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Catarrhini: Wikis


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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fossil range: Late Eocene – Present
An infant Stump-tailed Macaque,
held by a human hand
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorrhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Parvorder: Catarrhini
É. Geoffroy, 1812


Catarrhini is a parvorder of the Primates, one of the three major divisions of the suborder Haplorrhini. It contains the Old World monkeys (superfamily Cercopithecoidea, family Cercopithecidae) and the apes (superfamily Hominoidea).

The latter is further divided into the lesser apes (family Hylobatidae), consisting of the gibbons; and the hominids or great apes (family Hominidae), consisting of the orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans. Older references described humans and their most close extinct relatives/ancestors as a family on its own and placed the great apes in the family Pongidae.

The other two major divisions of the suborder Haplorrhini are the prosimian tarsiers, which were formerly classified with the strepsirrhines, and the Platyrrhini (New World monkeys), which live in both South America and Central America.

Catarrhini means narrow nose, and the term describes their narrow, downward pointing nostrils. Like the platyrrhines (with the exception of the genus Aotus), they are diurnal. Their tails (if they have tails) are not prehensile. They have flat fingernails.

Their dental formula is


Most species show considerable sexual dimorphism and do not form a pair bond. Most, but not all, species live in social groups. They are all native to Africa and Asia.


Classification and evolution

The apes and Old World monkeys split from their New World monkey kin about 40 million years ago. The major catarrhine division occurred about 25 mya, with the gibbons separating from the great apes and humans about 18 mya.

The tale of the late Asian catarrhines

In May 2005, three new primate fossils were discovered in the Bugti Hills of Pakistan. These hills lock away many primate mysteries. Among them was made in 2001, when the early primate Bugtilemur was discovered and led to the assumption that lemurs came from Asia, not Africa. The three primates called Bugtipithecus inexpectans, Phileosimias kamali, and Phileosimias brahuiorum all date back to the Oligocene some 30 million years ago - when monkeys dominated only Africa. These were small lemur-like catarrhines that prospered in an ancient tropical rainforest. Possibly these Asian catarrhines led nowhere in evolution, a side branch from Eosimias. Other possible new catarrhines fossils were uncovered in China, Thailand, and Burma.


External links


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Wikipedia has an article on:





From Latin, from Ancient Greek καταρρινα (hook-nosed), from καταρρέω (down-flowing) + ῥινες (nostrils)

Proper noun


  1. (taxonomy) A taxonomic taxon, within infraorder Simiiformes — the apes, man and the Old World monkeys.

See also

Wikispecies has information on:



Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies


Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Theria
Infraclassis: Placentalia
Ordo: Primates
Subordo: Haplorrhini
Infraordo: Simiiformes
Parvordo: Catarrhini
Superfamiliae: Cercopithecoidea - Hominoidea - †Dendropithecoidea - †Pliopithecoidea - †Proconsuloidea - †Propliopithecoidea - incertae sedis
[list of superfamiliae after Harrison (2005: 44, table 1; 45, table 3)]




  • Harrison, T. 2005: The zoogeographic and phylogenetic relationships of early catarrhine primates in Asia. Anthropological science, 113: 43-51. PDF

Vernacular name

Català: Catarrhini
Dansk: Østaber
Deutsch: Altweltaffen
English: Catarrhini
Español: Catarrinos
فارسی: راست‌بینیان
Français: Catarrhiniens
Galego: Catarrinos (Monos do Vello Mundo)
한국어: 협비원소목
Hrvatski: Majmuni Starog svijeta
עברית: קופים צרי אף
Nederlands: Smalneusapen
日本語: 狭鼻小目
‪Norsk (bokmål)‬: Østaper
Polski: Małpy wąskonose
Português: Macacos do Velho Mundo/Catarrinos
Русский: Узконосые обезьяны
Svenska: Smalnäsapor (smalnäsor, Gamla världens apor, östapor)
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Catarrhini on Wikimedia Commons.

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