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Catalonia
Catalunya (Catalan)
Cataluña (Spanish)
Catalonha (Occitan)
—  Autonomous Community  —
Flag of Catalonia
Flag
Coat-of-arms of Catalonia
Coat of arms
Map of Catalonia
Coordinates: 41°49′N 1°28′E / 41.817°N 1.467°E / 41.817; 1.467Coordinates: 41°49′N 1°28′E / 41.817°N 1.467°E / 41.817; 1.467
Country Spain Spain
Capital Barcelona
Government
 - President José Montilla Aguilera (PSC)
Area (6.3% of Spain; Ranked 6th)
 - Total 32,114 km2 (12,399.3 sq mi)
Population (2009)
 - Total 7,475,420
 Density 232.8/km2 (602.9/sq mi)
 - Pop. rank 2nd
 - Percent 16% of Spain
ISO 3166-2 CT
Anthem Els Segadors
Official languages Catalan, Spanish
and Aranese.
Statute of Autonomy 9 September 1932,
31 December 1979 current: 9 August 2006
Parliament of Catalonia 135 members
Spanish Congress seats 47 members (out of 350)
Spanish Senate seats 16 members (out of 264)
Website Generalitat de Catalunya
The Medieval church of Sant Climent in Taüll, located at the foothills of the Pyrenees.
The quaint town of Cadaqués, a popular tourist destination, is located on the Mediterranean coast.

Catalonia (Catalan: Catalunya; Spanish: Cataluña; Aranese; Catalonha) is one of the seventeen Autonomous Communities of the Kingdom of Spain. Its capital city is Barcelona. Catalonia covers an area of 32,114 km² and has an official population of 7,475,420[1]. It borders France and Andorra to the north, Aragon to the west, the Valencian Community to the south, and the Mediterranean Sea to the east (580 km coastline). The official languages are Catalan, Spanish and Aranese.

Contents

Etymology

From the 12th century, this is thought to be the first written document in the Catalan language.

The name Catalunya (Catalonia) began to be used in the 12th century[2] in reference to the group of counties that comprised the Marca Hispanica. The origin of the term is subject to diverse interpretations. A theory suggests that Catalunya derives from the term "Land of Castles",[3] having evolved from the term castlà, the ruler of a castle (see castellan).[4] This theory, therefore, suggests that the term castellà ("Castilian") would have been synonymous. Though critics usually consider it rather limited.[5][6]

Another theory suggests that Catalunya derives from Gothia, "Land of the Goths", since the Spanish March was one of the places known as Gothia, whence Gothland and Gothlandia theoretically derived,[7]

Yet another theory less accepted, points to the Lacetani, an Iberian tribe that lived in the area, and whose name, due to the Roman influence, could have evolved to Katelans and then Catalans.[8]

Climate

The climate of Catalonia is diverse. The populated areas lying by the coast in Tarragona, Barcelona and Girona feature a Mediterranean climate. The inland part (including the Lleida province and the inner part of Barcelona) show a mostly continental Mediterranean climate. The Pyreneean peaks have a mountain or even Alpine climate at the highest summits.

In the Mediterranean area, summers are dry and hot with sea breezes, and the maximum temperature is around 25-30 °C. Winter is cool or cold depending on the location. It snows frequently in the Pyrenees, and it occasionally snows at lower altitudes, even by the coastline. Spring and autumn are typically the rainiest seasons, except for the Pyrenean valleys, where summer is typically stormy.

The inland part of Catalonia is hotter and drier in summer. Temperature may reach 35 °C, some days even 40 °C. Nights are cooler there than at the coast with the temperature of around 14° to 16 °C. Fog is not uncommon in valleys and plains, it can be especially resilient and with freezing drizzle episodes during winter by the Segre and other river valleys.

Legal status within Spain

Catalonia, alongside Basque Country and Galicia was set apart from the rest of Spain as a Historical nationality and given the ability to accede to autonomy automatically, which resulted in the 1979 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia. The rest of Spain, in a process spearheaded by Andalusia and completed by 1985, carved itself into 14 additional Autonomous Communities by drafting their own Statutes of Autonomy. After 2003 there has been a round of amendments to the various Statutes of Autonomy (notably, alongside Catalonia's, those of Aragon, the Valencian Community, the Balearic Islands and the Canary Islands)

Both the 1979 Statute of Autonomy and the current one, approved in 2006, state that Catalonia, as a nationality, exercises its self-government constituted as an autonomous community in accordance with the Constitution and with the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia, which is its basic institutional law.[9]

The Preamble of the 2006 Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia states the Parliament of Catalonia defined Catalonia as a nation, but that the Spanish Constitution recognizes Catalonia's national reality as a nationality[10]. The Preamble of the Statute lacks legal value, thus the constitutional status is the same as it was in 1979, which is an Autonomous Community. While this Statute was approved by and sanctioned by both the Catalan and the Spanish parliaments, and later by referendum in Catalonia, it has been legally contested by the surrounding Autonomous Communities of Aragon, Balearic Islands and the Valencian Community,[11] as well as by the Partido Popular. The objections are based on various issues such as disputed cultural heritage but, especially, on the Statute's alleged breaches of the principle of "solidarity between regions" enshrined by the Constitution in fiscal and educational matters. As of December 2009, the Constitutional Court of Spain is assessing the constitutionality of the challenged articles; its binding conclusion is expected in 2010.

Roman aqueduct in Tarragona.

History

Roman amphitheatre in Tarragona.
Counties of the Marca Hispanica.
Catalan Court.
Carrer del Bisbe (Bishop Street) in Barcelona's Barri Gòtic.
Monastery of Our Lady of Montserrat Santa Maria de Montserrat.
Palau de la Música Catalana, built between 1905–1908.

Like some other parts in the rest of the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula, Catalonia was colonised by Ancient Greeks, who settled around the Roses area. Both Greeks and Carthaginians (who, in the course of the Second Punic War, briefly ruled the territory) interacted with the main Iberian substratum. After the Carthaginian defeat, it became, along with the rest of Hispania, a part of the Roman Empire, Tarraco being one of the main Roman posts in the Iberian Peninsula

It then came under Visigothic rule for four centuries after Rome's collapse. In the eighth century, it came under Moorish al-Andalus control. Still, after the defeat of Emir Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi's troops at Tours in 732, the Franks conquered former Visigoth states which had been captured by the Muslims or had become allied with them in what today is the northernmost part of Catalonia. Charlemagne created in 795 what came to be known as the Marca Hispanica, a buffer zone beyond the province of Septimania made up of locally administered separate petty kingdoms which served as a defensive barrier between the Umayyad Moors of Al-Andalus and the Frankish Kingdom.

The Catalan culture started to develop in the Middle Ages stemming from a number of these petty kingdoms organised as small counties throughout the northernmost part of Catalonia. The counts of Barcelona were Frankish vassals nominated by the emperor then the king of France, to whom they were feudatories (801–987).

In 987 the count of Barcelona did not recognize the French king Hugh Capet and his new dynasty which put it effectively out of the Frankish rule. Two years later, in 989, Catalonia declared its independence. Then, in 1137, Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona married Queen Petronila of Aragon establishing the dynastic union of the County of Barcelona with the Kingdom of Aragon which was to create the Crown of Aragon.

It was not until 1258, by means of the Treaty of Corbeil, that the king of France formally relinquished his feudal lordship over the counties of the Principality of Catalonia to the king of Aragon James I, descendant of Ramon Berenguer IV. This Treaty transformed the region's de facto independence into a de jure direct transition from French to Aragonese rule. As part of the Crown of Aragon, Catalonia became a maritime power, helping expand the Crown by trade and conquest into the Kingdom of Valencia, the Balearic Islands, and even Sardinia, Sicily, Corsica, Naples, Athens, Canary Islands and America.

In 1410, King Martin I died without surviving descendants. As a result, by the Pact of Caspe, Ferdinand of Antequera from the Castilian dynasty of Trastamara, received the Crown of Aragon as Ferdinand I of Aragon.

His grandson, King Ferdinand II of Aragon married Queen Isabella I of Castile in 1469; retrospectively, this is seen as the dawn of the Kingdom of Spain. At that point both Castile and Aragon remained distinct territories, each keeping its own traditional institutions, Parliaments and laws. Political power began to shift away from Aragon toward Castile and, subsequently, from Castile to the Spanish Empire.

For an extended period, Catalonia, as part of the former Crown of Aragon, continued to retain its own usages and laws, but these gradually eroded in the course of the transition from feudalism to a modern state, fueled by the kings' struggle to have more centralized territories. Over the next few centuries, Catalonia was generally on the losing side of a series of local conflicts that led steadily to more centralization of power in Spain, like the Reapers' War (1640–1652). In 1652 the Spanish Crown offers the Roussillon county to the Kingdom of France. Now this territory is the Department of Pyrénées-Orientales, and also is named Northern Catalonia (Catalunya Nord).

The most significant conflict was the War of the Spanish Succession, which began when Charles II of Spain (the last Spanish Habsburg) died without a successor in 1700. Catalonia, as the other territories which used to form the Crown of Aragon in the Middle Ages, mostly rose up in support of the Habsburg pretender Charles of Valencia, while the rest of Spain mostly adhered to the French Bourbon claimant, Philip V. Following the fall of Barcelona on 11 September 1714, the 'special status' of the territories belonging to the former Crown of Aragon and its institutions were abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees, under which all its lands were incorporated to Crown of Castile, as provinces, into a united Spanish administration, as Spain moved towards a centralised government under the new Bourbon dynasty.

In the latter half of the 19th century Catalonia became an industrial center; to this day it remains one of the most industrialised parts of Spain. In the first third of the 20th century, Catalonia gained and lost varying degrees of autonomy several times, receiving its first statute of autonomy during the Second Spanish Republic (1931). This period was marked by political unrest and the preeminence of the Anarchists during the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939). They were also active throughout the early 20th century, achieving the first eight-hour workday in the world in 1919. After the defeat of the Republic in the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939) which brought General Francisco Franco to power, his regime suppressed any kind of public activities associated with Catalan nationalism, Anarchism, Socialism, Democracy or Communism, such as publishing books on the matter or simply discussing them in open meetings. As part of this suppression the use of Catalan in government-run institutions and in public events was banned. During later stages of the Francoist régime certain folkloric and religious celebrations in Catalan resumed and were tolerated. Use of Catalan in the mass media was forbidden, but was permitted from the early 1950s[12] in the theatre. Publishing in Catalan continued throughout the dictatorship.[13]

After Franco's death (1975) and with the adoption of a democratic Spanish constitution (1978), Catalonia recovered political and cultural autonomy. Today, Catalonia is one of the most economically dynamic regions of Spain. The Catalan capital and largest city, Barcelona, is a major international cultural centre and a major tourist destination.

Languages

Originating in the historic territory of Catalonia, Catalan is one of the three official languages and has enjoyed special status since the approval of the Statute of Autonomy of 1979 which declares it to be the "native language of Catalonia".[14] The other languages with official status are Spanish, which has official status throughout Spain, and Aranese, a dialect of Gascon Occitan spoken in the Aran Valley.

Under the Franco dictatorship Catalan was, until the 1970s, excluded from the state education system and all other official and public use, including the prohibition of giving children Catalan names[citation needed]. During the 1940s the use of Catalan was restricted to private conversations, and the publication of books in Catalan was forbidden. Rural-urban migration originating in other parts of Spain also reduced the social use of the language in urban areas, while increasing the use of Spanish. Lately, a similar sociolinguistic phenomenon has occurred with foreign immigration. From the 1950s onwards, restrictions were relaxed, and some publishing houses were allowed to publish books in Catalan. Subsequently, Catalan cultural activity increased in the 1960s and Catalan classes began thanks to the initiative of associations such as Òmnium Cultural.

After the end of Franco's dictatorship, the newly established self-governing democratic institutions in Catalonia embarked on a long-term language policy to increase the use of Catalan[15] and has, since 1983, enforced laws which attempt to protect, and extend, the use of Catalan. Some groups consider these efforts a way to discourage the use of Spanish,[16][17][18][19] while some others, including the Catalan government[20] and the European Union[21] consider the policies respectful,[22] or even as an example which "should be disseminated throughout the Union".[23]. Recently, some of these policies have been criticized for trying to promote Catalan by imposing fines on businesses. The United Nations Human Rights Committee ruled in 1993 against similar policies in Quebec stating that "A State may choose one or more official languages but it may not exclude outside the spheres of public life, the freedom to express oneself in a certain language".[24]

Today, Catalan is the main language of the Catalan autonomous government and the other public institutions that fall under its jurisdiction. Basic public education is given in Catalan except for two hours per week of Spanish medium instruction. Businesses are required to display all information (e.g. menus, posters) at least in Catalan under penalty of fines; there is no obligation to display this information in either Occitan or Spanish, although there is no restriction on doing so in these or other languages and this is often done, in particular in Spanish. The use of fines was introduced in a 1997 linguistic law[25] that aims to increase the use of Catalan. The law ensures that both Catalan and Spanish – being official languages – can be used by the citizens without prejudice in all public and private activities[26], but primary education can only be taken in Catalan language. The Generalitat uses Catalan in its communications and notifications addressed to the general population, but citizens can also receive information from the Generalitat in Spanish if they so desire.[27]

According to the most recent linguistic census held by the Government of Catalonia as of 2009, a plurality claims Spanish as "their own language" (37.26% Catalan compared to 46.53% Spanish). In everyday use, 11,95% of the population claim to use both languages equally, while 35,54% use mainly Catalan and 45,92% use mainly Spanish.[28]

Also, starting with the Statute of Autonomy of 1979, Aranese (a dialect of Gascon Occitan) has been official and subject to special protection in the Aran Valley. This small area of 7,000 inhabitants was the only place where a dialect of Occitan has received full official status. Then, on 9 August 2006, when the new Statute came into force, Occitan became official throughout Catalonia.

Due to the intense immigration which Spain in general and Catalonia in particular experienced in the first decade of the twentyfirst century, many foreign languages are spoken in various cultural communities in Catalonia, of which Tarifit Berber [29], Moroccan Arabic, and Urdu are the more common[30].

Economy

[31] The distribution of sectors is the following one:

In 2008 the regional GDP of Catalonia was 216.9 € billion ($314.4 billion) and per capita GDP was 29,757 € ($42,858) - similar to that of countries such as the United Kingdom or Austria.[32]. In this year, the GDP growth was 3.7%,[33]. In the context of the 2008 financial crisis, Catalonia is expected to suffer a recession amounting to almost a 2% contraction of its regional GDP in 2009[34]

The main tourist destinations in Catalonia are the city of Barcelona, the beaches of the Costa Brava at Girona and the Costa Daurada at Tarragona. In the Pyrenees there are several ski resorts.

Many savings banks are based in Catalonia: 10 of the 46 Spanish savings banks are Catalan and "La Caixa" is Europe's premier savings bank [35] The first private bank in Catalonia is Banc Sabadell, now fourth of the Spanish private banks.[36]

The stock market of Barcelona, which in 2004 traded almost 205,000 million €[citation needed]., is the second largest of Spain after Madrid, and Fira de Barcelona organizes international exhibitions and congresses to do with different sectors of the economy.

The main economic cost for the Catalan families is the purchase of a house. According to daof ta the Society of Appraisal on the 31 December 2005 Catalonia is, after Madrid, the second most expensive region in Spain for housing: 3,397 €/m² on average(See Spanish property bubble).

Politics

After Franco's death in 1975 and the adoption of a democratic constitution in Spain in 1978, Catalonia recovered, and extended, the powers that it had gained in the statute of autonomy of 1932[37] but lost with the fall of the Second Spanish Republic[38] at the end of the Spanish Civil War in 1939.

The region has gradually achieved more autonomy since 1979. The Generalitat holds exclusive jurisdiction in culture, environment, communications, transportation, commerce, public safety and local government, and shares jurisdiction with the Spanish government in education, health and justice.[39]

There is some nationalist sentiment present in a part of the population of Catalonia,[40] which ranges from the desire for independence from Spain expressed by Catalan separatists,[40] to a more generic demand for further autonomy.[40] Some non-binding private referendums on independence with local character and consultative nature were taken in the 13th of December 2009 in 167 different towns [5]. Similar referendums are planned for year 2010 in other places.

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Law and government of Catalonia

The Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia is the fundamental organic law, second only to the Spanish Constitution from which the Statute originates. The Catalan Statute of Autonomy establishes that Catalonia is organized politically through the Generalitat de Catalunya, conformed by the Parliament, the Presidency of the Generalitat, the Government or Executive Council and the other institutions created by the Parliament.

The seat of the Executive Council is the city of Barcelona. Since the restoration of the Generalitat on the return of democracy in Spain, the presidents of Catalonia have been Jordi Pujol (1980-2003), Pasqual Maragall (2003-2006) and José Montilla Aguilera, incumbent as of 2009.

Catalonia is divided into four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona, which are subdivided into comarques (roughly equivalent to counties), and further into local municipalities.

Security forces

Catalonia has its own police force, the Mossos d'Esquadra, whose origins date back to the eighteenth century. Since 1980 they have been under the command of the Generalitat, and since 1994 they have expanded in number in order to replace the national Guardia Civil and Policía Nacional, which report directly to the Homeland Department of Spain. The national bodies retain personnel within Catalonia to exercise functions of national scope such as overseeing ports, airports, coasts, international borders, custom offices, the identification of documents and arms control amongst others.

Most of the justice system is administered by national judicial institutions. The criminal justice system is uniform throughout Spain, while "civil law" is administered separately within Catalonia.[41]

After Navarre and the Basque Country, Catalonia is the Spanish region with the highest degree of autonomy in terms of law enforcement.

Demographics

The autonomous community of Catalonia covers an area of 32,114 km² with an official population of 7,354,411 (2008) from which immigrants represent an estimated 12.3%.[42][43]

The Urban Region of Barcelona includes 5,217,864 people and covers an area of 2.268 km² and about 1.7 million people live in a radius of 15 km from Barcelona. The metropolitan area of the Urban Region includes cities like l'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Badalona, Santa Coloma de Gramenet and Cornellà.

In 1900 the population of Catalonia was 1,984,115 people and in 1970 it was 5,107,606.[44] That increase was produced due to the demographic boom produced in Spain during the 60s and early 70s and also due to the large-scale internal migration produced from the rural interior of Spain to its industrial cities. In Catalonia that wave of internal migration arrived from several regions of Spain, especially Andalusia, Murcia and Extremadura.

Transport

Airports

Commercial and passenger ports

Roads

see also List of autopistes and autovies in Catalonia

There are 12,000 km of roads throughout Catalonia.

The principal highway is AP-7 known also as Autopista del Mediterrani. It follows the coast from the French Border to Valencia, located south of Tarragona. The main roads generally radiate from Barcelona. The A-2 and AP-2 connect inland and onward to Madrid.

Other major roads are:

Railways

Catalonia saw the first railway construction in Iberian Peninsula in 1848, linking Barcelona with Mataró. Given the topography most lines radiate from Barcelona. The city has both suburban and inter-city services. The main east coast line runs through the province connecting with the SNCF (French Railways) at Portbou on the coast.

There are two publicly owned railway companies operating in Catalonia: the Catalan FGC and the Spanish national RENFE.

High speed AVE (Alta Velocidad Española) services from Madrid currently reach Lleida, Tarragona and Barcelona. The official opening between Barcelona and Madrid took place 20 February 2008. The journey between Barcelona and Madrid now takes about 2 and a half hours. Construction has commenced to extend the high speed line northwards to connect with the French high speed TGV network. This new line passes through Girona and there is a tunnel through the Pyrenees.

Some symbols of Catalonia

Catalonia has its own representative and distinctive symbols such as:[45]

The flag of Catalonia

UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Catalonia

There are several UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Catalonia:

Dalí Museum, Figueres

Popular culture

Gegants and Capgrossos in la Seu d'Urgell festival

Castellers are one of the main manifestations of Catalan popular culture. The activity consists in constructing human towers by competing colles castelleres (teams). This practice originated in the southern part of Catalonia during the 18th century.

The sardana is the most characteristic Catalan popular dance, other groups also practice Ball de bastons, moixiganga or jota in the southern part. Musically the Havaneres are also characteristic in the marine localities of the Costa Brava specially during the summer months when these songs are sung outdoors accompanied by a cremat of burned rum. As opposed to other parts of Spain, flamenco is not popularly performed, but rather the rumba is a more prevalent dance style.

In the greater celebrations other elements of the Catalan popular culture are usually present: the parades of gegants (giants) and correfocs of devils and firecrackers. Another traditional celebration in Catalonia is La Patum de Berga declared oral and immaterial patrimony of the Humanity by UNESCO in the 25 November 2005.[49]

In addition to the traditional local Catalan culture, people can enjoy traditions from other parts of Spain as a result of sizeable migration from other regions.

See also

Torre Agbar in Barcelona.

References

  1. ^ [1] (catalan)
  2. ^ Enciclopèdia Catalana online: Catalunya ("Geral de Cataluign, Raimundi Catalan and Arnal Catalan appear in 1107/1112") in Catalan
  3. ^ La formació de Catalunya
  4. ^ Curiositats sobre Catalunya i el català
  5. ^ La Catalogne : son nom et ses limites historiques. Histoire de Roussillon.
  6. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=nUABAAAAMAAJ&q=gotholandia&dq=gotholandia&hl=es&pgis=1
  7. ^ Bulke, Ulrich. (1900). A History of Spain from the Earliest Times to the Death of Ferdinand the Catholic. Longman, Greens and Co. London, UK
  8. ^ El Misteri de la Paraula Cathalunya
  9. ^ First article of the Statute of Autonomy of Catalunya
  10. ^ Constitución Española, Título Preliminar
  11. ^ Admitidos los recursos de Aragón, Valencia y Baleares contra el Estatuto catalán. hoy.es
  12. ^ Marc Howard Ross, "Cultural Contestation in Ethnic Conflict", page 139. Cambridge University Press, 2007
  13. ^ The Resurgence of Catalan Earl W. Thomas Hispania, Vol. 45, No. 1 (Mar., 1962), pp. 43-48 doi:10.2307/337523
  14. ^ Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia (Article 6)
  15. ^ Multilingualism in Spain: Sociolinguistic and Psycholinguistic Aspects of Linguistic Minority Groups
  16. ^ http://medios.mugak.eu/noticias/noticia/150764 Diario El Mundo, Spanish Only
  17. ^ http://www.elimparcial.es/contenido/19605.html Diario El Imparcial, Spanish Only
  18. ^ http://blogs.periodistadigital.com/ultimahora.php/2006/06/17/llaman_lputo_inmigrante_espanolr_al_padr Diario Periodista Digital, Spanish Only
  19. ^ http://blogs.periodistadigital.com/ultimahora.php/2006/02/02/la_justicia_obliga_a_una_escuela_de_bada Diario Periodista Digital, Spanish Only
  20. ^ Page 13: Catalan Deputy of Education Ernest Maragall declares respect from the Catalan Government to Spanish language and to everyone's rights. Catalan only
  21. ^ EU takes Basque Country, Galicia, Catalonia and Valencia as examples of bilingualism.
  22. ^ The President Montilla promises to look after the use and respect both for Spanish and Catalan languages.
  23. ^ Report from the Commission of the European Communities in which Catalan immersion is taken as an example which "should be disseminated throughout the Union" (page 18)
  24. ^ http://www.cbc.ca/canada/story/2009/10/22/f-quebec-language-laws-bill-101.html CBC News Online | March 30, 2005
  25. ^ Catalonia's linguistic law
  26. ^ Second article of Catalonia's linguistic law
  27. ^ Ninth article of Catalonia's Linguistic Law
  28. ^ http://www.idescat.cat/dequavi/?TC=444&V0=15&V1=2
  29. ^ http://www.radiocatalunya.ca/noticia/1612/
  30. ^ http://www.europapress.es/cultura/noticia-catalunya-arabe-urdu-aparecen-lenguas-habituales-catalunya-creando-peligro-guetos-20090629150020.html
  31. ^ European Structural Funds in Spain (2000-2006)
  32. ^ [2] CIDEM
  33. ^ [3] CIDEM
  34. ^ http://www.elpais.com/articulo/economia/BBVA/descarta/economia/catalana/caiga/elpepuespcat/20090114elpepueco_7/Tes
  35. ^ Ranking of Savings Banks
  36. ^ [4] Profile of "Banc Sabadell" in Euroinvestor]
  37. ^ Beginnings of the autonomous regime, 1918-1932
  38. ^ The republican Government of Catalonia, 1931-1939
  39. ^ Title IV. Powers (articles 110-173)of the 2006 Statute
  40. ^ a b c CIS Poll covering, among others, nationalist opinions.
  41. ^ Legislació civil catalana
  42. ^ "Catalunya arriba a set milions d'habitants", Diari El Punt.
  43. ^ "Catalans grapple with migrant influx", BBC News. 3 January 2007
  44. ^ http://www15.gencat.net/pres_catalunya_dades/AppPHP/cat/poblacio.htm (Catalan)
  45. ^ Statute of Catalonia (Article 8)
  46. ^ Law 1/1980 where the Parlamient of Catalonia declares that 11th of September is the National Day of Catalonia
  47. ^ Law 1/1993 National Anthem of Catalonia
  48. ^ Law 1/1993 in the BOE
  49. ^ Patum de Berga

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

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