering in Catalan to a question aked in Spanish is the polite way to inform the asker that conversation can continue in Catalan if it is desired.^ The most logical and normal way of doing it is to do it by international trading, and not through political submission.

^ It would also be the best way for Catalan interests to be represented in the process of European construction - as opposed to being represented by a Spanish government that has repeatedly refrained from defending important Catalan interests (e.g.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Catalan politicians need to ensure the continuity of the culture and language, but they also need to inform Catalans openly that they are paying a high price to be part of a unitary Spanish state.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.If you get an answer in Catalan, just say politely that you do not understand, and you will be without problem in most cases.^ If you're interested,just let me know which one you wanna have - send me the message and I will send you an answer with all details.
  • Catalonia on MySpace Music - Free Streaming MP3s, Pictures & Music Downloads 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You are wondering all the while just where the bullet will nip you, and it gives your whole body a most unpleasant sensitiveness.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ In any case it is most unlikely that a political prisoner of Nin's importance would be allowed to escape.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

Get in

By plane

.Barcelona's airport, called el Prat, is about 10 km to the city centre.^ Old Town 1, Barcelona city centre .
  • Holiday Rentals Catalonia - Rent Holiday Accommodation in Catalunya 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.vacationrentalpeople.com [Source type: General]

^ DISTANCES From El Prat international airport: 15 km.
  • Catalonia Princesa Hotel Barcelona - hotel deals and reviews - venere.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.venere.com [Source type: General]

^ Hotel Catalonia Port, inaugurated in 2008, is located in the heart of the city centre from the Barrio Gtico in Barcelona, close to the Ramblas and the harbor.

.Once there, you can go to the centre by train (every 30 minutes, stopping at Sants and Plaça de Catalunya), by bus (Aerobus), that stops in the same places and with the same frequencies.^ Sants Train Station (Estació de Sants) .
  • Catalonia Albinoni – Barcelona - Book now with Barcelona30 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.barcelona30.com [Source type: General]
  • Catalonia Berna – Barcelona - Book now with Barcelona30 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.barcelona30.com [Source type: General]

^ Nearest metro in Plaça Catalunya, and buses, airport bus, local and regional train connections from there as well.
  • Catalonia Albinoni – Barcelona - Book now with Barcelona30 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.barcelona30.com [Source type: General]

^ It is often said that you don't find rats and mice in the same place, but you do when there is enough food for them.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

.The bus is the more expensive option, with the added possibility of traffic jams.^ Among all possible options, it is independence that makes more sense economically, particularly in the context of globalization and the European Union.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

Both services finish at 23:00.
.Two local buses, EA (during the day) and EN (at night) also serve the airport, however these are not particularly frequent and only run as far as the Plaça d'Espanya, which is not particularly central.^ Musically the Havaneres are also characteristic in the marine localities of the Costa Brava specially during the summer months when these songs are sung outdoors accompanied by a of burned rum.

^ Nearest metro in Plaça Catalunya, and buses, airport bus, local and regional train connections from there as well.
  • Catalonia Albinoni – Barcelona - Book now with Barcelona30 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.barcelona30.com [Source type: General]

^ I would recommend this hotel for anyone who wants to go out during the day and have a nice, clean and quiet place to stay at night.
  • Catalonia Mikado Barcelona, Hotel Spain. Limited Time Offer! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.tvtrip.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, for those on a shoestring budget they may be a good option as they are fairly cheap.
.There is quite a good taxi service, the only way to reach the centre directly if you arrive by night.^ Once in the street, we found that the only way to move was with extreme slowness, so slowly that you did not have to bend your knees.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Our villa was close to the beach so we only had a short walk to reach it, there were plenty thatch covered sun shelters and palm trees to retreat to when you had had enough sun, .
  • Catalonia Bavaro Hotel Punta Cana Dominican Republic. Best Hotel Deals & Reviews 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

^ For the arrival from Girona there are only 250 mt on foot to reach the hotel.
  • Catalonia Princesa Hotel Barcelona - hotel deals and reviews - venere.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.venere.com [Source type: General]

.The fares are about €12 if you go to the centre, but this can change depending of the time of the day and, of course, the part of the city you want to reach.^ Our philosophy is based on the transparency, we are showing you final prices on real time, no additional charge will be added to these fares.

^ It was several days before I could get used to the idea that you could buy cigarettes whenever you wanted them.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The empoyees are not really intrested if you want a room-change.
  • Catalonia Princesa Hotel Barcelona - hotel deals and reviews - venere.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.venere.com [Source type: General]

.All Barcelona taxis are painted black and yellow and are easily recognisable.^ There were no private motor-cars, they had all been commandeered, and all the trams and taxis and much of the other transport were painted red and black.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

.Of course, you can rent cars and there is a big car park, though it is quite expensive if you leave your car there for more than a couple of hours.^ There were more next day, of course.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no economic theory that says that a country must be of a minimum size to be viable or that bigger countries in size are more viable than small ones.

^ Rent a car in the hotel A car park is available near the structure, subject to charges.
  • Catalonia Princesa Hotel Barcelona - hotel deals and reviews - venere.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.venere.com [Source type: General]

.el Prat airport is served by a number of airlines, including EasyJet, BMI, Virgin Air, Volare, MyTraveLite...^ With 27 million passengers, El Prat airport is ranked in Europe.
  • Fact File - ACI - Catalonia Investment Agency - Catalonia - Spain - Europe - FDI Atlas 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC fdiatlas.fdimagazine.com [Source type: News]

Other airports in Catalonia are:
.
  • Girona, north of Barcelona, near the Costa Brava.^ Charming beachfront apartment near Barcelona /Costa Brava .
    • Catalonia Vacation Rentals | Vacation & Holiday Rentals - Villas, Condos, Cottages | PerfectPlaces.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.perfectplaces.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Occupying the north-eastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, the region of Catalonia is highly varied, from the craggy Costa Brava to the mountains of the Pyrenees, and with cities as different as Barcelona, Tarragona, Lerida and Gerona.

    ^ While Morella surrenders, the Duke of Noailles lays siege to Girona (near Pyrenees) and Charles III returns to Barcelona.

    .There are now flights to this newly upgraded airport by Ryanair and British Airways.^ Girona is also easy to get to, and Ryanair runs flights to it from nine British and twelve continental European airports.

    .Travel by bus to Barcelona takes about 90 minutes and there is a bus service into Girona which costs about €15 round trip.^ To the main La Rambla area takes about 15 mins.
    • Catalonia Aragon Hotel Barcelona, 7 hotel reviews | Gtahotels.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.gtahotels.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The Catalonia Aragon is located a few minutes from the Clot Metro station and many main bus routs which makes exploring Barcelona very easy.
    • Catalonia Aragon Hotel Barcelona, 7 hotel reviews | Gtahotels.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.gtahotels.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The significant thing was that it was appearing only in the Valencia papers; I think I am right in saying that there was not a single word about it, or about the suppression of the P.O.U.M. , in any Barcelona papers, Communist, Anarchist, or Republican.
    • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

    The buses in Barcelona leave from Estacio del Nord bus station (metro stop Arc de Triomf, line 1).
Airport Information
  • Catalonia Airports - For more information about the three international airports in Catalonia see Catalonia Airports Information [3]

By train

.The main train station in Barcelona is called Estació de Sants, but the most central ones are Plaça de Catalunya (most local and regional trains) and Passeig de Gràcia (serving some local and most long-distance lines).^ Sants Train Station (Estació de Sants) .
  • Catalonia Albinoni – Barcelona - Book now with Barcelona30 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.barcelona30.com [Source type: General]
  • Catalonia Berna – Barcelona - Book now with Barcelona30 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.barcelona30.com [Source type: General]

^ The new Passeig de Sant Joan in Barcelona to elimi...

^ Passeig de Gràcia .
  • Catalonia Albinoni – Barcelona - Book now with Barcelona30 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.barcelona30.com [Source type: General]
  • Catalonia Berna – Barcelona - Book now with Barcelona30 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.barcelona30.com [Source type: General]

The Spanish train company is called RENFE [4]. .Barcelona is very well connected by train with Madrid, Valencia (City), Zaragoza and the Basque Country in particular and with the whole country in general.^ Nearest metro in Plaça Catalunya, and buses, airport bus, local and regional train connections from there as well.
  • Catalonia Albinoni – Barcelona - Book now with Barcelona30 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.barcelona30.com [Source type: General]

^ Catalonia: Barcelona, Spain Bed & Breakfasts Hostal SantCarlo is located in Barcelona city centre, very close to Las Ramblas and Plaza Catalunya.
  • Catalonia Spain Bed & Breakfast, B and B, Bed And Breakfasts and B & B 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC realadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the reviews we read before going was that the workers didn't speak English very well but that was to be expected since it is a different country.
  • Catalonia Bavaro Hotel Punta Cana Dominican Republic. Best Hotel Deals & Reviews 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

.Inside Catalonia, there are frequent trains from the other three provincial capitals (Lleida, Tarragona and Girona).^ The universities in Lleida, Barcelona, Girona, Tarragona, and Vic are permanently shut down.

^ Until recently there had been only one class on the trains in Catalonia.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ There are broadly three main arguments for the independence of Catalonia.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.A few trains travel across the Pyrenees, but it's possible to reach the eastern part using the train to Tour de Carol (France).^ April (5) A yellow wave to welcome the Tour de France in Bar...

^ COUDEQUERKE-BRANCHE, LILLE AND DUNKERKE (France) EJERCITO ZAPATISTA DE LIBERACION NACIONAL (Mexico) NEWS- Part Two: .
  • ELECTRONICAL BULLETIN OF VEXILLOLOGY from CATALONIA 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ctv.es [Source type: Reference]

.Going by train to the Costa Daurada beaches is the best choice, using the line to Tarragona.^ The Italians I had seen going up the line from Tarragona had attacked on the Jaca road but had had heavy casualties and lost two tanks.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ House in Torredembarra, 400 to the largest beach of Costa Dorada, best choise for a family vacations .
  • Holiday Rentals Catalonia - Rent Holiday Accommodation in Catalunya 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.vacationrentalpeople.com [Source type: General]

^ Any P.O.U.M. militiaman who returned to Barcelona at this time had the choice of going straight into hiding or into jail — not a pleasant reception after three or four months in the line.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

.The Costa Brava isn't well connected by train.^ Nearest metro in Plaça Catalunya, and buses, airport bus, local and regional train connections from there as well.
  • Catalonia Albinoni – Barcelona - Book now with Barcelona30 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.barcelona30.com [Source type: General]

.There's also a Catalan train company Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya [5] (FGC), which serves destinations near Barcelona, and some tourist routes.^ Catalonia: Barcelona, Spain Bed & Breakfasts Hostal SantCarlo is located in Barcelona city centre, very close to Las Ramblas and Plaza Catalunya.
  • Catalonia Spain Bed & Breakfast, B and B, Bed And Breakfasts and B & B 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC realadventures.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New Year's Day, 1936 Palau de la Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona Premier Joaquim Casanova sat at his desk, a glass of wine in one hand, and a stack of papers under his other hand.
  • Catalonia's Struggle - A New Nations Mod AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ There are four official languages in Spain: Spanish, Catalan (from Catalunya), Gallego (from Galicia) and Euskaro (from Euskadi).
  • Possible Fallen Angel In Catalonia (Spain) - Video 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It also operates a funicular service in the Pyrenees.

By bus

.Buses and coaches connect the principal cities to many national and international locations, and it's the only public transport to get to many local places in Catalonia.^ Visitors generally only see a part of the real Catalonia: a seaside area, a ski resort, a modern but historical city like Barcelona, or a nature reserve like the Ordesa and Monte Perdido National Park.

^ The Catalonia Aragon is located a few minutes from the Clot Metro station and many main bus routs which makes exploring Barcelona very easy.
  • Catalonia Aragon Hotel Barcelona, 7 hotel reviews | Gtahotels.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.gtahotels.com [Source type: General]

^ And it is a way of solving the centuries-old problem concerning the place of those regions with strong national identities (especially Catalonia and the Basque Country) in the bosom of Spain.
  • 'Catalonia Is a Nation' - WSJ.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

.The most important bus stations are: Estació de Sants (Barcelona), mainly for international routes, is next to the train station and very well connected.^ Next to his rifle it was his most important possession.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Barcelona El Prat de Llobregat Girona Sant Boi del Llobregat Sitges Cadaqués Tarragona Hospitalet de Llobregat Riudellots de la Selva Lloret de Mar Salou Castelldefels show the 12 most popular… .
  • Booking.com: 1283 hotels in Catalonia, Spain. Book your hotel now! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.booking.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Muntaner, 505, Barcelona, 08022 6/10 (1 hotel review for Catalonia Suite, Barcelona) scroll left scroll right 4 Catalonia Suite, Barcelona Catalonia Suite Hotel is located in upper Barcelona, in the residential quarter of Sant Gervasi, very close to important medical centres.

.'The Estació del Nord (also in Barcelona), close to Passeig de Sant Joan, is the main bus station for medium and long routes - the nearest metro (Line 1) and RENFE station is Arc de Triomf.^ Cathedral) but at the same time you are close to the bus station and to the metro.
  • Catalonia Princesa Hotel Barcelona - hotel deals and reviews - venere.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.venere.com [Source type: General]

^ The new Passeig de Sant Joan in Barcelona to elimi...

^ The hotel is a five minute walk from Arc de Triomf Metro station.
  • Catalonia Princesa Hotel Barcelona - hotel deals and reviews - venere.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.venere.com [Source type: General]

The routes inside Catalonia are held by different companies, which leave from different places. .Every town has normally only one company, so you should ask at some information point, or check online [6] which, although in Catalan, is quite easy to use (put the origin at the left, the destination at the right, and gives the name of the company and it's telephone number).^ You will find ali-oli sauce everywhere in Spain, particularly in the form of patatas ali-oli , a budget traveller's staple, but it is Catalan in origin: it is often erroneously called "garlic mayonnaise," but should not in fact contain eggs.

^ Bourgeois "democracy" is only another name for capitalism, and so is Fascism; to fight against Fascism on behalf of "democracy" is to fight against one form of capitalism on behalf of a second which is liable to turn into the first at any moment.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ I’m not asking for you to predict the future holly I’m merely asking your opinion on whether the Catalonian region should become independent and you have now answered that with a no!
  • Cruyff to coach Catalonia side - Soccerway 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.soccerway.com [Source type: Original source]

Do

Catalan "Festes" or Festivals

.Catalonia has hundreds of "festes" that go on around the region every week of the year.^ I am a foreigner living in Catalonia for many years, and though I am strongly in favour of its independence, I feel this long article is not going to convince many people around these forums...
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Province : Gerona Region : Catalonia Country : Spain Go to source website .
  • Webcam Catalonia Beaches. Weather Live Web Cameras 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.meteosurfcanarias.com [Source type: General]

^ Province : Barcelona Region : Catalonia Country : Spain Go to source website (zoom photo) .
  • Webcam Catalonia Beaches. Weather Live Web Cameras 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.meteosurfcanarias.com [Source type: General]

.The closest word in English to translate "Festa" would be "Festival" but this is inadequate to describe the type of celebration that exists in Catalonia.^ One was ‘O.K., baby’, the other was a word used by the Barcelona whores in their dealings with English sailors, and I am afraid the compositors would not print it.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ If Catalonia would not be viable as an independent economy, the description on the first paragraph would be science fiction and therefore it would not exist.

."Festes" are ritual like celebrations that have been passed down through generations of people for more than 700 years.^ Even more in Spain than elsewhere it seemed to be the tradition to stuff sick people with heavy food.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Increase of the number of executed transactional services: more than 5 million/year online tramits.
  • Catalonia Citizen-Care-Centric approach to eGovernment | ePractice 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.epractice.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Any public school O.T.C. in England is far more like a modern army than we were.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

They are organized by the people of a town for their own enjoyment, and not for any commercial interest. ."Festival" (which also exists in the Catalan and Castilian languages) denotes an event that is usually organized by a specific group of people for a particular market, and is often motivated by economic interest.^ Belluga's Castilians occupy Oriola (Southern Valencian Kingdom), where they will persecute the Catalan language: now, no one speaks Catalan there).

^ Outside the picture-house I saw a group of people staring at me with great interest as I crept along at tortoise-speed.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ In this context, small nations such as Catalonia find belonging to a larger state such as Spain to be in their economic interest because it gives them access to a larger market.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

“Festes” have ritual like sequences of events that usually involve Giants, Devils, Human Castles and processions. A magical atmosphere is created at the “festa”, almost like a type of Catharsis. “Festes” stem from Medieval Times when fantastical dragons and Giants were created to instruct people about religion in church services. Shortly after the fantastical creatures became a part of the Corpus Christi processions that paraded through the town during the summer. .The importance given to these folkloric elements has gradually increased over time and now they have assumed a national importance.^ These were nice to shoot with, but they were wildly inaccurate, and as their cartridges had no clips they could only be fired one shot at a time.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ This immense Empire was being disintegrated with time and remaining in which now it is known like “Spain”, that continues being a set of different towns or conquered nations (Euskadi in the s.

^ Francisco Bravo and Francisco Vázquez from the Cadena Ser have been given a one year nine month sentence during which time they...
  • blogBCN.com | blogging in Barcelona, Catalonia and Spain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.blogbcn.com [Source type: General]

.Nowadays, these traditions are associated with Catalan identity as something that is individual and separate from the rest of Spain.^ But one has to recognize the distinct identities that exist within Spain, foremost the Catalan, Basque and Galician.
  • 'Catalonia Is a Nation' - WSJ.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

^ First, the huge regional fiscal imbalance shows that today Catalans are paying for these services twice what they would pay in a separate Catalan state.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It endured repression of individual and collective cultural rights, such as the prohibition of the use of the Catalan language, the public denial of the Catalan identity and the punishment for cultural expression.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.These “festes” are not greatly publicized by the Catalan government for foreign people.^ I am a foreigner living in Catalonia for many years, and though I am strongly in favour of its independence, I feel this long article is not going to convince many people around these forums...
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Holly, it is immaterial if there are people of Catalan descent in other areas of Spain it is ultimately the people of the region that should have the right to decide how they are governed.
  • Cruyff to coach Catalonia side - Soccerway 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.soccerway.com [Source type: Original source]

.A new company that takes people on cultural tours of these festes has recently begun.^ We cannot take the comunion in the altars from a dominant culture that mistake worth for price and convert the countries and the peoples in merchandise" (Eduardo Galeano).

culTOURa aims to show foreign visitors to .Catalonia these special and defining traditions, without spoiling the festes and turning them into a commercial event.^ Every September, Catalonia’s wonderful capital city Barcelona is turned into a dream world of fantasy.
  • Catalonia Weblog - news, stories, travel articles and opinions from Catalonia a region in north east Spain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.lifeincatalonia.com [Source type: General]

culTOURa offers people the possibility to enjoy and participate in the best stunning Catalan festivals and traditions [7]

Bird Watching

.Because of its geographical location and terrific range of habitats, including dryland steppes, rocky coastlines, mountains and some of the most important wetland sites in Europe, Catalonia has a greater variety of bird life than anywhere else on the peninsular, with 95% of Iberia's and 50% of the whole Palearctic's recorded bird species.^ Most important: Great location!
  • Catalonia Bavaro Hotel Punta Cana Dominican Republic. Best Hotel Deals & Reviews 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

^ Catalonia self guided walking holidays The walk from Roses to Cadaques was both the most challenging and memorable, lovely coves to swim and fantastic views along the coastline.
  • Catalonia things to do. Things to do and see in Catalonia from Iknowagreatplace.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.responsibletravel.com [Source type: General]

^ Catalonia self guided walking holidays The most memorable part of the holiday was swimming in the pool of a residence after a long hot dusty mountain walk ( more ) .
  • Catalonia things to do. Things to do and see in Catalonia from Iknowagreatplace.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.responsibletravel.com [Source type: General]

.Some of the most sought-after are Lammergeier, Black Woodpecker, Wallcreeper, Bonelli's Eagle, Lesser Grey Shrike, Dupont's Lark (recognised as probably extinct in Catalonia in 2006), Little Bustard, Pin-tailed Sandgrouse, Audouin's Gull and Lesser Crested tern.^ The result is that some of the communities that contribute most, as is the case with Catalonia, lose their competitiveness and suffer under this system.
  • 'Catalonia Is a Nation' - WSJ.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

.The most important sites are Cap de Creus, Aiguamolls de L'Empordà, Barcelona's Llobregat Delta, the Parc de Garraf, Ebro Delta, Steppes of Lleida and, of course, The Pyrenees.^ Onix Rambla This new hotel is sited in Barcelona´s commercial centre, surrounded by the boutiques and cafes of the upmarket Rambla de Catalunya, near to Plaça Catalunya and Passeig de Gràcia.
  • Booking.com: hotel Catalonia Princesa, Barcelona, Spain - 280 Guest reviews. Book your hotel now! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.booking.com [Source type: General]

^ Barcelona Sants - Rail Station 4.0 km Estación de Francia - Rail Station 0.7 km Plaça Catalunya - Rail Station 1.0 km FGC - Pl.Catalunya 1.1 km Passeig de Gràcia - Rail Station 1.3 km show the 5 most popular… .
  • Booking.com: hotel Catalonia Princesa, Barcelona, Spain - 280 Guest reviews. Book your hotel now! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.booking.com [Source type: General]

^ Spain, Catalonia, Barcelona, parc de la Ciutadella .
  • Catalonia Stock Photo Images. 6752 Catalonia royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

.There are a few companies that will organise tours for you, or even offer free advice, including Catalan Bird Tours and Oliva Rama Tours.^ Company, the Catalan President, is said to have declared laughingly a few days earlier that the Anarchists would put up with anything (10) .
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ We offer free and premium listings that allow you to expose your winery and show case wines to visitors .
  • Catalonia Royal Bavaro Resort - Punta Cana - Catalonia Royal Bavaro Reservations - All-Inclusive Adults Hotel - Judy and Maria's Travel, Inc. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.judyandmariastravel.com [Source type: General]
  • Catalonia Royal Tulum - Riviera Maya - Catalonia Royal Tulum Reservations - All-Inclusive Hotel for Adults - Judy and Maria's Travel, Inc. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC judyandmariastravel.com [Source type: General]

^ I do not think I have ever seen a country where there were so few birds.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

.There is also the Birdinginspain.com web site which offers birding sites and itineraries and lots of other useful information to help the visiting birder plan his or her trip to Catalonia.^ Trip Protection - Protect your planned trip to Catalonia.
  • Catalonia Travel Guide - Triporati : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.triporati.com [Source type: General]

^ Those who enjoy sight seeing should definitely plan for the all inclusive holidays in Catalonia because there a lot of attractions in and around Catalonia.
  • Catalonia Holidays All Inclusive Holidays in Catalonia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC allinclusive-holiday.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Catalonia Explorer Ride Tour Code: PR-CJSR 8 days / 7 nights ~$895.00 Trip Rating : Difficulty : Lodging: Introduction Day to Day Itinerary Rates .
  • Spain Horseback Riding Holidays Catalonia Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.hiddentrails.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Eat

.There are lots of good places to eat.^ There is a lot to chose from, but not everything is good.
  • Catalonia Bavaro Hotel Punta Cana Dominican Republic. Best Hotel Deals & Reviews 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.hotelscombined.com [Source type: General]

.At lunch time (13-15:00 approx.^ The time now is 15:13 .
  • Catalonia's Struggle - A New Nations Mod AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

), a lot of .Restaurants and Bars offer Menú del dia (Menu of the day - Prix Fixe), usually consisting of a choice of four starters, four main courses, wine and bread for at a reasonable price.^ Specialty restaurants offer sumptuous choices such as fresh grilled fish toasted in coconu t or black crust pork ribs, and seafood paella.
  • Catalonia Royal Tulum - Catalonia Royal Tulum Specials 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.jmtravel.com [Source type: General]

^ The restaurants and bars in the city are always busy supplying you with the sea food delicacies and wines during the Catalonia holidays.
  • Catalonia Holidays All Inclusive Holidays in Catalonia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC allinclusive-holiday.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ An Internet Point, free Wi-Fi Internet access throughout the building, a restaurant, a bar and a meeting room are some of the facilities offered by the hotel.
  • Catalonia Princesa Hotel Barcelona - hotel deals and reviews - venere.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.venere.com [Source type: General]

.Some bars also offer "Plats Combinats" which are a few items served together at reasonable prices - eg Hamburger, egg and chips.^ An Internet Point, free Wi-Fi Internet access throughout the building, a restaurant, a bar and a meeting room are some of the facilities offered by the hotel.
  • Catalonia Princesa Hotel Barcelona - hotel deals and reviews - venere.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.venere.com [Source type: General]

At dinner time (20-23:00 approx), a Menú is not so frequent.
In all the medium sized cities, you can expect to found a large range of possibilities;

Catalan Cuisine

.Usually announced as Cuina Casolana, based on the purposes of the Mediterranian diet: Soups, salads, meats, fish and seafood, snails (especially in Lleida during "L'Aplec del Cargol" by early May), desserts ("Crema catalana" or catalan cream, "Braç de gitano" which is a long roll made of whipped cream and sponge cake) pastries...^ Crema catalana (vanilla cream with sugar crust, Spain) .
  • Catalonia Stock Photo Images. 6752 Catalonia royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Directori de blocs del PSC - Blocs als Països catalans .

^ Empedrat de fesols de Santa Pau, Cod fish Salad Empedrat with beans ...
  • Catalonia Stock Photo Images. 6752 Catalonia royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

  • Pa amb tomàquet: bread with tomato. .Many people in Spain are surprised when discover the Catalan way to prepare "pa amb tomàquet", because instead of being sliced tomato with bread, the tomato (sometimes with garlic) is squashed and spread in the bread slice, dressed with extra virgin olive oil and small cuts of a very Catalan specialty: cured pork meat, that is, the famous Iberic ham (Spanish for "jamón" and "pernil" in catalan"), "fuet", "xorís" or "butifarra" (spicy cured sausages), sobrassada, or other stuff like cheese or larger pieces of cooked meat.^ There was no way of discovering how many people had been arrested.
    • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Recipe ingredients -500 grams boiled beans - 800 grams Catalane sausage - 3 table spoons of extra virgin olive oil - 2 garlic cloves .
    • Greece to Catalonia and Poland: May 2007 Archives 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC blog.eun.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Catalonia is famous for its own unique customs, including its language, Catalan, which is far more than an accented Spanish.
    • Catalonia Travel Guide - Triporati : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.triporati.com [Source type: General]
    • Catalonia Travel Guide - AAA Destination Discovery : Discover Great Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC aaacarolinas.triporati.com [Source type: News]

    ."Pa amb tomàquet" is a very deeply rooted meal in Catalan houses.
  • Paella - Typical rice dish from the Catalan Lands.^ Can Llonga typical catalan antique house .
    • Catalonia Vacation Rentals | Vacation & Holiday Rentals - Villas, Condos, Cottages | PerfectPlaces.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.perfectplaces.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Catalan paella is with seafood, while Valencian paella is without seafood. There's also a variant of paella which is made up with little noodles called "fideuà". In addition, paella and fideuà can be prepared with black squid ink, then it's called "fideuà negra" or "arròs negre" (black fideuà and black rice respectively).

Other cuisines

Cuisines from other regions can be readily found in cities of Catalonya:
  • Tapas - Typical Spanish
  • Basque food
  • Italian food - Pasta, pizzas, ...
  • Chinese food
  • Japanese food
  • Fast food

Drink

Don't miss the good Catalan wines and Caves. .Catalonia has had a very rich tradition of wine makers through history, and nowadays is a credited producer of world famous wines.^ Hotel Catalonia Rubens Hotel Barcelone / The hotel Catalonia Rubens is located very close to the Famous Gull Park...
  • 3 star hotel Catalonia - Online hotel reservations, bookings by FastBooking 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.fastbooking.com [Source type: General]

^ The Explorer Trail will also take you to Girona (by car), Northern Catalonia’s largest city and capital of the region steeped in rich history and culture.
  • Spain Horseback Riding Holidays Catalonia Europe 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.hiddentrails.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

"Penedès", "Priorat", "Costers del Segre", "Alella" and "Terra Alta" are good "D.O."s ("Denominació d'Origen" or designation of origin, the spanish administrative division to control and preserve wine producing areas). Sangría is also served in most restaurants, with large variations in quality.
  • Xanascat is the National Network of Youth Hostels [8] for all of Catalonia. They have 46 different installations throughout the region. The best option for low priced accommodations.

Stay safe

Catalonia is usually a safe place. Be aware of pickpockets in crowds, and don't leave your car in the rest areas in motorways. .Tourist areas such as Las Ramblas in Barcelona city attract many petty thieves, and you should be vigilant around these areas.^ Its proximity to the city centre - La Rambla.
  • Booking.com: hotel Catalonia Princesa, Barcelona, Spain - 280 Guest reviews. Book your hotel now! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.booking.com [Source type: General]

^ Centrally located near Barcelona's Arc de Triomf, the Catalonia Princesa is an easy walk to such Barcelona highlights as the Parc de la Ciutadella, Sagrada Familia, La Rambla, the Catedral Barri Gotic, and the waterfront/port.
  • Catalonia Princesa Hotel, Barcelona, Spain - Reviews & Official Contact Details - Travel Library 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.travel-library.com [Source type: General]

^ On the way back to Barcelona take the long way home heading west to La Seu d’Urgell and then swinging south again towards the city.
  • Catalonia Budget Travel Tips - EuroCheapo 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.eurocheapo.com [Source type: General]

As a tourist, you are a target for thieves. .They can spot you and you cannot spot them.^ I had the ineradicable English belief that ‘they’ cannot arrest you unless you have broken the law.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

Do not carry all your money and documentation in the same bag or pocket. .If you have been robbed, always go to the police.^ It is always beneficial to find out something about the place where you are going to live before actually setting foot there.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

If you travel try to avoid traffic police or prepare to have a fine for something. .Notice that you will have to pay in cash immediately otherwise your car will be removed from the road.^ Results NOTE: You will pay in the local currency after your stay at the hotel.
  • Booking.com: hotel Catalonia Princesa, Barcelona, Spain - 280 Guest reviews. Book your hotel now! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.booking.com [Source type: General]

^ By BoltAction 1150911894 Reply Spam [+0] Moderate Up Moderate Down Remove 1254374 2 Its makes you look behind your back even though its fake.
  • Possible Fallen Angel In Catalonia (Spain) - Video 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You will simply pay for your stay at the hotel.
  • Booking.com: hotel Catalonia Princesa, Barcelona, Spain - 280 Guest reviews. Book your hotel now! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.booking.com [Source type: General]

Therefore have at least 150 EUR with you for that occasion.
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.CATALONIA (Cataluna), a captaincy-general, and formerly a province of Spain, formerly also a principality of the crown of Aragon; bounded on the N. by the Pyrenees, W. by Aragon, S. by Valencia, and E. by the Mediterranean Sea.^ It was a possession of the Crown of Aragon, but when Casanova tried to figure out why that gave Catalonia a claim, he thought they were stooping to France's level.
  • Catalonia's Struggle - A New Nations Mod AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: General]

^ Barcelona - apartment Nou de St. Francesc Vacation Rentals > Europe > Spain > Catalonia > Costa Dorada Vacation > Barcelona Province > Barcelona .
  • Catalonia Vacation Rentals, Vacation Home Rentals Catalonia, VRWD.com Catalonia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.vrwd.com [Source type: General]

^ Barcelona city centre apartment Vacation Rentals > Europe > Spain > Catalonia > Costa Dorada Vacation > Barcelona Province .
  • Catalonia Vacation Rentals, Vacation Home Rentals Catalonia, VRWD.com Catalonia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.vrwd.com [Source type: General]

Pop. (190o) 1,966,382; area, 12,427 sq. m. .The triangular territory of Catalonia forms the north-eastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula.^ The triangular territory of Catalonia forms the north-eastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula.

^ Extension: 31 895 km 2 Population: 6 147 610 h [1998] A European Mediterranean country, on the eastern side of the Iberian Peninsula.
  • http://www.grec.net/cgibin/hecangcl.pgm?&USUARI=&SESSIO=&NDCHEC=0016436&PGMORI=E 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.grec.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Situated in the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula, Catalonia covers an area of 32 000 km2 and has 6 million inhabitants.
  • UB - Facultat de Medicina 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ub.edu [Source type: General]

A full account of the physical features, and of the modern development of commerce, communications, &c., in this area is given in the articles on the four provinces Barcelona, Gerona, Lerida and Tarragona, into which Catalonia was divided in 1833.
.The coast, which is partly sandy, partly rocky, extends about 240 m.; its chief harbours are those of the capital, Barcelona, of Matar6, of Rosas and of Tarragona.^ The coast, which is partly sandy, partly rocky, extends about 240 m.; its chief harbours are those of the capital, Barcelona, of Matar6, of Rosas and of Tarragona.

^ It extends from the Pyrenees southward along the Mediterranean and includes the provinces of Barcelona, Gerona, Tarragona, and Lerida.

^ There are four provinces in Catalonia, Girona to the north, Tarragona to the south, Barcelona the capital, and Lérida (Lleida) in the interior.

.The surface is much broken by spurs of the Pyrenees, the direction of which is generally south.^ The surface is much broken by spurs of the Pyrenees, the direction of which is generally south.

.Running south-west to north-east, and united on the north with one of the offsets of the Pyrenees, is the range of the Sierra Llena, which bisects Catalonia, and forms its central watershed.^ Catalonia is a varied region with wooded slopes of the Pyrenees in the North, and a costline that runs from the Costa Brava with its beautiful bays in the east to the golden beaches of the Costa Dorada in the west.
  • Retire2 Spain - Catalonia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.retire2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus Catalonia is bounded on the north by France (the ancient province of Roussillon) and the little independent republic of Andorra, on the west by Aragon, on the south-west by Valencia, and on the east by the Mediterranean.
  • Catalonia - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is worth seeing… – Catalonia offers their visitors a variety of different landscapes: Mountains on the Pyrenees, green hills on north, agricultural planes on the west and beaches on the east of the country.
  • Shared services in the heart of Catalonia | Outsource Portfolio 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC outsourceportfolio.com [Source type: News]

.The principal rivers are the Ter, the Llobregat, and the Ebro, which all run into the Mediterranean.^ The principal rivers in Catalonia are the Ter, Llobregat, and Ebro, all of which flow into the Mediterranean.
  • Catalonia (region, Spain) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although remnants of Catalan dominance can be found all over the Mediterranean, in the present day, the Principality is now restricted to the top north-eastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula.
  • Catalonia - a knol by Simon Harris 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: General]

^ The Principality is clearly defined by the Pyrenees to the west, the Mediterranean to the east while the River Ebro forms its southern boundary separating it from neighbouring Valencia.
  • Catalonia - a knol by Simon Harris 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: General]

None of them is navigable. The climate, in spite of frequent mists and rains, sudden changes of temperature, and occasional great mid-day heat, is healthy and favourable to vegetation. .The dwarf-palm, orange, lime, and olive grow in the warmer tracts; and on the higher grounds the thorn-apple, pomegranate, myrtle, esparto and heaths flourish.^ On the higher slopes nothing grows except stunted shrubs and heath, with the white bones of the limestone sticking out everywhere.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

These is much woodland, but meadows and pastures are rare. Maize, millet, rye, flax, liquorice and fruits of all sorts - especially nuts, almonds, oranges, figs, walnuts and chestnuts - are produced. Wheat sufficient for one-fourth of the population is grown, and the vine is extensively cultivated. .Few cattle, but numbers of sheep, goats and swine are reared.^ Pigs Cattle Sheep & goat Horses Hens & chickens Other poultry Rabbits .
  • Livestock Catalonia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC eaap2009.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Game is plentiful, and the fisheries on the coast are excellent. .The wines are for the most part rough and strong, though some are very good, especially when matured.^ In some ways the hospitals were very good.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ You’ll find many good local wines, especially robust reds, but Peneds is the largest and most productive wine growing area and is considered to be the birthplace of cava.

^ NL Mature couple GB, Oct 2009 The rooms were a very good size,especially the bathroom (having a bath and shower was very welcome)and comfortable.
  • Catalonia Princesa Hotel Barcelona - hotel deals and reviews - venere.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.venere.com [Source type: General]

.They are much used to adulterate those of Oporto, or, after undergoing the blending operation termed compage, are passed off as Bordeaux wines in France.^ The generic term collectivization employed in Spain is a misnomer, since it has been used also to describe the operations of a Fascist regime taking over private industry on behalf of the State.
  • COLLECTIVIZATION IN CATALONIA 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.weisbord.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If you can immobilize a certain number of men by making them desert, so much the better; deserters are actually more useful to you than corpses, because they can give information.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ The use of a list in Angel Navarro's story, plus the fact that the killers did not care much who they killed, shows that those killings were not motivated by revenge in this case.
  • Terror in Catalonia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.jim.com [Source type: Original source]

.The best of them, priorato, is chiefly known in England, under the disguise of second or third-rate port; it was much used in the military hospitals of America during the Civil War.^ More than this, it was definitely a Fascist plot, carried out under Fascist orders with the idea of starting civil war in the rear and thus paralysing the Government.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ During the first two months of the war it was the Anarchists more than anyone else who had saved the situation, and much later than this the Anarchist militia, in spite of their indiscipline, were notoriously the best fighters among the purely Spanish forces.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ It did not need much military knowledge to see that there would be no major action on this side of Huesca, at any rate for the time being.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

.The Catalonians are a frugal, sharp-witted, and industrious people, having much national pride, and a strong revolutionary spirit.^ Catalonia itself is a community with a strong national Catalonian identity.
  • 'Catalonia Is a Nation' - WSJ.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

.They are distinct in origin from the other inhabitants of Spain, from whom they differ in their dialect and costume.^ Indeed, in comparing Spain to other E.U. countries we see that the regional differences in Spain are not as abysmal as claimed.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These bulls are really different to any other bulls, they are incredibly brave and incredibly smart and agressive in personality, very special, besides their unique look.
  • The PETA Files | Catalonia Takes First Step Toward Bullfight Ban 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC blog.peta.org [Source type: General]

In their great energy and their love of enterprise they resemble the Basques. .Irrigation, careful husbandry and railroad communications have much developed the resources of their country, in themselves excellent; and there are many manufacturing towns and industrial establishments.^ It is, in short, a privileged cuisine, because it developed at crossroads that have connected it throughout history with many other countries, such as France and Italy.
  • Spanish Cooking : Catalonia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.gospain.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of natural resources is indispensable for economic development and a country that wants to grow will need to obtain them.
  • Indymedia Barcelona: The Case for Catalonia's Secession from Spain. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC barcelona.indymedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike other languages, there is no linguistic census that keeps track of how many people use Catalan as their main language of communication.
  • Where are you from? ESP 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ub.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Catalonia was one of the first of the Roman possessions in Spain, and formed the north-eastern portion of Hispania Tarraconensis.^ Barcelona is the capital of Catalonia , an autonomous community in north-eastern Spain.
  • Catalonia - TravelPod 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.travelpod.com [Source type: General]

^ It was one of the first bodies to form columns of militia in Catalonia and Madrid.
  • George Orwell: 'Homage to Catalonia' 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC orwell.ru [Source type: Original source]

^ Catalonia, which comprises 6% of the area of Spain (32,000 km² out of 500,000 km²) and 15% of the population (6.5 million out of 42 million), is one of these "nationalities".
  • Where are you from? ESP 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ub.edu [Source type: Original source]

About 470 it was occupied by the Alans and Goths. .It was conquered by the Moors in 712, but these invaders were in turn dispossessed by the Spaniards and the troops of Charlemagne in 788. Catalonia was subsequently ruled by French counts, who soon, however, made themselves independent of France.^ This district was ruled by dependent counts from 801 to 877, and in the latter year this dignity was made hereditary by the Diet of Quercy, Wilfrid the Hairy beginning a dynasty of counts who in a short time became independent.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Catalonia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Catalonia - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus Catalonia is bounded on the north by France (the ancient province of Roussillon) and the little independent republic of Andorra, on the west by Aragon, on the south-west by Valencia, and on the east by the Mediterranean.
  • Catalonia - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Serendipitously, Catalonia chef Brian Villahermosa, who worked at Banc and Bayswater Brasserie, made his name at London's Salt Yard two years back.
  • Catalonia - Restaurant Reviews - Good Living - Entertainment - smh.com.au 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.smh.com.au [Source type: General]

.By the marriage of Count Raymond Berenger IV. of Barcelona with Petronilla of Aragon, Catalonia became annexed to Aragon; but this union was frequently severed.^ Letsgo2 > Barcelona > hotels > Catalonia Aragon .
  • Letsgo2 Barcelona - Create a Holiday to the Catalonia Aragon Hotel 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.barcelona.letsgo2.com [Source type: General]

^ Count Ramon Berenguer IV became king of Aragon 1137.
  • Catalonia (Spain) 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.christusrex.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like the castle at Miravet, Escaladei was founded during the 12th century when the Count of Barcelona, Ramon Berenguer IV, continued the Moorish wars and extended Catalonia's influence through a dynastic union with the kingdom of Aragon.
  • Steep learning curves towards Cubism - Telegraph 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

.In 1640, when Philip IV.^ From 1640 until 1652, there was a revolt against Philip IV of Spain.
  • Information about Catalonia, Spain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cataloniavisitor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the misgovernment of Philip IV provoked an uprising in Catalonia (Feast of Corpus Christi, 1640), and the insurgents named Louis XIII of France Count of Barcelona.
  • Catalonia - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the misgovernment of Philip IV provoked an uprising in Catalonia (Feast of Corpus Christi , 1640), and the insurgents named Louis XIII of France Count of Barcelona.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Catalonia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

attempted to deprive .Catalonia of its rights and privileges, it gave itself up to Louis XIII.^ But the misgovernment of Philip IV provoked an uprising in Catalonia (Feast of Corpus Christi, 1640), and the insurgents named Louis XIII of France Count of Barcelona.
  • Catalonia - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.catholic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But the misgovernment of Philip IV provoked an uprising in Catalonia (Feast of Corpus Christi , 1640), and the insurgents named Louis XIII of France Count of Barcelona.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Catalonia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

of France. It was restored to Spain in 1659, and was once more occupied by the French from 1694 to 1697. Under Philip V. Catalonia, in 1714, was deprived of its cortes and liberties. From 1808 to 1813 it was held by France. It was the scene of civil war in 1823, and of important revolutionary operations in the Carlist wars.
.The history and literature of Catalonia have been closely studied, and in many cases the results of research are published in the Catalan language.^ Catalan is the language of Catalonia (Catalunya).
  • Possible Fallen Angel In Catalonia (Spain) - Video 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Catalonia has their own language, the catalan.
  • Userbars.com • View topic - Catalonia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC forum.userbars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two official languages spoken in Barcelona: Catalan, generally spoken in all of Catalonia, and Castillian Spanish.
  • Barcelona Travel Guide, Catalonia, Spain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.aboutbarcelona.com [Source type: General]

See Cataluna, sus monumentos y artes, su naturaleza e historia (2 vols. of the illustrated series Espana), by P. Pifferrer, F. Pi Margall, and A. A. Pijoan (Barcelona, 1884); Historia de Cataluna, by V. Balaguer (II vols., Madrid, 1886, &c.); .Historia de Cataluna, by A. Bori y Fontesta (Barcelona, 1898); Origines historicos de Cataluna, by J. Balari y Jovany (Barcelona, 18 99); Coleccio dels monogra j Las de Catalunya, by J. Reig y Vilardell (Barcelona, 1890); Historia del derecho en Catalonia, Mallorca y Valencia, by B. Oliver (Madrid, 1876-1880); and Antigua marina catalana, by F. de Bofarull y Sans (Barcelona, 1898).^ Spain, Catalonia, Barcelona, parc de la Ciutadella .
  • Catalonia Stock Photo Images. 6752 Catalonia royalty free pictures and photos available to download from over 100 stock photography brands. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Located in the heart of Barcelona, at the right side of Eixample and close to Passeig de Gracia and within walking distance from Plaza Catalunya and the city's old quarter.
  • Catalonia Berna (Barcelona Catalonia) - Search KAYAK for Great Rates 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.kayak.com [Source type: General]

^ Barcelona El Prat de Llobregat Girona Sant Boi del Llobregat Sitges Cadaqués Tarragona Hospitalet de Llobregat Riudellots de la Selva Lloret de Mar Salou Castelldefels show the 12 most popular… .
  • Booking.com: 1283 hotels in Catalonia, Spain. Book your hotel now! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.booking.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Revista catalana (Catalan Review), published at Barcelona from 1889, contains many valuable papers on local affairs.^ Barcelona 209 reviews “ great room, great location, wonderful service ” Dec 18, 2009 “ Nice Hotel.Good value for money!
  • Catalonia Hotels: Read Catalonia Hotel Reviews and Compare Prices - TripAdvisor 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

^ Barcelona 209 reviews “ great room, great location, wonderful service ” 18 Dec 2009 “ Nice Hotel.Good value for money!
  • Hotels in Catalonia, Spain - Reviews and Photos - TripAdvisor 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.tripadvisor.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The focus of the Catalan separatist movement was Barcelona, the site of many rebellions.
  • Information about Catalonia, Spain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.cataloniavisitor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.See also Spain: sections Language, Literature and History, and Barcelona.^ Tags: Catalonia , Columbus , etymology , Galicia , genoa , history , norway , Scotland , Spain Categories: Empire , Languages , Les bourgeois , Ships , The ocean .
  • kalebeul » Catalonia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC oreneta.com [Source type: General]

^ Your guide will explain the history of these amazing houses, the life of Gaudi and how his influence has shaped many of the buildings you see in Barcelona today .
  • Barcelona Tours, Wine Tours, Montserrat Tour, Day Trips 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC cataloniatours.com [Source type: General]

^ An acquitance of mine's assures that is a law of the history of Spain the necessity to bomb Barcelona every fifty years.



Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA: /ˌkæt.əˈləʊn.i.ə/, SAMPA: /%k{t.@"l@Un.i.@/

Proper noun

Singular
Catalonia
Plural
-
Catalonia
.
  1. A region of SW Europe, an autonomous community of Spain.^ Catalonia is one of the autonomous regions of Spain.
    • http://www.panoramicearth.com/Europe/Spain/Catalonia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.panoramicearth.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Catalonia is an autonomous region in Northeast Spain.
    • Catalonia videos - by Video Site 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.dvbs.eu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Spain's autonomous region of Catalonia (Cataluna) includes the vibrant city of Barcelona, the magnificent Pyrenees Mountains, and the beautiful 250-mile coastline.
    • Catalonia Holiday Rentals Catalonia Vacation Rentals 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.greatrentals.com [Source type: General]

    Historically, a principality also including a strip of nowadays Aragon and the region of Roussillon (nowadays part of France).

Related terms

Translations


Romanian

Pronunciation

  • IPA: [ka.ta'lo.ni.a]

Proper noun

Catalonia f.
  1. Catalonia

Declension

gender f. invariable
Nom/Acc Catalonia
Gen/Dat (al/a/ai/ale) Cataloniei

See also


Simple English

File:Localització de la CA de
Map showing where Catalonia is situated in Spain

Catalonia (Catalan: Catalunya; Spanish: Cataluña; Occitan: Catalonha) is a Spanish region located in South-West Europe, to the southeastern of the Pyrenees, and that has a northern border with France. Catalonia is politically an 'Autonomous Community', as regions are known in Spain, which is made up of four provinces: Barcelona, Tarragona, Girona (Spanish: Gerona) and Lleida (Spanish: Lérida). It has a population of over 7 million of people. In Catalonia, a significant percentage of the people can speak Catalonia's own language, Catalan, while everybody, or nearly everybody according to recent surveys, is also able to speak Spanish, the latter being the most spoken language in Catalonia. There also exists a small autonomous territory within Catalonia which borders with France on the North known in Occitan language as Val d'Aran where some people also can speak a third language: occitan. All three of these languages are official and recognised by the Spanish Constitution and the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia.

The capital city of Catalonia is the city of Barcelona, which was home of the Olympic Games in 1992. This city is geographically situated on the Mediterranean Coast, widely known as Costa Brava, being very popular amongst tourists in summer, be foreign or national. The Catalan people have autonomy within Spain. This means they have their own local government, their own police and some control over their own community. In September 2005, the Catalan Parliament decided to call Catalonia a 'nation' in the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia approved in 2006, according to the Spanish Constitution which says that Spain is a group of historical nationalities and regions. But this declaration has no judicial status whatsoever though, as it only appears in the preamble to the law.

Catalonia is one of Spain's most prosperous regions, mostly because industrialization began there earlier and took place faster than in other Spanish territories, above all the textile industry. The region is also greener than Southern Spain as it gets more rain, and also different kinds of crops are grown there. Temperature wise, Catalonia and specifically the North of the territory is much less hot than the rest of Spain.

Other pages

  • Spainkrc:Каталония

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 25, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Catalonia, which are similar to those in the above article.








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