Catholic Church: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Catholic Church

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Part of a series on the
Catholic Church
StPetersBasilicaEarlyMorning.jpg
Organization
PopePope Benedict XVI
College of CardinalsHoly See
Ecumenical Councils
Episcopal polity · Latin Rite
Eastern Catholic Churches
Background
History · Christianity
Catholicism · Apostolic Succession
Four Marks of the Church
Ten Commandments
Crucifixion & Resurrection of Jesus
Ascension · Assumption of Mary
Criticism of the Catholic Church
Theology
Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit)
Theology · Apologetics
Divine Grace · Sacraments
Purgatory · Salvation
Original sin · Saints · Dogma
Virgin Mary · Mariology
Immaculate Conception of Mary
Liturgy and Worship
Roman Catholic Liturgy
Eucharist · Liturgy of the Hours
Liturgical Year · Biblical Canon
Rites
Roman · Armenian · Alexandrian
Byzantine · Antiochian · East Syrian
Catholicism topics
Ecumenism · Monasticism
Prayer · Music · Art
046CupolaSPietro.jpg Catholicism portal

.The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, reporting more than a billion members.^ Roman Catholic Church, Orthodox Christian churches, and the Anglican churches).
  • Roman Catholic 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.socwel.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A member church of the Catholic Church of Antioch.
  • The Catholic Apostolic Church of Antioch - Member Churches 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.churchofantioch.org [Source type: General]

^ You can be a Christian and yet be a Roman Catholic.
  • EIPS - Roman Catholicism 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.ianpaisley.org [Source type: Original source]

[1] .The Church's highest earthly authority in matters of faith, morality, and governance is the Pope who holds supreme authority in concert with the College of Bishops of which he is the head.^ Cardinals are the highest dignitaries in the church after the pope.
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only the bishop, as head of the church, applies them.
  • ORTHODOXY AND ROMAN CATHOLICISM 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ocf.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Infallibility of the pope in matters of faith and morals proclaimed by the Vatican Council.
  • Roman Catholicism 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.biblicist.org [Source type: Original source]

.A communion of the Western (Latin Rite) church and 22 autonomous Eastern Catholic churches (called particular churches) comprising a total of 2,795 dioceses in 2008. The Church defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity.^ The Catholic Church in particular will have much to suffer.
  • Christian Culture Journal | Real Clear Religion | death of the west and western culture dogma christian catholic 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.realclearreligion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We recognise the sacraments of the Catholic church.
  • Roman Catholic « Voices from Russia 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC 02varvara.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Catholic Church has created their own gospel of "sacraments."
  • Roman Catholicism Leads to Hell 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.atruechurch.info [Source type: Original source]

.It operates social programs and institutions throughout the world, including Catholic schools, universities, hospitals, missions and shelters, and the charity confederation Caritas Internationalis.^ Catholic schools and hospitals abound throughout the nation.
  • Is the Roman Catholic Church Christian? 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC frjoe.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Peter 3:18 New Parishes and Missions $5,000,000 Endowment Parishes are the heart of the Catholic community and the primary instruments of the Church to reveal God's presence in our world.
  • Resurrection Catholic Church Winter Garden, Florida > Home 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC resurrectionwg.org [Source type: News]

^ In addition, social ethics are promulgated through parochial schools and hundreds of Catholic institutions of higher education in the United States.
  • Roman Catholic 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.socwel.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Catholic Church believes itself to be the original Church founded by Jesus upon the Apostles, among whom Simon Peter was chief.^ Why do Catholics believe that their Church is the one true Church of Jesus Christ?
  • Frequently Asked Questions about the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ CATHOLIC TRADITION - The church is founded on Peter.
  • The Roman Catholic "Church" is Not Christian 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.jesus-is-lord.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Catholicism 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.verizon.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Peter, the foremost of the Apostles, and Chief Herald of the Church...

The Church also believes that its bishops, through apostolic succession, are consecrated successors of these apostles, and that the Bishop of Rome (the Pope) as the successor of Peter possesses a universal primacy of jurisdiction and pastoral care. .Church doctrines have been defined through various ecumenical councils, following the example set by the first Apostles in the Council of Jerusalem.^ Infallibility - The doctrine of Infallibility was defined by the First Vatican Council in 1870.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A533828 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ First of all, Church councils are also authoritative.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first great rupture in the Church followed this Council.
  • Catholicism 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.lightplanet.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Roman Catholic Religion 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.wcaa.net [Source type: Original source]

.On the basis of promises made by Jesus to his apostles and reported in the Gospels, the Church believes that it is guided by the Holy Spirit and so protected from falling into doctrinal error.^ The testimony of Scripture is that the Holy Spirit guides each believer to all truth.
  • Is the Roman Catholic Church Christian? 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC frjoe.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus promises that He will be with the Church always.

^ The Church is one in the Holy Spirit; that is true.
  • Mark Horne » Blog Archive » Some off-the-cuff reasons I’ll never be Roman Catholic 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.hornes.org [Source type: Original source]

.Catholic beliefs are based on the deposit of Faith (containing both the Holy Bible and Sacred Tradition) handed down from the time of the Apostles, which are interpreted by the Church's teaching authority.^ Catholic Church dogma ( dogma = scripture interpretation.
  • Jesus Christ and His Catholic Church. History of the Churchof Jesus Christ. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.catholicevangelism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The principal sources for the essential beliefs of the Catholic Church are the Sacred Scriptures (the Bible), Sacred Tradition, and Living Magisterium of the Church.
  • Roman Catholic Church - Conservapedia 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC conservapedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The magisterium is the Church' teaching authority.
  • Roman Catholic Origins, Roman Catholic History, Roman Catholic Beliefs 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.patheos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Those beliefs are summarized in the Nicene Creed and formally detailed in the Catechism of the Catholic Church.^ The Catholic Church has published a detailed exposition of its beliefs in the Catechism of the Catholic Church .

^ Approval of the new Catechism of the Catholic Church .

^ The Catholic church, with it's beliefs on tradition and infallibility.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

.Formal Catholic worship is called the liturgy.^ Worship and liturgy: Catholics worship only God.

^ The acts of worship that Catholics perform together are called the liturgy.

^ Comments Tags: Anglican , anglican church , faith , liturgy , new zealand , roman catholic , roman catholics , worship .
  • Roman Catholic | Liturgy 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.liturgy.co.nz [Source type: General]

.The Eucharist is the central component of Catholic worship.^ Eucharist, or Mass, is the central act of Catholics' worship of God.

^ Indeed, the sacrifice of the mass is the central point of Catholic worship, as evidenced by the fact that those abstaining from attending mass are con- idered to have committed a mortal sin.
  • Catholicism 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mysite.verizon.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Catholics are also to hold the Eucharist in highest honorworshipping it with supreme adorationwith the same worship that we offer to God [147,148].

.With a history spanning almost two thousand years, the Church is the world's oldest and largest institution[2] and has played a prominent role in the politics and history of Western civilization since the 4th century.^ It was the largest church council in history.

^ Two-thousand years of doctrinal unity is a sign of Christ's Church.

^ Its history spans centuries, but its future is uncertain.
  • Transcript of CATHOLICISM: CRISIS OF FAITH 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.jesus-is-lord.com [Source type: Original source]

[3] .It maintains that it is the "One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church" founded by Jesus Christ, although it also believes that the Holy Spirit can make use of other Christian communities to bring people to salvation and that it is called to work for unity among Christians.^ Christ is the Head of the one body, the Church.

^ Jesus Christ,because by works of the law no one will be justified.

^ Holy Trinity Catholic Church (closed) .

Contents

Etymology

.The Greek word καθολικός (katholikos), from which the word Catholic is derived, means "universal".[4] It was first used to describe the Christian Church in the early second century.^ Can the word catholic refer to different churches?
  • catholic church Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about catholic church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The word Catholic , derived from the Greek, means "universal."
  • Catholicism - Boston College 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.bc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The word catholic was first used c.110 to describe the Church by St. Ignatius of Antioch.
  • catholic church Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about catholic church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .Since the East-West Schism, the Western Church has been known as "Catholic", while the Eastern Church has been known as "Orthodox".[6] Following the Reformation in the sixteenth century, the church in communion with the Bishop of Rome used the name "Catholic" to distinguish itself from the various Protestant churches.^ Attending at an Eastern Orthodox or a Greek Orthodox Church isn't the same, as they are not in communion "with Rome."
  • Roman Catholic since when? - Catholic Answers Forums 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: General]

^ The term Protestant is used to distinguish it from the Roman Catholic Church.

^ Catholic Church, which is governed by the successor of Peter and by the bishops in communion with him.
  • Roman Catholicism 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

[6] .The name "Catholic Church" appears in the title of the Catechism of the Catholic Church.[7] It is also the term that Paul VI used when signing the documents of the Second Vatican Council.^ The term Protestant is used to distinguish it from the Roman Catholic Church.

^ How about using the Catechism of the Catholic Church?
  • California Catholic Daily - “Confusion and misunderstanding” 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.calcatholic.com [Source type: General]

^ Catholic Church, of which the principle ones are the Council of Trent and the First Vatican Council.
  • Old Catholic, Roman Catholic, Protestant Schema 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.whiterobedmonks.org [Source type: Original source]

[8]
.Because it can at times help distinguish the Church from other churches that also claim catholicity, the name "Roman Catholic Church" has also been used in some documents involving ecumenical relations.^ English Law relating to Roman Catholics .
  • Roman Catholic Church - LoveToKnow 1911 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The term Protestant is used to distinguish it from the Roman Catholic Church.

^ Is the Roman Catholic Church the one true Church?

[9] .However, this title is disliked by many Catholics, as a label applied to them by others to suggest that theirs is only one of several catholic churches, and to imply that Catholic allegiance to the Pope renders them in some way untrustworthy.^ There is only one Church that is universally united, and that is the Catholic Church.

^ Is the Roman Catholic Church the one true Church?

^ Jesus has only one Bride, not many.

[10] .Within the Church, the name "Roman Church", in the strictest sense, refers to the Diocese of Rome.^ Not every church of Rome has been the Roman Catholic Church .
  • Roman Catholic Apologists 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.inplainsite.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The first cardinals, from about the 6th century, were deacons and priests of the leading churches of Rome and were bishops of neighboring dioceses.
  • Popes of the Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

^ In the sense more widely used today, as defined in canon law, the Holy See refers to the Pope, the Roman Curia, and associated institutions, in effect, the government of the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Roman and Eastern Catholic churches 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ecumenism.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]

History

Early Christianity

.According to its doctrine, the Catholic Church was founded by Jesus Christ.^ Why do Catholics believe that their Church is the one true Church of Jesus Christ?
  • Frequently Asked Questions about the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ "Wherever Jesus Christ is, there is the catholic church."

^ It claims that it is both organizationally and doctrinally the original Christian Church, founded by Jesus Christ.
  • Catholicism: History, Beliefs of Catholic Religion / Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .The New Testament records the activities and teaching of his group of sectarian Jews and his appointing of the twelve Apostles, and his giving them authority to continue his work.^ As a direct successor of the apostle Peter, by the fifth century the pope claimed authority over secular rulers while at the same time holding that his teachings were representative of Christ.
  • Roman Catholic 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.socwel.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several centuries passed before Church authorities weighed a variety of scriptural writings to establish a definitive canon of authoritative texts known as the New Testament.
  • Roman Catholic Origins, Roman Catholic History, Roman Catholic Beliefs 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.patheos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Church claims that the whole of its teaching was divinely revealed in essence in ancient times, though the working out of its implications is a continuing process.
  • Roman Catholic Church - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] The Church teaches that Jesus designated Simon Peter as the leader of the apostles by proclaiming "upon this rock I will build my church ...I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven ..."[13] The Church teache that the coming of the Holy Spirit upon the apostles, in an event known as Pentecost, signaled the beginning of the public ministry of the Church. .All duly consecrated bishops since then are considered the successors to the apostles.^ Bishops were seen as successors to the Apostles.
  • What is the Church? 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC geneva.rutgers.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Bishops are the successors of the apostles in the governance of the Church.
  • The Ultimate Roman Catholic Church - American History Information Guide and Reference 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.historymania.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Roman Catholic Church - Christianity Knowledge Base 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC christianity.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Christianity / trinity / roman catholic 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.christianity-guide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bishops are considered successors of the apostles.

[14]
.There is a tradition about the early history of the Church, traceable from late antiquity.^ Church history is an important source of information about the Early Church.
  • Timeline of Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.davidmacd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There was a strong anti-Roman tradition in the early Church.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is against the Tradition of the early Church.
  • 150 Reasons Why I'm Catholic (You Should Be Too!) 17 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.ourcatholicfaith.org [Source type: Original source]

which places .Peter in Rome, where he founded a church and served as the first bishop of the See of Rome, consecrating Linus as his successor and beginning the line of Popes.^ Catholic Church, which is governed by the successor of Peter and by the bishops in communion with him.
  • Roman Catholicism 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At that time the Catholic church claims the second "Pontiff," Linus, succeeded Peter as the first Pope in Rome.
  • Roman Catholicism 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (The term successor of Peter refers in Roman Catholic understanding to the Bishop of Rome, the Pope .

[15] .The only element of this which the Catholic Encyclopedia presents as historical is Peter's martyrdom at Rome.^ The Roman Catholic Church is based in Rome because that is where Peter moved it's headquarters in about 45AD. The Catholic Church is Roman by choice of Peter, not the Italian government or any other political entity.

^ This Church, constituted and organized as a society in the present world, subsists in the Catholic Church, which is governed by the successor of Peter and by the bishops in communion with him."
  • Lion Tracks Newsletter -- Roman Catholicism, Another Christian Denomination? 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.liontracks.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Introduction to Roman Catholicism 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC catholic.christianityinview.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Roman Catholic Church (moved to Rome by Peter after he fled Jerusalem) was founded by God-made-man, Jesus Christ.

[16]
.
Some historians of Christianity assert that the Catholic Church can be traced to Jesus's consecration of Peter,[17][18] some that Jesus did not found a church in his lifetime but provided a framework of beliefs,[19] while others do not make a judgement about whether or not the Church was founded by Jesus but disagree with the traditional view that the papacy originated with Peter.
^ Some beliefs of the Roman Catholic church and conservative Protestant denominations are in opposition to each other.
  • Comparing Roman Catholic and conservative Protestant beliefs 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.religioustolerance.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Do Catholics even care about Jesus?
  • Is Catholic Tradition Equal to the Bible? 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.jesus-is-lord.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Catholic church, with it's beliefs on tradition and infallibility.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

.These assert that Rome may not have had a bishop until after the apostolic age and suggest the papal office may have been superimposed by the traditional narrative upon the primitive church.^ These bishops may be known as hierarchs in the Eastern Rite churches.
  • Roman Catholic Church - Christianity Knowledge Base 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC christianity.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Christianity / trinity / roman catholic 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.christianity-guide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The top office in the Roman Church is that of the Bishop of Rome, the highest of the Roman bishops.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Pope, who is the bishop of Rome , holds the church's highest office.

[20]
.During the 1st century, the Apostles traveled around the Mediterranean region founding the first Christian communities,[21] over 40 of which had been established by the year 100.[22] By 58 AD, a large Christian community existed in Rome.^ Many Christians escape to Antioch, establishing its first community.
  • Timeline of Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.davidmacd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The original Christian community was founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Apostles.
  • Roman Catholic Church - Conservapedia 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC conservapedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Infants were not baptized during the early years of the Christian community.

[23] .The New Testament gospels indicate that the earliest Christians continued to observe several traditional Jewish pieties.^ The New Testament builds on this tradition and extends it.
  • USCCB - (SDWP) - Responsibility, Rehabilitation, and Restoration: A Catholic Perspective on Crime and Criminal Justice 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.usccb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The New Testament Scriptures further reveal an apostolic duty, commanded by Jesus, to heal the sick while proclaiming the Gospel (MT 10: 7-8).
  • Catholic Charities Archdiocese of New Orleans � Home 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC ccano.org [Source type: General]

^ Twenty Centuries of Christian Worship traces the history of the church from the New Testament period through the modern era detailing worship in the early church, the Eastern Orthodox tradition, Roman Catholic worship, post-Reformation worship, and worship renewal movements in the Twentieth Century.
  • Product Guide - Catholic Resources 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.logos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .Jesus also directed the evangelization of non-Jewish peoples, prompting circumcision controversies at the Council of Jerusalem.^ Jesus was understood by the Jewish people.

^ "The goal of Catholicism is, first of all, evangelization to bring the knowledge of Jesus to all peoples of the world.

^ However, the church accepted the Jewish Scriptures, both as the record of God's dealings with His chosen people and as a guide leading to Jesus Christ.

.At this council, Paul argued that circumcision was no longer necessary.^ But further, the Council is no longer a Council.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, Pope Paul III, The Council of Trent, canons on the Sacrament of Baptism, canon 5, ex cathedra: "If anyone says that baptism [the sacrament] is optional, that is, not necessary for salvation (cf.

^ Pope Paul III, The Council of Trent , Canon 5 on the Sacrament of Baptism, ex cathedra : If anyone says that baptism is optional, that is, not necessary for salvation (John.

.This position was supported widely and was summarized in a letter circulated in Antioch.^ Encyclicals are letters from the pope circulated to the bishops stating the church's position on certain matters.
  • Roman Catholic Church law regarding Freemasonry 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.io.com [Source type: Original source]
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH LAW REGARDING FREEMASONRY 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.njfreemason.net [Source type: Original source]

[25]
.
Constantine I, believed Christ had helped him win Rome.
^ It does come down to the way it has been popularly stated for the last four and a half centuries: Protestantisms salvation by faith versus Romes salvation by works...The Protestant trusts Christ to save him and the Catholic trusts Christ to help him save himself.
  • The Roman Catholic Teaching on Salvation and Justification 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.jesus-is-savior.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It does come down to the way it has been popularly stated for the last four and a half centuries: Protestantism’s salvation by faith versus Rome’s salvation by works...The Protestant trusts Christ to save him and the Catholic trusts Christ to help him save himself.
  • Roman Catholic Salvation and Justification 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.christiantruth.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When a person believes in Christ, God declares him not guilty and it is an accomplished fact.
  • Roman Catholicism 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.orlutheran.com [Source type: Original source]

Soon Christianity became the official state religion
.Early Christianity accepted several Roman practices, such as slavery, campaigning primarily for humane treatment of slaves but also admonishing slaves to behave appropriately towards their masters.^ With the advent of Protestant Christianity, when those creeds were accepted as such but without as many of the distinctive teachings of the Catholic Church, an emphasis was placed on the Roman Catholic interpretation of those creeds.
  • Catholicism - a knol by Dan Marcum 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Regarded as one of Christianity's most influential early missionaries, he took the Gospel to Greek and Roman cities and traveled extensively around Asia Minor.
  • Catholicism // Current 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within a short time Christianity had adopted the language and philosophical vocabulary of the Greco-Roman world to express its message, and it also adopted some procedural and organizational practices of the Roman Empire.
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26] .Early Christians refused to offer sacrifices to the Roman gods or to worship Roman rulers as gods and were thus subject to persecution.^ Regarded as one of Christianity's most influential early missionaries, he took the Gospel to Greek and Roman cities and traveled extensively around Asia Minor.
  • Catholicism // Current 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Twenty Centuries of Christian Worship traces the history of the church from the New Testament period through the modern era detailing worship in the early church, the Eastern Orthodox tradition, Roman Catholic worship, post-Reformation worship, and worship renewal movements in the Twentieth Century.
  • Product Guide - Catholic Resources 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC www.logos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "In early Christian teaching, after the final judgment, the wicked will be condemned to a hell of fire called gehenna , a Greek word derived from the Hebrew Gehinnon and referring to the desolate Valley of Hinnom, south of Jerusalem, where trash fires burned incessantly and where ancient human sacrifices were offered to Canaanite gods."
  • White Robed Monks of St. Benedict: Catholic Christianity 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.whiterobedmonks.org [Source type: Original source]
  • White Robed Monks of St. Benedict: Catholic Christianity 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.wrmosb.org [Source type: Original source]

[27] .The first case of imperially-sponsored persecution of Christians occurred in 1st century Rome under Nero.^ The same was the case in the first century.
  • Letting Roman Catholics Off the Hook | Adventist Today 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.atoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Persecution of Christians in Rome under Domitian.
  • Timeline of Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.davidmacd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Persecution of Christians under Hadrian (-138).
  • Timeline of Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.davidmacd.com [Source type: Original source]

.Further such persecutions occurred under various emperors until the great persecution of Diocletian and Galerius, seen as a final attempt to wipe out Christianity.^ Very little of Christian history survived the last great pagan persecution under Emperor Diocletian.
  • The Myth of the Roman "Catholic" Church 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Persecution of orthodox Christians under Emperor Valens in the East.

^ Christianity has always thrived under persecution.
  • THE DECEIVERS OF ROMAN CATHOLICISM : Apprising Ministries 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC apprising.org [Source type: Original source]
  • The Decievers 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.macgregorministries.org [Source type: Original source]

[28]
.Nevertheless, the early Church continued to spread, and developed both in doctrinal and structural ways.^ Structure of the church - Doctrinal basis .
  • Roman Catholicism -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Roman Catholicism :: Pius IX -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is the goal of the Cardinal coaching staff to develop our student-athletes both physically and mentally helping them to continue their playing career at the highest level possible.
  • SVC - Skagit Valley College - Baseball 9 February 2010 13:16 UTC www.skagit.edu [Source type: General]

^ The recognition of the church by Emperor Constantine the Great in 313 consolidated these developments and gave the church support in the great doctrinal controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries that determined orthodoxy.
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From as early as the 1st century, the Church of Rome was recognized as a doctrinal authority because it was believed that the Apostles Peter and Paul had led the Church there.^ By the end of the 1st Century, authority in the Church centered on bishops.
  • What is the Church? 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC geneva.rutgers.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For here is what Paul wrote to the church at Rome: .
  • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Saints Peter and Paul are martyred in Rome.
  • Biblical Studies/Christianity/Roman Catholicism/History - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .In the 2nd century, writings by prominent teachers defined Catholic ideas in stark opposition to Gnosticism.^ Looking for Catholic cursive writing ideas?

^ This is why Origen—one of the early "Fathers" of the Roman Church, writing in the third century—was shocked at the very idea of celebrating the Savior’s birthday.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sample the finest Catholic writing of the past two centuries in this massive anthology, now back in print after nearly half a century .

[30] .Other writers—such as Pope Clement I and Augustine of Hippo—influenced the development of Church teachings and traditions.^ With the advent of Protestant Christianity, when those creeds were accepted as such but without as many of the distinctive teachings of the Catholic Church, an emphasis was placed on the Roman Catholic interpretation of those creeds.
  • Catholicism - a knol by Dan Marcum 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mar 06, 2007 Neoliberalism is not compatible with Catholic social teaching Some call him the Catholic Secretary of Ideology, others the numero due of the Roman Catholic Church.

^ While various other denominations, such as the Eastern Orthodox, the Greek Orthodox and the Armenian Churches share the same roots as Catholicism, this entry pertains only to the Roman Catholic Church.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A533828 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.These writers and others are collectively known as Church Fathers.^ The first generally accepted authoritative collection of Roman Catholic Church Law was what is now known as the Decretum of Gratian , formally known as Concordia Discordant Cononum .
  • Roman Catholic Church law regarding Freemasonry 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.io.com [Source type: Original source]
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH LAW REGARDING FREEMASONRY 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.njfreemason.net [Source type: Original source]

^ With the support of Karl Barth, a professor of theology at Bonn University, in May, 1934, these rebel pastors formed what became known as the Confessional Church.
  • Adolf Hitler was a Roman Catholic - The Education Forum 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The major difference is that the Roman Catholic Church added a collection of books and passages known as the Apocrypha to their Old Testament during the sixteenth century.

[31] .While competing forms of Christianity emerged early, the Roman Church evolved the practice of meeting in "synods" (councils) to ensure that any internal doctrinal differences were quickly resolved, which facilitated broad doctrinal unity within the mainstream churches.^ Unity of the church and Christians—John 17.
  • Andy Rowell | Church Leadership Conversations: Roman Catholic theology 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.andyrowell.net [Source type: General]

^ This is demanded by the pure doctrine of the Roman Church.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With the advent of Protestant Christianity, when those creeds were accepted as such but without as many of the distinctive teachings of the Catholic Church, an emphasis was placed on the Roman Catholic interpretation of those creeds.
  • Catholicism - a knol by Dan Marcum 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

[32] .Primacy of the Roman Pontiff was recognized by the church from the second century, although disputes over its implications ultimately led to schisms.^ The Roman church is the ultimate in "convenience."
  • The Roman Catholic Rosary 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.remnantofgod.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Another issue given wide coverage has been the Roman Catholic Church sex abuse scandal that broke towards the end of the twentieth century.
  • The Ultimate Roman Catholic Church - American History Information Guide and Reference 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.historymania.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Letter of Clement to the Corinthians 1:58-59) Also when St. Ignatius of Antioch wrote to Rome in the very early second century, he reminded his readers that Rome "presides in love" over all other churches, and so is worthy of a litany of praises ( Letter to the Romans 1:1).
  • Catholicism - a knol by Dan Marcum 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

[33] .The schismatic Donatist Church was created in North Africa in 311 in a dispute over the authority of bishops[34] and survived until the Arab conquest in the 7th century.^ His Church will survive until his return.
  • Catholic Answers: Pillar of Fire, Pillar of Truth 17 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the end of the 1st Century, authority in the Church centered on bishops.
  • What is the Church? 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC geneva.rutgers.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ All Roman Catholic Churches share the same fundamental beliefs and they all accept the authority of the Bishop of Rome (the Pope) as the earthly leader of the Catholic Church.
  • Saint Ann Roman Catholic Church - Phoenixville, PA 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.churchofsaintann.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35]
.Christianity was legalized in 313 under Constantine's Edict of Milan,[36] and declared the state religion of the Empire in 380.[37] After its legalization, a number of doctrinal disputes led to the calling of ecumenical councils.^ The result was that he made Christianity the religion of the state.
  • Roman Catholicism 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From 380 on, Christianity was the Roman state religion .

^ It began in AD 313, when the Roman emperor Constantine legalized Christianity within the Roman Empire.
  • Married Priests: Roman Catholic Traditions 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.rentapriest.com [Source type: Original source]

.The doctrinal formulations resulting from these ecumenical councils were pivotal in the history of Christianity.^ The terms adopted by this Council were unacceptable to many Christians who preferred to use a Christology formulated primarily in Alexandria.
  • Catholicism: History, Beliefs of Catholic Religion / Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Malabar Christians The Malabar Christians in India have had the strangest history of all these Eastern Churches.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Eastern Churches 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Consequently, the Council of Trent was called to formulate Catholic doctrines and practices into a compact authoritative system.
  • EIPS - Roman Catholic Intrigue and Expansion 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.ianpaisley.org [Source type: Original source]

.The first seven Ecumenical Councils, from the First Council of Nicaea (325) to the Second Council of Nicaea (787), sought to reach an orthodox consensus and to establish a unified Christendom.^ The first council, Nicaea I, met in 325 and condemned the teachings of Arius .

^ Constantine I legalizes Christianity by the Edict of Milan [18] 325 The first Council of Nicea was convened to make a determination on Arianism.
  • Biblical Studies/Christianity/Roman Catholicism/History - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The bishops at the first ecumenical council of Nicaea (325) were horrified to discover that Christians were kneeling on Sundays and in the Great Easter Season of 50 days (which they termed Pentecost) and ruled in canon 20 : .
  • Roman Catholic | Liturgy 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.liturgy.co.nz [Source type: General]

.In 325, the First Council of Nicaea convened in response to the rise of Arianism, the belief that Jesus had not existed eternally but was a divine being created by and therefore inferior to God the Father.^ Dominion means that we have sovereignty over and responsibility for the well-being of God's Creation.

^ The first council, Nicaea I, met in 325 and condemned the teachings of Arius .

^ The bishops at the first ecumenical council of Nicaea (325) were horrified to discover that Christians were kneeling on Sundays and in the Great Easter Season of 50 days (which they termed Pentecost) and ruled in canon 20 : .
  • Roman Catholic | Liturgy 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.liturgy.co.nz [Source type: General]

[38] .In order to encapsulate the basic tenets of the Christian belief, it promulgated a creed which became the basis of what is now known as the Nicene Creed.^ The Nicene Creed and the Apostles' Creed, which are accepted by most major Christian denominations , can be considered a fundamental core of the Catholic Church's beliefs.

^ The Catechism of the Catholic Church contains a full description of the tenets of Catholicism — the essential and basic beliefs in Catholicism.

^ The basic tenets of Catholicism are the fundamental beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church.

[39] .In addition, it divided the church into geographical and administrative areas called dioceses.^ A diocese is divided into parishes.

^ The Church is divided into jurisdictional areas, usually on a territorial basis.

^ These areas are usually called "dioceses".
  • Catholicism - a knol by Dan Marcum 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: Original source]

[40] .The Council of Rome in 382 established the first Biblical canon when it listed the accepted books of the Old and New Testament.^ The Council of Trent definitively settled the matter of the Old Testament Canon.

^ First came Melchizedek in the Old Testament.
  • Catholic church punishes women for supporting female priests - Community 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC community.feministing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Chalcedon...to be received after those of the Old or New Testament, which we regularly accept."

[41] .The Council of Ephesus in 431[42] and the Council of Chalcedon in 451 defined the relationship of Christ's divine and human natures, leading to splits with the Nestorians and Monophysites.^ Christ's humanity is not predicated of the divine nature, divinity, and so should not be conceived as subservient to Christ's divinity.
  • Daniel A. Helminiak: Catholicism's Spiritual Limbo: A Shift in "Incarnational" Spirituality 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.spiritualitytoday.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Monophysites maintained that the human and divine in Jesus Christ constituted but one composite nature.
  • Roman Catholicism & the Black Madonna 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC watch.pair.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jesus Christ has both a human and a divine nature, the Church, His Bride, is also both human and divine.

[32]
.Constantine moved the imperial capital to Constantinople, and the Council of Chalcedon (AD 451) elevated the See of Constantinople to a position "second in eminence and power to the bishop of Rome".[43] From circa 350 to circa 500, the bishops, or popes, of Rome steadily increased in authority.^ When the Imperial capital moved to Constantinople, Rome's influence was sometimes challenged.
  • Roman Catholic Religion 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.wcaa.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Council of Chalcedon, 451 AD., gave the same rights and honors to the bishop of Constantinople as to the bishop of Rome.
  • Roman Catholicism 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This authority is lodged primarily in the bishops and the Pope.
  • What is the Church? 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC geneva.rutgers.edu [Source type: Original source]

[23] .Rome had particular prominence over the other dioceses: it was considered the see of Peter and Paul, it was located in the capital of the Western Roman Empire, it was wealthy and known for supporting other churches, and church scholars wanted the Roman bishop's support in doctrinal disputes.^ See: Particular church Relations with other Christians .
  • Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Roman Catholic Church Christian church headed by the pope, the bishop of Rome (see papacy and Peter, Saint ).
  • Roman Catholic Church Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Peter and Paul Church, NY, 1962).

[44]

Middle Ages

.After Roman collapse in the West, the Catholic faith competed with Arianism for the conversion of barbarian tribes.^ Roman Catholic faith.

^ However, the Orthodox reject the Roman Catholic "dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary," which was defined as "of the faith" by Pope Pius IX, on the 8th of December 1854.
  • ORTHODOXY AND ROMAN CATHOLICISM 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ocf.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mexico is another case in point concerning Catholicism's lack of toleration of non-Catholic faiths -- Mexico is over 90% Catholic and the Roman Catholic hierarchy is generally hostile toward evangelicals.
  • Roman Catholicism - General Notes 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.rapidnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45] .The 496 conversion of Clovis I, pagan king of the Franks, marked the beginning of a steady rise of the Catholic faith in the West.^ In 496, the king of the Franks, Clovis I, was converted.

^ The Coptic Catholic Church in Egypt The Coptic Catholic Church in Egypt traces their origin to St. Mark the Evangelist, who brought the faith to Alexandria .
  • THE EASTERN CATHOLIC CHURCHES 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC maryourmother.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, the word subsists can only be attributed to the Catholic Church alone precisely because it refers to the mark of unity that we profess in the symbols of the faith (I believe...
  • Why Catholic Church is better than the term Roman Catholic Church. - Catholic Answers Forums 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: General]

[46] .The Rule of St Benedict, composed in 530, became a blueprint for the organization of monasteries throughout Europe.^ Christian life in the school of the Lord's Service by following the Order's Rule of St. Benedict.
  • White Robed Monks of St. Benedict: Catholic Christianity 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.whiterobedmonks.org [Source type: Original source]
  • White Robed Monks of St. Benedict: Catholic Christianity 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.wrmosb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The White Robed Benedictines have as their motto the first word of the Rule of St. Benedict: Listen ( Ausculta ).
  • White Robed Monks of St. Benedict: Catholic Christianity 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.whiterobedmonks.org [Source type: Original source]
  • White Robed Monks of St. Benedict: Catholic Christianity 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.wrmosb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some time after her brother St. Benedict founded the monastery on Monte Cassino, she founded a convent for nuns at Plombariola, about five miles away from her brother's monastery.
  • Biblical Studies/Christianity/Roman Catholicism/History/Saint Biographies - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47] .As well as providing a focus for spiritual life, the new monasteries preserved classical craft and artistic skills while maintaining intellectual culture within their schools, scriptoria and libraries.^ They serve unstintingly in parishes, missions, and schools as teachers, scholars, artists, scientists, and spiritual leaders pointing the way to spiritual realities and a righteous, reasonable life.
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CELIBACY 2009 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.richardsipe.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Endowed funding will also provide opportunities for the Diocese to address the physical, spiritual and ministerial well-being of our priests in a way that supports their ongoing formation.
  • Resurrection Catholic Church Winter Garden, Florida > Home 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC resurrectionwg.org [Source type: News]

^ Because water is necessary to life, the baptismal water also is a sign of new spiritual life.

.They also functioned as agricultural, economic and production centers, particularly in remote regions, becoming major conduits of civilization.^ "They choose not to participate, which means they're not buying the candles and the costumes and the fireworks, and some of the other products that some of the local authorities profit by, so there's an economic loss."
  • Truth Provided Newsletter -Rome the True Terrorist! 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.remnantofgod.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Feeneys error on Justification, however, has become a major problem for some; namely, the current members of the St. Benedict Center in New Hampshire .

^ More particularly, if a good friend becomes Roman Catholic, are they now confessionally required to believe that I was never called of God to be a minister?
  • Five Questions For Roman Catholics | internetmonk.com 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.internetmonk.com [Source type: Original source]

[48]
.Pope Gregory the Great reformed church practice and administration around 600 and launched renewed missionary efforts[49] which were complemented by other missionary movements such as the Hiberno-Scottish mission.^ Pope calls for a new Pentecost to launch renewal of American Church .

^ Pope Gregory the Great [regn.

^ The idea of purgatory and prayers for the souls in purgatory was not known in the professing church to any degree until A.D. 600 when Pope Gregory the Great made claims about a third state—a place for the purification of souls before their entrance into heaven.
  • Roman Catholicism: A Biblical Analysis 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.reformedonline.com [Source type: Original source]

[50] .Missionaries took Christianity to the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic peoples.^ At the same time, beginning with Gregory I, bishop of Rome 590-604, missionaries had been sent to convert the pagan peoples of Gaul (modern France and Germany) and the Anglo-Saxons in the British Isles.
  • Roman Catholicism 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.orlutheran.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But later on, as the Scriptures began to appear in more and more native languages - Anglo-Saxon, Gothic, Germanic, Slavic, Coptic, Armenian, etc.
  • Heresies of Catholicism 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC lol.witnesstoday.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So people who are not Christians certainly are able to experience the presence of God in their lives in many other ways.

[51] .In the same period, the Visigoths and Lombards moved from Arianism toward Catholicism,[46] and the Celtic churches united with Rome in 664.[50] Later missionary efforts by Saints Cyril and Methodius in the 9th century reached greater Moravia and introduced, along with Christianity, the Cyrillic alphabet used in the southern and eastern Slavic languages.^ While Rome was uniting with others a certain portion of the evangelical church was moving toward unity with Rome.
  • The Roman Catholic Issue 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.letusreason.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Transubstantiation , Transubstantiation - Theology of transubstantiation , Transubstantiation - Roman Catholicism , Transubstantiation - Oriental Orthodoxy and Eastern Orthodoxy , Transubstantiation - Anglicanism , Transubstantiation - Lutheranism , Transubstantiation - The Old-Catholics Altkatholische and the independent catholic Churches derived from them , Transubstantiation - Other Christian denominations , Transubstantiation - Historical perspectives .

^ While various other denominations, such as the Eastern Orthodox, the Greek Orthodox and the Armenian Churches share the same roots as Catholicism, this entry pertains only to the Roman Catholic Church.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A533828 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[52] .While Christianity continued to expand in Europe, Islam presented a significant military threat to Western Christendom.^ Given this convergence, it is not surprising that Christianity, despite its origins and some significant developments in the East, finally took on its historically decisive character in Europe.
  • Roman Catholic Blog: "Faith, Reason & The University": Pope Benedict's Speech At The University of Regensburg 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC romancatholicblog.typepad.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of them, particularly the Goths, had already become Christian before even coming into Western Europe .
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead, all of Western Europe except Ireland came to be ruled by barbarian kings, who were either Arians or non-Christians.

[53] By 715, Muslim armies had conquered much of the Southern Mediterranean.[54]
.From the 8th century, Iconoclasm, the destruction of religious images, became a major source of conflict in the eastern church.^ (But he did note that the church, which has been strongly pro-immigrant, could be seen as having a vested interest in the immigration debate, since immigrants are a major source of members.
  • Is Anti-Catholicism Dead? - City Room Blog - NYTimes.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ By the year 2000 the majority of Roman Catholics will be living in Latin America, where 'liberation theology', the identification of the priesthood with the poor, became a source of controversy within the Church.
  • Roman Catholic Church@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After numerous disputes between eastern and western churches that became more pronounced from the ninth century onwards, the Church underwent the Great Schism in 1054 that divided it into a Western (Latin) branch, which has been called the Catholic Church and an Eastern branch, which has become known as the Orthodox Church .
  • Roman Catholic Church - Conservapedia 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC conservapedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55] .Byzantine emperors Leo III and Constantine V strongly supported Iconoclasm, while the papacy and the western church remained resolute in favour of the veneration of icons.^ Emperor Constantine returns Church property.
  • Timeline of Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.davidmacd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At that time, with the help of a deliberately fraudulent document manufactured for the popes known as The Donation of Constantine , Pope Stephen III convinced Pepin, king of the Franks and father of Charlemagne, that territories recently taken by the Lombards from the Byzantines actually had been given to the papacy by the Emperor Constantine.
  • A Woman Rides the Beast - A City on Seven Hills 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.chick.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The recognition of the church by Emperor Constantine the Great in 313 consolidated these developments and gave the church support in the great doctrinal controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries that determined orthodoxy.
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 787, the Second Council of Nicaea ruled in favor of the iconodules but the dispute continued into the early 9th century.^ In the early second century, Polycarp wrote: .
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Trying to correct an excessively juridical concept of the church, the Second Vatican Council consistently spoke of it as a mystery and favored images such as the “people of God” to describe it.
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Christians will at last, in a common celebration of the Eucharist, be gathered into the one and only Church" (from the Second Vatican Council, "Decree on Ecumenism- Unitatis Redintegratio", paragraph 4) ...

[56] .The consequent estrangement led to the creation of the papal states and the papal coronation of the Frankish King Charlemagne as Emperor of the Romans in 800. This ultimately created a new problem as successive Western emperors sought to impose an increasingly tight control over the popes.^ The coronation by the pope of the Frankish king Charles (Charlemagne) as Roman emperor on Christmas Day 800 clearly symbolized that alliance.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Craft never, in the slightest way, opposed the gradual legal improvement of the status of the Roman Catholics and the ultimate attainment of their aims, yet nevertheless, the Papal condemnation of the Craft remained even though no reprisals were sought by the Freemasons.

^ Aware of the problems created by the new technology, migration to the cities, and challenged by Pope Leo XIII's 1891 encyclical Rerum Novarum , the clergy developed a SOCIAL DOCTRINE to guide the new society.

[57]
.Eastern and Western Christendom grew farther apart in the 9th century.^ Before the Reformation in the 16th century, the ‘ Catholic Church ’ applied to the Western Church as a whole, as distinguished from the Eastern Orthodox Church based at Constantinople.
  • Roman Catholic Church Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apart from heretics such as the Cathari they were the only "foreign body" in Western Christendom and as such attracted the special notice of the ignorant and brutal.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The form of Christianity they had adopted in the 4th century was, however, by the standards of Christian orthodoxy both Eastern and Western, heretical in its doctrine of the Trinity.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

.Conflicts arose over ecclesiastical jurisdiction in the Byzantine-controlled south of Italy, missionaries to Bulgaria and a brief schism revolving around Photios of Constantinople.^ North Italy was Gallican, the South, Byzantine, but Africa was always closely akin to Rome liturgically.
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txc/rcatholi.htm 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You may select to read [ GUIDE TO THE TYPES OF RECORDS THAT MAY BE FOUND ] [ GUIDE to the LOCATIONS OF RECORDS ] [ Brief GUIDE to United States Ecclesiastical Jurisdictions.
  • Local Catholic Church History and Genealogy Research Guide andWorldwide Directory 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GUIDE TO THE TYPES OF RECORDS THAT MAY BE FOUND ] [ GUIDE to the LOCATIONS OF RECORDS ] [ Brief GUIDE to United States Ecclesiastical Jurisdictions.
  • Local Catholic Church History and Genealogy Research Guide andWorldwide Directory 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC home.att.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58] .Further disagreements led to Pope and Patriarch excommunicating each other in 1054, commonly considered the date of the East–West Schism.^ Efforts to heal the East-West Schism .
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This division is called the East-West Schism.
  • Catholicism: History, Beliefs of Catholic Religion / Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.spaceandmotion.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Roman Catholic Religion 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.wcaa.net [Source type: Original source]

^ A man of great energy and spiritual purpose, he must nevertheless bear the responsibility for a disastrous war that ended in capitulation to the Normans and for choosing the rigid and violent Humbert for the mission to Constantinople in 1054, the year from which the Schism between the churches of the East and West is dated.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

[59] .The Western branch of Christianity remained in communion with the Pope and remained a part of the Catholic Church, while the Eastern (Greek) branch that rejected the papal claims became known as the Eastern Orthodox churches.^ As for the term Catholic Church , Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox , Lutheran, Anglican, Old-Catholic, and other Christians claim to be, or to be part of, the Catholic Church.
  • Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As for the term Catholic Church , Oriental Orthodox , Eastern Orthodox , Lutheran , Anglican , Old-Catholic , and other Christians claim to be, or to be part of, the Catholic Church.
  • Roman Catholic Church - Christianity Knowledge Base 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC christianity.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Eastern Orthodox and Episcopal Churches also call themselves Catholic .
  • snopes.com: Catholic vs. Roman Catholic 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC msgboard.snopes.com [Source type: General]

[60] .Efforts to mend the rift were attempted at the Second Council of Lyon in 1274 and Council of Florence in 1439. While in each case the Eastern Emperor and Eastern Patriarch both agreed to the reunion,[61] neither council changed the attitudes of the Eastern Churches at large, and the schism remained.^ Earlier attempts at such a reunion, for example at the Council of Lyon in 1274, had failed.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the church remained largely unreformed.

^ In spite of the short-lived reunions made by the Second Council of Lyons (1274) and the Council of Florence (1439), this Church has been in schism ever since.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Eastern Churches 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[62]
.The Cluniac reform of monasteries that had begun in 910 sparked widespread monastic growth and renewal.^ This allowed the ecclesiastical hierarchy there a certain independence and cohesion, while the growth of the French reform-oriented monastery at Cluny prepared the country for its message of reform.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The restoration of order began in monasteries; from Cluny a movement spread to reform Christian life (see Cluniac order ).
  • Roman Catholic Church Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63] Monasteries introduced new technologies and crops, fostered the creation and preservation of literature and promoted economic growth. .Monasteries, convents and cathedrals still operated virtually all schools and libraries.^ Cathedral Preparatory School All-boys .
  • Pennsylvania/PA Roman Catholic Private Schools - Private School Review 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.privateschoolreview.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Almost all baronial families founded a monastery, and townspeople not only paid for their cathedrals but often supplied materials and labor.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "I took her to see all the schools, parishes and convents that were attacked in the area", Sister Suma recounts.

[64] .Despite a church ban on the practice of usury the larger abbeys functioned as sources for economic credit.^ Catholicism - Catholic Church Catholicism - Brief organizational history of the Church Catholicism - The Roman Catholic Church Catholicism - Other Catholic groups Catholicism - Distinctive beliefs and practices Catholicism - Beliefs Catholicism - Sacraments Catholicism - Footnotes Catholicism - Sources Catholicism - Additional reading .

^ We must conclude that, despite its claims, the Catholic church is not the true, original church since it does not follow the teaching and practice of the original church.
  • Catholicism and Scripture: Roman Catholic Church and Bible 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.gospelway.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Church and state relations - - Economic views and practice .
  • Roman Catholicism -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Roman Catholicism :: Pius IX -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[65] .The 11th and 12th century saw internal efforts to reform the church.^ In the 11th century, the Eastern, Orthodox Church and the Western, Catholic Church split, largely over disagreements regarding papal primacy.
  • Catholic Churches Locations - Locate Catholic Churches Near You with Mapmuse's Catholic Churches Locator 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Western Church Fathers)…Pope Sylvester in 1003 approved and recommended the practice…from the 11th to the 14th century, it spread in France, Germany, England and Spain.

^ They loved the church design, and they had no problem with the sunshade, but in the end I had to use a solemn 12th-century apocalypse interpretation from a book that was Vatican-approved."
  • Roman Catholic // Current 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC current.com [Source type: News]

.The college of cardinals in 1059 was created to free papal elections from interference by Emperor and nobility.^ The asterisk (*) denotes that the cardinal is older than 80 years and cannot partake in the papal election.
  • The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church - Current membership of the College of Cardinals 9 February 2010 13:16 UTC www.fiu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the years of confusion that followed, the papal election decree of Nicholas II in 1059 stands out: it gave the right and duty of papal election to the cardinals, tacitly eliminating the king of Germany .
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ K.J.Kolka, the creator and cartoonist of The Cardinal Adventures comic strip, actually has made 4 Cardinal films on 8mm film when he was in college!
  • The Cardinal 9 February 2010 13:16 UTC www.tracts.com [Source type: General]

.Lay investiture of bishops, a source of rulers' dominance over the Church, was attacked by reformers and under Pope Gregory VII, erupted into the Investiture Controversy between Pope and Emperor.^ Part of this movement was to exclude civil rulers from making church appointments—the first, bold chapter in a 900-year battle between the church and the "Catholic princes" (see church and state ; investiture ).
  • Roman Catholic Church Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Survivor: Vatican: under Pope Benedict XVI, the Roman Catholic Church is jumping at the chance to drive gay priests from its ranks.
  • Roman Catholic Church Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bismarck summarized his defiance of the church in an allusion to the conflict between Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV in the 11th century: “We are not going to Canossa!” When Pius IX died in 1878, the conflict was still unresolved.
  • Roman Catholicism :: Pius IX -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The matter was eventually settled with the Concordat of Worms in 1122 where it was agreed that bishops would be selected in accordance with Church law.^ The Catholic Church would, however, "today deal with such a provocation in a different and a better way," said the bishop.

^ Of course, if this person had full knowledge of the teachings of the Church, this person would be committing a mortal sin if he disobeyed the teachings involving grave matter.
  • Five Questions For Roman Catholics | internetmonk.com 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.internetmonk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Archbishop Raymond Burke, an expert in church law and perhaps the most outspoken of conservative U.S. bishops, will likely be made a cardinal after his appointment Friday .
  • Roman Catholicism: News & Videos about Roman Catholicism - CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]
  • Roman Catholicism: News & Videos about Roman Catholicism - CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

[66]
Colored painting showing a large congregation of bishops listening to the Pope
.
Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont (1095), where he preached the First Crusade; later manuscript illumination of c.
^ In 1096 Pope Urban II inspired the first crusade to retake Jerusalem from the Muslims.
  • A Woman Rides the Beast - A City on Seven Hills 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.chick.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the eleventh century there were three rival popes at the same time, all of which were deposed by the council convened by the emperor Henry III. Later in the same century, Clement III was opposed by Victor III and afterwards by Urban II. How could popes be infallible when they opposed one another?
  • Roman Catholicism: A Biblical Analysis 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.reformedonline.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Italians elected Urban VI and the French cardinals chose Clement VII. The popes cursed each other year after year until a council deposed both and elected another!
  • Roman Catholicism: A Biblical Analysis 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.reformedonline.com [Source type: Original source]

1490.
.In 1095, Byzantine emperor Alexius I appealed to Pope Urban II for help against renewed Muslim invasions,[67] which caused Urban to launch the First Crusade aimed at aiding the Byzantine Empire and returning the Holy Land to Christian control.^ The Crusades were to give free access to the Holy Land for Christian pilgrims.
  • Is the Roman Catholic Church Christian? 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC frjoe.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1096 Pope Urban II inspired the first crusade to retake Jerusalem from the Muslims.
  • A Woman Rides the Beast - A City on Seven Hills 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.chick.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The papacy had been stirred more than once by the disasters befalling Eastern Christians, such as their defeats by the Seljuq Turks at Manzikert (1071) and Antioch (1085) in Asia Minor , when the Byzantine emperor Alexius I appealed for help to Pope Urban II. Although this appeal may have been the decisive motive for the Crusade, there were obvious advantages in diverting the Normans of Sicily and other turbulent warriors from Europe to wage a sacred war elsewhere.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

[62] .The goal was not permanently realized, and episodes of brutality committed by the armies of both sides left a legacy of mutual distrust between Muslims and Western and Eastern Christians.^ To this day there is a dispute between Eastern Orthodox Christians and Western Christianity.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So I think both sides of the Protestant population have done their best to reduce Christianity to meaningless platitudes along with questionable doctrinal positions or none at all.
  • InsideCatholic.com - Liberal Protestantism and Liberal Catholicism 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC insidecatholic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because both private and public greed have driven this crisis, it's really not a Left/Right issue.

[68] .The sack of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade, conducted against papal authorisation, left Eastern Christians embittered and was a decisive event that permanently solidified the schism between the churches.^ The extent of Christianity during the period of the Crusades.
  • Roman Catholicism -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Roman Catholicism :: Pius IX -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The truth is that the role of the religions was not the best one: Attacks against Galileu, genocide during the crusades, the Muslim radicalism, silence before the holocaust, etc.
  • Daylight Atheism > Catholicism Kills 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.daylightatheism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Being Christian is not the result of an ethical choice or a lofty idea, but the encounter with an event, a person, which gives life a new horizon and a decisive direction.
  • Jesus Christ and His Catholic Church. History of the Churchof Jesus Christ. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.catholicevangelism.org [Source type: Original source]

[69]
.The crusades saw the formation of various military orders that provided social services as well as protection of pilgrim routes.^ In this respect, as well as in various specific doctrinal and moral teachings, he anticipated the development of the Protestant Reformation a century later, and his 16th-century disciples saw that development as a vindication of his and their position.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Pope Pius IX, Vatican I , ex cathedra : God protects and governs by His providence all things which He has created, reaching from end to end mightily and ordering all things sweetly ...

^ On God the creator of all things: EVERYTHING THAT GOD HAS BROUGHT INTO BEING HE PROTECTS AND GOVERNS BY HIS PROVIDENCE, which reaches from one end of the earth to the other and orders all things well .

[70] .The Teutonic Knights, one of the orders, conquered the then-pagan Prussia.^ The Baltic lands were won by a mixture of preaching and the swords of the Teutonic Knights (a military monastic order) between 1100 and 1400.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The "Co-Opting of Christianity by Rome:" The reason Pagan Rome 'Christianized' itself, was because there was one foe which they simply could never conquer.
  • The Hierarchy of the Roman Empire/Catholic Church - Let's Roll Forums 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC letsrollforums.com [Source type: Original source]

[70] .The Templars became noted bankers and creditors who were suppressed by King Philip IV of France shortly after 1300.[71] Later, mendicant orders were founded by Francis of Assisi and Dominic de Guzmán which brought consecrated religious life into urban settings.^ Religious orders: canons and monks - - The mendicant orders .
  • Roman Catholicism -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Roman Catholicism :: Pius IX -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Spanish Inquisition ("..The Spanish Inquisition, authorized in 1478 by 'pope' Sixtus IV for King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, became harsher than the medieval Inquisition.
  • # The Inquisition and the Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.link-mail.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But indications of the church's move toward reform appear in the activities of three religious orders founded from 1524 to 1530--the Barnabites , Capuchins, and Theatines .

[72] .These orders also played a large role in the development of cathedral schools into universities, the direct ancestors of the modern Western institutions.^ Later in the medieval period, cathedral schools developed into Universities (see University of Paris, University of Oxford, and University of Bologna), the direct ancestors of modern Western institutions of learning.
  • Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although Theosophists played a major role in establishing this Church, the Church itself has no connection with the Theosophical Society or with any other philosophical school of thought.

^ The whole weight of the Jesuit teaching was thrown unitedly, persistently, and with tremendous force, in all these schools into the scale of Infallibility.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[73] .Notable scholastic theologians such as the Dominican Thomas Aquinas worked at these universities, and his Summa Theologica was a key intellectual achievement in its synthesis of Aristotelian thought and Christianity.^ This was an unquestioned assumption until the Reformation, and great theologians such as the 13th-century Italian St. Thomas Aquinas taught that “Scripture alone” was the source for theology.
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These historians draw a similar correlation between the waning prestige of the papacy in the late Middle Ages and the shattering of the Scholastic synthesis by the work of such philosophical theologians as William of Ockham.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And consequently, when once grace had been revealed, all were bound to explicit faith in the mystery of the Trinity (The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

[74]
.Twelfth century France witnessed the emergence of Catharism, a dualist heresy that had spread from Eastern Europe through Germany.^ Western Church Fathers)…Pope Sylvester in 1003 approved and recommended the practice…from the 11th to the 14th century, it spread in France, Germany, England and Spain.

^ Overcoming the divisiveness of heresies, the Catholic Church is being acculturated, and is spreading in Church communities through-out the earth.
  • Jesus Christ and His Catholic Church. History of the Churchof Jesus Christ. 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.catholicevangelism.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the autumn the revolutionary fever , which had swept through all Europe earlier in the year, spread to Rome.
  • Roman Catholic Church - LoveToKnow 1911 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

.After the Cathars were accused of murdering a papal legate in 1208,[75] Pope Innocent III declared the Albigensian Crusade against them.^ Innocent III became pope in 1198.

^ Pope Innocent III page 146 .

^ Pope Innocent then decided to raise a crusade against the heretics.

.When this turned into an "appalling massacre",[76] later popes instituted the first papal inquisition to prevent further massacres and to root out the remaining Cathars.^ The Popes remained here up to 1377, and this nearly 70-year stay is known in history as the Avignon papal captivity.

^ McKeown underwent intensive in-patient treatment at the Institute of Living from October 1986 to March 1987, and he remained in Hartford for a short time thereafter for out-patient treatment.
  • doe roman catholic church - Google Scholar 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC scholar.google.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pope Benedict XVI’s visit to the United States this week will be the first papal visit since the Roman Catholic Church abuse scandal broke in 2002.
  • Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC overlawyered.com [Source type: General]

[77] .Formalized under Gregory IX, this Medieval inquisition found guilty an average of three people per year for heresy.^ The group from St. Bruno ranges from sophomores in high school to people 50 years old, with 12 of the 19 pilgrims under the age of 22.
  • Roman Catholic - Tom Heinen: Articles of Faith 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC blogs.jsonline.com [Source type: General]

^ This was an average decrease of 1.7% per year, mostly during the latter part of the decade.
  • History of Church teaching on abortion 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC liberalslikechrist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1232, Pope Gregory IX founded an inquisitorial court , which was presented to the Dominican order.

[71]
.In the 14th century, the Papacy came under French dominance, with Clement V in 1305 moving to Avignon.^ The Popes of Avignon, beginning with Clement V, became fully reliant upon the French kings and functioned under their influence.

^ With the fourteenth century (1305) the Popes transferred their residence from Rome to Avignon.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Avignon papacy: In 1309, the pope moved from Rome to Avignon , in what is now France .

[78] .The Avignon Papacy ended in 1376 when the Pope returned to Rome[79] but was soon followed in 1378 by the 38-year-long Western schism with separate claimants to the papacy in Rome, Avignon and (after 1409) Pisa, backed by conflicting secular rulers.^ Reformation of the church and the papacy was what the advocates of a return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome had in mind.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Avignon papacy: In 1309, the pope moved from Rome to Avignon , in what is now France .

^ Return of the papacy from Avignon to Rome.

[79] .The matter was finally resolved in 1417 at the Council of Constance where the three claimants either resigned or were deposed and held a new election naming Martin V Pope.^ In order to make possible the election of a new pope, he resigned.
  • Timeline of Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.davidmacd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Speaking for a broad consensus, the University of Paris proposed three alternatives for resolving the crisis of the institution, which had now become, for laity and clergy alike, a crisis of faith: resignation by both popes, with the election of a single unchallenged successor; adjudication of the dispute between the two popes by some independent tribunal; or appeal to an ecumenical council, which would function as a supreme court with jurisdiction over both claimants.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Apart from this, at the 1583 council, Patriarch Jeremiah rejected the so-called Gregorian new calendar, named after Pope Gregory XIII. As a result of dissension in the Patriarchate after the death of Patriarch Jeremiah (1584) the Jesuits were able to consolidate their position.

[80]
.The Church was the dominant influence on the development of Western art in these times, overseeing the rise of Romanesque, Gothic and Renaissance styles of art and architecture.^ While relations with the Eastern Orthodox Churches were strained in the 1990's over property issues in countries that were formerly Soviet-dominated, these differences are now largely resolved.

^ Curricula: Art - A survey of how the development of various artistic disiplines occurred within the Church, including painting, architecture, music and sculpture, as well as biographies of the artists themselves.
  • Original Catholic Encyclopedia - Home of the largest Catholic Encyclopedia resource on the web 17 September 2009 22:022 UTC oce.catholic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The recognition of the church by Emperor Constantine the Great in 313 consolidated these developments and gave the church support in the great doctrinal controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries that determined orthodoxy.
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[81] .Renaissance artists such as Raphael, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Bernini, Botticelli, Fra Angelico, Tintoretto, Caravaggio, and Titian, were among a multitude of innovative virtuosos sponsored by the Church.^ Hallucinations do not attract and hold such people as Augustine, da Vinci, Michelangelo, Galileo, Copernicus, Aquinas, Dante, Petrarch, Pasteur and Marconi, people to whom finding the truth is a veritable mania, a sort of religion in itself.
  • CONFESSION of a Roman Catholic in Religion in History Channel 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Leonardo da Vinci 's Mona Lisa , according to some authors, is an illustration of Christian joy.
  • Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: Original source]

^ File:Mona Lisa.jpg Leonardo da Vinci 's Mona Lisa , according to some authors, is an illustration of Christian joy.

[82] .In music, Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern Western musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church,[83] and an enormous body of religious music has been composed for it through the ages.^ The truth can be developed only through the Catholic Church.
  • California Catholic Daily - The Good Nuns 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.calcatholic.com [Source type: General]

^ THE CATHOLIC CHURCH is the world's largest, and Christianity's oldest, religious body.
  • Frequently Asked Questions about the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I believe in the Holy Ghost; the holy catholic church; the communion of saints; the forgiveness of sins; the resurrection of the body; and the life everlasting.
  • snopes.com: Catholic vs. Roman Catholic 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC msgboard.snopes.com [Source type: General]

This led directly to the emergence and development of European classical music, and its many derivatives.[84]

Reformation and Counter-Reformation

.The English and Protestant Reformations resulted in the separation of Anglicans and Protestants from the Catholic Church.^ Roman Catholic 49.6%, Protestant 27% (Anglican 5.3%, Methodist 3.5%, Mennonite 4.1%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5.2%, Pentecostal 7.4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.5%), none 9.4%, other 14% (2000) .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Field Listing - Religions 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ As for the term Catholic Church , Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox , Lutheran, Anglican, Old-Catholic, and other Christians claim to be, or to be part of, the Catholic Church.
  • Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I am assuming (and I could be wrong) that the poster would then mean that sacraments administered by a Protestant pastor would not be recognized as valid by the Catholic church.
  • Five Questions For Roman Catholics | internetmonk.com 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.internetmonk.com [Source type: Original source]

.In response, the Vatican initiated a series of reforms in the areas of doctrine, ecclesiastical structure, religious orders, spiritual movements and politics.^ New religious orders - The Counter-Reformation .
  • Roman Catholicism -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Religious orders matters: Church "ecclesiastical" matters .
  • The Hierarchy of the Roman Empire/Catholic Church - Let's Roll Forums 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC letsrollforums.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But indications of the church's move toward reform appear in the activities of three religious orders founded from 1524 to 1530--the Barnabites , Capuchins, and Theatines .

.The ensuing tensions between Catholics and Protestants and the perceived need for uniformity of faith helped fuel the European wars of religion.^ The Huguenot Wars between 1562 and 1598 regained France for the Roman Catholic cause, although the Edict of Nantes of 1598 granted a limited toleration to the Protestants; it was revoked in 1685.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It does come down to the way it has been popularly stated for the last four and a half centuries: Protestantisms salvation by faith versus Romes salvation by works...The Protestant trusts Christ to save him and the Catholic trusts Christ to help him save himself.
  • The Roman Catholic Teaching on Salvation and Justification 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.jesus-is-savior.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the CONQUEST of 1759-60, the Catholic Church of Québec, already weakened by the effects of war, had also to deal with new British and Protestant masters (see PROTESTANTISM ).

.John Wycliffe and Jan Hus crafted the first of a new series of disruptive religious perspectives that challenged the Church.^ The parish was the backbone of religious life and was financially administered by church wardens (the only elected officials in New France), who were usually influenced by the parish priest.

^ And there we find many extraordinary events recorded, including the first sermon in the New Testament Church by the first Pope, St. Peter.

^ Why are so many people seriously looking at the Catholic Church for the first time?
  • Catholic Answers: Pillar of Fire, Pillar of Truth 17 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Council of Constance (1414–1417) condemned Hus and ordered his execution, but could not prevent the Hussite Wars in Bohemia.^ In 1414 the Council of Constance convened.

^ In the Council of Constance, 1414, the attempt was made again.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ John Hus, condemned by the Council of Constance: .

.In 1509, the scholar Erasmus wrote In Praise of Folly, a work which captured the widely held unease about corruption in the Church.^ He wrote The Glories of Mary to present a basis for Mariology, derived from Scripture and the works of the Church Fathers .
  • Roman Catholic Mariology - Religion-wiki 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC religion.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Roman Catholic Mariology - Religion-wiki 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC religion.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But two of the best known scholars of the early church, Origen (185-254) and Augustine (354-430) wrote against that view.
  • Roman Catholicism: A Biblical Analysis 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.reformedonline.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead, in his very last writing, he wrote about the true churches that were in Asia Minor.
  • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

[85] .The Council of Constance, the Council of Basel and the Fifth Lateran Council had all attempted to reform internal Church abuses but had failed.^ In the Council of Constance, 1414, the attempt was made again.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ First of all, Church councils are also authoritative.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These men were all loyal Catholics whose attempts to reform their Church and return it to Biblical Christianity were met with vigorous opposition from their superiors.
  • Transcript of CATHOLICISM: CRISIS OF FAITH 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.jesus-is-lord.com [Source type: Original source]

[86] .As a result, rich, powerful and worldly men like Roderigo Borgia (Pope Alexander VI) were able to win election to the papacy.^ Pope Alexander VI is called the worst pope.

^ Prior to the order of Pope Paul VI, the diaconate was a transitional stage as men prepared to be priests.

^ It's like the Democrats telling the Republicans they need to adopt their policies or they'll never win another election.
  • InsideCatholic.com - Liberal Protestantism and Liberal Catholicism 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC insidecatholic.com [Source type: Original source]

[87] .In 1517, Martin Luther included his Ninety-Five Theses in a letter to several bishops.^ In 1517, Martin Luther, a member of the Augustinian order, issued his famous Ninety-Five Theses in Wittenberg , Germany .

^ On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther nailed his ninety five thesis to the door of the Castle Church (the official bulletin board of the university) in Wittenburg, Saxony.
  • Roman Catholicism 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the West, Rome had always been the center of Christian ecclesiastic power, and the authority of the church at Rome went unchallenged until 1517 when a young priest, Martin Luther, posted his famous ninety-five theses on the door of castle church (Collinson, 1990).

[88] .His theses protested key points of Catholic doctrine as well as the sale of indulgences.^ This can be very confusing to Protestants (and to Catholics as well).
  • Five Questions For Roman Catholics | internetmonk.com 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.internetmonk.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While Catholics and Protestants agree on many key areas of doctrine (such as the deity of Christ), we differ on other vital matters of faith (such as the canon, papal succession and authority, etc.
  • Catholicism Archives | Liveblog | Christianity Today 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC blog.christianitytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Roman Catholic Controversy is an absorbing look at current views of tradition and Scripture, the Papacy, the Mass, Purgatory, indulgences, and Marian doctrine.
  • Amazon.com: Roman Catholic Controversy, The (9781556618192): James White: Books 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[88] .Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin, and others further criticized Catholic teachings.^ Like other Christian churches, the Roman Catholic church accepts the Bible as the basis for its teaching.
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As Catholics, of course, we dont believe as the heretic John Calvin, who held a predestination according to which no matter what one does he is either predestined for heaven or hell.

^ The local bishop, John D'Arcy, condemned the play as "an affront to human dignity, as Catholic teaching understands it."
  • Catholicism, Inc. - WSJ.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: General]

.These challenges developed into a large and all encompassing European movement called the Protestant Reformation.^ It is a fact that the progress of what we might call "gentlemanness" is largely due to the influence of the early lodges; and when the Craft came across the channel to France the movement went on, developing with all the gracefulness of French 18th century manners.

^ Many Protestants tend to separate life into categories of "spiritual" and "carnal," as if God is not Lord of all of life.
  • 150 Reasons Why I'm Catholic (You Should Be Too!) 17 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.ourcatholicfaith.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Accompanying these sociopolitical forces in the crisis of late medieval Roman Catholicism were spiritual and theological factors that also helped to bring on the Protestant Reformation.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

[44]
.In Germany, the reformation led to a nine-year war between the Protestant Schmalkaldic League and the Catholic Emperor Charles V.^ The Huguenot Wars between 1562 and 1598 regained France for the Roman Catholic cause, although the Edict of Nantes of 1598 granted a limited toleration to the Protestants; it was revoked in 1685.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the CONQUEST of 1759-60, the Catholic Church of Québec, already weakened by the effects of war, had also to deal with new British and Protestant masters (see PROTESTANTISM ).

^ Only four hundred years ago, the Protestant reformers were vocal in identifying the Roman Catholic Church with the prophecies of Revelation, "the whore" of Revelation 17 and the mystical "Babylon" of Revelation 18 .
  • The Roman Catholic Church Examined 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC cdelph.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1618 a far graver conflict, the Thirty Years' War, followed.^ Politics and religion were completely intertwined (as in England, Scotland, and France); hence the admixture of religious issues in the Thirty Years War .
  • Roman Catholic Church Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is usually understood as extending from about the mid-1500's to the end of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648).

^ As far as Lithuania, Napoleon shared the sufferings of his army, then he hastened to Paris , where he suppressed General Malet's conspiracy and prepared a new war for the year 1813.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Napoleon Bonaparte 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

[89] .In France, a series of conflicts termed the French Wars of Religion were fought from 1562 to 1598 between the Huguenots and the forces of the French Catholic League.^ Between 1562 and 1598, the Catholic majority in France and French Protestants called Huguenots fought eight civil wars called the Wars of Religion.

^ The Huguenot Wars between 1562 and 1598 regained France for the Roman Catholic cause, although the Edict of Nantes of 1598 granted a limited toleration to the Protestants; it was revoked in 1685.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Politics and religion were completely intertwined (as in England, Scotland, and France); hence the admixture of religious issues in the Thirty Years War .
  • Roman Catholic Church Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre marked the turning point in this war.[90] .Survivors regrouped under Henry of Navarre who became Catholic and began the first experiment in religious toleration with his 1598 Edict of Nantes.^ The Huguenot Wars between 1562 and 1598 regained France for the Roman Catholic cause, although the Edict of Nantes of 1598 granted a limited toleration to the Protestants; it was revoked in 1685.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Survivor: Vatican: under Pope Benedict XVI, the Roman Catholic Church is jumping at the chance to drive gay priests from its ranks.
  • Roman Catholic Church Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Janssen was a historian who later became a Catholic priest.
  • The Roman Catholic Understanding of Martin Luther 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.ntrmin.org [Source type: Original source]

[90] .This Edict, which granted civil and religious toleration to Protestants, was hesitantly accepted by Pope Clement VIII.^ The Huguenot Wars between 1562 and 1598 regained France for the Roman Catholic cause, although the Edict of Nantes of 1598 granted a limited toleration to the Protestants; it was revoked in 1685.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But be assured of one thing: He would never tolerate you for the sake of 'the glorious principles of civil and religious liberty' .
  • Truth Provided Newsletter -Rome the True Terrorist! 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.remnantofgod.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Two years later Pope Clement VIII declared that it was full of errors and ordered that another be made!
  • Roman Catholicism: A Biblical Analysis 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.reformedonline.com [Source type: Original source]

[91]
.The English Reformation under Henry VIII initially began as a political dispute.^ Pope Leo called King Henry VIII the defender of the faith for attacking Martin Luthers reformation efforts.

^ In fact, King Henry VIII actually supported the Pope against Martin Luther and the church reformation!

^ Contrary to popular belief, Henry VIII was not interested in founding a “Church of England.” Nor was he interested in reforming the Church.
  • The Evolution of Anglo-Catholicism (Rexroth) 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.bopsecrets.org [Source type: Original source]

.When the annulment of his marriage was denied by the pope, Henry had Parliament pass the Acts of Supremacy, which made him, and not the pope, head of the English Church.^ He was neither pope nor Head of the Church.

^ As the visible head of the church and as the authorized custodian of the Bible, the pope had also been thought to possess a special gift of the Holy Spirit , enabling him to speak definitively on faith and morals.
  • Roman Catholicism :: Pius IX -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This is because His church is made up of all true born again believers who make up the body of Christ; and Christ is the head of the church.

[92] .Although he tried to maintain traditional Catholicism, Henry initiated the confiscation of monasteries, friaries, convents and shrines throughout his realm.^ Throughout Protestant history (and it's multitudes of denominations) the majority have maintained a distinct and definite separation from Roman Catholicism.
  • Lion Tracks Newsletter -- Roman Catholicism, Another Christian Denomination? 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.liontracks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, [Roman] Catholicism maintains that divine authority is to found in the authorized Tradition of the Roman Catholic Church, which is also classified as the "Word of God."

^ The above 11 factors being true, Catholicism maintains that all its Tradition is consistent with the Bible , even where the Bible is mute or merely implicit on a subject.
  • 150 Reasons Why I'm Catholic (You Should Be Too!) 17 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.ourcatholicfaith.org [Source type: Original source]

[93] Under Mary I, England was reunited with Rome, but Elizabeth I later restored a separate church that outlawed Catholic priests[94] and prevented Catholics from educating their children and taking part in political life[95] until new laws were passed in 1778.[96]
.The Council of Trent (1545–1563) became the driving force behind the Counter-Reformation.^ The Council of Trent, 1545-1563, was the Catholic church's response Protestant Reformation.
  • Roman Catholicism 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Catholics believe in seven sacraments because Christ instituted seven; because the Apostles and Church Fathers believed in seven; because the second Ecumenical Council of Lyons (1274) defined seven; and because the Ecumenical Council of Trent (1545-1563) confirmed seven.
  • Frequently Asked Questions about the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This “two authorities” theory of church teaching was declared to be essential Catholic doctrine at the Council of Trent (1546-1563).
  • Roman Catholicism 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.orlutheran.com [Source type: Original source]

.Doctrinally, it reaffirmed central Catholic teachings such as transubstantiation, and the requirement for love and hope as well as faith to attain salvation.^ [Church] fathers usually mean doctrine which the Lord or His apostles committed to the Church, irrespective of whether it was handed down orally or in documents,… The ancient meaning of the term is well illustrated by Athanasius’s reference to “the actual original tradition, teaching and faith of the Catholic Church, which the Lord bestowed, the apostles proclaimed and the fathers safeguarded” (pp.30,31).
  • THE DECEIVERS OF ROMAN CATHOLICISM : Apprising Ministries 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC apprising.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What about the many Roman bishops who have embraced false doctrine, such as Liberius' signing of an Arianizing creed and Honorius teaching monothelitism?
  • Roman Catholic Apologists 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.inplainsite.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During this period various groups, often supported by local rulers repudiated primacy of the pope, clerical celibacy, the seven sacraments and various other Catholic doctrines and practices, as well as abuses (such as simony) common at the time.
  • Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: Original source]

[97] .It also made structural reforms, most importantly by improving the education of the clergy and laity and consolidating the central jurisdiction of the Roman Curia.^ When it does apply the adjective "Roman" to itself, it understands this word only as pointing to the centrality for it of the see of Rome, with which all its members, laity and clergy alike, are necessarily in full communion.
  • Roman Catholic Religion 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.wcaa.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The most sweeping changes ever made in the Roman rite were those effected by the Second Vatican Council in its decree Sacrosanctum Concilium (Dec.
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.history.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I think it's a good thing that this stuff is getting press at all -- and that more laity and clergy are being made aware of nuns' support for the ordination of women as priests.
  • Catholic church punishes women for supporting female priests - Community 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC community.feministing.com [Source type: Original source]

[97][note .1] To popularize Counter-Reformation teachings, the Church encouraged the Baroque style in art, music and architecture,[84] and new religious orders were founded.^ Religious orders matters: Church "ecclesiastical" matters .
  • The Hierarchy of the Roman Empire/Catholic Church - Let's Roll Forums 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC letsrollforums.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Council of Trent - - New religious orders .
  • Roman Catholicism -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Roman Catholicism :: Pius IX -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ New religious orders - The Counter-Reformation .
  • Roman Catholicism -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Roman Catholicism :: Pius IX -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.These included the Theatines, Barnabites and Jesuits, some of which became the great missionary orders of later years.^ But indications of the church's move toward reform appear in the activities of three religious orders founded from 1524 to 1530--the Barnabites , Capuchins, and Theatines .

^ School starts for many kids this time of year (for others it may be slightly later or earlier), and some of us, as teachers, also have to “start” school as well.

^ If the actions of some of these early Catholic Thục bishops have to be regarded as "scandalous," it is only so in comparison to the actions of the later Thục bishops and the other traditional bishops who would come to trace their episcopal orders to such "illicit" consecrations .
  • THE RESURRECTION OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.the-pope.com [Source type: Original source]

[100] .The Jesuits quickly took on a leadership in education during the Counter-Reformation, viewing it as a "battleground for hearts and minds";[101] at the same time, the writings of figures such as Teresa of Avila, Francis de Sales and Philip Neri spawned new schools of spirituality within the Church.^ Saint Francis de Sales Catholic Church .

^ Francis de Sales Oratory .

^ New religious orders - The Counter-Reformation .
  • Roman Catholicism :: Pius IX -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[102]
.Toward the latter part of the 17th century, Pope Innocent XI reformed abuses that were occurring in the Church's hierarchy, including simony, nepotism and the lavish papal expenditures that had caused him to inherit a large papal debt.^ A dedicated reformer, he denounced simony (the buying and selling of spiritual goods and church offices), nepotism (favoring members of one's own family for appointment to church offices), and violations of clerical celibacy.
  • Catholic Answers Forums - History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But indications of the church's move toward reform appear in the activities of three religious orders founded from 1524 to 1530--the Barnabites , Capuchins, and Theatines .

^ Hans Kung writes Pope John Paul II's errors, abuse of the Roman Catholic hierarchy and how he has driven many from the church with his totalitarian policies.

[103] .He promoted missionary activity, tried to unite Europe against the Turkish invasion, prevented influential Catholic rulers (including the Emperor) from marrying Protestants but strongly condemned religious persecution.^ How can a Catholic marry a protestant in a protestant church?
  • Ask an Apologist - Catholic Answers Forums 17 September 2009 22:022 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ask an Apologist - Catholic Answers Forums 17 September 2009 22:022 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is manifested in practical terms by opposing activities which Catholics see as destroying divinely created life, including euthanasia , eugenics , contraception , abortion , and capital punishment .
  • Roman Catholic Church - Christianity Knowledge Base 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC christianity.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of you come right out and admit that this baptism of desire saves members of non-Catholic religions, including Protestants .

[103]

Early Modern period

.The Age of Discovery saw the expansion of Western European power and culture and, given the prominent role of Spain and Portugal, the spreading of Catholicism to the Americas and Asia by explorers and missionaries.^ Catholicism spread worldwide, at pace with European colonialism: to the Americas, Asia , Africa and Oceania .
  • Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Western Church Fathers)…Pope Sylvester in 1003 approved and recommended the practice…from the 11th to the 14th century, it spread in France, Germany, England and Spain.

^ During the 1500's and 1600's, Catholic missionaries travelled to the New World , Africa , and Asia , where they played an important role in spreading Western culture.

.Pope Alexander VI had awarded colonial rights over most of the newly discovered lands to Spain and Portugal[104] and the ensuing patronato system allowed state authorities, not the Vatican, to control all clerical appointments in the new colonies.^ Pope Alexander VI is called the worst pope.

^ Rome: The True Terrorist The Pope & Islam The Pope and the NWO The Vatican in Rome has been solely responsible for allowing Satan to direct it's every move in the last day agenda we see unfolding right before our very eyes.

^ In September 1860, over his raging protests, Pius IX lost all of the papal states to the new, finally united Kingdom of Italy, which left him, at the time of the First Vatican Council in 1870, still in control of Rome and its surroundings.
  • A Woman Rides the Beast - A City on Seven Hills 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.chick.com [Source type: Original source]

[105] .Although the Spanish monarchs tried to curb abuses committed against the Amerindians by explorers and conquerors,[106] Antonio de Montesinos, a Dominican friar, openly rebuked the Spanish rulers of Hispaniola in 1511 for their cruelty and tyranny in dealing with the American natives.^ Afterwards, at the Moslem invasion (641), the opposition was so strong that the native Egyptians threw in their lot with the conquerors against the Greeks.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Eastern Churches 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Bishop Donald Wuerl of Pittsburgh has long enjoyed a positive reputation for his handling of allegations of sexual abuse committed by priests against children.
  • Roman Catholicism: Recent News, Commentary, and Posts on the Roman Catholic Church and the Vatican 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC atheism.about.com [Source type: Original source]

[107] King Ferdinand enacted the Laws of Burgos and Valladolid in response. .The issue resulted in a crisis of conscience in 16th-century Spain.^ The Vatican’s announcement signals a significant moment in relations between two churches that first parted in the Reformation of the 16th century over theological issues and the primacy of the pope.

[108] and, through the writings of .Catholic clergy such as Bartolomé de Las Casas and Francisco de Vitoria, led to debate on the nature of human rights[109] and to the birth of modern international law.^ Francisco de Vitoria (p.

^ Catholic Church thinker, Francisco de Vitoria, a disciple of Thomas Aquinas who studied the issue regarding the human rights of colonized natives, is recognized by the United Nations as a father of international law, and now by historians of economics and democracy as a leading light for the West's democracy and rapid economic development.

^ Francisco de Vitoria, a disciple of Thomas Aquinas and a Catholic thinker who studied the issue regarding the human rights of colonized natives, is recognized by the United Nations as a father of international law, and now also by historians of economics and democracy as a leading light for the West's democracy and rapid economic development.
  • Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: Original source]

[110] .Enforcement of these laws was lax, and some historians blame the Church for not doing enough to liberate the Indians; others point to the Church as the only voice raised on behalf of indigenous peoples.^ The only church for liberals is the church of secular humanism.
  • The American Spectator : Kennedy Catholicism 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I am, as a young boy, not patient enough to champion thorough investigations – I rather, in a fleeting manner, make some points and pose some problems, and wait for others to expose my thoughts more cautious, more fully.
  • Reformation Theology: A Refutation of Roman Catholicism 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.reformationtheology.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What you write mirrors the accounts other true Christians I have met have given me of their experiences in—and observations of—the Roman Catholic church organization in which they were raised ...
  • How can Roman Catholics deny the facts in Revelation? 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.raptureforums.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[111]
.In 1521 the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan made the first Catholic converts in the Philippines.^ The concept that the Catholic Church was built on the Martyrdom of Her saints is made clear in the feast days and the number of martyrs in the first 300 to 400 years of the history of the Catholic Church.
  • Amazon.com: Roman Catholic Daily Missal (1962) (9781892331298): Angelus Press: Books 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Catholic missionaries accompanied Spanish and Portuguese explorers and colonists and converted most Latin American Indians.

^ Peter, who according to the Catholic Church was the first Pope, was a man who made mistakes in faith and morals.
  • CATHOLICISM  Table of Contents 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.battleaxe.org [Source type: Original source]

[112] .Elsewhere, Portuguese missionaries under the Spanish Jesuit Francis Xavier evangelized in India, China, and Japan.^ In India the missionary Saint Francis Xavier established the church in Goa in 1544.

^ The urgency of snatching souls from the jaws of hell inspired Jesuit Francis Xavier in India to go out and preach the good news to the people that walked in darkness (Isa.

^ Start of the 11-year career of St. Francis Xavier as a missionary to the East Indies and Japan.

[113] .Church growth in Japan came to a halt in 1597 when the Shogunate, in an effort to isolate the country from foreign influences, launched a severe persecution of Christians or Kirishitan's.^ Oliver Cromwell invaded Ireland and began a severe persecution of the Church there.

^ Monasticism: Meanwhile, the growth of monasticism played a large part in the increasing influence of the church.

^ Foreign Protestants fled to it as a refuge from the persecution to which they were exposed in their native land, bringing to their adopted country their skill, their wealth, and their energy.

[114] .An underground minority Christian population survived throughout this period of persecution and enforced isolation which was eventually lifted in the 19th century.^ After an initial period of sporadic but intense persecution, Christianity was legalized in the fourth century, when Constantine I issued the Edict of Milan in 313.

^ This did not mean that the heritage was forgotten, or that the Christian life died out, or went underground in the eighteenth century.
  • The Evolution of Anglo-Catholicism (Rexroth) 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.bopsecrets.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Looking at early Christians during periods of persecution as a model it is clear one cannot deny Christ or the truth.
  • Five Questions For Roman Catholics | internetmonk.com 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.internetmonk.com [Source type: Original source]

[115] .In China, despite Jesuit efforts to find compromise, the Chinese Rites controversy led the Kangxi Emperor to outlaw Christian missions in 1721.[116] These events added fuel to growing criticism of the Jesuits, who were seen to symbolize the independent power of the Church, and in 1773 European rulers united to force Pope Clement XIV to dissolve the order.^ In 1773, pressure from Catholic rulers helped force Pope Clement XIV to suppress the Jesuits in all countries.

^ The Chinese rites controversy - - Suppression of the Jesuits .
  • Roman Catholicism -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Roman Catholicism :: Pius IX -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The next pope [Clement XIV] did suppress and abolish the Jesuits in 1773.

[117] .The Jesuits were eventually restored in the 1814 papal bull Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum.^ Papa Pius VII, having returned to Rome and restoring the Jesuit Order according to the bull, these "powerful and experienced helmsmen" of the papal throne he concentrated his attention toward the re-establishing his authority.

^ In 1769, one pope [Clement XIII] was getting ready to sign a Papal Bull suppressing the Jesuits when he was assassinated the day before the official signing was to occur.

^ Note: Clement XIII was assassinated (poisoned) in 1769 the day before he was to sign a Papal Bull suppressing the Jesuits.

[118] .In the Californias, Franciscan priest Junípero Serra founded a series of missions.^ Mission to Catholics International 40 is a long-time anti-Catholic group founded by Bart Brewer, a former priest.

[119] .In South America, Jesuit missionaries sought to protect native peoples from enslavement by establishing semi-independent settlements called reductions.^ And an army of Catholic missionaries numbering 163,615 strong prey on foreign peoples from their 95 jurisdictions in China, 44 in India and Burma, 14 in Siam and Indo-China, 30 in South Africa, and 33 in South America.
  • The Church And Wealth In America (Chapter 14 of TragicAmerica) 17 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Christians in south west India called Thomas Christians due to the missionary efforts of Saint Thomas.

^ The community has a right to establish and enforce laws to protect people and to advance the common good.
  • USCCB - (SDWP) - Responsibility, Rehabilitation, and Restoration: A Catholic Perspective on Crime and Criminal Justice 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.usccb.org [Source type: Original source]

.From the 17th century onward, the Enlightenment questioned the power and influence of the Church over Western society.^ Western Church Fathers)…Pope Sylvester in 1003 approved and recommended the practice…from the 11th to the 14th century, it spread in France, Germany, England and Spain.

^ One could have predicted that Rome would not capitulate without a fight, for the nearly absolute power Catholicism had wielded over western churches since the 9th century is not something willingly relinquished.
  • Heresies of Catholicism 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC lol.witnesstoday.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The writings of these men had a great influence on church thought in later centuries.

[120] .Eighteenth century writers such as Voltaire and the Encyclopedists wrote biting critiques of both religion and the Church.^ Since the eighteenth-century Oxford Movement, a minority within Anglicanism that has sought to restore Catholic belief and practice within the Anglican Church.

^ From the early centuries of the church, only these 66 books were uniformly recognized as such.
  • Lion Tracks Newsletter -- Roman Catholicism, Another Christian Denomination? 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.liontracks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, our capitalists, or our corporations or both, and all such so minded, control the Church in America to-day.
  • The Church And Wealth In America (Chapter 14 of TragicAmerica) 17 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.One target of their criticism was the 1685 revocation of the Edict of Nantes by King Louis XIV which ended a century-long policy of religious toleration of Protestant Huguenots.^ The Huguenot Wars between 1562 and 1598 regained France for the Roman Catholic cause, although the Edict of Nantes of 1598 granted a limited toleration to the Protestants; it was revoked in 1685.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jansenism appeared in the 17 th century as a protest against the moral system of the Jesuits, which undermined all moral fundamentals but nonetheless tolerated and even sanctioned by the Church.

^ They shall make peace with one another in the end, in the very end of days, in the days of the King Messiah.” [14] Targum Onkelos, “This is that Seed that is coming from another place, and who is this?

.The French Revolution of 1789 brought about a shifting of powers from the Church to the State, destruction of churches and the establishment of a Cult of Reason.^ S triving toward the realization of Pope Gregorys theocratic plans, his successors entered into the conflict with the Emperors for ascendancy of church power over the state.

^ "There are many unquestionable cases of Protestants punished as heretics in nearly all the lands where Roman Catholics have had power , right down to the French Revolution [right down to 1798]."
  • Truth Provided Newsletter -Rome the True Terrorist! 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.remnantofgod.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The solid victory of the Democratic Party and its modernist philosophy of liberty, equality, and fraternity which dominates Europe everywhere today was the philosophy of the French Revolution that virtually destroyed the Reign of Christ in Europe as well as the power of the Catholic Church from 1789 onward.
  • Orthodox Roman Catholic | Orthodox Roman Catholic | Orthodox Roman Catholic 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.theorthodoxromancatholic.com [Source type: Original source]

[121] .In 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Italy, imprisoning Pope Pius VI, who died in captivity.^ This bond the pope alone was competent to dissolve; Louis XII had had recourse to Alexander VI ; Henry IV to Clement VIII ; but Napoleon, excommunicated by his prisoner Pius VII , could not apply to him.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Napoleon Bonaparte 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The patron of Russia was the fourth half-mythical Pope of Rome, Clement, who died a martyr in the Crimea.
  • Roman Catholic « Voices from Russia 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC 02varvara.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The same Pope Pius XII who signed the concordat with Adolph Hitler also in 1950 proclaimed the Assumption of Marys physical body into heaven.

.Napoleon later re-established the Catholic Church in France through the Concordat of 1801.^ The Episcopal bishop who had been his sponsor died and since it was his goal to establish an Old Catholic church among the Belgians he apparently felt compelled to seek the Episcopal order through the Old Catholic hierarchy.

^ The Church Jesus established was known by its most common title, "the Catholic Church," at least as early as the year 107, when Ignatius of Antioch used that title to describe the one Church Jesus founded.
  • Catholic Answers: Pillar of Fire, Pillar of Truth 17 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Re-baptizing is considered a great heresy to the Catholic Church because it implicitly states that the individual was not saved and hence the Catholic church is incapable of bestowing salvation through Baptism as it claims.
  • Lion Tracks Newsletter -- Roman Catholicism, Another Christian Denomination? 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.liontracks.org [Source type: Original source]

[122] .The end of the Napoleonic wars brought Catholic revival and the return of the Papal States.^ The Peace of Westphalia, which ended the war in 1648, declared that the people of each state must follow the religion of their ruler.

^ Pope Benedict XVI’s visit to the United States this week will be the first papal visit since the Roman Catholic Church abuse scandal broke in 2002.
  • Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC overlawyered.com [Source type: General]

^ In the second half of the 17 th century, from among all the Catholic states, France attempted with especial determination to restrict papal authority .

[123]
.In Latin America, a succession of anti-clerical regimes came to power beginning in the 1830s.^ But the comedian's long history of anti-Catholic vitriol came to a head in April, at the time of Pope Benedict XVI's first apostolic visit to America.
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Roman Catholic Bible Douay Version-translated for the Latin Vulgate Ecclesiasticus/Sirach 25:33, “From the woman came the beginning of sin, and by her we all die.” .

[124] .Church properties were confiscated, bishoprics left vacant, religious orders suppressed,[125] the collection of clerical tithes ended,[126] and clerical dress in public prohibited.^ Religious orders matters: Church "ecclesiastical" matters .
  • The Hierarchy of the Roman Empire/Catholic Church - Let's Roll Forums 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC letsrollforums.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But indications of the church's move toward reform appear in the activities of three religious orders founded from 1524 to 1530--the Barnabites , Capuchins, and Theatines .

^ Subsequently, 14,000 schools were suppressed; religious orders and congregations were expelled; the concordat was renounced in 1905; church property was confiscated in 1906.

[127]
.Pope Gregory XVI challenged the power of the Spanish and Portuguese monarchs by appointing his own candidates as colonial bishops.^ S triving toward the realization of Pope Gregorys theocratic plans, his successors entered into the conflict with the Emperors for ascendancy of church power over the state.

^ Pope Gregory XVI, Summo Iugiter Studio , May 27, 1832: .

^ This is exactly what Pope Gregory XVI would have said about the horrible Protocol letter, as well as any Catholic.

.He also condemned slavery and the slave trade in the 1839 papal bull In Supremo Apostolatus, and approved the ordination of native clergy in the face of government racism.^ Because the papal condemnation in its material essence was the condemnation of the highly respected Church educator, Blessed Augustine, the bull created great concern in France.

^ Benedict IV, by a bull issued in 1741, prohibited them from engaging in trade and making slaves of the Indians.

^ For example, your link it does not mention the papal so called 'infallibility' of flat earth and the papal 'Bulls' condemning Copernicanism.
  • [split] Roman Catholic Church: Papal infallibility - Printable Version 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC forums.jewsforjesus.org [Source type: Original source]

[128]

Industrial age

.In response to the social challenges of the Industrial Revolution, Pope Leo XIII published the encyclical Rerum Novarum.^ Indeed, Pope Leo XIII, in his Encyclicals published in New York in 1903, stated: "...
  • The Church And Wealth In America (Chapter 14 of TragicAmerica) 17 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With the coming of the industrial revolution, and the increased concern about the conditions of urban workers, 19th and 20th century popes issued encyclicals (notably Rerum Novarum ) explicating Catholic Social Teaching .

^ Aware of the problems created by the new technology, migration to the cities, and challenged by Pope Leo XIII's 1891 encyclical Rerum Novarum , the clergy developed a SOCIAL DOCTRINE to guide the new society.

.It set out Catholic social teaching in terms that rejected socialism but advocated the regulation of working conditions, the establishment of a living wage and the right of workers to form trade unions.^ The usury crisis and Catholic social teaching .

^ With the coming of the industrial revolution, and the increased concern about the conditions of urban workers, 19th and 20th century popes issued encyclicals (notably Rerum Novarum ) explicating Catholic Social Teaching .

^ With the coming of the Industrial Revolution , and the increased concern about the conditions of urban workers, 19th and 20th century popes issued encyclicals (notably Rerum Novarum ) explicating Catholic Social Teaching .
  • Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: Original source]

[129] .Although the infallibility of the Church in doctrinal matters had always been a Church dogma, the First Vatican Council, which convened in 1870, affirmed the doctrine of papal infallibility when exercised under specific conditions.^ Though this truth was believed since the beginning of the Church, it was specifically defined as a dogma at the First Vatican Council in 1870.

^ But I will first quote where the catechism affirms the dogma.

^ Some asserted boldly that Papal Infallibility had always been held in the Church.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[130] .This decision gave the pope "enormous moral and spiritual authority over the worldwide" Church.^ Commentary: Pope's moral authority for peace .
  • Roman Catholicism: News & Videos about Roman Catholicism - CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ WARNING: Only Catholic priests who are both legally and morally ordained and are faithful to the teachings of Sacred Scripture, as validly understood through the legitimate moral authority of the Church, and who remain spiritually sound should attempt an exorcism.
  • Exorcisms in the Catholic Church � Casting Out Devils 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.trosch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This came about as a result of the Italian authorities interference in papal affairs, and because of the moral dissipation and inactivity of the Popes and clergy.

[120] .Reaction to the pronouncement resulted in the breakaway of a group of mainly German churches which subsequently formed the Old Catholic Church.^ This was another Charismatic group and mainly Catholic.
  • The Testimony of a Former Roman Catholic Nun 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.biblebelievers.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Old Catholic churches .
  • Religious leaders 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When did the Catholic Church form?
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

[131] .The loss of the papal states to the Italian unification movement created what came to be known as the Roman Question,[132] a territorial dispute between the papacy and the Italian government that was not resolved until the 1929 Lateran Treaty granted sovereignty to the Holy See over Vatican City.^ The Italian cities were the leaders of the movement.
  • Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Empire, would become known as the "Holy Roman See" after Constantine.
  • The Hierarchy of the Roman Empire/Catholic Church - Let's Roll Forums 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC letsrollforums.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The pope's territory was reduced to Vatican City .

[133] .At the end of the 19th century, Catholic missionaries followed colonial governments into Africa and built schools, hospitals, monasteries and churches.^ Monasteries and schools were built.

^ The Catholic Church as opus proprium , says Benedict XVI in Deus Caritas Est , has conducted throughout the centuries from its very beginning and continues to conduct many charitable services—hospitals, schools, poverty alleviation programs, etc.

^ The Italo-Albanian Catholic Church, dating from the 15th century, comprises 2 dioceses in southern Italy and the monastery of Santa Maria di Grottaferrata south of Rome.

[134]
.The 20th century saw the rise of various politically radical and anti-clerical governments.^ In this respect, as well as in various specific doctrinal and moral teachings, he anticipated the development of the Protestant Reformation a century later, and his 16th-century disciples saw that development as a vindication of his and their position.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The 15 th century saw the Popes ceasing their endeavors to have influence on political affairs of western states.

^ The City government has a history anti-Catholicism which has only become more strident, and politically advantageous, since the passage of Proposition 8.
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 1926 Calles Law separating church and state in Mexico led to the Cristero War[135] in which over 3,000 priests were exiled or assassinated,[136] churches desecrated, services mocked, nuns raped and captured priests shot.^ Does this not jeopardise the separation of church and state?
  • Roman Catholic « Voices from Russia 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC 02varvara.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Underneath all the trappings of a hospital system is the Church, in the form of Nuns and Priests/Bishops, who have veto power over what happens in those systems.
  • Stand Firm | Roman Catholic Hospitals: A Bluff We Dare Not Call? 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.standfirminfaith.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Among those calling for the restoration were the survivors of "The Deacons Circle," priests who suffered at the Dachau death camp during World War II. While suffering, they prayed for the renewal of the Church.

[135] .In the Soviet Union following the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, persecution of the Church and Catholics continued well into the 1930s.^ I welcome newt into the catholic church.
  • Newt Gingrich on his conversion to Catholicism | Political Insider 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ Will the Catholic Church give bond that she will not persecute?...
  • Truth Provided Newsletter -Rome the True Terrorist! 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.remnantofgod.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Popes of the Roman Catholic Church In the following list, the date of election, rather than of consecration, is given.
  • Popes of the Roman Catholic Church - FREE Popes of the Roman Catholic Church information | Encyclopedia.com: Facts, pictures, information! 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

[137] .In addition to the execution and exiling of clerics, monks and laymen, the confiscation of religious implements and closure of churches was common.^ The Church also encourages monasticism, and has many religious institutes of monks, friars, nuns, and others who live in celibacy and devote their lives entirely to God.

^ If they refused, the church property they legally held in the church's name was to be confiscated and they were to be exiled (a year later, the penalty would be immediate execution).
  • Timeline of Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.davidmacd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Contributors to the site are largely Franciscan Nuns, other Religious, together with laymen and laywomen devoted to the Church."

[138] .During the 1936–39 Spanish Civil War, the Catholic hierarchy supported Francisco Franco's rebel Nationalist forces against the Popular Front government,[139] citing Republican violence directed against the Church.^ He, who strives and rebels against the Church, he who .
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These forces were accompanied by strong feelings against the Catholic Church.

^ We support all the teachings of the Catholic Church.
  • Roman Catholic - Tom Heinen: Articles of Faith 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC blogs.jsonline.com [Source type: General]

[140] .Pope Pius XI referred to these three countries as a "Terrible Triangle" and the failure to protest in Europe and the United States as a Conspiracy of Silence.^ Pope Pius XI destroys it as well.

^ For example, trends toward secularization characterize the countries of Europe and North America as well as other countries—trends that could further reduce the number of Catholics in these countries.
  • The Changing Demographics of Roman Catholics - Population Reference Bureau 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.prb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The foundation of charity is faith pure and undefiled (Pope Pius XI, Mortalium Animos , #9).

.After violations of the 1933 Reichskonkordat which had guaranteed the Church in Nazi Germany some protection and rights,[141] Pope Pius XI issued the 1937 encyclical Mit brennender Sorge[142] which publicly condemned the Nazis' persecution of the Church and their ideology of neopaganism and racial superiority.^ Pius XI, Atheistic Communism (1937) .
  • Catholicism and Capitalism by Murray N. Rothbard 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Public Schools condemned by pope Pius XI 1930 .

^ Pope Pius XI destroys it as well.

[143] .After the Second World War began in September 1939, the Church condemned the invasion of Poland and subsequent 1940 Nazi invasions.^ All this began to change after the Second World War.

^ After World War II (1939-1945), the church faced severe antireligious pressure in the Communist countries of Eastern Europe .

^ Records show that from the American Revolution through the two World Wars and subsequent police actions, members of the Church of God have consistently held to conscientious objection against military participation (Official Statement of Fundamental Beliefs.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

[144] .In the Holocaust, Pope Pius XII directed the Church hierarchy to help protect Jews from the Nazis.^ Pope outrages Jews over Holocaust denier .
  • Roman Catholicism: News & Videos about Roman Catholicism - CNN.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC topics.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Categories : Pope Pius XII mariology .
  • Roman Catholic Mariology - Religion-wiki 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC religion.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Roman Catholic Mariology - Religion-wiki 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC religion.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pope Pius XII (1950) .
  • Roman Catholic Mariology - Religion-wiki 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC religion.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Roman Catholic Mariology - Religion-wiki 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC religion.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[145] .While Pius XII has been credited with helping to save hundreds of thousands of Jews by some historians,[146] the Church has also been accused of encouraging centuries of antisemitism[147] and Pius himself of not doing enough to stop Nazi atrocities.^ Nor can the Vatican escape considerable responsibility for the Nazi Holocaust, which was thoroughly known to Pius XII in spite of his complete silence throughout the war on that most important of subjects.
  • A Woman Rides the Beast - A City on Seven Hills 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.chick.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the process of giving its false analysis of Pope Pius XIIs encyclical Mystici Corporis , Suprema haec sacra teaches that people who do not belong to the Body of the Church can be saved .

^ Pius confined himself to benevolent generalities, on the devotion of the Archbishop and clergy of Paris to the interests of the Church and of the Holy See.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[148] .Debate over the validity of these criticisms continues to this day.^ These abominations that John foresaw not only occurred in the past but continue to this very day, as we shall see.
  • A Woman Rides the Beast - A City on Seven Hills 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.chick.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Claiming to be the bride of Christ, the Roman Catholic Church has been in bed with godless rulers down through history, and these adulterous relationships continue to this day.
  • A Woman Rides the Beast - A City on Seven Hills 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.chick.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These personal attacks have continued to this day on various websites and blogs, and they have included profanities, detailing our lives, using cruel and distorted descriptions.
  • THE ROMAN CATHOLIC WORLD— In defense of beauty, goodness and truth 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC romancatholicworld.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[146] .In 2000 Pope John Paul II on behalf of all people, apologized to Jews by inserting a prayer at the Western Wall.^ Pope John Paul II's magic numbers .

^ That's the judgment of Pope John Paul II in his most recent book.
  • Roman Catholicism: Recent News, Commentary, and Posts on the Roman Catholic Church and the Vatican 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC atheism.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pope John Paul II trading cards .

[149]
.Postwar Communist governments in Eastern Europe severely restricted religious freedoms.^ After World War II (1939-1945), the church faced severe antireligious pressure in the Communist countries of Eastern Europe .

^ Decline and fall of communist influence and control in Middle and Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union.

^ In the early 1990's, the collapse of Communism brought the church in Eastern Europe greater religious freedom.

.March 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Even though some clerics collaborated with the Communist regimes,[150] the Church's resistance and the leadership of Pope John Paul II have been credited with hastening the downfall of communist governments across Europe in 1991.[151] The rise to power of the Communists in China in 1949 led to the expulsion of all foreign missionaries.^ Pope John Paul II doesn't like that.
  • Roman Catholicism: Recent News, Commentary, and Posts on the Roman Catholic Church and the Vatican 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC atheism.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Busts of Pope John Paul II removed from restaurants.

^ John Paul II kicks the bucket .

[152] .The new government also created the Patriotic Church whose unilaterally appointed bishops were initially rejected by Rome before many of them were accepted.^ Bishops are the successors of the apostles in the governance of the Church.
  • Roman Catholic Church - Christianity Knowledge Base 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC christianity.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Christianity / trinity / roman catholic 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.christianity-guide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The New Inquisition ") "I wish that the Catholic Church was free of the constraints that so often impede governments—the messy and sad trade-offs of national and international politics.
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Theodoret, the Church historian says he was consecrated bishop by St. Peter, who was at first bishop of Antioch before going to Rome.
  • Timeline of Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.davidmacd.com [Source type: Original source]

[153] .The Cultural Revolution of the 1960s led to the closure of all religious establishments.^ Gradually, cultural, geographic, political, and religious differences led to the development of several separate churches in the East Roman Empire .

^ It also led to the establishment of the religious court called the Inquisition in 1231.

^ Some of the outcome, and much of the enforcement, of the Council of Trent was in the hands of the newly established religious orders, above all of the Society of Jesus, the Jesuits.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

.When Chinese churches eventually reopened they remained under the control of the Patriotic Church.^ The protestants saw it as spiritual corruption under the medici control of the church which was true at its time.
  • Newt Gingrich on his conversion to Catholicism | Political Insider 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ The Catholic Church remains resolutely opposed to artificial birth control, but Pope Pius XII announces that the Church will sanction the use of the rhythm method as a natural form of birth control.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then God gives the reasons: by remaining in Babylon (Rome), they will be partakers of or share in her sins and will be destroyed right along with the city of Rome and the Roman Catholic Church.
  • A Bible Prophecy Study on the Roman Catholic Church (Part-2) 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC amazingbible.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many Catholic pastors and priests continued to be sent to prison for refusing to renounce allegiance to Rome.^ Catholic priests in Uganda split from Rome, for...
  • Roman Catholic Church Forum - Topix 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]

^ Many priests were executed or died in prison.

^ We encourage every Catholic to distribute our memo throughout their dioceses and particularly to their local pastor or priest.” .

[154]

Contemporary

.The Second Vatican Council initiated in 1962 was described by its advocates as an "opening of the windows".[155] It led to changes in liturgy within the Latin Church, focus of its mission and a redefinition of ecumenism, particularly dialogue with the Eastern Orthodox Church and Protestants.^ The Second Vatican Council realized this difficulty.
  • CATHOLICISM  Table of Contents 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.battleaxe.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For the liturgies of the Latin and Oriental Churches see Liturgy .
  • Roman Catholic Church - LoveToKnow 1911 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1962, he had been called to Rome to participate in the Second Vatican Council.
  • THE RESURRECTION OF THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.the-pope.com [Source type: Original source]

[156]
.Reception of the council has formed the basis of multifaceted internal positions within the Church since then.^ "Since the Russian Revolution there has been much turmoil and administrative conflict within the Orthodox Church."
  • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Catholicism and Orthodoxy: A Comparison 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ The Catholic Church has, since the Second Vatican Council, reached out to Christian bodies, seeking reconciliation to the greatest degree possible.

^ And so we have within the church seven sacraments that have always been within the church since the time of the apostles.

.A so-called Spirit of Vatican II followed the council, influenced by exponents of Nouvelle Théologie such as Karl Rahner.^ Vatican II - false council .
  • The St Catholic Churches : Holy Family Monastery : Worship : Mass :Bible : MostHolyFamilyMonastery.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mostholyfamilymonastery.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Continue reading Vatican Council II...

^ II Vatican Council documents on the mass.
  • Roman Catholicism 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.biblicist.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some dissident liberals such as Hans Küng claimed Vatican II had not gone far enough.^ This selection ARMs you with answers against some of the most common attacks, such as why is the Vatican rich, while people go hungry?
  • Roman Catholicism - Lulu.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.lulu.com [Source type: General]

^ Though John Paul II lacks the power to enforce such brutal claims today, his Church still retains the dogmas which authorize him to do so.
  • A Woman Rides the Beast - A City on Seven Hills 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.chick.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Vatican II has remained the source of much controversy within the Catholic Church, with some elements claiming that conservatives within the Church prevented the full "spirit of Vatican II" from being implemented, while other elements claim that liberals within the Church used the council as an excuse to make changes in practice and catechesis far more wide ranging than the council's documents authorized.

[157] .On the other hand, Traditionalist Catholics represented by figures such as Archbishop Lefebvre strongly criticized the council arguing that it defiled the sanctity of the Latin Mass, promoted religious indifferentism towards "false religions" and compromised orthodox Catholic dogma and tradition.^ Tags: tridentine , traditional , traditional catholicism , latin , latin mass , europe , CATHOLIC , catholicism .
  • Christian Culture Journal | Real Clear Religion | death of the west and western culture dogma christian catholic 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.realclearreligion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tags: pope , traditional catholicism , tridentine , tridentine latin mass , catholicism , CATHOLIC , religion .
  • Christian Culture Journal | Real Clear Religion | death of the west and western culture dogma christian catholic 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.realclearreligion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tags: latin mass , mass , catholicism , CATHOLIC .
  • Christian Culture Journal | Real Clear Religion | death of the west and western culture dogma christian catholic 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.realclearreligion.com [Source type: Original source]

.A group positioned in between, represented by theologians such as Communio including Pope Benedict XVI, hold that the council was ultimately positive but there were abuses in interpretation.^ Pope Benedict XVI doesn't think so.
  • Letting Roman Catholics Off the Hook | Adventist Today 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.atoday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pope Benedict XVI condemned the attack.

^ Ratzinger (Pope Benedict XVI), pp.

.The Church has consistently continued to uphold its own moral positions,[citation needed] contrary to those propagated by the sexual revolution and moral relativism, especially prevalent in western society since the 1960s.^ I don’t know what the Pope’s encyclical will exactly say, but I’ll bet it will be along the lines of the necessity of economic activity having a positive moral benefit to society.
  • Catholicism »Blogs For Victory 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC blogsforvictory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who continue to believe in Bayside and dismiss these facts are following the deception of the Devil; they are rejecting the Catholic Faith and leaving the Catholic Church.

^ But in the northern and western regions the proliferation of small private churches had not yet been wholly absorbed, and the existence of proprietary and exempt enclaves continued to the Reformation and beyond.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed] .Various teachings of the popes, such as the encyclicals Humanae Vitae and Evangelium Vitae, have opposed contraception[158] and abortion respectively, describing them as part of a "culture of death".[159] Since the end of the 20th century, sex abuse by Catholic clergy has been the subject of media coverage, legal action, and public debate.^ Labels: anti-catholicism , catholic controversy , contraception , culture of death , humanae vitae , vatican speaks .
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most contradictory, pope of the 20th century .

^ With the coming of the Industrial Revolution , and the increased concern about the conditions of urban workers, 19th and 20th century popes issued encyclicals (notably Rerum Novarum ) explicating Catholic Social Teaching .
  • Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: Original source]

[160] .Pope John Paul II criticised the emergence of liberation theology among some clergy in South America, asserting that the Church should champion the poor without supporting radicalism or violence.^ Was Pope John Paul II a good person?
  • Roman Catholicism: Recent News, Commentary, and Posts on the Roman Catholic Church and the Vatican 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC atheism.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pope John Paul II 's first major teaching was on the Theology of the Body.
  • Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: Original source]

^ File:John Paul.jpg Pope John Paul II blessing faithful.

[161] .John Paul II canonised many saints and made Opus Dei his personal prelature.^ Was Pope John Paul II a good person?
  • Roman Catholicism: Recent News, Commentary, and Posts on the Roman Catholic Church and the Vatican 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC atheism.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pope John Paul II did not.
  • Occam's Razor: Catholicism Tag Archive 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.occams-razor.info [Source type: Original source]

^ John Paul II kicks the bucket .

.The Pope, since 2005 Benedict XVI, regularly receives heads of state[162] and as the representative of the Holy See has permanent observer status at the United Nations.^ Benedict sees himself as a classical pope.
  • Occam's Razor: Catholicism Tag Archive 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.occams-razor.info [Source type: Original source]

^ Ratzinger (Pope Benedict XVI), pp.

^ Pope Benedict XVI doesn't think so.
  • Letting Roman Catholics Off the Hook | Adventist Today 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.atoday.com [Source type: Original source]

[163]

Beliefs

.The Catholic Church holds that there is one eternal God, who exists as a mutual indwelling of three persons: God the Father; God the Son; and the Holy Spirit.^ There is no physical "Catholic" church.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the section "Who belongs to the Catholic Church?"
  • Roman Catholicism 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is only one Church that is universally united, and that is the Catholic Church.

[164] .Catholic belief holds that the Church "...^ The Nicene Creed and the Apostles' Creed, which are accepted by most major Christian denominations , can be considered a fundamental core of the Catholic Church's beliefs.

^ A sizable number of Catholics hold beliefs that go against church teachings, the bishop said.
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Catholic Church has published a detailed exposition of its beliefs in the Catechism of the Catholic Church .

is the continuing presence of Jesus on earth."[165] .To Catholics, the term "Church" refers to the people of God, who abide in Christ and who, "...^ This is because His church is made up of all true born again believers who make up the body of Christ; and Christ is the head of the church.

^ Such non-attendances constituted recusancy in the proper sense of the term, and originally affected all, whether Catholics , or others, who did not conform.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Roman Catholic Relief Bill 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As for the term Catholic Church , Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox , Lutheran, Anglican, Old-Catholic, and other Christians claim to be, or to be part of, the Catholic Church.
  • Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: Original source]

nourished with the Body of Christ, become the Body of Christ."[166] The Church teaches that the fullness of the "means of salvation" exists only in the Catholic Church but acknowledges that the Holy Spirit can make use of Christian communities separated from itself to bring people to salvation. .It teaches that anyone who is saved is saved indirectly through the Church if the person has invincible ignorance of the Catholic Church and its teachings (as a result of parentage or culture, for example), yet follows the morals God has dictated in his heart and would, therefore, join the Church if he understood its necessity.^ In the section "Who belongs to the Catholic Church?"
  • Roman Catholicism 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Who would have thought it would take the U.N. to get the Catholic church to listen?
  • Catholicism - Salon.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.salon.com [Source type: Original source]

^ God’s Church has endured through the ages.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

[167][168] .It teaches that Catholics are called by the Holy Spirit to work for unity among all Christians.^ The desire to recover the unity of all Christians is a gift of Christ and a call of the Holy Spirit.
  • Is the Roman Catholic Church Changing 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.wayoflife.org [Source type: Original source]

^ God and the work of the Holy Spirit in the Church.

^ We read, "All men are called to this catholic unity of the People of God .
  • Roman Catholicism 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

[167][168]
.According to the Council of Trent, Christ instituted seven sacraments and entrusted them to the Church.^ This is a great sacrament; but I speak in Christ and in the church."
  • CONFESSION of a Roman Catholic in Religion in History Channel 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Catholics believe in seven sacraments because Christ instituted seven; because the Apostles and Church Fathers believed in seven; because the second Ecumenical Council of Lyons (1274) defined seven; and because the Ecumenical Council of Trent (1545-1563) confirmed seven.
  • Frequently Asked Questions about the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ According to their convictions, such Catholicism represents itself as the Church of the Ecumenical Councils, when unity existed between East and West.

[169] .These are Baptism, Confirmation, the Eucharist, Reconciliation (Penance), Anointing of the Sick (formerly Extreme Unction or the "Last Rites"), Holy Orders and Holy Matrimony.^ Three of the sacraments, baptism, confirmation, Eucharist, are concerned with Christian initiation .
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txc/rcatholi.htm 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two sacraments, penance and anointing the sick, are concerned with healing .
  • http://www.mb-soft.com/believe/txc/rcatholi.htm 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.mb-soft.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Fathers considered that the rites of initiation (baptism, confirmation, and the Holy Eucharist) were instituted by Christ, but they did not enter into any minute discussion as to the time, place, and manner of the institution, at least of the second of these rites.
  • Our Catholic Faith - Sacrament Of Confirmation 17 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.ourcatholicfaith.org [Source type: Original source]

.Sacraments are important visible rituals which Catholics see as signs of God's presence and effective channels of God's grace to all those who receive them with the proper disposition (ex opere operato).^ They bear fruit in those who receive them with the required dispositions."
  • Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Objective Efficacy -- ex opere operato .
  • Enduring Anathemas of the Roman Catholic Eucharist 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.reformed.org [Source type: Original source]

^ God who is the savior of all [lxxxii] .

[170][171] .With the exception of baptism, the sacraments are administered by ordained members of the Catholic clergy.^ In the East the sacrament is administered immediately after baptism.
  • Roman Catholic Church - Christianity Knowledge Base 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC christianity.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Christianity / trinity / roman catholic 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.christianity-guide.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Catholic Church teaches that it was instituted by Jesus Christ for the salvation of all people, and that this is accomplished through teaching and administering the seven sacraments — Baptism , Confirmation , Eucharist , Reconciliation (forgiveness of sins), Anointing of the Sick , Holy Orders (becoming a member of the clergy), and Marriage — means by which God grants grace .

^ By far the best and most in-depth book that has ever been written on the Catholic Churchs infallible teaching on the necessity of the Catholic Faith and the Sacrament of Baptism for salvation .

Baptism is the only sacrament that may be administered in emergencies by any Catholic, or even a non-Christian who "has the intention of baptizing according to the belief of the Catholic Church".[172]
.Catholics believe that Christ is the Messiah of the Old Testament's Messianic prophecies.^ The Church is, as scripture states, "the body of Christ," [10] and Catholics teach that it is one united body of believers both in heaven and on earth.

^ Transubstantiation (the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist) is also an everyday miracle which Traditional Catholics believe.

^ The major difference is that the Roman Catholic Church added a collection of books and passages known as the Apocrypha to their Old Testament during the sixteenth century.

[173] .In an event known as the Incarnation, the Church teaches that, through the power of the Holy Spirit, God became united with human nature when Christ was conceived in the womb of the Blessed Virgin Mary.^ The Second Person of the Blessed Trinity, the Son of God, assumed a human nature and became man from the flesh of the Virgin Mary.
  • The St Catholic Churches : Holy Family Monastery : Worship : Mass :Bible : MostHolyFamilyMonastery.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mostholyfamilymonastery.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He also said that the Virgin Mary was not immaculately conceived.

^ Through his teaching of the blessed Virgin Mary as the Mother of God , he created the basis for later Mariological developments.
  • Roman Catholic Mariology - Religion-wiki 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC religion.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Roman Catholic Mariology - Religion-wiki 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC religion.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Christ is believed, therefore, to be both fully divine and fully human.^ But when they believed Philip as he preached the things concerning the kingdom of God and the name of Jesus Christ, both men and women were baptized.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Church is, as scripture states, "the body of Christ," [10] and Catholics teach that it is one united body of believers both in heaven and on earth.

^ Catholics believe that faith and good works are both necessary for salvation, because such is the teaching of Jesus Christ.
  • Frequently Asked Questions about the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

.It is taught that Christ's mission on earth included giving people his teachings and providing his example for them to follow, as recorded in the four Gospels.^ Mark the Evangelist - Mark the Evangelist is the traditional author of the Gospel of Mark, said to be the disciple and interpreter of Saint Peter, and the follower and Apostle of Jesus Christ.
  • Roman Catholic writers Topics at Duck Duck Go 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC duckduckgo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Church is, as scripture states, "the body of Christ," [10] and Catholics teach that it is one united body of believers both in heaven and on earth.

^ Living Church of God leaders follow the teachings of the Bible, including 1 Corinthians 11:3-4.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

[174]
.Catholic beliefs concerning Mary include her Immaculate Conception without the stain of original sin and bodily Assumption into heaven at the end of her life, both of which have been infallibly defined as dogma, by Pope Pius IX in 1854 and Pope Pius XII in 1950 respectively.^ The same Pope Pius XII who signed the concordat with Adolph Hitler also in 1950 proclaimed the Assumption of Marys physical body into heaven.

^ December 8, 1854, Pope Pius IX's bull Ineffabilis Deus.
  • Transcript of CATHOLICISM: CRISIS OF FAITH 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.jesus-is-lord.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pope Pius IX (1792-1878) proclaimed the dogma of the Immaculate Conception on 12-8-1854.

.Falling into sin is considered the opposite to following Christ, weakening a person's resemblance to God and turning their soul away from his love.^ This is blasphemous, and turns God into a demon.
  • 150 Reasons Why I'm Catholic (You Should Be Too!) 17 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.ourcatholicfaith.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After Jesus' crucifixion and resurrection , his followers, foremost among them the Apostles , spread more and more extensively their faith in Jesus Christ with a vigour that they attributed to the presence of the Holy Spirit, the third of the three Persons of God, sent upon them by Jesus Christ.

^ Another held the independent view that membership in Christ's Church is restricted to a select few, and when one of the select few falls away from God's grace no amount of repentance can restore him.
  • CONFESSION of a Roman Catholic in Religion in History Channel 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: Original source]

[175] .Sins range from the less serious venial sins to more serious mortal sins which end a person's relationship with God.^ Your personal relationship with your God is divine.
  • Newt Gingrich on his conversion to Catholicism | Political Insider 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ Through mortal sin one condemns self to separation from God which is called damnation .” According to Roman Catholicism if a person dies with unrepented mortal sin they will go to hell for all eternity, not to purgatory, which is where, according to dogma, one may suffer for unrepented venial sin or make satisfaction for forgiven mortal sin.

^ There is a heaven, i.e., God will bestow happiness and the richest gifts on all those who depart this life free from original sin and personal mortal sin, and who are, consequently, in the state of justice and friendship with God (Hontheim, Joseph.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

[175][176] .The Church teaches that through the passion (suffering) of Christ and his crucifixion, all people have an opportunity for forgiveness and freedom from sin, and so can be reconciled to God.^ From the Church he receives the Word of God containing the teachings of "the law of Christ."
  • Lion Tracks Newsletter -- Roman Catholicism, Another Christian Denomination? 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.liontracks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ God’s Church has endured through the ages.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ ALL have sinned and are deprived of the glory of God.

[173][177] .The Resurrection of Jesus, according to Catholic belief, gained for humans a possible spiritual immortality previously denied to us because of original sin.^ Because us Catholics are so rowdy when we get together....
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But was it ever possible to be a Catholic while denying the other doctrine, the Divinity of Jesus Christ?
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Purgatory unashamedly denies that Jesus purifies us from all sin.

[178] By reconciling with God and following Christ's words and deeds, the Church believes one can enter the Kingdom of God, which is the "... reign of God over people's hearts and lives".[179][180]
Alabaster window in St. Peter's Basilica showing a white dove with wings spread in a yellow background
Bernini's alabaster window in St. Peter's Basilica depicts the Holy Spirit as a dove, a common motif in Christian art.
.Christ told his apostles that—after his death and resurrection—he would send them the "Advocate", the "Holy Spirit", who "...^ After his resurrection and ascension Christ gave gifts abundantly to the Church Some he made apostles, some prophets.
  • Roman Catholic | Liturgy 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.liturgy.co.nz [Source type: General]

^ In these two cases we should have been told that we would suffer in Purgatory and only eventually be with Christ in between leaving our bodies and reaching Heaven.

^ Historically, pneumatomachians were those who did not accept that the Holy Spirit was a separate person--this is something that those in LCG would agree with.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

will teach you all things".[181][182] .Catholics believe that they receive the Holy Spirit through the sacrament of Confirmation and that the grace received at baptism is strengthened,[183] To be properly confirmed, Catholics must be in a state of grace, which means they cannot be conscious of having committed an unconfessed mortal sin.^ Of sin indeed: because they have not believed in me .

^ To believe and to receive the Sacrament of Baptism are one and the same saving event.

^ Through the sacrament the grace given in baptism is "strengthened and deepened" ( Catechism of the Catholic Church ).

[184] .They must also have prepared spiritually for the sacrament, chosen a sponsor for spiritual support, and selected a saint to be their special patron and intercessor.^ They claim to have relics of certain saints, a bit of bone, something he used, and it is put in a special place and they worship it and bow down before it.
  • EIPS - Roman Catholicism 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.ianpaisley.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Roman Catholicism: A Biblical Analysis 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.reformedonline.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Vatican has declared that politicians who support things like abortion rights must be denied holy sacraments like communion.
  • Roman Catholicism: Recent News, Commentary, and Posts on the Roman Catholic Church and the Vatican 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC atheism.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The patron saint of all the Americas, Our Lady of Guadalupe has a special place in the hearts of Hispanic Catholics, especially Mexicans (which Sotomayor is not).
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[183] .In the Eastern Catholic Churches, baptism, including infant baptism, is immediately followed by Confirmation—referred to as Chrismation[185]—and the reception of the Eucharist.^ In the Greek Church and in Spain, infants are now, as in earlier times, confirmed immediately after baptism.
  • Our Catholic Faith - Sacrament Of Confirmation 17 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.ourcatholicfaith.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence the importance of the Eastern Catholic Churches.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Eastern Churches 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That the Catholic church practices what it calls infant baptism is common knowledge.

[184][186]
.After baptism, Catholics may obtain forgiveness for subsequent sins through the sacrament of Reconciliation (Penance or Confession).^ He does this through the sacrament of penance (which is also known as confession or reconciliation).
  • Catholic Answers: Pillar of Fire, Pillar of Truth 17 September 2009 22:022 UTC www.catholic.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Catholics see several advantages in confessing their sins to a priest in the Sacrament of Penance.
  • Frequently Asked Questions about the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Baptism Eucharist Confirmation Reconciliation , also called Confession and Penance Anointing of the Sick , formerly called Extreme Unction Holy Orders Matrimony Devotional life of the Church .

[187] .In this sacrament, an individual confesses his sins to a priest, who then offers advice and imposes a particular penance to be performed.^ The sacrament of penance involves the performance of good works which the priest assigns after confession.
  • Roman Catholicism 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.biblicist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mortal sins must be confessed to a priest.
  • Transcript of CATHOLICISM: CRISIS OF FAITH 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.jesus-is-lord.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CATHOLIC TRADITION - Confession (of sins) to a priest.
  • Is the Roman Catholic Church Christian? 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC frjoe.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

.The priest administers absolution, formally forgiving the person of his sins.^ It involves four elements: the penitent's contrition for sin (without which the rite does not have its effect), confession to a priest (it may be spiritually helpful to confess to another, but only a priest has the power to administer the sacrament), absolution by the priest, and satisfaction.

^ It teaches the forgiveness of sin, but only through confession to a priest and the absolution given by him.
  • Roman Catholicism 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.biblicist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No priest has the authority to forgive sins but "the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins" (Matt.
  • Roman Catholicism 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.biblicist.org [Source type: Original source]

[188] .The priest is forbidden—under penalty of excommunication—to reveal any sin or disclosure heard under the seal of confession.^ Freemasonry was condemned by Clement XII and Catholics were forbidden to join, under penalty of excommunication; the prohibition was repeated by Benedict XIV in 1751 and by later popes.

^ No one was placed under penalty of sin for missing a Lord's Day gathering.
  • Heresies of Catholicism 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC lol.witnesstoday.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Under penalty of committing a mortal sin, every Roman Catholic is required to go to confession at least once a year.
  • Roman Catholicism 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.biblicist.org [Source type: Original source]

[189][190]
.Catholic doctrine acknowledges an afterlife.^ Most of their doctrine and practice are identical to the Byzantine Rite of the Catholic Church, yet they fail to acknowledge the Pope as head of their church.
  • Lion Tracks Newsletter -- Roman Catholicism, Another Christian Denomination? 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.liontracks.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Church teaches that, immediately after death, the soul of each person will receive a particular judgment from God, based on the deeds of that individual's earthly life.^ From the Church he receives the Word of God containing the teachings of "the law of Christ."
  • Lion Tracks Newsletter -- Roman Catholicism, Another Christian Denomination? 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.liontracks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That's why, in the Orthodox Presbyterian Church tradition, it is the church session—not an individual like you or me—that makes the judgment that a person makes a credible profession of faith : not an infallible judgment and certainly not a subjective, theoretical opinion of the kind your remarks seem to suggest.
  • Marriage with a Roman Catholic 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By William Webster The Roman Catholic doctrine of the assumption of Mary teaches that she was assumed body and soul into heaven either without dying or shortly after death.
  • Keyword: catholicism 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[184][191] .This teaching also attests to another day when Christ will sit in a universal judgment of all mankind.^ He also demonstrates that All Souls Day is traced back to over 600 to 1300 years after Christ.

^ For starting from the apostolic chair down through successions of bishops, even unto the open confession of all mankind, it has possessed the crown of teaching authority."
  • CONFESSION of a Roman Catholic in Religion in History Channel 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Clear as day I saw in Sacred Scripture that Christ's true church is not the "learning" church I had always believed it to be, but is manifestly a TEACHING church.
  • CONFESSION of a Roman Catholic in Religion in History Channel 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: Original source]

.This final judgment, according to Church teaching, will bring an end to human history and mark the beginning of a new and better heaven and earth ruled by God in righteousness.^ According to church teaching, health care is not merely a privilege, but a basic human right.
  • Catholic Charities Archdiocese of New Orleans � Home 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC ccano.org [Source type: General]

^ God's judgments are true and righteous, for He judged the Roman Catholic Church.
  • A Bible Prophecy Study on the Roman Catholic Church (Part-2) 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC amazingbible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Catholic Church teaches that the Bible and tradition as interpreted by the Church are the final seat of authority in religion.  [3] Jesus condemned tradition as a rule for religious authority and exalted the Word of God: “The Pharisees and Scribes asked him, ‘Why do not thy disciples walk according to the tradition of the ancients...?’ But answering he said to them, ‘...in vain do they worship me, teaching as doctrine the precepts of men.
  • Roman Catholicism: A Biblical Analysis 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.reformedonline.com [Source type: Original source]

[184][192] The basis upon which each person's soul will be judged is detailed in the Gospel of Matthew which lists works of mercy to be performed even to people considered "the least".[192][193] Emphasis is upon Christ's words that "Not everyone who says to me, 'Lord, Lord,' shall enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven".[192] According to the Catechism, "The Last Judgement will reveal even to its furthest consequences the good each person has done or failed to do during his earthly life."[192] Depending on the judgement rendered, a soul may enter one of three states of afterlife. .Heaven is a time of glorious union with God and a life of unspeakable joy that lasts forever.^ Now unto Him that is able to keep you from falling, and to present you faultless before the presence of His glory with exceeding joy, to the only wise God our Savior, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now and forever.
  • CATHOLICISM  Table of Contents 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.battleaxe.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this sense, "by works a man is justified, and not by faith alone," [32] and eternal life is, at one and the same time, grace and the reward given by God for good works and merits.

^ On last May 3, the Sisters of Life remembered our Founder, who went home to God seven years ago.

[184][191] .Purgatory is a temporary condition for the purification of souls who, although saved, are not free enough from sin to enter directly into heaven.^ Before entering heaven, some undergo a purification, known as Purgatory.
  • Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.pustakalaya.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Before entering heaven, some undergo a purification, known as Purgatory .
  • Roman Catholic - IndependentWiki 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.independentmovement.us [Source type: Original source]
  • Roman Catholic Church - Christianity Knowledge Base 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC christianity.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She had the Lamb who could save her from her sins!
  • The Testimony of a Former Roman Catholic Nun 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.biblebelievers.com [Source type: Original source]

[184][191] .Finally, those who chose to live a sinful and selfish life, did not repent, and fully intended to persist in their ways are sent to hell, an everlasting separation from God.^ Those who did not agree with him were both sinful and stupid.
  • The Evolution of Anglo-Catholicism (Rexroth) 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.bopsecrets.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Unless a Christian dies in unrepented mortal sin , which is normally remitted in Penance, that person has God's promise of inheriting eternal life.

^ Those who Die in Original Sin or Mortal Sin descend into Hell .

[184][194] .The Church teaches that no one is condemned to hell without having freely decided to reject God.^ No one else reflects the personality of God.
  • California Catholic Daily - The Good Nuns 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.calcatholic.com [Source type: General]

^ Another held the independent view that membership in Christ's Church is restricted to a select few, and when one of the select few falls away from God's grace no amount of repentance can restore him.
  • CONFESSION of a Roman Catholic in Religion in History Channel 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Paul and the word of God are clearly teaching what the Catholic Church has held for 2000 years: that it is by means of the Sacrament of Baptism that one receives faith .

[184][191] .No one is predestined to hell and no one can determine whether anyone else has been condemned.^ In context this one condemns anyone who would deny that its (i.e., the Sacrament of Penances) necessity for salvation are from divine law, not anyone who would deny that it is necessary for salvation.

^ As Catholics, of course, we dont believe as the heretic John Calvin, who held a predestination according to which no matter what one does he is either predestined for heaven or hell.

^ This proves that baptism is actually the first component in determining whether or not one is subject to the Roman Pontiff .

[184][191] .Catholicism teaches that through God's mercy a person can repent at any point before death and be saved.^ As I have shown, heretics who denied this dogma were entrenched in high positions of the Church before Vatican II, and were teaching that men could be saved in false religions.

^ The other lay in their willingness to endure persecution and even death in order to remain faithful to God (Revelation 2:9–10) (Ogwyn J. God's Church Through the Ages.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the biblical and historical facts show that Christianity was a continuation—an enlargement and "magnification" of the teachings God gave through Moses— not something brand new!
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

[191][195]
.Catholic beliefs are summarized in the Nicene Creed[164] and detailed in the Catechism of the Catholic Church.^ The Catholic Church has published a detailed exposition of its beliefs in the Catechism of the Catholic Church .

^ Catechism of the Catholic Church , 1514).

^ Approval of the new Catechism of the Catholic Church .

[196][197] .Based on the promises of Christ in the Gospels, the Church believes that it is continually guided by the Holy Spirit and so protected infallibly from falling into doctrinal error.^ According to Catholic teaching, the Holy Spirit, sent by Christ to humanity, guides the church.

^ The testimony of Scripture is that the Holy Spirit guides each believer to all truth.
  • Is the Roman Catholic Church Christian? 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC frjoe.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have had error in the Church from the year of Christ death.

[198][199] .The Catholic Church teaches that the Holy Spirit reveals God's truth through Sacred Scripture, Sacred Tradition and the Magisterium.^ The Catholic Church proclaims the Gospel that is the eternal word and truth of God.
  • California Catholic Daily - “Confusion and misunderstanding” 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.calcatholic.com [Source type: General]

^ Because it has elevated tradition, the teaching of the Church, to the position of the Scripture and even above it.
  • Transcript of CATHOLICISM: CRISIS OF FAITH 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.jesus-is-lord.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The temple of God is the Catholic Churches of the world.

[200] .Sacred Scripture consists of the 73 book Catholic Bible.^ Moreover, the rank immorality of popes, (those guardians of the Sacred Scriptures) that extended from the ninth to at least the 17th century is never mentioned in polite Catholic conversation.
  • Heresies of Catholicism 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC lol.witnesstoday.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Pope claims to speak ex cathedra , or the Roman Catholic Church claims that its Tradition is infallible and on the level of Scripture, it is adding to the Word of God, which is expressly forbidden in the Bible.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Is it consistent with Sacred Scripture, Sacred Tradition and prior Magisterial teaching?

.This is made up of the 46 books found in the ancient Greek version of the Old Testament—known as the Septuagint[201]—and the 27 New Testament writings first found in the Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209 and listed in Athanasius' Thirty-Ninth Festal Letter.^ First came Melchizedek in the Old Testament.
  • Catholic church punishes women for supporting female priests - Community 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC community.feministing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most ancient list of Old Testament books is that which was made by Melito of Sardis (cf.

^ For fifteen centuries Christianity had a 39-book Old Testament and a 27-book New Testament.
  • Heresies of Catholicism 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC lol.witnesstoday.org [Source type: Original source]

[202] .[note 2] Sacred Tradition consists of those teachings believed by the Church to have been handed down since the time of the Apostles.^ Is it consistent with Sacred Scripture, Sacred Tradition and prior Magisterial teaching?

^ The Church does this for you, and she's done it consistently since apostolic times.
  • Lion Tracks Newsletter -- Roman Catholicism, Another Christian Denomination? 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.liontracks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Second is oral tradition, which claims to have been handed down from the original teachings of the Apostles.

[199] .Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition are collectively known as the "deposit of faith" (depositum fidei).^ In order to be saved one must assent to all the things which the Catholic Church, based on Scripture and Tradition, has infallibly defined as dogmas of the Faith.

^ Sacred Scripture, the least freedom of intellectual inquiry, he would never subscribe to such a faith...
  • CONFESSION of a Roman Catholic in Religion in History Channel 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC boards.history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The body of Catholic Faith, contained within Scripture and Tradition, and explicated by the Magisterium, is clear, and if you fail to accept it you are a dissenter.
  • The American Spectator : Kennedy Catholicism 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

.These are in turn interpreted by the Magisterium (from magister, Latin for "teacher"), the Church's teaching authority, which is exercised by the pope and the college of bishops in union with the pope.^ In turn, the Pope excommunicated Henry and the bishops from the church.

^ These are proclamations made by the Pope and the college of bishops, and according to Catholic teaching, there is no higher authority than “the Church’s dogma and interpretation of Scripture.” Where shall we go to find the official teachings of Catholicism?
  • Is the Roman Catholic Church Changing 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.wayoflife.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I was told that I must go by the churchs interpretation through the teaching authority, the Magisterium, which I was taught is the infallible interpreter of scripture.

[203]

Traditions of worship

.Differing liturgical traditions, or rites, exist throughout the Catholic Church, reflecting historical and cultural diversity rather than differences in beliefs.^ The Catholic church, with it's beliefs on tradition and infallibility.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Particular Churches sorted by Liturgical Traditions .
  • Roman Catholic Mariology - Religion-wiki 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC religion.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Roman Catholic Mariology - Religion-wiki 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC religion.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the eighteenth-century Oxford Movement, a minority within Anglicanism that has sought to restore Catholic belief and practice within the Anglican Church.

[204] .The most commonly used liturgy is the Roman Rite (which is used in most of the Latin Catholic Church, but not in the Eastern Catholic Churches nor in those parts of the Latin Church where other Latin liturgical rites are in use).^ The term Protestant is used to distinguish it from the Roman Catholic Church.

^ Roman Catholic 90%, other 10% .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Field Listing - Religions 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Nor would I ignore those rites as being part of the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Why Catholic Church is better than the term Roman Catholic Church. - Catholic Answers Forums 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: General]

.Presently, the Roman Rite exists in two authorized forms: the ordinary form (the 1969 Mass of Paul VI, celebrated mostly in the vernacular, i.e., the language of the people) and the extraordinary form (the 1962 edition of the Tridentine or Latin Mass ).^ Missale Romanum 1962 (Ultimate Roman Missal - 1962 Latin Mass Edition) Imported from Germany .
  • Roman Catholic Books, Catholic Bibles, Marian and Pro-Life Christian Literature 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.marianland.com [Source type: General]

^ At that time, Latin was still a vernacular language.
  • Timeline of Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.davidmacd.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Rite has two forms.

[205][206][note .3] In the United States, certain "Anglican Use" parishes use a variation of the Roman rite which retains many aspects of the Anglican liturgical rites.^ Since the 1980s there has been an “Anglican Use ” within the Roman Rite.
  • Roman Catholics | Liturgy 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.liturgy.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ There is much criticism of the ICEL versions of the current Roman Rite, and new translations increasingly are approaching the Anglican style inherited from Thomas Cranmer.
  • Roman Catholic | Liturgy 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.liturgy.co.nz [Source type: General]

^ On many occasions Anglicans, Roman Catholics, and others pray the same collect.
  • Roman Catholics | Liturgy 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.liturgy.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

[note .4] In 2009, an ordinariate for Anglicans to enter communion with the Church was also created.^ Nigerian Anglicans, one of the larger provinces, may have removed communion with the See of Canterbury from their Constitution, but I can assure you, you will not be hearing Hail Marys from their churches.
  • Roman Catholics | Liturgy 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.liturgy.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ In recent decades, the Anglican Communion and the Roman Catholic Church have sought to heal the centuries of division.

^ If TAC joins the Roman Catholic Church there is no change to the situation within the Anglican Communion.
  • Roman Catholics | Liturgy 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.liturgy.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

[208] .Other Western rites (non-Roman) include the Ambrosian Rite and the Mozarabic Rite.^ The Fourth Lateran Council was quite decisive in mandating compulsory celibacy for any who would be priests of the Roman or Western Rite.
  • Is the Roman Catholic Church Christian? 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC frjoe.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was as well the period during which the Roman Catholic Church, as an entity distinct from other "branches" of Christendom, even of Western Christendom, came into being.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ [Other Roman Catholic rites allow for married priests and have a stronger tradition of a clearly differentiated diaconate] .
  • Roman Catholics | Liturgy 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.liturgy.co.nz [Source type: Original source]

.The Eastern Catholic Churches use one of the following rites: the Byzantine rite, Alexandrian or Coptic rite, Syriac rite, Armenian rite, Maronite rite, and Chaldean rite.^ Eastern Catholic (Uniate) churches .
  • Religious leaders 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Maronites Lastly, the Maronite Church is entirely Catholic .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Eastern Churches 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Church); and this one Church subsists in the Catholic Church .
  • Why Catholic Church is better than the term Roman Catholic Church. - Catholic Answers Forums 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC forums.catholic.com [Source type: General]

.The Eucharist is celebrated at each Mass and is the center of Catholic worship.^ Eucharist, or Mass, is the central act of Catholics' worship of God.

^ Catholic Apostolic Church catholic church Eucharist Host indulgence Mass (religion) Mother Teresa papacy Renaissance .
  • Popes of the Roman Catholic Church - FREE Popes of the Roman Catholic Church information | Encyclopedia.com: Facts, pictures, information! 20 September 2009 19:43 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Transubstantiation allows Roman Catholics to literally worship the Eucharist (a piece of bread).

[209][210] .The Words of Institution for this sacrament are drawn from the Gospels and a Pauline letter.^ Their efforts have been directed at analyses of the four Gospels with an eye to determining which of the words in red letters were actually spoken by our Lord during His earthly ministry.
  • Heresies of Catholicism 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC lol.witnesstoday.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In other words, it is not by our desire or our blood or our contrition that we are saved, but by the Sacrament itself that Christ instituted (the laver of regeneration and renovation of the Holy Ghost).

[211] .Catholics believe that at each Mass, the bread and wine become supernaturally transubstantiated into the true Body and Blood of Christ.^ It is true that the price for their entry into heaven has been paid by the blood of Christ.
  • Is the Roman Catholic Church Christian? 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC frjoe.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Holy Communion people receive the body and blood of Christ in the appearances of bread and wine.

^ Why do Catholics believe that their Church is the one true Church of Jesus Christ?
  • Frequently Asked Questions about the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Church teaches that Christ established a New Covenant with humanity through the institution of the Eucharist at the Last Supper.^ When He instituted the Lord’s supper he called the cup the new covenant (1 Cor.
  • Roman Catholicism: A Biblical Analysis 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.reformedonline.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Catholic Church teaches that it was instituted by Jesus Christ for the salvation of all people, and that this is accomplished through teaching and administering the seven sacraments — Baptism , Confirmation , Eucharist , Reconciliation (forgiveness of sins), Anointing of the Sick , Holy Orders (becoming a member of the clergy), and Marriage — means by which God grants grace .

^ For example: in examining the Churchs teachings that everyone has sin through Adam, or that God became human, or that Christ is always present at Eucharist scholasticism had always accepted all this as immutable truths.

.Because the Church teaches that Christ is present in the Eucharist,[205] there are strict rules about its celebration and reception.^ They presented the Church as itself a Eucharist.
  • The Evolution of Anglo-Catholicism (Rexroth) 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.bopsecrets.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Church celebrates the Presentation of the Lord .
  • Intermountain Catholic 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC icatholic.org [Source type: General]

^ The Church is holy because Christ is holy.
  • Is the Roman Catholic Church Christian? 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC frjoe.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

.Catholics must abstain from eating for one hour before receiving Communion.^ All Catholics must profess only one baptism of water ( de fide, Clement V, Council of Vienne ).

^ No matter how hard one tries to avoid it, baptism of desire is incompatible with this truth, a truth which must be professed and believed by Catholics and by converts from heresy.

^ I have also shown that it is only through receiving the Sacrament of Baptism that one is incorporated into the Catholic Church, outside of which there is no salvation.

[212] .Those who are conscious of being in a state of mortal sin are forbidden from this sacrament unless they have received absolution through the sacrament of Reconciliation (Penance).^ July 6, 1439, ex cathedra : We define also that the souls of those who depart this life in actual mortal sin , or in original sin alone, go straightaway to Hell , but to undergo punishments of different kinds.
  • The St Catholic Churches : Holy Family Monastery : Worship : Mass :Bible : MostHolyFamilyMonastery.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC mostholyfamilymonastery.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Anabaptists, as their name indicated, were known for their practice of "rebaptizing" those who had received the sacrament of baptism as infants; this was, at its foundation, a redefinition of the nature of the church, which they saw not as the institution allied with the state and embracing good and wicked members but as the community of true believers who had accepted the cost of Christian discipleship by a free personal decision.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ CANON VI.-If any one saith, that the sacraments of the New Law do not contain the grace which they signify; or, that they do not confer that grace on those who do not place an obstacle thereunto; as though they were merely outward signs of grace or justice received through faith, and certain marks of the Christian profession, whereby believers are distinguished amongst men from unbelievers; let him be anathema.” .

[212] .Catholics are not permitted to receive communion in Protestant churches because of their different beliefs and practices regarding Holy Orders and the Eucharist.^ Catholic belief is different, too different to be orthodox, say Protestants and Christian cultists.
  • Frequently Asked Questions about the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Catholic church, with it's beliefs on tradition and infallibility.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ How can such a so-called good Catholic receive the Holy Eucharist?
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: Original source]

[213]

Organization and demographics

Hierarchy, personnel and institutions

Painting of a group of men in a piazza, a long haired man giving a key to a kneeling man.
The Church holds that Christ instituted the papacy, upon giving the keys of heaven to Saint Peter, here in a fresco by Pietro Perugino (1481-82), Sistine Chapel, Vatican.
.The Church's hierarchy is headed by the Pope.^ The body of bishops consists of all the church's bishops, including the pope as a member and its head.

^ In regard to the critical matter of church leadership, a monarchy headed by one individual called the pope was not what Christ bequeathed to His Apostles.
  • Heresies of Catholicism 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC lol.witnesstoday.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rather, it is condemning the entire proposition as such, which asserts that because a pope is wicked (or immoral) he is not the head of the Church since he is not a member of it.

[214] .Catholics give many titles to the Pope, including Bishop of Rome, successor to Saint Peter, Prince of the Apostles, Pontifex Maximus, Vicar of Christ and Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church.^ And I promise to swear true obedience to the Roman bishop, the successor of St. Peter, the prince of the apostles, and vicar of Jesus Christ.
  • Is the Roman Catholic Church Changing 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.wayoflife.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Catholic Church, which is governed by the successor of Peter and by the bishops in communion with him.
  • Roman Catholicism 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At that time the Catholic church claims the second "Pontiff," Linus, succeeded Peter as the first Pope in Rome.
  • Roman Catholicism 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

[215] .In the Church, the Pope holds primacy of jurisdiction in matters of faith, morals, discipline and Church governance and is the head of state of the Vatican City.^ He governs the church from Vatican City , a tiny independent state within the city of Rome .

^ Infallibility of the pope in matters of faith and morals proclaimed by the Vatican Council.
  • Roman Catholicism 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.biblicist.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The pope's territory was reduced to Vatican City .

[216] .For advice and assistance in governing, the Pope may turn to the College of Cardinals, the next highest level in the hierarchy.^ Some non-Catholics may wonder why they should care about who gets chosen as the next pope.
  • Roman Catholicism: Recent News, Commentary, and Posts on the Roman Catholic Church and the Vatican 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC atheism.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Protonotary Apostolic , the highest level, with the same dress as that of an Honorary Prelate, except that the non-obligatory purple silk cape known as a ferraiuolo may be worn also.

^ Dolan, a St. Louis native, is virtually guaranteed to rise to the rank of Cardinal in the next consistory — a formal meeting of the College of Cardinals — at the Vatican.
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: Original source]

[217] .When a pope dies or resigns,[note 5] members of the College of Cardinals who are under age 80 meet to elect a new pope.^ He also named 44 new members to the College of Cardinals in an unprecedented consistory.On September 11, the World Trade Center was destroyed and the Pentagon attacked by Islamic terrorists who hijacked several planes and used them as weapons of mass destruction.

^ Note: Cardinals under the age of 80 at the time the Holy See becomes vacant may vote in a conclave.

^ The patron of Russia was the fourth half-mythical Pope of Rome, Clement, who died a martyr in the Crimea.
  • Roman Catholic « Voices from Russia 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC 02varvara.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

[219] .Although the papal conclave can theoretically elect any male Catholic as pope, since 1389 only cardinals have been elevated to that position.^ Italians elected Urban VI and the French cardinals chose Clement VII. The popes cursed each other year after year until a council deposed both and elected another!
  • Roman Catholicism: A Biblical Analysis 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.reformedonline.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pope John Paul II was not only one of the longest-lived popes in the history of the Catholic Church, he was also one of the most popular popes in history.
  • Roman Catholicism: Recent News, Commentary, and Posts on the Roman Catholic Church and the Vatican 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC atheism.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Catholics tend to be silent on the matter, but a report indicates that while still Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, the current Pope Benedict XVI was very critical of Harry Potter.
  • Roman Catholicism: Recent News, Commentary, and Posts on the Roman Catholic Church and the Vatican 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC atheism.about.com [Source type: Original source]

[220]
.The Catholic Church comprises, as of 2008, 2,795 dioceses,[221] each overseen by a bishop.^ The candidates also attended a second ceremony at the Cathedral of St. Ignatius Loyola, with the Bishop welcoming catechumens and candidates from all over the Diocese as they shared their intentions to enter the Church.

^ The Catholic Church would, however, "today deal with such a provocation in a different and a better way," said the bishop.

^ Catholic Church, which is governed by the successor of Peter and by the bishops in communion with him.
  • Roman Catholicism 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

.Dioceses are divided into individual communities called parishes, each staffed by one or more priests.^ Parishes are called to help rebuild their communities.
  • USCCB - (SDWP) - Responsibility, Rehabilitation, and Restoration: A Catholic Perspective on Crime and Criminal Justice 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.usccb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A diocese is divided into parishes.

^ However, they also qualify this position, "one cannot charge with the sin of the separation those who at present are born into these communities .
  • Roman Catholicism 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

[222] .Priests may be assisted by deacons.^ Bishops are assisted by priests and deacons .

^ In Eucharistic celebrations deacons and non-ordained members of the faithful may not pronounce prayers -- e.g., especially the Eucharistic prayer, with its concluding doxology -- or any other parts of the liturgy reserved to the celebrant priest.

^ Neither may deacons or non-ordained members of the faithful use gestures or actions which are proper to the same priest celebrant.

.All clergy, including deacons, priests, and bishops, may preach, teach, baptize, witness marriages and conduct funeral liturgies.^ He also established revised norms for the ordination of all clergy, including deacons, priests and bishops.

^ Bishops are assisted by priests and deacons .

^ The first cardinals, from about the 6th century, were deacons and priests of the leading churches of Rome and were bishops of neighboring dioceses.
  • Popes of the Roman Catholic Church 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

[223] .Only priests and bishops are allowed to administer the sacraments of the Eucharist, Reconciliation (Penance) and Anointing of the Sick.^ Anointing of the Sick is the second sacrament of healing.

^ Only a bishop may administer this sacrament.

^ "Extreme Unction is the sacrament which, through the anointing with blessed oil by the priest, and through his prayer, gives health and strength to the soul and sometimes to the body when we are in danger of death from sickness, accident, or old age...Mk.
  • Roman Catholicism 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

[224][225] .Only bishops can administer the sacrament of Holy Orders, which ordains someone into the clergy.^ Holy Orders is the sacrament by which a man is made a bishop, a priest or a deacon.

^ Only a bishop may administer this sacrament.

^ Because they receive the Sacrament of Holy Orders, deacons are sent by Christ to serve God's people.

[226]
.The Church has defined rules on who may be ordained into the clergy.^ The people are the Church...not just the ordained clergy.
  • California Catholic Daily - “Confusion and misunderstanding” 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.calcatholic.com [Source type: General]

^ Bellarmine admits that the theory that the Pope, if he venture to define even as Pope apart from a General Council, may fall into heresy, was held by no less a personage than the theologian who afterwards became Pope Hadrian VI. 8 Bellarmine admits also that this theory is not heretical, for its advocates are tolerated by the Church.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They who define the Church by numbers and scorn the little flock?” (William Jurgens, The Faith of the Early Fathers, Vol.

.In the Latin Rite, the priesthood is generally restricted to celibate men[227]who lack deeply-rooted homosexual tendencies.^ The Catholic Church restored this sacred order as a permanent way of serving the Church (and not just a transitional order for men on the way to priesthood) in the Latin Rite well over 40 years ago.

^ They were intelligent, deeply religious men who revived Catholicism both intellectually and spiritually.

^ There have been rumors that the Vatican is preparing a document that would ban gay men from the priesthood, even if they are willing to remain celibate.
  • Roman Catholicism: Recent News, Commentary, and Posts on the Roman Catholic Church and the Vatican 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC atheism.about.com [Source type: Original source]

[228] .Men who are already married may be ordained in the Eastern Catholic Churches,[229] and may become deacons in any rite.^ In the section "Who belongs to the Catholic Church?"
  • Roman Catholicism 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Eastern-Rite Catholics are Catholics who do not belong to the Roman patriarchate .
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Eastern Churches 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Eastern Catholic (Uniate) churches .
  • Religious leaders 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

[227] .According to the Vatican, as of 2007 there were 408,024 priests, an increase of 0.18% over 2005. The number of priests had decreased in Europe (6.8%) and Oceania (5.5%), remained roughly the same in the Americas, and increased in Africa (27.6%) and Asia (21.1%).^ There the numbers of Catholics is growing, but so is the number of ordained priests.
  • Roman Catholicism: Recent News, Commentary, and Posts on the Roman Catholic Church and the Vatican 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC atheism.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 2007, priests numbered 185, according to the Official Catholic Directory.

^ There are 45,000 priests in the United States today, but it is projected there will only be 31,000 in 2020, despite a projected increase in the Catholic population during that period.
  • Occam's Razor: Catholicism Tag Archive 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.occams-razor.info [Source type: Original source]

[230]
.Ordained Catholics, as well as members of the laity, may enter consecrated life as monks or nuns.^ For those in our audience who may not know what the sale of indulgences is, it is the practice of the Roman Catholic Church selling forgiveness of sins to its members.

^ Posted by Roman Catholic Vocations at 10:30 AM 0 comments Labels: discernment , Pope Benedict XVI , Religious Life , World Day for Consecrated Life .

^ Catholic Morality: Life in Christ Catholic morality is about life: "I came that they may have life, and have it abundantly."

.A candidate takes vows confirming their desire to follow the three evangelical counsels of chastity, poverty and obedience.^ They take vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.

^ Typically, members of Religious Institutes take vows of evangelical poverty, chastity and obedience (the "Evangelical Counsels") to lead a life in imitation of Christ Jesus.

^ They took the customary monastic vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience but dropped the vow of stabilitas (stability) in favor of mobility, and they were governed by elected superiors under a supreme chapter and general.
  • Christianity, A History of the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

[231] .Most monks and nuns join a monastic or religious order,[232][233] such as the Benedictines, Carmelites, Dominicans, Franciscans, and the Sisters of Mercy.^ The Gilbertine villages or city communities were organized with a convent of nuns at one end and of monks, both contemplative and active, at the other, and in between the homes of lay monastics whose religious life was the fulfilment of family life.
  • The Evolution of Anglo-Catholicism (Rexroth) 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.bopsecrets.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the 17 th and 18 th centuries, there was an influx into the Turkish empire of missionaries-monks from various religious orders.

^ He remained there eight years, then, when he was twenty-six, [133] he joined the Franciscan order in 1220 and took the name Anthony.
  • Biblical Studies/Christianity/Roman Catholicism/History/Saint Biographies - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[231]
Personnel[citation needed] Members Institutions Number
Pope 1 Parishes and missions 408,637
Cardinals 183 Primary and secondary schools 125,016
Archbishops 914 Universities 1,046
Bishops 3,475 Hospitals 5,853
Permanent deacons 27,824 Orphanages 8,695
Lay ecclesial ministers 30,632 Homes for the elderly and handicapped 13,933
Diocesan and religious priests 405,178 Dispensaries, leprosaries, nurseries and other institutions 74,936
Religious brothers and sisters 824,199
Seminarians 110,583
Total 1,402,989 Total 638,116

Membership

.Church membership in 2007 was 1.147 billion people,[230] increasing from the 1950 figure of 437 million[234] and the 1970 figure of 654 million.^ The Roman Catholic Church is the spiritual home of about one billion people worldwide, and therefore in some way influences their lives.
  • Catholic church punishes women for supporting female priests - Community 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC community.feministing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He thinks that mainstream churches in the West are dying out and increasing numbers of people no longer have any use for his god.
  • Roman Catholicism: Recent News, Commentary, and Posts on the Roman Catholic Church and the Vatican 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC atheism.about.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The downward trend accelerated despite a steady increase in the membership of the Catholic Church to more than 1.1bn.

[235] .It is the largest Christian church, and encompasses over half of all Christians, approximately one sixth of the world's population, the largest organized body of any world religion,[236][237] although the number of practising Catholics worldwide is not reliably known.^ The Roman Catholic Church is the largest Church in the world.
  • Is the Roman Catholic Church Christian? 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC frjoe.tripod.com [Source type: Original source]

^ THE CATHOLIC CHURCH is the world's largest, and Christianity's oldest, religious body.
  • Frequently Asked Questions about the Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ All bracketed [ ] numbers denote references from Catechism of the Catholic Church.
  • CATHOLICISM  Table of Contents 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.battleaxe.org [Source type: Original source]

[238] .In 2005, there was an 1.5% increase from 1.098 to 1.115 billion Catholics worldwide, including an increase of 3.1% in Africa and 1.18% in Asia,[1] where the Church comprises 3% of the population.^ It would appear that based on Corinthian letter logic, Catholics should have more reason to accept Asia Minor as the ruling Church instead of Rome.
  • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mayor Gavin Newsom excoriated the Catholic Church and the archdiocese during a tirade at what was supposed to be a Mayor's Prayer Breakfast with religious leaders, including Archbishop Niederauer.
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Men are recognizing there is a serious need for the work that deacons can do so priests can focus on the sacraments of the church, said Deacon Sinanian, a deacon for 18 years.

[239]
.Membership of the Catholic Church is attained through baptism.^ By far the best and most in-depth book that has ever been written on the Catholic Churchs infallible teaching on the necessity of the Catholic Faith and the Sacrament of Baptism for salvation .

^ Paul and the word of God are clearly teaching what the Catholic Church has held for 2000 years: that it is by means of the Sacrament of Baptism that one receives faith .

^ Re-baptizing is considered a great heresy to the Catholic Church because it implicitly states that the individual was not saved and hence the Catholic church is incapable of bestowing salvation through Baptism as it claims.
  • Lion Tracks Newsletter -- Roman Catholicism, Another Christian Denomination? 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.liontracks.org [Source type: Original source]

[240] .In the Latin Rite, although children may be baptized, they do not begin full participation in the Church until First Communion, when they receive the sacrament of the Eucharist for the first time.^ They presented the Church as itself a Eucharist.
  • The Evolution of Anglo-Catholicism (Rexroth) 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.bopsecrets.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The solemn declaration of this truth 150 years ago (1854 AD) attests to the Church, over time, understanding the fullness of Mary, the mother of Jesus.
  • Intermountain Catholic 2 February 2010 14:014 UTC icatholic.org [Source type: General]

^ Then the Church shall be scattered, driven into the wilderness, and shall be for a time, as it was in the beginning, invisible hidden in catacombs, in dens, in mountains, in lurking places; for a time it shall be swept, as it were from the face of the earth.

.In Eastern Churches, baptism, Chrismation (Confirmation) and the Eucharist may be conferred at the same time for both unbaptized children and adult converts.^ At the same time much may be ascertained from each.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Can both be true at the same time?

^ Paul, whose letters and writings comprise a large part of the New Testament, is a great example of convert and steward both in his time and today.

.Adults who wish to convert to Catholicism can participate in a formation program such as the Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults.^ The early Christian converts, who were first Jews, did not go to the Sanhedrin, but to the Apostles and elders of the Church.
  • Catholic church punishes women for supporting female priests - Community 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC community.feministing.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Every indication is that genuine religious participation and formation is a road to renewal and rehabilitation for those who have committed crimes.
  • USCCB - (SDWP) - Responsibility, Rehabilitation, and Restoration: A Catholic Perspective on Crime and Criminal Justice 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.usccb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They regarded Christians who refused to give such honour as traitors and atheists.

[241] .For serious violations of ecclesiastical law, a member can be excommunicated, which forbids a member from participation in the sacraments.^ The natural law that is written in the hearts of all men forbids good Catholics to participate in any of this wicked fare.
  • Orthodox Roman Catholic | Orthodox Roman Catholic | Orthodox Roman Catholic 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.theorthodoxromancatholic.com [Source type: Original source]

[242][243]

Notes

  1. ^ The Roman Curia is a "bureaucracy that assists the pope in his responsibilities of governing the universal Church. Although early in the history of the Church bishops of Rome had assistants to help them in the exercise of their ministry, it was not until 1588 that formal organization of the Roman Curia was accomplished by Pope Sixtus V. The most recent reorganization of the Curia was completed in 1988 by Pope John Paul II in his apostolic constitution Pastor Bonus".[98] The Curia functioned as the civil government of the Papal States until 1870.[99]
  2. ^ The 73-book Catholic Bible contains the Deuterocanonicals, books not in the modern Hebrew Bible and not upheld as canonical by most Protestants.[201] The process of determining which books were to be considered part of the canon took many centuries and was not finally resolved in the Catholic Church until the Council of Trent.
  3. ^ The Tridentine Mass was the ordinary form of the Roman-Rite Mass standardized by Pope Pius V after the Council of Trent in the 16th century; although it was superseded in 1969 by the Roman Missal of Paul VI; it continues to be offered according to that of 1962, as authorised by the documents Quattuor Abhinc Annos (1984), Ecclesia Dei (1988)[207] and Summorum Pontificum (2007).
  4. ^ In 1980, Pope John Paul II issued a Pastoral Provision which allows members of the Episcopal Church (the U.S. branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion) to retain many aspects of Anglican liturgical rites as a variation of the Roman rite when they join the Catholic Church. Such "Anglican Use" parishes exist only in the United States
  5. ^ The last resignation occurred in 1415, as part of the Council of Constance's resolution of the Avignon Papacy.[218]

References

  1. ^ a b "Number of Catholics and Priests Rises". Zenit News Agency. 12 February 2007. http://www.zenit.org/article-18894?l=english. Retrieved 21 February 2008. 
  2. ^ O'Collins, p. v (preface).
  3. ^ Orlandis, preface
  4. ^ "Concise Oxford English Dictionary" (online version). .Oxford University Press.^ London: Oxford University Press, 1943, pp.
    • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes , Oxford University Press, 1986, pp.

    ^ London: International African Institute, Oxford University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    2005. http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/catholic?view=uk. Retrieved 10 April 2009.
     
  5. ^ Marthaler, Berard (1993). The Creed. Twenty-Third Publications. p. 303. http://books.google.com/books?id=TY3-aZIo9HEC&pg=PA303&dq=catholic+Ignatius+of+Antioch&lr=#PPA303,M1. Retrieved 9 May 2008. 
  6. ^ a b McBrien, Richard (2008). The Church. Harper Collins. p. xvii. Online version available here. Quote: The use of the adjective "Catholic" as a modifier of "Church" became divisive only after the East-West Schism ... and the Protestant Reformation ... In the former case, the West claimed for itself the title Catholic Church, while the East appropriated the name Holy Orthodox Church. In the latter case, those in communion with the Bishop of Rome retained the adjective "Catholic", while the churches that broke with the Papacy were called Protestant.
  7. ^ Libreria Editrice Vaticana (2003). "Catechism of the Catholic Church." Retrieved on: 2009-05-01.
  8. ^ The Vatican. Documents of the II Vatican Council. Retrieved on: 2009-05-04. Note: The Pope's signature appears in the Latin version.
  9. ^ Example: 1977 Agreement with Archbishop Donald Coggan of Canterbury
  10. ^ Walsh, Michael (2005). Roman Catholicism. Routledge. p. 19. Online version available here
  11. ^ The New Catholic Encyclopedia states: "There is a further aspect of the term Roman Catholic that needs consideration. The Roman Church can be used to refer, not to the Church universal insofar as it possesses a primate who is bishop of Rome, but to the local Church of Rome, which has the privilege of its bishop being also the primate of the whole Church."
  12. ^ a b Kreeft, p. 98, quote "The fundamental reason for being a Catholic is the historical fact that the Catholic Church was founded by Christ, was God's invention, not man's ...As the Father gave authority to Christ (Jn 5:22; Mt 28:18–20), Christ passed it on to his apostles (Lk 10:16), and they passed it on to the successors they appointed as bishops."
  13. ^ Paul VI, Pope (1964). "Lumen Gentium". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_const_19641121_lumen-gentium_en.html. Retrieved 19 November 2009. 
  14. ^ Barry, p. 46.
  15. ^ Franzen pp. 17–18.
  16. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia (and New Catholic Encyclopedia); articles on "Peter"
  17. ^ Orlandis, p. 11 quote "But Jesus not only founded a religion – Christianity; he founded a Church. ... The Church was grounded on the Apostle Peter to whom Christ promised the primacy – 'and on this rock I will build my Church (Mt 16:18)'".
  18. ^ Vidmar, pp. 39-40.
  19. ^ Kung, pp. 4–5
  20. ^ See, among others:
    • Bokenkotter, p. 30.
    • Kelly, p. 6.
    • Duffy, paperback edition p. 13, quote "There is no sure way to settle on a date by which the office of ruling bishop had emerged in Rome, and so to name the first Pope, but the process was certainly complete by the time of Anicetus in the mid-150s, when Polycarp, the aged Bishop of Smyrna, visited Rome, and he and Anicetus debated amicably the question of the date of Easter."
  21. ^ Bokenkotter, p. 18.
  22. ^ Wilken, p. 281.
  23. ^ a b "Rome (early Christian)." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: .Oxford University Press.^ London: Oxford University Press, 1943, pp.
    • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes , Oxford University Press, 1986, pp.

    ^ London: International African Institute, Oxford University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    2005
  24. ^ White, p. 127.
  25. ^ McGrath, pp. 174–175.
  26. ^ Stark, Rodney (2003-07-01). "The Truth About the Catholic Church and Slavery". Christianity Today. 
  27. ^ Wilken, p. 282.
  28. ^ Collins, p. 53–55.
  29. ^ Chadwick, Henry p. 361.
  30. ^ Davidson, p. 169, p. 181.
  31. ^ Norman, pp. 27–28.
  32. ^ a b Chadwick, Henry p. 371.
  33. ^ Schatz, pp. 9–20.
  34. ^ http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/christ/early/donat.html
  35. ^ "Donatism." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: .Oxford University Press.^ London: Oxford University Press, 1943, pp.
    • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes , Oxford University Press, 1986, pp.

    ^ London: International African Institute, Oxford University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    2005
  36. ^ Davidson, p. 341.
  37. ^ Wilken, p. 286.
  38. ^ M'Clintock and Strong's Cyclopedia, Volume 7, page 45a.
  39. ^ Herring, p. 60.
  40. ^ Wilken, p. 283.
  41. ^ Collins, pp. 61–62.
  42. ^ Duffy, p. 35.
  43. ^ Noble, p. 214.
  44. ^ a b Bokenkotter, pp. 35–36.
  45. ^ Le Goff, pp. 5–20.
  46. ^ a b Le Goff, p. 21.
  47. ^ Woods, p. 27.
  48. ^ Le Goff, p. 120.
  49. ^ Duffy, pp. 50–52.
  50. ^ a b Vidmar, pp. 82–83, quote: "How it [monasticism] came to Ireland is a matter of some debate. The liturgical and literary evidence is strong that it came directly from Egypt without the moderating influence of the Roman Church."
  51. ^ Mayr-Harting, pp. 92–94.
  52. ^ Johnson, p. 18.
  53. ^ Johns, p. 166
  54. ^ Vidmar, p. 94.
  55. ^ Duffy, p. 63, p. 74.
  56. ^ Duffy p.63
  57. ^ Duffy, p. 78.
  58. ^ Duffy, pp. 81–82.
  59. ^ Duffy, p. 91.
  60. ^ Collins, p. 103.
  61. ^ Duffy, p. 119, p. 131.
  62. ^ a b Bokenkotter, pp. 140–141.
  63. ^ Duffy, pp. 88–89.
  64. ^ Le Goff, pp. 80–82.
  65. ^ Le Goff, p. 225.
  66. ^ Noble, pp. 286–287.
  67. ^ Riley-Smith, p. 8.
  68. ^ Le Goff, pp. 65–67.
  69. ^ Tyerman, pp. 525–560.
  70. ^ a b Norman, pp. 62–65.
  71. ^ a b Norman, p. 93.
  72. ^ Le Goff, p. 87.
  73. ^ Woods, pp. 44–48.
  74. ^ Bokenkotter, pp. 158–159.
  75. ^ Henry Charles Lea, 'A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages', Volume 1, (1888), p. 145, quote: "The murder of the legate Pierre de Castelnau sent a thrill of horror throughout Christendom...Of its details, however, the accounts are so contradictory that it is impossible to speak of it with precision."
  76. ^ Morris, p. 214
  77. ^ Morris, p. 214
  78. ^ Duffy, p. 122.
  79. ^ a b Morris, p. 232.
  80. ^ Collinson, p. 240.
  81. ^ Woods, pp. 115–27.
  82. ^ Duffy, p. 133.
  83. ^ Hall, p. 100.
  84. ^ a b Murray, p. 45.
  85. ^ Norman, p. 86.
  86. ^ Bokenkotter, p.202
  87. ^ Duffy, p. 149.
  88. ^ a b Bokenkotter, p. 215.
  89. ^ Vidmar, p.233
  90. ^ a b Bokenkotter, p. 233.
  91. ^ Duffy, pp. 177–178.
  92. ^ Bokenkotter, pp. 235–237.
  93. ^ Schama, pp. 309–311.
  94. ^ Noble, p. 519.
  95. ^ Solt, p. 149
  96. ^ Judith F. Champ, 'Catholicism', in John Cannon (ed.), The Oxford Companion to British History, rev. ed. (Oxford: University Press, 2002), p. 176.
  97. ^ a b Bokenkotter, pp. 242–244.
  98. ^ Lahey, p. 1125.
  99. ^ "Brief Overview of the Administrative History of the Holy See". University of Michigan. 5 July 2007. http://bentley.umich.edu/academic/vatican/overview.php. Retrieved 17 October 2008. 
  100. ^ Norman, pp. 91–92.
  101. ^ Johnson, p. 87.
  102. ^ Bokenkotter, p. 251.
  103. ^ a b Duffy, pp. 188–191.
  104. ^ Koschorke, p. 13, p. 283.
  105. ^ Hastings (1994), p. 72.
  106. ^ Noble, pp. 450–451.
  107. ^ Koschorke, p. 287.
  108. ^ Johansen, p. 109, p. 110, quote: "In the Americas, the Catholic priest Bartolomé de las Casas avidly encouraged enquiries into the Spanish conquest's many cruelties. Las Casas chronicled Spanish brutality against the Native peoples in excruciating detail."
  109. ^ Koschorke, p.287
  110. ^ Chadwick, Owen, p. 327.
  111. ^ Dussel, p. 45, pp. 52–53, quote: "The missionary Church opposed this state of affairs from the beginning, and nearly everything positive that was done for the benefit of the indigenous peoples resulted from the call and clamor of the missionaries. The fact remained, however, that widespread injustice was extremely difficult to uproot ... Even more important than Bartolomé de Las Casas was the Bishop of Nicaragua, Antonio de Valdeviso, who ultimately suffered martyrdom for his defense of the Indian."
  112. ^ Koschorke, p. 21.
  113. ^ Koschorke, p. 3, p. 17.
  114. ^ Koschorke, pp. 31–32.
  115. ^ McManners, p. 318.
  116. ^ McManners, p. 328.
  117. ^ Duffy, p. 193.
  118. ^ Bokenkotter, p. 295.
  119. ^ Norman, pp. 111–112.
  120. ^ a b Pollard, pp. 7–8.
  121. ^ Bokenkotter, pp. 283–285.
  122. ^ Collins, p. 176.
  123. ^ Duffy, pp. 214–216.
  124. ^ Stacy, p. 139.
  125. ^ Bethell, Leslie (1984). The Cambridge history of Latin America.. .Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Cambridge University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Apostolic Fathers , translation by Kirsopp Lake , Cambridge MA : Harvard University Press, Vol.

    pp. 528–529, 234. ISBN 0521232252.
     
  126. ^ Kirkwood, Burton (2000). History of Mexico.. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated. pp. 101–192. ISBN 9781403962584. 
  127. ^ Hamnett, Brian R (1999). Concise History of Mexico.. Port Chester, NY: Cambridge University Pres. pp. 163–164. ISBN 0-521-58120. 
  128. ^ Duffy, p. 221.
  129. ^ Duffy, p. 240.
  130. ^ Leith, p. 143.
  131. ^ Fahlbusch, p. 729.
  132. ^ Bokenkotter, pp. 306–307.
  133. ^ Bokenkotter, pp. 386–387.
  134. ^ Hastings, pp. 397–410.
  135. ^ a b Chadwick, Owen, pp. 264–265.
  136. ^ Scheina, p. 33.
  137. ^ Riasanovsky 617
  138. ^ Riasanovsky 634
  139. ^ Payne, Stanley G (2008). .Franco and Hitler: Spain, Germany and World War II..^ During World War II, Hitler was certain the allies would launch an attack to gain a beachhead on the shores of France.
    • Letting Roman Catholics Off the Hook | Adventist Today 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.atoday.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Examples include the Crusades, Inquisition, Tradition that contradicts Holy Scripture and World War II. .

    ^ World War II. .

    .Yale University Press.^ Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 2002, p.8).
    • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 2002, p.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 2002, p.14).
    • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    p. 13. ISBN 0300122829.
     
  140. ^ Fernandez-Alonso, J (2002). The New Catholic Encyclopedia. Catholic University Press/Thomas Gale. pp. 395–396. ISBN 0-7876-4017-4. 
  141. ^ Rhodes, p. 182-183
  142. ^ Rhodes, p. 197
  143. ^ Rhodes, p. 204-205
  144. ^ Cook, p. 983
  145. ^ Bokenkotter p. 192
  146. ^ a b Deák, p. 182.
  147. ^ Eakin, Emily (1 September 2001). "New Accusations Of a Vatican Role In Anti-Semitism; Battle Lines Were Drawn After Beatification of Pope Pius IX". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B04E3DF1130F932A3575AC0A9679C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all. Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
  148. ^ Phayer, pp. 50–57
  149. ^ Randall, Gene (26 March 2000). "Pope Ends Pilgrimage to the Holy Land". CNN. http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0003/26/bn.02.html. Retrieved 9 June 2008. 
  150. ^ Smith, Craig (10 January 2007). "In Poland, New Wave of Charges Against Clerics". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/10/world/europe/10poland.html. Retrieved 23 May 2008. 
  151. ^ "Pope Stared Down Communism in Homeland – and Won". CBC News. April 2005. http://www.cbc.ca/news/obit/pope/communism_homeland.html. Retrieved 31 January 2008. 
  152. ^ Bokenkotter, pp. 356–358.
  153. ^ "China installs Pope-backed bishop", BBC News 21 Sept 2007, retrieved 08 Sept 2009
  154. ^ Chadwick, p.259
  155. ^ Duffy, pp. 270–276.
  156. ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p.272, p. 274.
  157. ^ Bauckham, p. 373.
  158. ^ Paul VI, Pope (1968). "Humanae Vitae". Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/paul_vi/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-vi_enc_25071968_humanae-vitae_en.html. Retrieved 2 February 2008. 
  159. ^ Bokenkotter, p. 27, p. 154, pp. 493–494.
  160. ^ Bruni, p. 336.
  161. ^ "Liberation Theology". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity/beliefs/liberationtheology.shtml. Retrieved 12 September 2008. 
  162. ^ "Pope Benedict XVI meets with Shimon Peres, then with Saudi FM". The Jerusalem Post. http://www.jpost.com/Israel/Article.aspx?id=74528. Retrieved 28 February 2010. 
  163. ^ Ring, Trudy; Salkin, Robert M; La Boda, Sharon (1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places Volume 3: Southern Europe. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 590. ISBN 978-1884964022. 
  164. ^ a b Kreeft, p. 17.
  165. ^ Schreck, p. 131.
  166. ^ Paragraph numbers 777–778 (1994). "Catechism of the Catholic Church". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p123a9p1.htm. Retrieved 8 February 2008. 
  167. ^ a b Paul VI, Pope (1964). "Lumen Gentium chapter 2". Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_const_19641121_lumen-gentium_en.html. Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
  168. ^ a b Schreck, pp. 146–147.
  169. ^ Paragraph number 1131 (1994). "Catechism of the Catholic Church". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p2s1c1a2.htm. Retrieved 8 February 2008. 
  170. ^ Kreeft, pp. 298–299.
  171. ^ Mongoven, p. 68.
  172. ^ Schreck, p. 227.
  173. ^ a b Kreeft, pp. 71–72.
  174. ^ McGrath, pp. 4–6.
  175. ^ a b Paragraph numbers 1850, 1857 (1994). "Catechism of the Catholic Church". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p3s1c1a8.htm#II. Retrieved 8 February 2008. 
  176. ^ Barry, p. 77.
  177. ^ Paragraph number 608 (1994). "Catechism of the Catholic Church". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p122a4p2.htm#III. Retrieved 8 February 2008. 
  178. ^ Schreck, p. 113.
  179. ^ Barry, p. 26.
  180. ^ Schreck, p. 100.
  181. ^ John 14:26
  182. ^ Barry, p. 37.
  183. ^ a b Schreck, p. 230.
  184. ^ a b c d e f g h i CCC, sec. 1310, 1319.
  185. ^ Faulk, p. 77
  186. ^ Paragraph number 1233 (1994). "Catechism of the Catholic Church". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p2s2c1a1.htm. Retrieved 12 May 2008. 
  187. ^ Schreck, p. 242.
  188. ^ Kreeft, pp. 343–344.
  189. ^ Paragraph number 1310 (1994). "Catechism of the Catholic Church". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p2s2c1a2.htm#IV. Retrieved 11 February 2008. 
  190. ^ Paragraph numbers 1385, 1389 (1994). "Catechism of the Catholic Church". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p2s2c1a3.htm#IV. Retrieved 11 February 2008. 
  191. ^ a b c d e f Schreck, pp. 379–386.
  192. ^ a b c d Schreck, p. 397.
  193. ^ Matthew 25:35–36
  194. ^ Barry, p. 105.
  195. ^ Luke 23:39–43
  196. ^ Marthaler, preface
  197. ^ John Paul II, Pope (1997). "Laetamur Magnopere". Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_letters/documents/hf_jp-ii_apl_15081997_laetamur_en.html. Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
  198. ^ Paul VI, Pope (1964). "Lumen Gentium chapter 3, section 22". Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_const_19641121_lumen-gentium_en.html. Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
  199. ^ a b Schreck, pp. 15–19.
  200. ^ Brodd, Jefferey (2003). World Religions. Winona, MN: Saint Mary's Press. ISBN 978-0-88489-725-5. 
  201. ^ a b Schreck, p. 21.
  202. ^ Schreck, p. 23.
  203. ^ Schreck, p. 30.
  204. ^ Paragraph number 1200–1209 (1994). "Catechism of the Catholic Church". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p2s1c2a2.htm. Retrieved 12 May 2008. 
  205. ^ a b Kreeft, pp. 326–327.
  206. ^ Benedict XVI, Pope (2007). "Summorum Pontificum". Eternal Word Television Network. http://www.ewtn.com/library/papaldoc/b16Summontificum.htm. Retrieved 27 March 2008. 
  207. ^ John Paul II, Pope (1988). "Ecclesia Dei". Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/motu_proprio/documents/hf_jp-ii_motu-proprio_02071988_ecclesia-dei_en.html. Retrieved 27 March 2008. 
  208. ^ Ivereigh, Austen (21 October 2009). "Rome's new home for Anglicans". The Washington Post. http://newsweek.washingtonpost.com/onfaith/panelists/austen_ivereigh/2009/10/romes_new_home_for_anglicans.html. Retrieved 7 December 2009. 
  209. ^ Kreeft, p. 320.
  210. ^ Paragraph numbers 1324–1331 (1994). "Catechism of the Catholic Church". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p2s2c1a3.htm. Retrieved 11 June 2008. 
  211. ^ See Luke 22:19, Matthew 26:27–28, Mark 14:22–24, 1Corinthians 11:24–25
  212. ^ a b Kreeft, p. 331.
  213. ^ Paragraph numbers 1400 (1994). "Catechism of the Catholic Church". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p2s2c1a3.htm#IV. Retrieved 5 June 2008. 
  214. ^ Kreeft, p. 109.
  215. ^ Bunson 2008, p. 273.
  216. ^ "Country profile: Vatican". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1066140.stm. Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
  217. ^ McDonough (1995), p. 227.
  218. ^ Duffy (1997), p. 415.
  219. ^ Duffy (1997), p. 416.
  220. ^ Duffy (1997), pp. 417–8.
  221. ^ Vatican, Annuario Pontificio p. 1172.
  222. ^ Barry, p. 52.
  223. ^ Committee on the Diaconate. "Frequently Asked Questions About Deacons". United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. http://www.usccb.org/deacon/faqs.shtml. Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
  224. ^ "Canon 42". 1983 Code of Canon Law. Vatican. http://www.intratext.com/IXT/ENG1199/_P16.HTM. Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
  225. ^ "Canon 375". 1983 Code of Canon Law. Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG1104/__P1D.HTM. Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
  226. ^ Barry, p. 114.
  227. ^ a b "Canon 1031". 1983 Code of Canon Law. Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG1104/__P3Q.HTM. Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
    "Canon 1037". 1983 Code of Canon Law. Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG1104/__P3R.HTM. Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
  228. ^ Pope Benedict XVI (4 November 2005). "Instruction Concerning the Criteria for the Discernment of Vocations with regard to Persons with Homosexual Tendencies in view of their Admission to the Seminary and to Holy Orders". Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/congregations/ccatheduc/documents/rc_con_ccatheduc_doc_20051104_istruzione_en.html. Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
  229. ^ Niebuhur, Gustav (16 February 1997). "Bishop's Quiet Action Allows Priest Both Flock And Family". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C07EEDD133FF935A25751C0A961958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all. Retrieved 4 April 2008. 
  230. ^ a b "Vatican: Priest numbers show steady, moderate increase". Catholic News Service. 2 March 2009. http://www.americancatholic.org/news/newsreport.aspx?id=759. Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
  231. ^ a b "Canons 573–746". 1983 Code of Canon Law. Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG1104/__P1Y.HTM. Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
  232. ^ "Canons 573–602, 605–709". 1983 Code of Canon Law. Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG1104/__P1Y.HTM. Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
  233. ^ "Canon 654". 1983 Code of Canon Law. Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG1104/__P26.HTM. Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
  234. ^ Froehle, pp. 4–5.
  235. ^ Bazar, Emily (16 April 2008). "Immigrants Make Pilgrimage to Pope". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/religion/2008-04-15-popeimmigrants_N.htm. Retrieved 3 May 2008. 
  236. ^ "CIA World Factbook". United States Government Central Intelligence Agency. 2009. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx.html. Retrieved 23 September 2009. 
  237. ^ Duffy, preface
  238. ^ "Factfile: Roman Catholics around the world". BBC News. 1 April 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/4243727.stm. Retrieved 24 March 2008. 
  239. ^ Froehle, pp. 128–129.
  240. ^ "Canon 11". 1983 Code of Canon Law. Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG1104/__P3.HTM. Retrieved 9 March 2008. 
  241. ^ Barry, p. 56.
  242. ^ "Excommunication". Catholic World News. 9 May 2007. http://www.catholicculture.org/news/definition.cfm?glossID=91&CFID=12572433&CFTOKEN=23338886. Retrieved 12 February 2008. 
  243. ^ Paragraph number 1463 (1994). "Catechism of the Catholic Church". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p2s2c2a4.htm#IX. Retrieved 8 February 2008. 

Sources

  • Aspden, Kester (2002). .Fortress Church: the English Roman Catholic bishops and politics, 1903-63.^ English Law relating to Roman Catholics .
    • Roman Catholic Church - LoveToKnow 1911 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Roman Catholic Church - LoveToKnow 1911 .
    • Roman Catholic Church - LoveToKnow 1911 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The "great whore" is the Roman Catholic Church.
    • A Bible Prophecy Study on the Roman Catholic Church (Part-2) 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC amazingbible.org [Source type: Original source]

    Gracewing Publishing. ISBN 0852442033.
     
  • Barry, Rev. Msgr. John F (2001). .One Faith, One Lord: A Study of Basic Catholic Belief.^ Jacques Maritain was one of the most important, and faithful, Catholic philosophers of the 20th century 3.

    ^ Moreover, although all these Eastern-Rite Catholics of course agrees in the same Catholic Faith we profess, they are not organized as one body.
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Eastern Churches 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Did you know that the Roman Catholic, Douay-Rheims Bible portrays Mary as the one crushing the head of Satan and not the Lord?
    • CATHOLICISM  Table of Contents 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.battleaxe.org [Source type: Original source]

    Gerard F. Baumbach, Ed.D. ISBN 0-8215-2207-8.
     
  • Bethell, Leslie (1984). The Cambridge history of Latin America.. .Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Cambridge University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Apostolic Fathers , translation by Kirsopp Lake , Cambridge MA : Harvard University Press, Vol.

    ISBN 0521232252.
     
  • Black, Christopher (2001). Early Modern Italy. Routledge. ISBN 0415214343. 
  • Bokenkotter, Thomas (2004). .A Concise History of the Catholic Church.^ Pope John Paul II was not only one of the longest-lived popes in the history of the Catholic Church, he was also one of the most popular popes in history.
    • Roman Catholicism: Recent News, Commentary, and Posts on the Roman Catholic Church and the Vatican 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC atheism.about.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It also gives a general overview of the history of the Church to the Catholic who might like an idea of what occurred in the past, but has little inclination to read in-depth.
    • Timeline of Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.davidmacd.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The answer is, obviously, that the 1917 Code is wrong and not infallible, and the Catholic Churchs law for all of history refusing ecclesiastical burial to catechumens is right.

    Doubleday. ISBN 0385505841.
     
  • Bunson, Matthew (2008). .Our Sunday Visitor's Catholic Almanac.^ John A. O’Brien, Faith of Millions—The Credentials of the Catholic Religion (Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor, Inc., 1963, 1974), pp.

    ^ Our Sunday Visitor Online Almanac.
    • Timeline of Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.davidmacd.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Brian Van Hove, S.J., published in the November/December '94 issue of The Catholic Answer, Our Sunday Visitor (Huntington, Indiana) Continue reading Indulgences and Necromancy...

    .Our Sunday Visitor Publishing.^ John A. O’Brien, Faith of Millions—The Credentials of the Catholic Religion (Huntington, Indiana: Our Sunday Visitor, Inc., 1963, 1974), pp.

    ^ Our Sunday Visitor Online Almanac.
    • Timeline of Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.davidmacd.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Peter M.J. Stravinskas , The Catholic Dictionary (Huntington, IN: Our Sunday Visitor, 1993), pp.
    • CATHOLICISM  Table of Contents 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.battleaxe.org [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 159276441X.
     
  • Bruni, Frank; Burkett, Elinor (2002). .A Gospel of Shame: Children, Sexual Abuse, and the Catholic Church.^ Most of them hold that because the Church allowed the sex abuse scandal to happen, for it to speak out on any issue of human sexuality ever again is nothing but hypocrisy.
    • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 20 September 2009 9:41 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And if you are a divorced Catholic and your marriage was not annulled by the church, no matter how bad the physical, emotional and sexual abuse you encountered, don’t you dare take communion and don’t even think about getting remarried in the church.
    • Occam's Razor: Catholicism Tag Archive 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.occams-razor.info [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Sexual abuse lawsuits are claiming yet another Catholic diocese in America, this time the Spokane, Washington, diocese.
    • Roman Catholicism: Recent News, Commentary, and Posts on the Roman Catholic Church and the Vatican 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC atheism.about.com [Source type: Original source]

    Harper Perennial. p. 336. ISBN 9780060522322.
     
  • Chadwick, Henry (1990). ."The Early Christian Community". in John McManners.^ However, it appears clear that even the Catholics admit that John is referring to a reprobate church (he used the analogy of a woman) as Babylon and that early Christians identified that with Rome.
    • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (John 6:47) Unlike Roman Catholic officials who are held captive in their own "Tradition Trap," the early Christian leaders clung tenaciously to the Scriptures.
    • Heresies of Catholicism 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC lol.witnesstoday.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ John McManners, A Protestant Author, The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity: Nevertheless the ecumenical mood had consequences in the European churches.

    .The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity.^ The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, by John McManners, cap.

    ^ John McManners, A Protestant Author, The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity: Nevertheless the ecumenical mood had consequences in the European churches.

    .Oxford University Press.^ London: Oxford University Press, 1943, pp.
    • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes , Oxford University Press, 1986, pp.

    ^ London: International African Institute, Oxford University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0198229283.
     
  • Chadwick, Owen (1995). A History of Christianity. Barnes & Noble. ISBN 0760773327. 
  • Collins, Michael; Price, Mathew A. (1999). The Story of Christianity. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0-7513-0467-0. 
  • Collinson, Patrick (1990). ."The Late Medieval Church and its Reformation (1400–1600)". in John McManners.^ In occupying the professorial chair, John Huss became a passionate champion for church reform, in the sense of returning to her early Orthodoxy.

    ^ Many councils, popes, saints, scholars, and movements among the people had attempted to reform the church during the late Middle Ages.

    ^ John McManners, A Protestant Author, The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity: Nevertheless the ecumenical mood had consequences in the European churches.

    .The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity.^ The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, by John McManners, cap.

    ^ John McManners, A Protestant Author, The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity: Nevertheless the ecumenical mood had consequences in the European churches.

    .Oxford University Press.^ London: Oxford University Press, 1943, pp.
    • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes , Oxford University Press, 1986, pp.

    ^ London: International African Institute, Oxford University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0198229283.
     
  • Cook, Bernard A. (2001). Europe since 1945: an encyclopedia, Volume 2. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780815340584. 
  • Dalin, David (2005). The Myth of Hitler's Pope. Regnery Publishing Inc. ISBN 0895260344. 
  • Davidson, Ivor (2005). The Birth of the Church. Monarch. ISBN 1-85424-658-5. 
  • Deák, István (2001). Essays on Hitler's Europe. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 9780803266308. 
  • Duffy, Eamon (1997). .Saints and Sinners, a History of the Popes.^ Pope Saint Leo I, who reigned from 440 to 461, was perhaps the greatest pope in early church history.

    ^ Laisney, not a single saint or pope in the history of the Church denied the existence of baptism of desire!

    ^ Election of anti-pope St. Hippolytus, Church Father, the first anti-pope in Church history, and the only one venerated as a saint.
    • Timeline of Catholic Church 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.davidmacd.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Yale University Press.^ Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 2002, p.8).
    • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 2002, p.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 2002, p.14).
    • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0-3000-7332-1.
     
  • Dussel, Enrique (1981). .A History of the Church in Latin America.^ The earlier history, which is that of the Latin Church of the West, will be found in the articles Papacy, Church History and Reformation .
    • Roman Catholic Church - LoveToKnow 1911 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Catholicism in Latin America thus remained almost totally dependent on the church in Europe .

    Wm. B. Eerdmans. ISBN 0802821316.
     
  • Eberhardt, Newman C (1961). A Summary of Catholic History, Ancient and Medieval History. .B. Herder Book Co. 
  • Faulk, Edward (2007).^ Tixeront, Handbook of Patrology , St. Louis , MO : B. Herder Book Co., 1951.

    ^ Louis, MO: B. Herder Book Co., 1957), p.
    • Roman Catholicism 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Ludwig Ott, Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma , St. Louis , MO : B. Herder Book, Co., 1954, p.

    .101 Questions and Answers on Eastern Catholic Churches.^ We have now a general criterion by which to answer the question: What is an Eastern Church?
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Eastern Churches 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Eastern Catholic (Uniate) churches .
    • Religious leaders 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Hence the importance of the Eastern Catholic Churches.
    • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Eastern Churches 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

    Paulist Press. ISBN 978-0-8091-4441-9. 
  • Fahlbusch, Erwin (2007). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans. ISBN 0802824153. .http://books.google.com/books?id=7ly4DgtT3LkC&pg=PA729&dq=old+catholic+church,+origin&sig=n9mbyiNf8G6AUpPj7ij6zHPwXMY.^ Philadelphia Marriott Downtown 0.57 miles from Old St. Joseph's Roman Catholic Church Nightly Rates: ( 239.00 - 299.00 ) The Philadelphia Marriott Downtown commands a towering presence in the heart of America's original c...
    • Old St. Joseph's Roman Catholic Church - Philadelphia, PA, Pennsylvania hotels 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.qwikcast.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The major difference is that the Roman Catholic Church added a collection of books and passages known as the Apocrypha to their Old Testament during the sixteenth century.

    ^ North American Old Roman Catholic Church .
    • Religious leaders 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.rulers.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Retrieved 2009-10-24.
     
  • Franzen, August; John Dolan (1969).^ James Swan (anti-Catholic Reformed Protestant Polemicist and Amateur Psychoanalyst, 22 and 24 August 2009) I admire, as ever, your fantastic and penetrating work.
    • Biblical Evidence for Catholicism: Anti-Catholicism (Index Page) 11 September 2009 23:46 UTC socrates58.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Tags: This entry was posted by scribe on Monday, August 31st, 2009 at 7:10 am and is filed under Commentary.
    • The American Spectator : Kennedy Catholicism 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC spectator.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Posted by Francis Beckwith on August 10, 2009 12:17 PM .

    A History of the Church. Herder and Herder. 
  • Froehle, Bryan; Mary Gautier (2003). Global Catholicism, Portrait of a World Church. Orbis books; Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate, Georgetown University. ISBN 157075375x. 
  • Hall, John (2003). Sociology on Culture. Routledge. ISBN 9780415284844. 
  • Hastings, Adrian (2004). The Church in Africa 1450–1950. .Oxford University Press.^ London: Oxford University Press, 1943, pp.
    • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes , Oxford University Press, 1986, pp.

    ^ London: International African Institute, Oxford University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0198263996.
     
  • Herring, George (2006). An Introduction to the History of Christianity. Continuum International. ISBN 0826467377. 
  • Johansen, Bruce (2006). The Native Peoples of North America. .Rutgers University Press.^ New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0813538998.
     
  • Johnson, Lonnie (1996). Central Europe: Enemies, Neighbors, Friends. .Oxford University Press.^ London: Oxford University Press, 1943, pp.
    • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes , Oxford University Press, 1986, pp.

    ^ London: International African Institute, Oxford University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 9780195100716.
     
  • Johns, Jeremy (1990). ."Christianity and Islam". in John McManners.^ The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, by John McManners, cap.

    ^ John McManners, A Protestant Author, The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity: Nevertheless the ecumenical mood had consequences in the European churches.

    .The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity.^ The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, by John McManners, cap.

    ^ John McManners, A Protestant Author, The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity: Nevertheless the ecumenical mood had consequences in the European churches.

    .Oxford University Press.^ London: Oxford University Press, 1943, pp.
    • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes , Oxford University Press, 1986, pp.

    ^ London: International African Institute, Oxford University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0198229283.
     
  • Kamen, Henry (1997). The Spanish Inquisition. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-81719-1. 
  • Kelly, J. N. (1986). .Oxford Dictionary of the Popes.^ J.N.D. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes , Oxford University Press, 1986, pp.

    Prentice Hall. ISBN 9780191909351.
     
  • Koschorke, Klaus; Ludwig, Frieder; Delgado, Mariano (2007). .A History of Christianity in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, 1450–1990.^ The BILLIONS of people in Asia, Africa and elsewhere would all become good Christians in short order!
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ After the discovery of new lands in western Africa and subsequently America, the Portuguese and Spaniards brought Christianity to these conquered lands.

    ^ Does anyone doubt the veracity of this with millions of false Catholics and ex- Christians everywhere in Europe and America and Asia in its wake?
    • Orthodox Roman Catholic | Orthodox Roman Catholic | Orthodox Roman Catholic 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.theorthodoxromancatholic.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Wm B Eerdmans Publishing Co.^ James Atkinson , Martin Luther: Prophet to the Church Catholic (Grand Rapids: WB Eerdmans Publishing co., 1983), 8.
    • The Roman Catholic Understanding of Martin Luther 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.ntrmin.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Martin Luther: Prophet to the Church Catholic (Grand Rapids: WB Eerdmans Publishing co., 1983), 3.
    • The Roman Catholic Understanding of Martin Luther 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.ntrmin.org [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 9780802828897.
     
  • Kreeft, Peter (2001). Catholic Christianity. Ignatius Press. ISBN 0-89870-798-6. 
  • Kung, Hans (2003). .The Catholic Church: A Short History.^ Evangelicals today have to decide how they stand relative to the Roman Catholic church in light of recent history.
    • Roman Catholicism 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.xenos.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ History Of The Catholic Church .

    ^ This is the law of the Catholic Church since the beginning and throughout all of history.

    Random House. ISBN 9780812967623.
     
  • Lahey, John (1995). "Roman Curia". in Richard McBrien, Harold Attridge. .The HarperCollins Encyclopedia of Catholicism.^ HarperCollins Encyclopedia of Catholicism.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    HarperCollins. ISBN 9780060653385.
     
  • Le Goff, Jacques (2000). Medieval Civilization. Barnes & Noble. ISBN 978-0-7607-1652-6. 
  • Leith, John (1963). Creeds of the Churches. Aldine Publishing Co. ISBN 0664240577. 
  • Marthaler, Berard (1994). .Introducing the Catechism of the Catholic Church, Traditional Themes and Contemporary Issues.^ In order to be saved one must assent to all the things which the Catholic Church, based on Scripture and Tradition, has infallibly defined as dogmas of the Faith.

    ^ The apostolic faith concerning the Spirit was announced by the second ecumenical council at Constantinople (381) (Catechism of the Catholic Church.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (Catechism of the Catholic Church.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    Paulist Press. ISBN 0809134950.
     
  • Mayr-Harting, Henry (1990). ."The West: The Age of Conversion (700–1050)". in John McManners.^ From the 500's to the 700's, the papacy directed the conversion of other peoples of the West.

    .The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity.^ The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, by John McManners, cap.

    ^ John McManners, A Protestant Author, The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity: Nevertheless the ecumenical mood had consequences in the European churches.

    .Oxford University Press.^ London: Oxford University Press, 1943, pp.
    • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes , Oxford University Press, 1986, pp.

    ^ London: International African Institute, Oxford University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0198229283.
     
  • McDonough, Elizabeth. (1995). "Cardinals, College of". in Richard McBrien, Harold Attridge. .The HarperCollins Encyclopedia of Catholicism.^ HarperCollins Encyclopedia of Catholicism.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    HarperCollins. ISBN 9780060653385.
  • McGonigle, Thomas (1996). .A History of the Christian Tradition: From its Jewish roots to the Reformation.^ The purpose of the reformation was to get rid of the corruption, unbiblical man-made tradition, and reform the church back to the original Apostolic Christian Church of Holy Scripture.

    ^ Catholics present this monolithic view of "church history" as if everyone was in complete agreement with the Roman Catholic church until the heretical reformers broke with tradition.
    • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

    Paulist Press. ISBN 9780809136483.
     
  • McManners, John (1990). ."The Expansion of Christianity (1500–1800)". in John McManners.^ The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, by John McManners, cap.

    ^ John McManners, A Protestant Author, The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity: Nevertheless the ecumenical mood had consequences in the European churches.

    .The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity.^ The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, by John McManners, cap.

    ^ John McManners, A Protestant Author, The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity: Nevertheless the ecumenical mood had consequences in the European churches.

    .Oxford University Press.^ London: Oxford University Press, 1943, pp.
    • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes , Oxford University Press, 1986, pp.

    ^ London: International African Institute, Oxford University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0198229283.
     
  • Mongoven, Anne Marie (2000). .The Prophetic Spirit of Catechesis: How We Share the Fire in Our Hearts.^ And He who searches our hearts knows the mind of the Spirit, because the Spirit intercedes for the saints in accordance with God’s will…Who is he that condemns?

    ^ Christ, and that hath anointed us, is God: Who also hath sealed us, and given the pledge of the Spirit in our hearts.

    ^ With Jesus Christ, in the forefront of my mind, heart, and soul, and with the Spirit of Truth, I send with brotherly love, peace in our Lord who is worthy of praise!
    • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

    Paulist Press. ISBN 0809139227.
     
  • Morris, Colin (1990). ."Christian Civilization (1050–1400)". in John McManners.^ The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, by John McManners, cap.

    ^ John McManners, A Protestant Author, The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity: Nevertheless the ecumenical mood had consequences in the European churches.

    .The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity.^ The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, by John McManners, cap.

    ^ John McManners, A Protestant Author, The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity: Nevertheless the ecumenical mood had consequences in the European churches.

    .Oxford University Press.^ London: Oxford University Press, 1943, pp.
    • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes , Oxford University Press, 1986, pp.

    ^ London: International African Institute, Oxford University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0198229283.
     
  • Murray, Chris (1994). Dictionary of the Arts. Helicon Publishing Ltd. ISBN 081603205x. 
  • Noble, Thomas; Strauss, Barry (2005). Western Civilization. Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0618432779. 
  • Norman, Edward (2007). .The Roman Catholic Church, An Illustrated History.^ The Roman Church has had a great deal of sex-scandels in its history and in modern times, heavily caused by this change.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The general Catholic position, as noted earlier, is based to a great degree upon the writings of Irenaeus of Lyon , who was perhaps the first Roman Catholic supporter to write much about Church History.
    • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Note: History concerning Apollonius is not totally clear, but indications are that he was most likely in the true church (the 210 date came from The Catholic Encyclopedia ).
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    .University of California Press.^ Berkeley: University of California Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 978-0-520-25251-6.
     
  • O'Collins, Gerald; Maria Farrugia (2003). Catholicism. .Oxford University Press.^ London: Oxford University Press, 1943, pp.
    • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes , Oxford University Press, 1986, pp.

    ^ London: International African Institute, Oxford University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 9780199259953.
     
  • Orlandis, Jose (1993). .A Short History of the Catholic Church.^ Long story short, I blogged my way from lifelong atheism to Catholicism (my husband and I both entered the Catholic Church in 2007).
    • Conversion Diary - The diary of a former atheist 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.conversiondiary.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Note: History concerning Apollonius is not totally clear, but indications are that he was most likely in the true church (the 210 date came from The Catholic Encyclopedia ).
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Pope John Paul II was not only one of the longest-lived popes in the history of the Catholic Church, he was also one of the most popular popes in history.
    • Roman Catholicism: Recent News, Commentary, and Posts on the Roman Catholic Church and the Vatican 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC atheism.about.com [Source type: Original source]

    Scepter Publishers. ISBN 1851821252.
     
  • Payne, Stanley G (2008). .Franco and Hitler: Spain, Germany and World War II..^ During World War II, Hitler was certain the allies would launch an attack to gain a beachhead on the shores of France.
    • Letting Roman Catholics Off the Hook | Adventist Today 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.atoday.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Examples include the Crusades, Inquisition, Tradition that contradicts Holy Scripture and World War II. .

    ^ World War II. .

    .Yale University Press.^ Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 2002, p.8).
    • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 2002, p.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Yale University Press, New Haven (CT), 2002, p.14).
    • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0300122829.
     
  • Peters, Edward (1989). Inquisition. .University of California Press.^ Berkeley: University of California Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 9780520066304.
     
  • Phayer, Michael (2000). The Catholic Church and the Holocaust, 1930–1965. .Indiana University Press.^ Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0-253-33725-9.
     
  • Pollard, John Francis (2005). Money and the Rise of the Modern Papacy, 1850–1950. .Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Cambridge University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Apostolic Fathers , translation by Kirsopp Lake , Cambridge MA : Harvard University Press, Vol.

    ISBN 9780521812047.
     
  • Rhodes, Anthony (1973). The Vatican in the Age of the Dictators (1922–1945). Holt, Rinehart and Winston. ISBN 0030077362. 
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan (1997). The First Crusaders. .Cambridge University Press.^ Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ New York: Cambridge University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Apostolic Fathers , translation by Kirsopp Lake , Cambridge MA : Harvard University Press, Vol.

    ISBN 9780511003080.
     
  • Schama, Simon (2003). A History of Britain 1: At the Edge of the World?. BBC Worldwide. ISBN 0-56-348714-3. 
  • Schatz, Klaus (1996). Papal Primacy. Liturgical Press. ISBN 081465522X. 
  • Scheina, Robert L. (2007). Latin America's Wars: The Age of the Caudillo. Brassey's. ISBN 1574884522. 
  • Schoenherr, Richard A.; Lawrence Alfred Young, Tsan-Yuang Cheng (1993). .Full pews and empty altars: demographics of the priest shortage in United States Catholic dioceses.^ United States today have no priest.
    • Occam's Razor: Catholicism Tag Archive 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.occams-razor.info [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Catholic priests sexually abusing children is not a problem limited to the United States - but the United States does appear to allow such sexual abusers to hide out within its borders.
    • Roman Catholicism: Recent News, Commentary, and Posts on the Roman Catholic Church and the Vatican 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC atheism.about.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I just didn’t expect it from the United States Council of Catholic Bishops (USCCB).
    • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: Original source]

    Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0299136949.
     
  • Schreck, Alan (1999). The Essential Catholic Catechism. Servant Publications. ISBN 1569551286. 
  • Shirer, William L. (1990). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978067172868. 
  • Stacy, Lee (2003). .Mexico and the United States.^ Mariano Shalom; I have traveled to the United States of America, Peru, Mexico, Israel, The Bahamas, Curacao, Aruba and Bonaire--Earth is nice.

    ^ It is the dominant Church in the majority of European states, in South and Central America and in Mexico ; it is the largest single religious body in the United States of America , while in certain Protestant countries, e.g.
    • Roman Catholic Church - LoveToKnow 1911 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: Original source]

    Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 0761474021.
     
  • Stark, Rodney (1996). The Rise of Christianity. .Princeton University Press.^ Princeton: Princeton University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 9780691027494.
     
  • Solt, Leo Frank (1990). .Church and State in Early Modern England, 1509–1640.^ Quick question, in the early church who made up of the whole body, considering this was before modern communication technology?
    • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Oxford University Press.^ London: Oxford University Press, 1943, pp.
    • Roman Catholic History 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ J.N.D. Kelly, Oxford Dictionary of Popes , Oxford University Press, 1986, pp.

    ^ London: International African Institute, Oxford University Press.
    • Anthropology of Catholicism Bilbliography 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.as.ua.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0195059794.
     
  • Tyerman, Christopher (2006). God's War: A New History of the Crusades. .Harvard University Press.^ Apostolic Fathers , translation by Kirsopp Lake , Cambridge MA : Harvard University Press, Vol.

    ^ A.G. Dickens and John Tonkin, The Reformation in Historical Thought (Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1985) 200, 201.
    • The Roman Catholic Understanding of Martin Luther 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.ntrmin.org [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0674023870.
     
  • Vatican, Central Statistics Office (2007). Annuario Pontificio (Pontifical Yearbook). Libreria Editrice Vaticana. ISBN 978-88-209-7908-9. 
  • Vidmar, John (2005). .The Catholic Church Through the Ages.^ The churches in Asia Minor under Polycarp’s leadership observed the Sabbath and the Holy Days (Ogwyn J. God's Church Through the Ages.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The other lay in their willingness to endure persecution and even death in order to remain faithful to God (Revelation 2:9–10) (Ogwyn J. God's Church Through the Ages.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (Ogwyn J. God's Church Through the Ages.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    Paulist Press. ISBN 0809142341.
     
  • Wilken, Robert (2004). "Christianity". in Susan Tyler Hitchcock and John Esposito. Geography of Religion. National Geographic Society. ISBN 0792273176. 
  • Woods Jr, Thomas (2005). .How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization.^ How can Vatican II, an official Council of the Catholic Church and the “Novus Ordo Missae”, created by the Council’s Pope Paul VI, lead millions and millions of souls to perdition?
    • Orthodox Roman Catholic | Orthodox Roman Catholic | Orthodox Roman Catholic 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.theorthodoxromancatholic.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They now realize how great the Catholic guilt was that Luther was expelled from the Church to begin the division that burdens us so today--even in theology.
    • The Roman Catholic Understanding of Martin Luther 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.ntrmin.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We can learn much from our Eastern Catholic brethren as we develop the life and ministry of deacons in the Western Church as an order of Clergy ordained not “unto the priesthood” but unto service.

    Regnery Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-89526-038-7.
     

External links