Catherine Parr: Wikis

  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Catherine Parr
Queen consort of England and Ireland
Tenure 12 July 1543 – 28 January 1547
Spouse Edward Borough
John Nevill
Henry VIII of England
Thomas Seymour
Issue
Mary Seymour
House House of Tudor
Father Sir Thomas Parr
Mother Lady Maud Green
Born ca. 1512
Kendal Castle
Died 5 September 1548 (aged 36)
Sudeley Castle, Gloucestershire
Signature

Catherine Parr (c.1512 – 5 September 1548) was the last of the six wives of Henry VIII of England. She was queen consort of England in 1543–1547, then Dowager Queen of England. She was the most-married English Queen, with four husbands.

Catherine Parr was born at Kendal Castle in Westmorland, North West England, where her ancestors had resided since the fourteenth century. She was the eldest child of Sir Thomas Parr, of Horton House, Northamptonshire, descendant of King Edward III, and the former Maud Green (6 April 1495 – 20 August 1529), daughter of Sir Thomas Green, of Greens Norton, Northamptonshire. She had a younger brother, William, later 1st Marquess of Northampton, and a sister, Anne, later Countess of Pembroke. Sir Thomas was Sheriff of Northamptonshire, Master of the Wards and Comptroller to King Henry VIII. Her mother, Lady Parr, was an attendant of Queen Catherine of Aragon.

At the age of seventeen in 1529, she became the wife of the 2nd Baron Burgh. He died in the spring of 1532.

In the summer of 1534 she married the 3rd Baron Latymer, of Snape, North Yorkshire. In 1536, during the Pilgrimage of Grace, Catherine was held hostage by northern rebels, along with her two stepchildren. John Neville died in 1543.

It was in the household of Henry's and Catherine of Aragon's daughter, the Lady Mary, that Catherine Parr caught the attention of the King. After the death of Catherine's second husband, the rich widow began a relationship with Sir Thomas Seymour, the brother of the late Queen Jane Seymour, but the King took a liking to her and she was obliged to accept his proposal instead.

Contents

Queen of England and Ireland

Catherine Parr's arms as queen consort[1]

Catherine married Henry VIII on 12 July 1543 at Hampton Court Palace. She was the first Queen of England also to be Queen of Ireland following Henry's adoption of the title King of Ireland. As Queen, Catherine was partially responsible for reconciling Henry with his daughters from his first two marriages, who would later become Queen Mary I and Queen Elizabeth I. She also developed a good relationship with Henry's son Edward, Prince of Wales, later King Edward VI. When she became Queen, her uncle Lord Parr of Horton became her Lord Chamberlain.

For three months, from July to September 1544, Catherine was appointed regent by Henry as he went on his last, unsuccessful, campaign in France. Thanks to her uncle having been appointed as member of her regency council, and to the sympathies of fellow appointed councillors Thomas Cranmer (the Archbishop of Canterbury) and Lord Hertford, Catherine obtained effective control and was able to rule as she saw fit. She handled provision, finances and musters for Henry's French campaign, signed five Royal proclamations, and maintained constant contact with her lieutenant in the northern Marches, Lord Shrewsbury, over the complex and unstable situation with Scotland. It is thought that her actions as regent, together with her strength of character and noted dignity, and later religious convictions, greatly influenced her stepdaughter Queen Elizabeth I.

Her religious views were complex, and the issue is clouded by the lack of evidence. Although she must have been brought up as a Catholic, given her birth before the Protestant Reformation, she later became sympathetic to and interested in the "New Faith." It has been hypothesised that she was actually a Protestant by the mid-1540s, as we would now understand the term. We can be sure that she held some strong reformed ideas after Henry's death, when her second book, Lamentacions of a synner (Lamentations of a Sinner) was published in late 1547. The book promoted the Protestant concept of justification by faith alone, something which the Catholic Church deemed to be heresy. It is extremely unlikely that she developed these views in the short time between Henry's death and the publication of the book. Her sympathy with Anne Askew, the Protestant martyr who fiercely opposed the Catholic belief of Transubstantiation, also suggests that she was more than merely sympathetic to the new religion.

Regardless of whether she formally converted, which is unlikely, the Queen was reformed enough to be viewed with suspicion by Catholic and anti-Protestant officials such as Stephen Gardiner (the Bishop of Winchester) and Lord Wriothesley (the Lord Chancellor), who tried to turn the king against her in 1546. An arrest warrant was drawn up for her and rumours abounded across Europe that he was attracted to her close friend, the Duchess of Suffolk.[2] However, she managed to reconcile with the King after vowing that she had only argued about religion with him to take his mind off the suffering caused by his ulcerous leg.

Final marriage, childbirth and death

Catherine Parr.

Following Henry's death on 28 January 1547, Catherine was able to marry her old love, Lord Seymour of Sudeley (as Sir Thomas Seymour had become). As they married within six months of the old king's death, they had to obtain the King's permission for the match. When their union became public knowledge, it caused a small scandal. Catherine became pregnant for the first time, by Seymour, at age thirty-five. This pregnancy was a surprise as Catherine had not conceived a child during her first three marriages (however, her husbands had all been much older than she). During this time, a rivalry developed between Catherine and the Duchess of Somerset, the wife of her husband's brother, the Duke of Somerset (as Lord Hertford had become), which became particularly acute over the matter of Catherine's jewels. The Duchess argued that the jewels belonged to the Queen of England, and that as Queen Dowager, Catherine was no longer entitled to them. Instead she, as the wife of the Protector, should be the one to wear them. She invoked the Act of Succession which clearly stated that Catherine had precedence over all ladies in the realm; in point of fact, as regards precedence, the Duchess of Somerset came after the Ladies Mary and Elizabeth, and Anne of Cleves, styled the King's Sister. Eventually, the Duchess won the argument, which left her relationship with Catherine permanently damaged; the relationship between the two Seymour brothers also worsened as a result, since Lord Seymour saw the whole dispute as a personal attack by his brother on his social standing. Catherine's marriage also came under strain. Sex during pregnancy was frowned upon during the sixteenth century and Seymour began to take a possibly unhealthy interest in the Lady Elizabeth (Catherine's teenage step-daughter), who was living in their household. He had reputedly plotted to marry her before marrying Catherine, and it was reported later that Catherine discovered the two in an embrace. Whatever actually happened, Elizabeth was sent away in May to stay with another household and never saw her beloved stepmother again.

The Six Wives of
Henry VIII
Catherine aragon.jpg Catherine of Aragon
Anne boleyn.jpg Anne Boleyn
Hans Holbein d. J. 032b.jpg Jane Seymour
AnneCleves.jpg Anne of Cleves
HowardCatherine02.jpeg Catherine Howard
Catherine Parr from NPG cropped.jpg Catherine Parr

Catherine gave birth to her only child — a daughter, Mary Seymour — on 30 August 1548, and died only six days later, on 5 September 1548, at Sudeley Castle in Gloucestershire, from what is thought to be puerperal fever or puerperal sepsis, also called childbed fever. Coincidentally, this was also the illness that killed Henry's third wife, Jane Seymour. It was not uncommon, due to the lack of hygiene around childbirth.

Lord Seymour of Sudeley was beheaded for treason less than a year later, and Mary was taken to live with the Dowager Duchess of Suffolk, a close friend of Catherine. After a year and a half, Mary's property was restored to her by an Act of Parliament, easing the burden of the infant's household on the Duchess. The last mention of Mary Seymour on record is on her second birthday, and although stories circulated that she eventually married and had children, most historians believe she died as a child.

Remains

In 1782, a gentleman by the name of John Locust discovered the coffin of Queen Catherine at the ruins of the Sudeley Castle chapel. He opened the coffin and observed that the body, after 234 years, was in a surprisingly good condition. Reportedly the flesh on one of her arms was still white and moist. After taking a few locks of her hair, he closed the coffin and returned it to the grave.

The coffin was opened a few more times in the next ten years and in 1792 some drunken men buried it upside down and in a rough way. When the coffin was officially reopened in 1817, nothing but a skeleton remained. Her remains were then moved to the tomb of Lord Chandos whose family owned the castle at that time. In later years the chapel was rebuilt by Sir John Scott and a proper altar-tomb was erected for Queen Catherine.

Some of Catherine Parr's writings are available from the Women Writers Project.

In film and on stage

Portrait of Catherine Parr, formerly thought to be of Lady Jane Grey [3]

Catherine first appeared in cinemas in 1933, in Alexander Korda's masterpiece The Private Life of Henry VIII. Charles Laughton played the king, with actress Everley Gregg appearing as Catherine Parr. The film makes no attempt to depict the historical Parr's character, instead portraying the Queen for comic effect as an over-protective nag.

In 1952, a romanticised version of Thomas Seymour's obsession with Elizabeth I saw Stewart Granger as Seymour, Jean Simmons as the young Elizabeth and screen legend Deborah Kerr in the popular film Young Bess.

In 1970, in "Catherine Parr", a 90-minute BBC television drama (the last in a 6-part series, entitled The Six Wives of Henry VIII) Catherine was played by Rosalie Crutchley opposite Keith Michell's Henry. In this, Catherine's love of religion and intellectual capabilities were highlighted. Crutchley reprised her role as Catherine Parr in Part 1 of a 6-part series on the life of Elizabeth I in 1971, called Elizabeth R with Glenda Jackson in the title role.

In 1973, Barbara Leigh-Hunt played a matronly Catherine in Henry VIII and his Six Wives, with Keith Michell once again playing Henry. In 2000, Jennifer Wigmore played Catherine Parr in the American television drama aimed at teenagers, "Elizabeth: Red Rose of the House of Tudor". A year later, Caroline Lintott played Catherine in Professor David Starkey's documentary series on Henry's queens.

In October 2003, in a two-part British television series on Henry VIII, Catherine was played by Clare Holman. The part was relatively small, given that the drama's second part focused more on the stories of Jane Seymour and Catherine Howard.

In March 2007, Washington University in St. Louis performed the A.E. Hotchner Playwriting Competition winner "Highness" which documents the life of Catherine Parr and her relationships with King Henry and his daughter, the future Queen Elizabeth I, to whom she was a stepmother.[4]

She has been the subject of several novels, including two entitled The Sixth Wife, and she is a supporting character in the fourth Matthew Shardlake mystery, Revelation.

She will be portrayed by actress Joely Richardson on the fourth and final season of Showtime’s The Tudors, which is set to debut in Spring 2010.[5]

Catherine features in The Dark Rose, Volume 2 of The Morland Dynasty a series of historical novels by author Cynthia Harrod-Eagles. The lead female character, Nanette Morland, is educated alongside Catherine and is later re-acquainted with her when she becomes Queen.

Historiography

The popular myth that Catherine acted more as her husband's nurse than his wife was born in the 19th century from the work of Victorian moralist and proto-feminist, Agnes Strickland. This assumption has been challenged by David Starkey in his book Six Wives in which he points out that such a situation would have been vaguely obscene to the Tudors, given that Henry had a huge staff of physicians waiting on him hand and foot, and Catherine was a woman expected to live up to the heavy expectations of Queenly dignity. Parr is usually portrayed in cinema and television by actresses who are much older than the queen, who was in her early 30s when she was Henry's wife and was about 36 years old at the time of her death.

Catherine's good sense, moral rectitude, passionate religious commitment and strong sense of loyalty and devotion have earned her many admirers among historians. These include David Starkey, feminist activist Karen Lindsey, Lady Antonia Fraser, Alison Weir, Carolly Erickson, Alison Plowden, and Susan James.

Historical Fiction

  • Catherine Parr is the subject of Mary Luke's biographical novel, "The Ivy Crown", pub. 1984
  • Cartherin Parr's life story is also told in "The Last Wife of Henry VIII" by Carolly Erickson.

Titles and styles

  • Mistress Catherine Parr (1512–1529)
  • The Lady Burgh (1529–1532)
  • The Dowager Lady Burgh (1532-1534)
  • The Lady Latymer (1534–1543)
  • The Dowager Lady Latymer (1543)
  • Her Majesty The Queen (1543–1547)
  • Her Majesty Queen Catherine (1547)

References

  1. ^ Boutell, Charles (1863), A Manual of Heraldry, Historical and Popular, London: Winsor & Newton, pp. 279 
  2. ^ The Mistresses of Henry VIII by Kelly Hart
  3. ^ James, S.: "Lady Jane Grey or Queen Kateryn Parr?", The Burlington Magazine, CXXXVIII, 1114 (January 1996), pp. 20-24.
  4. ^ Otten, Liam (2007-03-15). "Performing Arts Department to debut Highness by Carolyn Kras 29 March to April 1". The Record. http://news-info.wustl.edu/news/page/normal/8996.html. Retrieved 2007-09-03. 
  5. ^ "'Tudors' exclusive: Joely Richardson crowned Queen by Michael Ausiello". 2009-07-21. http://ausiellofiles.ew.com/2009/07/tudors-exclusive-joely-richardson-crowned-queen.html. Retrieved 2009-07-21. 

Further reading

  • James, Susan (2008). Catherine Parr: Henry VIII's Last Love. Gloucestershire: The History Press. ISBN 075244591X. 
  • Martienssen, Anthony (1973). Queen Catherine Parr. London: Secker & Warburg. ISBN 0436273284. 
  • Withrow, Brandon (2009). Katherine Parr: The Life and Thought of a Reformation Queen. Phillipsburg: NJ: P&R. ISBN 1596381175. 

External links

English royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
Catherine Howard
Queen consort of England
12 July 1543 – 28 January 1547
Vacant
Title next held by
Lord Guilford Dudley
as Royal Consort of England
New title Queen consort of Ireland
12 July 1543 – 28 January 1547

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

(There is currently no text in this page)


Simple English

Catherine Parr (c. 15125 September, 1548) was the sixth wife of Henry VIII of England. She is often said to have been the only one of Henry's wives who survived, but this is not correct; Anne of Cleves also survived Henry.

Life

Catherine Parr (also spelled Katherine or Katharine) was an English woman and the daughter of Thomas Parr of Kendal, a county squire who had distinguised himself in the service of both King Henry VII of England and his son, King Henry VIII. At the age of fifteen, Catherine married Sir Edward Borough, but he died shortly afterwards in 1529 and Catherine became a widow. Her second husband, Sir John Neville, Lord Latimer was a wealthy landowner in Yorkshire and had an estate there called Snape Hall. Lord Latimer died in 1542, leaving Catherine as a widow for the second time, and without any children. By this time Catherine was in love with Thomas Seymour and was about to marry him, but Henry VIII himself took a liking to Catherine as well and, no doubt influenced by their long-term acquaintance, she married Henry instead on July 12, 1543 in Hampton Court. As queen consort, Catherine managed to bring Henry's daughters Elizabeth and Mary back to court. For Elizabeth in particular, Catherine was a much-needed mother figure and friend, and Elizabeth frequently acknowledged Catherine as her foremost educational mentor. Catherine was a good wife to Henry, but her strong will and outspoken nature led her to debate topics of religion a little too openly for the court's taste, and Henry's advisor's persuaded him that Catherine was attempting to subvert his religious authority. As a result, in 1546 Catherine found an arrest warrant for her signed by Henry. Catherine managed to comfort the King by saying that she only argued about religion to take his mind off his bad leg, leading Henry to spare her life. On January 28, 1547, Henry VIII died. Not long afterwards, Catherine was married to Thomas Seymour and soon became pregnant. She gave birth to their daughter, Mary, at Sudeley Castle on 30 August, 1548, but she did not recover from the birth and died soon afterwards on 5 September, 1548. She was buried in St. Mary's Chapel at Sudeley Castle. She was the last Queen in Tudor times.She got married 4 times.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message