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.Catholicism is a broad term for the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies and doctrines, its liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioral characteristics, as well as a religious people as a whole.^ Milner's view of Catholicism is that if we would know what is of faith, we must ask what is and ever has been the doctrine of the Church.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Well, that, and because the Roman Catholic Church burned men at the stake who tried to translate the Bible for the people.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Well you mention the whole body of believers; what do you think “the whole body” of God’s people consists of, one or two churches perhaps?
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

[1][2]
.Although for many the term usually refers to Christians and churches belonging to the Roman Catholic Church in communion with the Holy See, for others it refers to continuity "back to the earliest churches",[3] as claimed even by churches in dispute with one another over doctrine and practice such as the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Church, the Assyrian Church of the East, the Old Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion.^ Even though Eastern Orthodox and others consider themselves Catholics, for this article, Roman Catholics are defined as those supporting the Roman Catholic Church (which is why the term "Roman" is used).
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence the Roman Catholic Church has clearly changed from the original practices.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the Roman See were in error on the faith, it would be brought back to the truth by the other Churches.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[3] .The claim of continuity may be based on Apostolic Succession, especially in conjunction with adherence to the Nicene Creed.^ After persistent calls, especially from the German Emperor Sigismund, the Pope agreed to convoke a general council, which continued from November 1414 till May 1418 in Constance.

^ Through Apostolic succession, the Church believes itself to be the continuation of the Christian community founded by Jesus in his consecration of Saint Peter.
  • Catholic Churches Locations - Locate Catholic Churches Near You with Mapmuse's Catholic Churches Locator 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It may be of interest to note that Tertullian claimed that only two churches, the Roman one and the Smyrnaean one, could truly have any apostolic claim.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

[4] .In this sense of indicating historical continuity, the term "catholicism" is at times employed to mark a contrast to Protestantism, which tends to look instead to the Bible as interpreted by the 16th-century Protestant Reformation as its ultimate standard.^ Does she present herself to her Catholic brethren on the Continent in any very marked contrast to the Protestant sects ?
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ DeLong also went over the century mark for receiving yards for the fourth time in 2007, making nine catches for 139 yards and a touchdown.
  • Otterbein College Football 9 February 2010 13:16 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

^ At the same time, while Luther was in isolation, the reform movement in Wittenberg with Melanchthons participation continued.

[5] It was thus used by the Oxford Movement.[6]
.According to Richard McBrien, Catholicism is distinguished from other forms of Christianity in its particular understanding and commitment to tradition, the sacraments, the mediation between God, communion, and the See of Rome.^ According to their convictions, such Catholicism represents itself as the Church of the Ecumenical Councils, when unity existed between East and West.

^ Many others attempt some form of worship but, because they limit their worship by a false concept of God, it is largely in vain.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When we understand that the Bible teaches that prayer is intimate conversation between man and God, we instantly see that repetitive prayer is ridiculous.

[1] According to Orthodox leaders like Bishop Kallistos Ware, the Orthodox Church has these things as well, though the primacy of the See of Rome is only honorific, showing non-jurisdictional respect for the Bishop of Rome as the "first among equals" and "Patriarch of the West."[7] Catholicism, according to Mc Brien's paradigm, includes a monastic life, religious orders, a religious appreciation of the arts, a communal understanding of sin and redemption, and missionary activity.[8]

Contents

History of use of "Catholic Church"

.The earliest recorded evidence of the use of the term "Catholic Church" is the Letter to the Smyrnaeans that Ignatius of Antioch wrote in about 107 to Christians in Smyrna.^ It probably should be mentioned that although Ignatius did use the expression " he katholike ekklesia " one time--he used it when addressing the Smyrnaeans (who we in the Living Church of God claim our descent through--hence we are the most faithful descendants of the original "catholic church") ,while he used a version of the expression at "church of God" least four times in the other letters he wrote at that time (see (Ignatius' Letter to the Philadelphians 0:0, 10:1; Letter to the Trallians 2:2; Letter to the Smyrnaeans 0:0) .
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The combination "the Catholic Church" ( he katholike ekklesia ) is found for the first time in the letter of St. Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans, written about the year 110.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is what Justification brings about in a soul, according to the infallible teaching of the Catholic Church.

.Exhorting Christians to remain closely united with their bishop, he wrote: "Wherever the bishop shall appear, there let the multitude [of the people] also be; even as, wherever Jesus Christ is, there is the Catholic Church."^ There is no physical "Catholic" church.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The words run: "Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be, even as where Jesus may be, there is the universal [ katholike ] Church."
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Those ideas give a false picture of what Jesus Christ preached, and a false picture of the genuine Christian "calling"—and of the entire purpose of Christianity!
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

[9][10]
Of the meaning for Ignatius of this phrase J.H. Srawley wrote:
.This is the earliest occurrence in Christian literature of the phrase 'the Catholic Church' (ἡ καθολικὴ ἒκκλησία).^ And this truth has been held since the earliest times in the Catholic Church.

^ Its what the Catholic church is trying to teach people through the sacraments, and the truth is the Christian church developed this system very very early on.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Feeney) kept repeating such phrases as There is no salvation outside the Catholic Church .

The original sense of the word is 'universal'. Thus Justin Martyr (Dial. .82) speaks of the 'universal or general resurrection', using the words, (ἡ καθολικὴ ἀνάστασις.^ Cekada also uses the word common instead of the properly translated, universal and constant.

^ Thus we meet such phrases as the "the catholic resurrection" (Justin Martyr), "the catholic goodness of God" (Tertullian), "the four catholic winds" (Irenaeus), where we should now speak of "the general resurrection", "the absolute or universal goodness of God", "the four principal winds", etc...
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Similarly here the Church universal is contrasted with the particular Church of Smyrna.^ The fragment of the Episcopate which happened to assemble in any particular place could not of itself give complete representation to the consciousness of the Universal Church.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Universal Church, and in particular on the whole body of pastors whose duty it is to possess and com- municate to others a complete knowledge of religion.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It resides in the Universal Church, and not in the occupant of a particular See.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.Ignatius means by the Catholic Church 'the aggregate of all the Christian congregations' (Swete, Apostles Creed, p.^ The catholic church they are all priests.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I might not agree on all the points that you have stated, such as the salvation not lost, but still all in all you have helped me in my research of the roman catholic church.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Paul and the word of God are clearly teaching what the Catholic Church has held for 2000 years: that it is by means of the Sacrament of Baptism that one receives faith .

76). .So too the letter of the Church of Smyrna is addressed to all the congregations of the Holy Catholic Church in every place.^ The catholic church they are all priests.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to be saved one must assent to all the things which the Catholic Church, based on Scripture and Tradition, has infallibly defined as dogmas of the Faith.

^ Therefore, every person who is justified, since they all have faith, hope and charity, is made a living member ( vivum membrum ) of the Church.

.And this primitive sense of 'universal' the word has never lost, although in the latter part of the second century it began to receive the secondary sense of 'orthodox' as opposed to 'heretical'. Thus it is used in an early Canon of Scripture, the Muratorian fragment (circa 170 A.D.), which refers to certain heretical writings as 'not received in the Catholic Church'. So too Cyril of Jerusalem, in the fourth century, says that the Church is called Catholic not only 'because it is spread throughout the world', but also 'because it teaches completely and without defect all the doctrines which ought to come to the knowledge of men'. This secondary sense arose out of the original meaning because Catholics claimed to teach the whole truth, and to represent the whole Church, while heresy arose out of the exaggeration of some one truth and was essentially partial and local.^ But just as the sun is one and the same throughout the whole world, so also the preaching of the truth shines everywhere and enlightens all men who desire to come to a knowledge of truth .

^ Churchs teaching is pointed out to him).

^ It was the Catholic Church that was commissioned by Christ to teach all nations and to teach them infallibly.

[11][12]
As indicated in this quotation, Cyril of Jerusalem (circa 315–386) used the term "Catholic Church" in opposition to other groups, whose right to call themselves ἐκκλησία (assembly or church) he admitted:
.Since the word Ecclesia is applied to different things (as also it is written of the multitude in the theatre of the Ephesians, And when he had thus spoken, he dismissed the Assembly (Acts 19:14), and since one might properly and truly say that there is a Church of evil doers, I mean the meetings of the heretics, the Marcionists and Manichees, and the rest, for this cause the Faith has securely delivered to you now the Article, "And in one Holy Catholic Church"; that you may avoid their wretched meetings, and ever abide with the Holy Church Catholic in which you were regenerated.^ There is no physical "Catholic" church.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now there is also marriage in the Church and holy orders.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And I believe that there is one, holy, Catholic, and apostolic Church.

.And if ever you are sojourning in cities, inquire not simply where the Lord's House is (for the other sects of the profane also attempt to call their own dens houses of the Lord), nor merely where the Church is, but where is the Catholic Church.^ I might not agree on all the points that you have stated, such as the salvation not lost, but still all in all you have helped me in my research of the roman catholic church.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is No Salvation for members of Islam, Judaism or other heretical or schismatic non-Catholic sects .

^ Part 1: Archbishop Charles Chaput corrects House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, who has said the Catholic Church’s teachings on abortion aren’t clear.
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: Original source]

.For this is the peculiar name of this Holy Church, the mother of us all, which is the spouse of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-begotten Son of God.^ The name of Jesus is the only name under all of heaven (Acts.

^ The biblical name of the true Church is "the Church of God."
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He is bound to declare that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

[13]
Only slightly later, Saint Augustine of Hippo (354–430) wrote:
.In the Catholic Church, there are many other things which most justly keep me in her bosom.^ There is no physical "Catholic" church.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And there are many, many others like this.
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Note: History concerning Apollonius is not totally clear, but indications are that he was most likely in the true church (the 210 date came from The Catholic Encyclopedia ).
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.The consent of peoples and nations keeps me in the Church; so does her authority, inaugurated by miracles, nourished by hope, enlarged by love, established by age.^ If the church is pro-life, then they ought to be for health care reform because it’s going to provide health care that are going to keep people alive.
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This passage of scripture does not concern obedience to a reputed authority in the Church; it concerns obedience to the Word of God Faith in His revealed word .

^ The Bible itself establishes exactly two positions of authority within the church, what I called "elders" and "deacons" above, and the Pope is not one of them.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

.The succession of priests keeps me, beginning from the very seat of the Apostle Peter, to whom the Lord, after His resurrection, gave it in charge to feed His sheep (Jn 21:15–19), down to the present episcopate.^ And therefore the Apostles themselves are sheep whom Peter must feed.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Another Bishop even proclaimed that our Lord baptized St Peter only among the Apostles, while Peter baptized the rest, and created them Bishops of the Church.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Our Lord made St. Peter the first pope, entrusted to him His entire flock, and gave him supreme authority in the universal Church of Christ.

.And so, lastly, does the very name of Catholic, which, not without reason, amid so many heresies, the Church has thus retained; so that, though all heretics wish to be called Catholics, yet when a stranger asks where the Catholic Church meets, no heretic will venture to point to his own chapel or house.^ There is no physical "Catholic" church.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The catholic church they are all priests.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ About Catholic Churches From Wikipedia The Roman Catholic Church, officially known as the Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church and represents over half of all Christians and one-sixth of the world's population.
  • Catholic Churches Locations - Locate Catholic Churches Near You with Mapmuse's Catholic Churches Locator 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: Academic]

.Such then in number and importance are the precious ties belonging to the Christian name which keep a believer in the Catholic Church, as it is right they should ...^ The catholic church they are all priests.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Keep in mind that "The Church" of all believers is different from The Roman Catholic Church.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ About Catholic Churches From Wikipedia The Roman Catholic Church, officially known as the Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church and represents over half of all Christians and one-sixth of the world's population.
  • Catholic Churches Locations - Locate Catholic Churches Near You with Mapmuse's Catholic Churches Locator 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: Academic]

.With you, where there is none of these things to attract or keep me...^ So if you read the O.T., keep this in mind there was still the concept of works there when it was written.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These thoughts of St. Thomas were not incorporated into the Council; but because you want them to be there so badly, you just couldnt refrain from adding them in.

^ These things were well understood by our holy and inspired fathers --- thus they strove, after Holy Baptism , to keep...

.No one shall move me from the faith which binds my mind with ties so many and so strong to the Christian religion...^ This true Catholic faith, outside of which no one can be saved I now profess and truly hold [ccxcix] .

^ We exhort and advise you to be all of one mind and in harmony as you strive for the same object, just as the Church has one faith , one baptism , and one spirit.

^ And, in fact, the Church is wont to take earnest heed that no one shall be forced to embrace the Catholic faith against his will, for, as St. Augustine wisely reminds us, Man cannot believe otherwise than of his own will.

.For my part, I should not believe the gospel except as moved by the authority of the Catholic Church.^ I might not agree on all the points that you have stated, such as the salvation not lost, but still all in all you have helped me in my research of the roman catholic church.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And if these things are gospel truth, why does it take the Catholic Church centuries or even millennia to teach these ancient truths as infallible-official doctrines that Catholics must believe?

^ Rather, these "conservative" Catholics genuinly believe they are applying the social teaching of the Church in an authentic manner.
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: Original source]

—St. .Augustine (354–430): Against the Epistle of Manichaeus called Fundamental, chapter 4: Proofs of the Catholic Faith.^ And, in fact, the Church is wont to take earnest heed that no one shall be forced to embrace the Catholic faith against his will, for, as St. Augustine wisely reminds us, Man cannot believe otherwise than of his own will.

^ As far as my use of "catholic" versus "Catholic" goes, assume both to be Catholic, as in the aggregate faith tradition of what is now called the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He assumed that the English Church was included in the letter addressed to all Protestants ; and accepted the title in the sense of protesting against errors contrary to the Catholic Faith.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[14]
On 27 February 380, by an edict issued in Thessalonica and published in Constantinople, Emperor Theodosius declared Catholic Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire, and defined the term "Catholic" in Roman Imperial law as follows
.It is our desire that all the various nations which are subject to our clemency and moderation, should continue the profession of that religion which was delivered to the Romans by the divine Apostle Peter, as it has been preserved by faithful tradition and which is now professed by the Pontiff Damasus and by Peter, Bishop of Alexandria, a man of apostolic holiness.^ All faith traditions change over time.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Definition affirms that the Roman Pontiff, when he speaks ex cathedra that is, when in discharge of the office of Pastor and Doctor of all Christians, by virtue of his supreme Apostolic Authority, he defines a doctrine regarding faith or morals to be held by the Universal Church, by the divine assistance promised to him in Blessed Peter is possessed of that Infallibility with which the Divine Redeemer willed that His Church should be endowed for defining doctrine regarding faith and morals.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This true Catholic faith, outside of which no one can be saved I now profess and truly hold [ccxcix] .

.According to the apostolic teaching and the doctrine of the Gospel, let us believe in the one Deity of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, in equal majesty and in a holy Trinity.^ We do believe in the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, but not the way the belief became adopted in 381 A.D. .
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I only care about what official Roman Catholic doctrine is, I don't care what individual churches teach or believers believe.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then we find that the inspired Apostolic Church began on another of God’s Holy Days, the Day of Pentecost, when the Holy Spirit was poured out: "When the Day of Pentecost had fully come, they were all with one accord in one place" (Acts 2:1).
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.We authorize the followers of this law to assume the title Catholic Christians; but as for the others, since in our judgment they are foolish madmen, we decree that they shall be branded with the ignominious name of heretics, and shall not presume to give their conventicles the name of churches.^ As the catholic church is the same christian church that has existed since the first "christians" ...
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is the law of the Catholic Church since the beginning and throughout all of history.

^ They assume it was "Christianized by Jesus’ resurrection."
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.They will suffer in the first place the chastisement of divine condemnation and the second the punishment of our authority, in accordance with the will of heaven will decide to inflict.^ Before full restoration they will suffer punishment, but that punishment is intended to be educative, to purge them from the imperfections brought by their sin.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then I heard a loud voice in heaven say: ‘Now have come the salvation and the power and the kingdom of our God, and the authority of his Christ.

^ They were never part of the canon of Scripture in the first place (and as you point out, the "prophetic silence" attests to the fact that the apocryphal books aren't inspired).
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

[15] Theodosian Code XVI.i.2
A contemporary of Augustine, St. Vincent of Lerins, wrote in 434 under the pseudonym Peregrinus a work known as the Commonitoria ("Memoranda"). While insisting that, like the human body, Church doctrine develops while truly keeping its identity (sections 54–59, chapter XXIII), he stated:
"[I]n the Catholic Church itself, all possible care must be taken, that we hold that faith which has been believed everywhere, always, by all. For that is truly and in the strictest sense 'Catholic,' which, as the name itself and the reason of the thing declare, comprehends all universally. This rule we shall observe if we follow universality, antiquity, consent. We shall follow universality if we confess that one faith to be true, which the whole Church throughout the world confesses; antiquity, if we in no wise depart from those interpretations which it is manifest were notoriously held by our holy ancestors and fathers; consent, in like manner, if in antiquity itself we adhere to the consentient definitions and determinations of all, or at the least of almost all priests and doctors" (section 6, end of chapter II).

Divergent interpretations of the term "Catholic"

.Many individual Christians and Christian denominations consider themselves "catholic" on the basis, in particular, of Apostolic Succession.^ Even though Eastern Orthodox and others consider themselves Catholics, for this article, Roman Catholics are defined as those supporting the Roman Catholic Church (which is why the term "Roman" is used).
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And unfortunately, the current day leaders of the St. Benedict Center , as well as many of its affiliates, members and writers, refuse to correct themselves, and must be considered heretical.

^ (A.) That the definition of the Infallibility of the Pope as a dogma of primitive Christian Revelation has historically run a course similar to the definition of many other fundamental articles of the Catholic Faith."
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

They fall into five groups:
.
  1. The Western and Eastern Churches of the Catholic Church in communion with the Bishop of Rome.^ A sizable number of Catholics hold beliefs that go against church teachings, the bishop said.
    • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On behalf of the whole Eastern church, Patriarch Anthimus VI of Constantinople, answered the Pope that communion between the Churches will be possible only after the obliteration of all the Roman Churchs innovations.

    ^ He found within the old Catholic communion a freedom to retain unaltered the faith which, up to that year, he had taught within the communion of Rome.
    • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    [16] .These understand "Catholic" to involve unity with the Bishop of Rome,[17] and hold that "the one Church of Christ ...^ Catholic Church if visibly severed from Catholic unity.
    • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Peter essentially was the Bishop of Rome, and the head of Catholic Church.
    • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But how does the Catholic Church understand these words?

    subsists in the Catholic Church, which is governed by the successor of Peter and by the bishops in communion with him, although many elements of sanctification and of truth are found outside of its visible structure."[18]
  2. Those, like the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox, that claim unbroken Apostolic Succession from the early Church and identify themselves as the Catholic Church; they see themselves (along with the See of Rome) as part of a patriarchal structure that developed in the East but never developed in the West. .To disassociate the See of Rome from this equalisation of the "five Patriarchal Sees," Pope Benedict XVI dropped the title "Patriarch of the West," seeing the designation as an attempt to Orientalize Western ecclesiology.^ Pope Benedict XVI taught: .
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ John Kerry was in violation of Canon 915, he would not have been able to receive communion at Pope Benedict XVI's Mass in Washington, D.C., a year ago.
    • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Roman See was now declared to be vacant, and then the Council proceeded to fill the vacancy by the creation of a new Pope under title of Alexander V. .
    • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    [19][20]
  3. .
  4. Those, like the Old Catholic, Anglican, and some Lutheran and other denominations, that claim unbroken Apostolic Succession from the early Church, and see themselves as a constituent part of the Church.
  5. Those who claim to be spiritual descendants of the Apostles but have no discernible institutional descent from the historic Church, and normally do not refer to themselves as catholic.
  6. Those who have acknowledged a break in Apostolic Succession, but have restored it in order to be in full communion with bodies that have maintained the practice.^ Consider a Hindu in Tibet who has no knowledge of the Catholic Church.

    ^ In this way those who are outside the Catholic Church can achieve salvation .

    ^ Those who are not part of the Body are no part at all.

    Examples in this category include the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada vis-à-vis their Anglican and Old Catholic counterparts.
.For some confessions listed under category 3, the self-affirmation refers to the belief in the ultimate unity of the universal church under one God and one Saviour, rather than in one visibly unified institution (as with category 1, above).^ Unity of faith, the Mysteries and church structure all kept them bound together as one for a long time.

^ God has promised to be with us, and he has divinly protected us through some of the darkest times in Church history.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Well you mention the whole body of believers; what do you think “the whole body” of God’s people consists of, one or two churches perhaps?
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

.In this usage, "catholic" is sometimes written with a lower-case "c". The Western Apostles' Creed and the Nicene Creed, stating "I believe in ...^ The Catholic Catechism #500 states, “Against this doctrine the objection is sometimes raised that the Bible mentions brothers and sisters of Jesus.

^ These essential mysteries of the Catholic Faith have been disseminated and taught to most by means of the Apostles Creed (which is given in the Appendix).

^ It contains an oath which states that " it is not an article of the Catholic Faith, neither am I thereby required to believe or profess that the Pope is infallible."
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

one holy catholic ... church", are recited in worship services. .Among some denominations in category 3, "Christian" is substituted for "catholic" in order to denote the doctrine that the Christian Church is, at least ideally, undivided.^ In order to be saved one must assent to all the things which the Catholic Church, based on Scripture and Tradition, has infallibly defined as dogmas of the Faith.

^ Vincent de Paul," "Brothers of the Christian Doctrine," and other societies affiliated with the order, became greater, perhaps, than they ever were at any former period.

^ I hope that when third parties see the discussion, they at least come away knowing that many Catholics are faithful to the teaching and witness of the Church on this important question.
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: Original source]

[21][22][23]

Brief organizational history of the Church

Ancient statue of Saint Peter in the Basilica dedicated to him in the Vatican.
.According to the theory of Pentarchy, the early Catholic Church came to be organised under the three patriarchs of Rome, Alexandria and Antioch, to which later were added the patriarchs of Constantinople and Jerusalem.^ He contents himself with asserting first that the Patriarchal Churches of Constantinople, Alexandria, and Antioch have been presided over by heretics, whereas Rome has been exempt from this calamity ; 2 and secondly, he observes that Popes have passed judgment on heresies apart from any Council, and that their decisions have been accepted.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Note: History concerning Apollonius is not totally clear, but indications are that he was most likely in the true church (the 210 date came from The Catholic Encyclopedia ).
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One depicted Christ, wearing a thorny crown and walking with His disciples toward Jerusalem the other, the Pope wearing a three-sided golden crown and walking toward Rome, accompanied by his cardinals.

.The Bishop of Rome was at that time recognized as first among them, as is stated, for instance, in canon 3 of the First Council of Constantinople (381)—many interpret "first" as meaning here first among equals—and doctrinal or procedural disputes were often referred to Rome, as when, on appeal by St Athanasius against the decision of the Council of Tyre (335), Pope Julius I, who spoke of such appeals as customary, annulled the action of that council and restored Athanasius and Marcellus of Ancyra to their sees.^ Such is Fessler's advice to Bishops who doubted the truth of the doctrine.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nope: he's the first amongst equals amongst the bishops.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He contents himself with asserting first that the Patriarchal Churches of Constantinople, Alexandria, and Antioch have been presided over by heretics, whereas Rome has been exempt from this calamity ; 2 and secondly, he observes that Popes have passed judgment on heresies apart from any Council, and that their decisions have been accepted.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Bishop of Rome was also considered to have the right to convene ecumenical councils.^ Counting on the French bishops as not being subordinate to Frederick, the Pope convened a council for 1241; while he in turn, seized the French bishops travelling from France.

^ On the 29 th June 1863, by way of a papal bull Aeterni Patris he convened an ecumenical council at the Vatican palace and invited the whole of Christianity.

^ Apart from cardinals, bishops and abbots at the council in Pisa, there were also many magisters of theology and canonical rights.

.When the Imperial capital moved to Constantinople, Rome's influence was sometimes challenged.^ The "Papistic" party, on the one hand, upheld and maintained all the pretensions of the Court of Rome, and were supported by all the influence of that Court, sometimes by briefs from the Popes themselves.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.Nonetheless, Rome claimed special authority because of its connection to Saint Peter.^ Dude, they claim that only the Roman Catholic church is the true church because only it has the Pope, who is the direct successor from Peter.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

[24][25] and .Saint Paul, who, all agreed, were martyred and buried in Rome, and because the Bishop of Rome saw himself as the successor of Saint Peter.^ History makes it clear that Peter went to Rome and that he had successors.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (John 6:53) And Paul says, "For anyone who eats and drinks discerning the Body, eats and drinks judgment on himself."
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At its head, as we have said, is a sovereign, who rules over all, but is himself ruled over by no one.

.The 431 Council of Ephesus, the Third Ecumenical Council, was chiefly concerned with Nestorianism, which emphasised the distinction between the humanity and divinity of Jesus and taught that, in giving birth to Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary could not be spoken of as giving birth to God.^ Jesus Christ is objectively the Son of God.

^ This point is not lost on the Vatican, “A general council of bishops at Ephesus in 431 A.D. declared, ‘If anyone does not confess that God is truly Emmanuel, and that on this account the holy virgin is the mother of God (for according to the flesh she gave birth to the Word of God become flesh by birth), let him be anathema (condemned).’ The council carefully stated that Mary is the mother of God ‘according to the flesh’ to clarify that Mary is not the source of Jesus’ divinity.” [3] And so while affirming that Mary is not the source of Jesus’ divinity we are still to be condemned if we do not accept the title Mother of God.

^ According to their convictions, such Catholicism represents itself as the Church of the Ecumenical Councils, when unity existed between East and West.

.This Council rejected Nestorianism and affirmed that, as humanity and divinity are inseparable in the one person of Jesus Christ, his mother, the Virgin Mary, is thus Theotokos, God-bearer, Mother of God.^ This statement is made because it is claimed that affirming Mary as the Mother of God affirms Christ’s divinity.

^ If there was one Person in Christ, then there must be one will, and that will manifestly divine.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This point is not lost on the Vatican, “A general council of bishops at Ephesus in 431 A.D. declared, ‘If anyone does not confess that God is truly Emmanuel, and that on this account the holy virgin is the mother of God (for according to the flesh she gave birth to the Word of God become flesh by birth), let him be anathema (condemned).’ The council carefully stated that Mary is the mother of God ‘according to the flesh’ to clarify that Mary is not the source of Jesus’ divinity.” [3] And so while affirming that Mary is not the source of Jesus’ divinity we are still to be condemned if we do not accept the title Mother of God.

.The first great rupture in the Church followed this Council.^ First of all, Church councils are also authoritative.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, by their baptism they are made subject to the Roman Pontiff, since the Roman Pontiff possesses supreme authority in the Church (First Vatican Council, de fide ).

^ As a Catholic, one must follow the first statement, which is in accord with defined dogma and the universal Tradition since the beginning of the Church, and is based on the declaration of Christ Himself.

.Those who refused to accept the Council's ruling were largely Persian and are represented today by the Assyrian Church of the East and related Churches, which, however, do not now hold a "Nestorian" theology.^ Those who refuse to do this are obstinately contradicting the teaching of the Church.

^ According to their convictions, such Catholicism represents itself as the Church of the Ecumenical Councils, when unity existed between East and West.

^ In like manner I accept Sacred Scripture according to the meaning which has been held by holy Mother Church and which she now holds.

.They are often called Ancient Oriental Churches.^ Whereas, they called themselves kafaros, because they regarded their sect as being a true, pure church.

^ It (baptism of blood/desire) might be compared to a ladder up which one climbs into the Bark of Peter, as the Church is often called.

^ So the Church once again followed the Scriptural principal, the apostles did when they faced a problem: They called a council, called several councils because this takes time.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

.The next major break was after the Council of Chalcedon (451).^ Pope St. Leo the Great, dogmatic letter to Flavian, Council of Chalcedon , 451: .

.This Council repudiated Eutychian Monophysitism which stated that the divine nature completely subsumed the human nature in Christ.^ The difficulty of the period was to allow full scope to the human nature in Christ.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The second fact was the introduction of the subject into the Council completely out of its logical and natural order.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The relation of the divine to the human in Christ was thought to resemble that of the soul to the body, in such a way that the human nature was but a will-less passive instrument under the absolute control of the will which was divine.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.This Council declared that Christ, though one person, exhibited two natures "without confusion, without change, without division, without separation" and thus is both fully God and fully human.^ The Incarnation was then interpreted to involve two natures united in one Person.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He tells them that their tradition has nothing to do with God--that a person is not clean because of clean skin, but a clean heart--and that "nothing that enters one from outside can defile that person; but the things that come out from within are what defile."
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though Singulari Quadem of Pius IX did not teach the HERESY that one can be saved without the Catholic Faith by invincible ignorance, it is weakly worded.

.The Alexandrian Church rejected the terms adopted by this Council, and the Christian Churches that follow the tradition of non-acceptance of the Council—they are not Monophysite in doctrine—are referred to as Pre-Chalcedonian or Oriental Orthodox Churches.^ Church, while its acceptance and rejection were both .
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ De Maistre adopts for his reply the following " Don't ask me; ask the Greek Emperors, who would have these Councils assembled, and who convoked them and demanded the consent of the Popes, and raised all this useless fracas in the Church."
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Even though Eastern Orthodox and others consider themselves Catholics, for this article, Roman Catholics are defined as those supporting the Roman Catholic Church (which is why the term "Roman" is used).
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.The next great rift within Christianity was in the 11th century.^ As early as the second century, this messianic-marian exegesis was known in Christian tradition, for example, in Ireneus, Epiphanius, Cyprian, and [Pope] Leo the Great.

.Longstanding doctrinal disputes, as well as conflicts between methods of Church government, and the evolution of separate rites and practices, precipitated a split in 1054 that divided the Church, this time between a "West" and an "East". England, France, the Holy Roman Empire, Poland, Bohemia, Slovakia, Scandinavia, the Baltic countries, and Western Europe in general were in the Western camp, and Greece, Romania, Russia and many other Slavic lands, Anatolia, and the Christians in Syria and Egypt who accepted the Council of Chalcedon made up the Eastern camp.^ To this day there is a dispute between Eastern Orthodox Christians and Western Christianity.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For a time, discords and disorders that separated the western Christian world ceased.

^ As the Roman empire collapsed, and the barbarian nations arose to fill the vacuum, the popes...set themselves to shape the destiny of the West...creating emperors, deposing monarchs...Popes have divided the known and yet to be discovered world between colonial powers...have plunged nations and continents into war (Duffy, Eamon.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.This division between the Western Church and the Eastern Church is called the East-West Schism.^ According to their convictions, such Catholicism represents itself as the Church of the Ecumenical Councils, when unity existed between East and West.

^ On behalf of the whole Eastern church, Patriarch Anthimus VI of Constantinople, answered the Pope that communion between the Churches will be possible only after the obliteration of all the Roman Churchs innovations.

^ I n both the pre-Christian and Christian eras, the Roman empire was sharply divided into two divisions east and west.

.The fourth major division in the Church occurred in the 16th century with the Protestant Reformation, after which many parts of the Western Church either entirely rejected the teachings and structure of the Western Church at that time and became known as "Reformed" or "Protestant", or else repudiated papal authority in the Western Church for the authority of a civil ruler in religious matters (e.g., in Anglicanism and parts of the Lutheran Church).^ The papal system brought with it the separation of Churches and distortion of canonical order of the Church, established on the beginnings of Apostolic tradition and legislation of the Ecumenical Church; she brought about the rift in Western Europe, where the opposition to the papal love of power was expressed through the formation of Anglican, Lutheran, Reform and Utrecht churches, as well as the appearances of many opposition movements.

^ I hope that when third parties see the discussion, they at least come away knowing that many Catholics are faithful to the teaching and witness of the Church on this important question.
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fact is that all Protestants who reject the Catholic Church or its dogmas on the sacraments, the Papacy, etc.

.A much less extensive rupture occurred when, after the Roman Catholic Church's First Vatican Council, in which it officially proclaimed the dogma of papal infallibility, small clusters of Catholics in the Netherlands and in German-speaking countries formed the Old-Catholic (Altkatholische) Church.^ The Catholic church, with it's beliefs on tradition and infallibility.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Catholic Church is guilty of the same.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It would have made the dogma much less difficult to many members of the Roman Church.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

Latin and Eastern Catholic Churches

.The Latin and Eastern Catholic Churches together form the "Catholic Church"[26] or "Roman Catholic Church",[27] the world's second largest single religious body after Sunni Islam and the largest Christian church, comprising over half of all Christians (1.1 billion Christians) and one-sixth of the world's population.^ Keep in mind that "The Church" of all believers is different from The Roman Catholic Church.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Catholic Church is guilty of the same.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One is the body of the Church , whose head is Christ, and all cohere in it .

[28][29] .Richard McBrien would put the proportion even higher, extending it to those who are in communion with the Bishop of Rome only in "degrees".[30] It comprises 23 component "particular churches" (also called "rites" in the Second Vatican Council's Decree on the Eastern Catholic Churches),[31] all of which acknowledge a primacy of jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome[32] and are in full communion with the Holy See and each other.^ But only those who sided with the Pope constituted the Church.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Vatican I infallibly defines that from the See of Rome communion emanates over all.

^ In this way those who are outside the Catholic Church can achieve salvation .

.These particular churches or component parts are the Latin Rite or Western Church (which uses a number of different liturgical rites, of which the Roman Rite is the best known) and 22 Eastern Catholic Churches.^ This is thus a major difference between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of God.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Keep in mind that "The Church" of all believers is different from The Roman Catholic Church.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Catholic Church is guilty of the same.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

Of the latter particular churches, 14 use the Byzantine liturgical rite.[33] .Within the Church as a whole, each "particular Church", whether Eastern or Western, is of equal dignity.^ On behalf of the whole Eastern church, Patriarch Anthimus VI of Constantinople, answered the Pope that communion between the Churches will be possible only after the obliteration of all the Roman Churchs innovations.

^ Fourthly, that the Pope, whether he can be a heretic or not, cannot define any- thing heretical to be believed by the whole Church.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He now begins the struggle with the Eastern church, figuring to vanquish Photius and then subject the eastern church to his influence just as the western churches.

[34] .Finally, in its official documents, the Church, though made up of several particular Churches, "continues to refer to itself as the 'Catholic Church'"[35] or, less frequently but consistently, as the 'Roman Catholic Church', owing to its essential[27] link with the Bishop of Rome.^ The Roman Catholic Church is guilty of the same.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Peter essentially was the Bishop of Rome, and the head of Catholic Church.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The top office in the Roman Church is that of the Bishop of Rome, the highest of the Roman bishops.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

[36] .Theologian Richard McBrien, in his book Catholicism, disagrees, saying: "But is 'Catholic' synonymous with 'Roman Catholic'? And is it accurate to refer to the Roman Catholic Church as simply the 'Roman Church'? The answer to both questions is no.^ There is no physical "Catholic" church.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Leading Roman Catholic theologian .
  • Religion: Roman Catholic 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.nndb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Roman Catholic Church is guilty of the same.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

.The adjective 'Roman' applies more properly to the diocese, or see, of Rome than to the worldwide Communion of Catholic Churches that is in union with the Bishop of Rome.^ It assumes the identity of the Roman Communion and the Catholic Church.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Catholic Church is guilty of the same.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Peter essentially was the Bishop of Rome, and the head of Catholic Church.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

.Indeed, it strikes some Catholics as contradictory to call the Church 'Catholic' and 'Roman' at one and the same time.^ The Roman Catholic Church is guilty of the same.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One Roman Catholic scholar has observed: .
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I might not agree on all the points that you have stated, such as the salvation not lost, but still all in all you have helped me in my research of the roman catholic church.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

.Eastern-rite Catholics, of whom there are more than twenty million, also find the adjective 'Roman' objectionable.^ Catholics are more than utilitarians.
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even though Eastern Orthodox and others consider themselves Catholics, for this article, Roman Catholics are defined as those supporting the Roman Catholic Church (which is why the term "Roman" is used).
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In such a case, the Catholic voter must ask and answer the question: What could possibly be a proportionate reason for the more than 45 million children killed by abortion in the past 35 years?
  • American Papist: Not Your Average Catholic! 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.americanpapist.com [Source type: Original source]

.In addition to the Latin, or Roman, tradition, there are seven non-Latin, non-Roman ecclesial traditions: Armenian, Byzantine, Coptic, Ethiopian, East Syrian (Chaldean), West Syrian, and Maronite.^ I n both the pre-Christian and Christian eras, the Roman empire was sharply divided into two divisions east and west.

^ This period exhibits a curious exchange of opinions between the West and the East, while ecclesiastical usage remained unchanged, at least in the Latin Church.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There was a strong anti-Roman tradition in the early Church.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Each to the Churches with these non-Latin traditions is as Catholic as the Roman Catholic Church.^ The Catholic church, with it's beliefs on tradition and infallibility.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Just like their tradition leads them astray, the tradition of the Roman Catholic Church leads astray.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Catholic Church is guilty of the same.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, not all Catholics are Roman Catholic."^ About Catholic Churches From Wikipedia The Roman Catholic Church, officially known as the Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church and represents over half of all Christians and one-sixth of the world's population.
  • Catholic Churches Locations - Locate Catholic Churches Near You with Mapmuse's Catholic Churches Locator 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I might not agree on all the points that you have stated, such as the salvation not lost, but still all in all you have helped me in my research of the roman catholic church.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although many, but not all, Jews observe Pentecost on Sivan 6, both the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of God observe Pentecost on a Sunday.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus "to be Catholic—whether Roman or non-Roman—in the ecclesiological sense is to be in full communion with the Bishop of Rome and as such to be an integral part of the Catholic Communion of Churches.^ This is thus a major difference between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of God.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Catholic Church is guilty of the same.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Peter essentially was the Bishop of Rome, and the head of Catholic Church.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

[37] In spite of the use of "Roman Catholic Church" by Popes and departments of the Holy See, McBrien affirms that, on an official level, the "Communion of Catholic Churches" always refers to itself as "The Catholic Church".[38]

Sui iuris (i.e., self-governing) Churches in communion with the Holy See

Anglicans and other Catholics

Part of a series on the
Anglican Communion
Canterbury Cathedral - Portal Nave Cross-spire.jpeg
Organisation
Background
Theology
Liturgy and Worship
Anglican Topics
.Within Western Christianity, the churches of the Anglican Communion, the Old Catholics, the Liberal Catholic Church, the Apostolic Catholic Church (ACC), the Aglipayans (Philippine Independent Church), the Polish National Catholic Church of America, and many Independent Catholic Churches, which emerged directly or indirectly from and have beliefs and practices largely similar to Latin Rite Catholicism, regard themselves as "Catholic" without full communion with the Bishop of Rome, whose claimed status and authority they generally reject.^ The Catholic church, with it's beliefs on tradition and infallibility.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Peter essentially was the Bishop of Rome, and the head of Catholic Church.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The catholic church they are all priests.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association, a division of the People's Republic of China's Religious Affairs Bureau exercising state supervision over mainland China's Catholics, holds a similar position, while attempting, as with Buddhism and Protestantism, to indoctrinate and mobilize for Communist Party objectives.^ Souls can be saved in a religion other than the Catholic religion (Protestantism, Islam, Buddhism, etc.

^ Thus, Pope Pius IX was not teaching that people who are ignorant of the Catholic Faith can be saved; he was, rather, stating that such unbelievers are not damned for the matter of infidelity.

^ Catholic apologist Tim Staples stated that the only people in danger of eternal damnation are ex-Catholics because they have left the one true church.

[39]

Anglicanism

.Introductory works on Anglicanism, such as The Study of Anglicanism, typically refer to the character of the Anglican tradition as "Catholic and Reformed",[40] which is in keeping with the understanding of Anglicanism articulated in the Elizabethan Settlement and in the works of the earliest standard Anglican divines such as Richard Hooker and Lancelot Andrewes.^ This was the type of heretical, anti-Catholic character in league with Archbishop Richard Cushing in the quest to crush Fr.

^ He affirmed the words of Christ in John 3:5 with an unequivocally literal understanding, which is the unanimous teaching of Tradition and the teaching of defined Catholic dogma.

^ I was raised as a Methodist, have attended evangelical institutions, and have studied under Catholic and Reformed theologians.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

.Yet different strains in Anglicanism, dating back to the English Reformation, have emphasized either the Reformed, Catholic, or "Reformed Catholic" nature of the tradition.^ Yet, both the Roman Catholics and LCG believe that there is something different for those that are not incorrigibly wicked.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is precisely why he can quote nothing from the Traditional Catholic Magisterium to back it up.

^ It is either one or the other, because the 1917 Code directly contradicts the Traditional and constant law of the Catholic Church for nineteen centuries on this point which is tied to the Faith.

.Anglican theology and ecclesiology has thus come to be typically expressed in three distinct, yet sometimes overlapping manifestations: Anglo-Catholicism (or "high church"), "Evangelicalism" (or "low church"), and Latitudinarianism (or "broad church"), whose beliefs and practices fall somewhere between the two.^ According to their convictions, such Catholicism represents itself as the Church of the Ecumenical Councils, when unity existed between East and West.

^ The message to the seven Churches in Revelation two and three successively shows the history of the true Church from that time forward.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However it is important to note that the Eucharist as practiced by the Roman Church, since sometime in the second century, appears to have been adopted from practices associated with the sun-god Mithra.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Though all elements within the Anglican Communion recite the same creeds, Evangelical Anglicans regard the word catholic in the ideal sense given above.^ Even regarding our Communion from the most favourable point of view, can we say that she has done very much during the centuries of her separation from the Holy See towards vindicating her Catholicity even in the Anglican sense of the word ?
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He found within the old Catholic communion a freedom to retain unaltered the faith which, up to that year, he had taught within the communion of Rome.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But his sharp dis- tinction between the Catholic and the Roman elements within the Church is really a distinction in dogmatic principles.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.In contrast, Anglo-Catholics regard the communion as a component of the whole Catholic Church, in spiritual and historical union with the Roman Catholic, Old Catholic and several Eastern Churches.^ In the 11th century, the Eastern, Orthodox Church and the Western, Catholic Church split, largely over disagreements regarding papal primacy.
  • Catholic Churches Locations - Locate Catholic Churches Near You with Mapmuse's Catholic Churches Locator 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is made up of one Western church (the Latin Rite) and 22 Eastern Catholic churches, divided into 2,782 jurisdictional areas around the world.
  • Catholic Churches Locations - Locate Catholic Churches Near You with Mapmuse's Catholic Churches Locator 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: Academic]

^ About Catholic Churches From Wikipedia The Roman Catholic Church, officially known as the Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church and represents over half of all Christians and one-sixth of the world's population.
  • Catholic Churches Locations - Locate Catholic Churches Near You with Mapmuse's Catholic Churches Locator 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: Academic]

.Broad Church Anglicans tend to maintain a mediating view, or consider the matter one of adiaphora.^ Not sanctioning the Anglican split from the church, Huss expressed his opposition to papacy in a spirit maintained by Wycliffe.

^ We in LCG, of course, believe that it is only one, the one that considers the Smyrnaeans as their ancestors, that could be the true church today.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Being a conservative in matters of the Church, the new Pope assuming the name Pius IX as head of the secular authority, initially maintained political liberalism.

These Anglicans, for example, have agreed in the Porvoo Agreement to interchangeable ministries and full eucharistic communion with Lutherans.[41][42]
.The Catholic nature or strain of the Anglican tradition is expressed doctrinally, ecumenically (chiefly through organisations such as the Anglican Roman Catholic International Commission), ecclesiologically (through its episcopal governance and maintenance of the historical episcopate), and in liturgy and piety.^ Historical writings that the Roman Catholic Church accepts (such as those from Irenaeus of Lyon , c.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas" (Aquinas) died in 1274 A.D. Hence, the Roman Catholic Church admits that the doctrine of immortality as now understood by the Roman Catholics was a relatively late development.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both the Roman Catholic Church and the Living Church of God believe in hierarchical governance.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

Anglicans (except neo-evangelicals) maintain belief in the Seven Sacraments. .Many Anglo-Catholics practice Marian devotion, recite the rosary and the angelus, practice Eucharistic adoration, and seek the intercession of saints.^ Many Catholic devotions are based solely on private revelations: the Rosary, the Sacred Heart, and the Scapular are cases in point.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The millennium was taught by those the Roman Catholic Church calls saints--though many within it condemn the millennial teaching now.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Devotion to Our Blessed Lady in its ultimate analysis must be regarded as a practical application of the doctrine of the Communion of Saints.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.In terms of liturgy, most Anglicans use candles on the altar and many churches use incense and sanctus bells in the Eucharist, which is often referred to by the Latin-derived word "Mass". In a small number of churches the Eucharist is still celebrated facing the altar (often with a tabernacle) by a priest assisted by a deacon and subdeacon.^ Many writers of the period assert this; some in the most impassioned terms.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They placed it triumphantly on the altar during Mass in a church at Sophia, and left Constantinople.

^ Even though Eastern Orthodox and others consider themselves Catholics, for this article, Roman Catholics are defined as those supporting the Roman Catholic Church (which is why the term "Roman" is used).
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some Anglicans believe in the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist.^ Now, I don't necessarily believe in the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, but you need to understand the doctrine and its context before you condemn it as cannibalism.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is to Dechamps only one truth in all the Gospel affirmed with the same superabundant clearness as Papal Infallibility, and that is the real presence in the Eucharist.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is, in fact, one part of a theological justification for the real presence of Christ in communion, one based on an exact word for word interpretation of Christ's declaration "This is my body".
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

Others do not. .Likewise, different Eucharistic prayers contain different, if not necessarily contradictory, understandings of salvation.^ Now, I don't necessarily believe in the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, but you need to understand the doctrine and its context before you condemn it as cannibalism.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

.For this reason, no single strain or manifestation of Anglicanism can speak for the whole, even in ecumenical statements (as issued, for example, by the Anglican - Roman Catholic International Commission).^ Reasons why a Roman Catholic cannot .
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ LCg does not accept the so-called deuterocanonical books, that even the Roman Catholic Church admits, were not formally accepted until 1546.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even though Eastern Orthodox and others consider themselves Catholics, for this article, Roman Catholics are defined as those supporting the Roman Catholic Church (which is why the term "Roman" is used).
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

[43][44][45] .This "ecumenical inconsistency", to quote ecumenist, Edward Yarnold, is especially true in recent agreements made between parts of the Anglican Communion and different Lutheran churches, where decisions (pertaining to traditions and doctrines dating back to the churches of the first millennium) are entrusted to local and national Anglican church bodies.^ I always figured it was because an infant couldn't make a conscience decision whether to follow Christ, or if the child knew the difference between right and wrong.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On behalf of the whole Eastern church, Patriarch Anthimus VI of Constantinople, answered the Pope that communion between the Churches will be possible only after the obliteration of all the Roman Churchs innovations.

^ The transference of this authority from the entire body to one individual was to them no true development at all, but a dislocation in the Church's original constitution.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[46] .To deal with other inconsistencies, the current archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, has suggested a "two-tier system" in the Communion, putting some bishops on a lower tier than others (for "overturing centuries of Christian understanding of marriage and homosexuality without wider consensus from other Anglicans"), thus over time giving the lower tier bishops a "reduced role in the communion."^ The doctrine that Roman Catholics cannot share in worship with other Christians was finally killed by the Polish Pope John Paul II when in 1982 he went to Canterbury Cathedral with the Anglican Archbishop Runcie of Canterbury ...

^ What I will do is give a great bit of material by an author we can all hopefully agree was a reputable source in the Christian world during his time, and hopefully we can all read what he has to say with an open mind and try to eliminate some of our previously endocrined mindsets.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Every Catholic bishop or pope I have seen praying has done so wearing some type of head covering--and thus they are dishonoring their head (who is supposed to be Christ) by praying that way.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

[47]
The growth of Anglo-Catholicism is strongly associated with the Oxford Movement of the nineteenth century. .Two of its leading lights, John Henry Newman and Henry Edward Manning, both priests, ended up joining the Roman Catholic Church, becoming cardinals.^ Just like their tradition leads them astray, the tradition of the Roman Catholic Church leads astray.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Catholic Church is guilty of the same.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The catholic church they are all priests.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

.Others, like John Keble, Edward Bouverie Pusey, and Charles Gore became influential figures in Anglicanism.^ Private figures, like John Wycliffe in England, John Huss in Bohemia and Savonarola in Italy, all relied on the assistance of the intellectuals and the masses.

.The current Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, is a patron of the Anglican organisation, Affirming Catholicism, a more liberal movement within Catholic Anglicanism.^ The Reformation movement eliminated most of the bishops; the head of the local Catholics was an archbishop, the so-called apostolic vicar in Utrecht.

^ The split is between the more liberal catholics and the conservative catholics.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Catholic Church teaches that they're the "main line", so to speak, and that Protestantism is an offshoot or derivative of that line, whereas in actuality it's more like Protestantism and Roman Catholicism are siblings.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

.Conservative Catholic groups also exist within the tradition, such as Forward in Faith.^ In order to be saved one must assent to all the things which the Catholic Church, based on Scripture and Tradition, has infallibly defined as dogmas of the Faith.

^ He found within the old Catholic communion a freedom to retain unaltered the faith which, up to that year, he had taught within the communion of Rome.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, Pope Pius IX was not teaching that people who are ignorant of the Catholic Faith can be saved; he was, rather, stating that such unbelievers are not damned for the matter of infidelity.

There are about 80 million Anglicans in the world, comprising 3.6% of global Christianity.[48]

Provinces of the Anglican Communion

As in Orthodoxy, all thirty-eight provinces of the Anglican Communion are independent, each with its own primate and governing structure. .These provinces may take the form of national churches (such as in Canada, Uganda, or Japan) or a collection of nations (such as the West Indies, Central Africa, or Southeast Asia).^ According to their convictions, such Catholicism represents itself as the Church of the Ecumenical Councils, when unity existed between East and West.

^ From these principles the relation of the Collective Episcopate, or Ecumenical Council, to the Pope may be readily imagined.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The doctrine, then, of no salvation outside the Church is to be understood in the sense of knowingly outside the Church But, they may object, if such be the sense of the dogma in question, why is the word knowingly not part of the formula, Outside the Church no salvation?

.All are in union with the see of Canterbury.^ Here we see the definition of the Church which is accepted by all theologians : a union of faith and sacraments .

The 38 provinces include:
.In addition, there are six extraprovincial churches, five of which are under the metropolitical authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury.^ Now it is incredible that five or six hundred Bishops will affirm in the face of the world that they have found in the con- victions of their respective Churches that which is not there.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Only under these circumstances can the secular authority serve the church beneficially.

Protestant churches

United States Christian bodies   
.There are Catholic groups among the Protestant churches.^ Leaders in both groups originally considered the so-called deuterocanonical books to be inferior to scripture, but the Roman Catholic Church changed its position later.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He assumed that the English Church was included in the letter addressed to all Protestants ; and accepted the title in the sense of protesting against errors contrary to the Catholic Faith.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Catholic scholars do not seem to understand that the Book of Revelation shows that there would be a succession of churches in different locations.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.For example, The 20th century "High Church Lutheranism" movement developed an Evangelical Catholicity, combining justification by faith with Catholic doctrine on sacraments, in some cases also restoring lacking Apostolic Succession, especially in Germany.^ Church and of the Episcopate was essential to any doctrine which claimed to be part of the Catholic faith.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Controversy arose during the third century about some of Origen's opinions...a synod of Constantinople in 543 condemned nine propositions attributed to him, notably concerning...the final restoration of all...As a result, most of his works in the original Greek were destroyed...While the Church later rejected some of his opinions, there can be no doubt about Origen's intentions to remain faithful to the apostolic tradition (Sullivan F.A. From Apostles to Bishops: The Development of the Episcopacy in the Early Church.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to be saved one must assent to all the things which the Catholic Church, based on Scripture and Tradition, has infallibly defined as dogmas of the Faith.

.In Reformed churches there is a Scoto-Catholic grouping within the Presbyterian Church of Scotland.^ I have also shown that it is only through receiving the Sacrament of Baptism that one is incorporated into the Catholic Church, outside of which there is no salvation.

^ One of these dogmas in the deposit of Faith is that Outside the Catholic Church There is No Salvation.

^ He directly contradicts the solemnly defined dogma that Outside the Catholic Church There is No Salvation.

.Such groups point to their churches' continuing adherence to the "Catholic" doctrine of the early Church Councils.^ According to their convictions, such Catholicism represents itself as the Church of the Ecumenical Councils, when unity existed between East and West.

^ The apostolic faith concerning the Spirit was announced by the second ecumenical council at Constantinople (381) (Catechism of the Catholic Church.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At least 5 dogmatic councils of the Catholic Church issued detailed definitions on Baptism, and not one ever mentioned the concept or the term baptism of blood.

The Articles Declaratory of the Constitution of the Church of Scotland of 1921 defines that church legally as "part of the Holy Catholic or Universal Church".[40]
The Roman Catholic Church views Christians not in communion with the See of Rome as "non-Catholics". It does not consider valid the orders of these Protestant denominations and of the Anglican Communion and, since it sees a valid episcopate and Eucharist as necessary prerequsites for being a church, it does not classify them as churches "in the proper sense".[49][50][51]

Distinctive beliefs and practices

.Due to the divergent interpretations of the word "Catholicism," any listing of beliefs and practices that distinguish Catholicism from other forms of Christianity must be preceded by an indication of the sense employed.^ In other words, only three of the worlds bishops at that time manifested a positive belief in the dogma Outside the Catholic Church There is No salvation as it had been defined .

^ (Pope: Truth, not trend, must guide Christians in dialogue with others.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By it we are qualified to receive the other Sacraments, and the Christian is distinguished from those who do not profess the faith .

.If Catholicism is understood as the Roman Catholic Church understands it, identification of beliefs is relatively easy, though preferred expressions of the beliefs vary, especially between the Latin Church, the Eastern Catholic Churches of Greek tradition, and the other Eastern Catholic Churches.^ This is thus a major difference between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of God.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to their convictions, such Catholicism represents itself as the Church of the Ecumenical Councils, when unity existed between East and West.

^ In order to be saved one must assent to all the things which the Catholic Church, based on Scripture and Tradition, has infallibly defined as dogmas of the Faith.

Liturgical and canonical practices vary between all these particular Churches constituting the Roman and Eastern Catholic Churches (or, as Richard Mc Brien states, the "Communion of Catholic Churches.")[52]
.In the understanding of another Church that identifies Catholicism with itself, such as the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches, clear identification of certain beliefs may sometimes be more difficult, because of the lack of a central authority like that of the Roman and Eastern Catholic Churches.^ However, the Roman Catholic Church itself seems to have a different view: .
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Roman Catholic Church also allows, and sometimes encourages, its members to vote.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is certain, because the Churchs official understanding of the scriptures cannot err.

.On the other hand, practices are more uniform, as indicated, for instance, in the single liturgical rite employed, in various languages, within the Eastern Orthodox Church, in contrast to the variety of liturgical rites in the Roman Catholic Church.^ Hence the Roman Catholic Church has clearly changed from the original practices.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It means "mass of Christ," and has its origins in the practices of the Roman Catholic Church.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even though Eastern Orthodox and others consider themselves Catholics, for this article, Roman Catholics are defined as those supporting the Roman Catholic Church (which is why the term "Roman" is used).
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

.In all these cases the beliefs and practices of Catholicism would be identical with the beliefs and practices of the Church in question.^ De Maistre adopts for his reply the following " Don't ask me; ask the Greek Emperors, who would have these Councils assembled, and who convoked them and demanded the consent of the Popes, and raised all this useless fracas in the Church."
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Milner's view of Catholicism is that if we would know what is of faith, we must ask what is and ever has been the doctrine of the Church.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The bulk of the nation had not thought on the question at all, and harbored no purpose of leaving the Church of Rome.

.If Catholicism is extended to cover all who consider themselves spiritual descendants of the Apostles, a search for beliefs and practices that distinguish it from other forms of Christianity would be meaningless.^ Rather, these beliefs emerged over time as Christians reflected on what the Bible says about Jesus and his mother.” [3] Roman Catholicism claims what we may distinguish as three forms of revelation.

^ Even though Eastern Orthodox and others consider themselves Catholics, for this article, Roman Catholics are defined as those supporting the Roman Catholic Church (which is why the term "Roman" is used).
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The ascension of Jesus has been called a lived parable, He did it to show us that He who has the power to ascend has the power to descend and assume all believers into heaven.

.Only if Catholicism is understood in the sense given to the word by those who use it to distinguish their position from a Calvinistic or Puritan form of Protestantism is it meaningful to attempt to draw up a list of common characteristic beliefs and practices of Catholicism.^ No one can come to me unless the Father who sent me draws him, and I will raise him up at the last day” (John 6:44).

^ He sees that grave difficulties must attend the attempt to distinguish papal utterances which are infallible from those which are not.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But only those who sided with the Pope constituted the Church.
  • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

In this interpretation, evidently by no means shared by all, Catholicism includes the Roman Catholic Church, the various Churches of Eastern Christianity, the Old Catholic Church, Anglicanism, and at least some of the "independent Catholic Churches".
The beliefs and practices of Catholicism, as thus understood, include:
  • Direct and continuous organizational descent from the original church founded by Jesus Matthew 16:18, who, according to tradition, designated the Apostle Peter as its first leader.[53]
  • .
  • Belief that Jesus Christ is Divine, a doctrine officially clarified in the First Council of Nicea and expressed in the Nicene Creed.
  • Belief that the Eucharist is really, truly, and objectively the Body and Blood of Christ, through the Real Presence.^ Jesus Christ is objectively the Son of God.

    ^ It is He, Jesus Christ, who has come through water and blood, not in water only, but in water and blood.

    ^ But was it ever possible to be a Catholic while denying the other doctrine, the Divinity of Jesus Christ?
    • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Many Catholics additionally believe that adoration and worship is due to the Eucharist, as the body and blood of Christ.
  • Possession of the "threefold ordained ministry" of Bishops, Priests and Deacons.
  • All ministers are ordained by, and subject to, Bishops, who pass down sacramental authority by the "laying-on of hands", having themselves been ordained in a direct line of succession from the Apostles (see Apostolic Succession).
  • Belief that the Church is the vessel and deposit of the fullness of the teachings of Jesus and the Apostles from which the Scriptures were formed.^ In a matter of days, he passed the stages of reader, deacon, priest and finally, ordained as bishop.

    ^ At a glance: The Bible teaches that it is God, it is Jesus, who is full of grace.

    ^ I have authority to lay it down and authority to take it up again.

    .This teaching is preserved in both written scripture and in unwritten tradition, neither being independent of the other.
  • A belief in the necessity and efficacy of sacraments.
  • The use of sacred images, candles, vestments and music, and often incense and water, in worship.
  • Veneration of Mary, the mother of Jesus as the Blessed Virgin Mary or Theotokos (i.e., "God-bearer" or "Mother of God"), and veneration of the saints.
  • A distinction between adoration (latria) for God, and veneration (dulia) for saints.^ Scripture may be silent, and tradition contradictory, but the Church is independent of both.
    • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Mary is the mother of Jesus and Jesus is God, however, Mary is neither the mother of the Holy Spirit nor the mother of the Father.

    ^ This is the incontrovertible teaching of Tradition and Scripture.

    The term hyperdulia is used for a special veneration accorded to the Virgin Mary among the saints.
  • The use of prayer for the dead.
  • The acceptance of canonizations.
  • Requests to the departed saints for intercessory prayers.

Sacraments or Sacred Mysteries

.Churches in the Catholic tradition administer seven sacraments or "sacred mysteries": Baptism, Confirmation or Chrismation, Eucharist, Penance, Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders, and Matrimony.^ "Signum sacro sanctum efficax gratiae" -- a sacrosanct sign producing grace, is a good, succinct definition of a sacrament of the New Law...The Council of Trent solemnly defined that there are seven sacraments of the New Law, truly and properly so called, viz., Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Orders, and Matrimony.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I acknowledge that the seven sacraments are: Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Penance, Extreme Unction, Holy Orders, and Matrimony; and that they confer grace; and that of the seven, Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders cannot be repeated without committing a sacrilege.

^ I also accept and acknowledge the customary and approved rites of the Catholic Church in the solemn administration of these sacraments.

.In some Catholic churches this number is regarded as a convention only.^ Both the Roman Catholic Church and LCG teach that they are the original and true Church, but because of their many differences, only one still could be.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

^ According to this, its not only possible to be saved outside the Church (which is a direct denial of the dogma), but its actually possible to be, for all intents and purposes, a member of the Catholic Church while still outside of Her!

^ I have also shown that it is only through receiving the Sacrament of Baptism that one is incorporated into the Catholic Church, outside of which there is no salvation.

.In Catholicism, a sacrament is considered to be an efficacious visible sign of God's invisible grace.^ Therefore, if Trent defines that the efficient cause of Justification is God who signs , this means that the efficient cause of Justification is God who signs us in the Sacrament of Baptism.

^ They clearly saw this as a sign that God had preserved the lives of these people until they were able to receive that most necessary sacrament.

^ And one cannot have the effect ( Justification ) without the cause ( God signing in the Sacrament of Baptism ).

.While the word mystery is used not only of these rites, but also with other meanings with reference to revelations of and about God and to God's mystical interaction with creation, the word sacrament (Latin: a solemn pledge), the usual term in the West, refers specifically to these rites.^ This is the only legitimate use of the term.

^ I also accept and acknowledge the customary and approved rites of the Catholic Church in the solemn administration of these sacraments.

^ Paul and the word of God are clearly teaching what the Catholic Church has held for 2000 years: that it is by means of the Sacrament of Baptism that one receives faith .

.
  • Baptism - the first sacrament of Christian initiation, the basis for all the other sacraments.^ There are a number of other objections that are raised against the true meaning of the dogma Outside the Church There is No Salvation and the necessity of receiving the Sacrament of Baptism for salvation.

    ^ That anyone else besides unbaptized catechumens could qualify for salvation without first receiving the Sacrament of Baptism was not even considered a possibility worth refuting in this context .

    ^ The Sacrament of Baptism is also necessary for all for salvation because it is the means by which one is marked as a member of Jesus Christ and incorporated into His Mystical Body.

    .Churches in the Catholic tradition consider baptism conferred in most Christian denominations "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" (cf.^ Baptism and Conditional Baptism : The form of baptism is: I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.

    ^ Note: History concerning Apollonius is not totally clear, but indications are that he was most likely in the true church (the 210 date came from The Catholic Encyclopedia ).
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In order to be saved one must assent to all the things which the Catholic Church, based on Scripture and Tradition, has infallibly defined as dogmas of the Faith.

    Matthew 28:19) to be valid, since the effect is produced through the sacrament, independently of the faith of the minister, though not of the minister's intention. .This is not necessarily the case in other churches.^ In this case the Catholic Church is doomed to fall, and then other forms of religion will be constituted, which we need not now discuss.
    • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Antoninus (1459) : "In the case in which the pope would become a heretic, he would find himself, by that fact alone and without any other sentence, separated from the Church.

    .As stated in the Nicene Creed, Baptism is "for the forgiveness of sins", not only personal sins, but also of original sin, which it remits even in infants who have committed no actual sins.^ There is a heaven, i.e., God will bestow happiness and the richest gifts on all those who depart this life free from original sin and personal mortal sin, and who are, consequently, in the state of justice and friendship with God (Hontheim, Joseph.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For sins committed after the initial redemption, a person has to bring satisfaction (satisfactio) himself through good deeds.

    ^ Many Roman Catholic writers have not only maintained that during the Age of the Fathers no case occurs of its exercise ; but that the principles advocated demonstrate that it was not even recognised as a theory, since by those very principles it is actually excluded.
    • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Expressed positively, forgiveness of sins means bestowal of the sanctifying grace by which the baptized person shares the life of God.^ God does not forgive sins except to the baptized .

    ^ There is a heaven, i.e., God will bestow happiness and the richest gifts on all those who depart this life free from original sin and personal mortal sin, and who are, consequently, in the state of justice and friendship with God (Hontheim, Joseph.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But the baptism of desire theory is that some persons can have a true justice (sanctifying grace) that is none of the above three!

    .The initiate "puts on Christ" (Galatians 3:27), and is "buried with him in baptism ...^ That Baptism took place by immersion is evidenced by Paul's presenting it as "being buried with Christ [Rom.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Jesus Christ is applied to adults as well as to infants by the sacrament of baptism let him be anathema.

    ^ Pope Pius XII, Mystici Corporis (# 27), June 29, 1943: He (Christ) also determined that through Baptism (cf.

    also raised with him through faith in the working of .God" (Colossians 2:12).
  • Confirmation or Chrismation - the second sacrament of Christian initiation, the means by which the gift of the Holy Spirit conferred in baptism is "strengthened and deepened" (see, for example, Catechism of the Catholic Church, §1303) by a sealing.^ Moreover, the Catechism also teaches that Christians are distinguished from non-Christians by the Sacrament of Baptism.

    ^ Their pretensions have been disastrous to the Catholic Church, and particularly so to the Holy See.
    • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The we shall see God "face to face" (Catechism of the Catholic Church.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    .In the Western tradition it is usually a separate rite from baptism, bestowed, following a period of education called catechesis, on those who have at least reached the age of discretion (about 7)[54] and sometimes postponed until an age when the person is considered capable of making a mature independent profession of faith.^ And at Rome for this reason those who have been baptized are called the faithful (fideles).

    ^ Now indeed, Elizabeth your relative has also conceived a son in her old age; and this is now the sixth month for her who was called barren.

    ^ Those who misunderstand or stray from the straightforward and totally simple truth (defined in the Canons on the Sacrament of Baptism) are the ones who make it complicated and burdensome to refute their errors and/or perversions of the truth.

    .It is considered to be of a nature distinct from the anointing with chrism (also called myrrh) that is usually part of the rite of baptism and that is not seen as a separate sacrament.^ That anyone else besides unbaptized catechumens could qualify for salvation without first receiving the Sacrament of Baptism was not even considered a possibility worth refuting in this context .

    ^ That is why the Sacrament of Baptism has been called since apostolic times, the Sacrament of Faith, as touched upon already in the section on The One Church of the Faithful.

    ^ Sacraments Actually refutes baptism of desire as can be seen when it is compared with similar dogmatic canons - page 139 .

    .In the Eastern tradition it is usually conferred in conjunction with baptism, as its completion, but is sometimes administered separately to converts or those who return to Orthodoxy.^ But he vigorously attacks those who hold to the absolute necessity of water baptism, and explicitly says that pagans and idolaters can be saved.

    ^ Historically, pneumatomachians were those who did not accept that the Holy Spirit was a separate person--this is something that those in LCG would agree with.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Therefore, in this chapter, Trent is dealing with those above the age of reason who have committed actual sins, and for such persons the desire for baptism is necessary for Justification .

    .Some theologies consider this to be the outward sign of the inner "Baptism of the Holy Spirit," the special gifts (or charismata) of which may remain latent or become manifest over time according to God's will.^ But it is a fact, which may surprise some, that St. Robert Bellarmine did not remain consistent with his definition of the Church above.

    ^ But when he says that the Holy Spirit is second in dignity to the Son he ceases to remain consistent with this Tradition and falls into error (material heresy, in fact).

    ^ They shall become the GOD FAMILY as it shall exist at the time of Christ's Second Coming.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Its "originating" minister is a validly consecrated bishop; if a priest (a "presbyter") confers the sacrament (as is permitted in some Catholic churches) the link with the higher order is indicated by the use of chrism blessed by a bishop.^ I also accept and acknowledge the customary and approved rites of the Catholic Church in the solemn administration of these sacraments.

    ^ Paul and the word of God are clearly teaching what the Catholic Church has held for 2000 years: that it is by means of the Sacrament of Baptism that one receives faith .

    ^ Every Catholic bishop or pope I have seen praying has done so wearing some type of head covering--and thus they are dishonoring their head (who is supposed to be Christ) by praying that way.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    .(In an Eastern Orthodox Church, this is customarily, although not necessarily, done by the primate of the local autocephalous church.^ In the 11th century, the Eastern, Orthodox Church and the Western, Catholic Church split, largely over disagreements regarding papal primacy.
    • Catholic Churches Locations - Locate Catholic Churches Near You with Mapmuse's Catholic Churches Locator 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Even though Eastern Orthodox and others consider themselves Catholics, for this article, Roman Catholics are defined as those supporting the Roman Catholic Church (which is why the term "Roman" is used).
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Eastern schismatic sects (such as the Orthodox) and the Protestant sects are breakoff movements that have separated from the Catholic Church.

    )
  • .
  • Eucharist - the sacrament (the third of Christian initiation) by which the faithful receive their ultimate "daily bread," or "bread for the journey," by partaking of and in the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ and being participants in Christ's one eternal sacrifice.^ For you are all one in Christ Jesus.

    ^ There were current in the early days of Christianity other terms...With the name "Love Feast" ( agape ) the idea of the sacrifice of the Mass was not necessarily connected...the Church intends the Mass to be regarded as a "true and proper sacrifice", and will not tolerate the idea that the sacrifice is identical with Holy Communion...The simple fact that numerous heretics...repudiated the Mass as "idolatry", while retaining the Sacrament of the true Body and Blood of Christ, proves that the Sacrament of the Eucharist is something essentially different from the Sacrifice of the Mass.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The quintessence of these doctrinal decisions consists in this, that in the Eucharist the Body and Blood of the God-man are truly, really, and substantially present for the nourishment of our souls, by reason of the transubstantiation of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ, and that in this change of substances the unbloody Sacrifice of the New Testament is also contained (Eucharist) .
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The bread and wine used in the rite are, according to Catholic faith, in the mystical action of the Holy Spirit, transformed to be Christ's Body and Blood—his Real Presence.^ I likewise profess that in Mass a true, proper, and propitiatory sacrifice is offered to God on behalf of the living and the dead, and that the Body and Blood together with the Soul and Divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ is truly, really, and substantially present in the most holy Sacrament of the Eucharist, and that there is a change of the whole substance of the bread into the Body, and of the whole substance of the wine into the Blood; and this change the Catholic Church calls transubstantiation.

    ^ The apostolic faith concerning the Spirit was announced by the second ecumenical council at Constantinople (381) (Catechism of the Catholic Church.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Sacrament of Baptism is also necessary for all for salvation because it is the means by which one is marked as a member of Jesus Christ and incorporated into His Mystical Body.

    .This transformation is interpreted by some as transubstantiation or metousiosis, by others as consubstantiation or Sacramental Union.
  • Penance (also called Confession and Reconciliation) - the first of the two sacraments of healing.^ The first two definitions are simply dealing with the necessity of the sacraments for salvation , whereas the third (Sess.

    ^ In Padua, in Bologna, in Lucca, in Modena, in Rome,4 and in other cities of classic fame, some of the first families had embraced the Gospel.

    ^ To further prove this point, lets look at two other dogmatic definitions (one from Trent and one from Vatican I) which deal with the sacraments in general and salvation.

    It is also called the sacrament of conversion, of forgiveness, and of absolution. .It is the sacrament of spiritual healing of a baptized person from the distancing from God involved in actual sins committed.^ For sins committed after the initial redemption, a person has to bring satisfaction (satisfactio) himself through good deeds.

    ^ Therefore, in this chapter, Trent is dealing with those above the age of reason who have committed actual sins, and for such persons the desire for baptism is necessary for Justification .

    ^ Mysticism, asserted that a person can get to know God and all the revealed teachings, not through dialectical proof, but by spiritual elevation toward God in the form of direct contemplation.

    .It involves the penitent's contrition for sin (without which the rite does not have its effect), confession (which in highly exceptional circumstances can take the form of a corporate general confession) to a minister who has the faculty to exercise the power to absolve the penitent,[55] and absolution by the minister.^ But if anybody does sin, we have one who speaks to the Father in our defense-Jesus Christ, the Righteous One” (1st John 2:1).

    ^ Let them cease contradicting the Athanasian Creed and let them confess that knowledge of these mysteries is absolutely necessary for the salvation of all who wish to be saved.

    ^ Michael Du Bays propositions above are condemned because they assert that perfect charity can be in catechumens and penitents without the remission of sins .

    .In some traditions (such as the Roman Catholic), the rite involves a fourth element — satisfaction — which is defined as signs of repentance imposed by the minister.^ In order to be saved one must assent to all the things which the Catholic Church, based on Scripture and Tradition, has infallibly defined as dogmas of the Faith.

    ^ Even though Eastern Orthodox and others consider themselves Catholics, for this article, Roman Catholics are defined as those supporting the Roman Catholic Church (which is why the term "Roman" is used).
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is once again astounding to note that the Roman Catholics claim to have held on to a version of the COG doctrine (which they sometimes call apokatastasis) until the late fourth century!
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    .In early Christian centuries, the fourth element was quite onerous and generally preceded absolution, but now it usually involves a simple task (in some traditions called a "penance") for the penitent to perform, to make some reparation and as a medicinal means of strengthening against further sinning.
  • Anointing of the Sick (or Unction) - the second sacrament of healing.^ In the early second century, Polycarp wrote: .
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thus, what is considered to be traditional Christianity developed in the third and fourth centuries, NOT in the early second century.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ ALTHOUGH CATHOLIC TRADITION, BEGINNING IN the late second and early third centuries, regards St. Peter as the first bishop of Rome and, therefore, as the first pope, there is no evidence that Peter was involved in the initial establishment of the Christian community in Rome (indeed, what evidence there is would seem to point in the opposite direction) or that he served as Rome's first bishop.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    .In it those who are suffering an illness are anointed by a priest with oil consecrated by a bishop specifically for that purpose.^ As the Bishops who are my guides have accepted the decrees, so have I. They are a law to me as much as those at Trent, not from any private interpretation, but from the authority from which they come.
    • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ About the time of this man, bishops, priests, and deacons, who had been twice married, and thrice married, began to be allowed to retain their place among the clergy (Hippolytus.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So, dont be fooled by the heretical priests and bishops who pretend to give an entire course on Fr.

    In past centuries, when such a restrictive interpretation was customary, the sacrament came to be known as "Extreme Unction", i.e. "Final Anointing", as it still is among traditionalist Catholics. .It was then conferred only as one of the "Last Rites". The other "Last Rites" are Penance (if the dying person is physically unable to confess, at least absolution, conditional on the existence of contrition, is given), and the Eucharist, which, when administered to the dying, is known as "Viaticum", a word whose original meaning in Latin was "provision for a journey".
  • The Sacrament of Holy Orders - that which integrates someone into the Holy Orders of bishops, priests (presbyters), and deacons, the threefold order of "administrators of the mysteries of God" (1 Corinthians 4:1), giving the person the mission to teach, sanctify, and govern.^ Only the last had died a natural death.
    • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There is only one answer that can be given.
    • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is made up of one Western church (the Latin Rite) and 22 Eastern Catholic churches, divided into 2,782 jurisdictional areas around the world.
    • Catholic Churches Locations - Locate Catholic Churches Near You with Mapmuse's Catholic Churches Locator 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC find.mapmuse.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Only a bishop may administer this sacrament, as only a bishop holds the fullness of the Apostolic Ministry.^ In St, Thomas' time (III:82:3), the deacons were allowed to administer only the Chalice to the laity, and in case of necessity the Sacred Host also, at the bidding of the bishop or priest.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It may be of interest to note that Tertullian claimed that only two churches, the Roman one and the Smyrnaean one, could truly have any apostolic claim.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Of course, it has been defined that, in such a case, he was no priest, since the sacrament of orders may only be conferred validly upon the baptized.

    .Ordination as a bishop makes one a member of the body that has succeeded to that of the Apostles.^ The Sacrament of Baptism is also necessary for all for salvation because it is the means by which one is marked as a member of Jesus Christ and incorporated into His Mystical Body.

    ^ This means that if hope and charity are added to faith, faith does unite one perfectly with Christ and make him a living member of Christs body.

    ^ Here we see this edition of the Baltimore Catechism teaching that: 1) Baptism of desire doesnt make one a member of the Church; 2) Baptism of desire does make one a member of the Church in desire; 3) there is salvation outside the Church by baptism of desire and blood.

    .Ordination as a priest configures a person to Christ the Head of the Church and the one essential Priest, empowering that person, as the bishops' assistant and vicar, to preside at the celebration of divine worship, and in particular to confect the sacrament of the Eucharist, acting "in persona Christi" (in the person of Christ).^ One is the body of the Church , whose head is Christ, and all cohere in it .

    ^ If there was one Person in Christ, then there must be one will, and that will manifestly divine.
    • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Every community had to have a priest, and for their ordination, a bishop was essential.

    .Ordination as a deacon configures the person to Christ the Servant of All, placing the deacon at the service of the Church, especially in the fields of the ministry of the Word, service in divine worship, pastoral guidance and charity.^ Therefore, every person who is justified, since they all have faith, hope and charity, is made a living member ( vivum membrum ) of the Church.

    ^ Holy baptism, which is the gateway to the spiritual life, holds the first place among all the sacraments; through it we are made members of Christ and of the body of the Church .

    ^ Senior place-kicker B.J. Wanninger hit all three of his field-goal attempts to earn OAC special teams player of the week honors.
    • Otterbein College Football 9 February 2010 13:16 UTC www.otterbein.edu [Source type: General]

    .Deacons may later be further ordained to the priesthood, but only if they do not have a wife.^ Now this is life everlasting, that they may know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ , whom thou hast sent.

    ^ John 17:3: Now this is life everlasting, that they may know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ , whom thou hast sent.

    ^ For, even though they may be disposed toward (or ordained toward) the mystic Body of the Redeemer, by a certain unknowing desire and resolution .

    .In some traditions (such as those of the Roman Catholic Church), while married men may be ordained, ordained men may not marry.^ But it is a fact, which may surprise some, that St. Robert Bellarmine did not remain consistent with his definition of the Church above.

    ^ I assert that those who are in point of fact outside the Catholic Church can achieve salvation, then I am doing the exact same thing as if I were to declare that the Virgin Mary was conceived in some sin, when the Church said she had no sin.

    ^ Some adherents of the Society of St. Pius X have tried to defend these heretical words of Archbishop Lefebvre by pointing out that, although he did say that men can be saved in other religions, he emphasized that it is by the Catholic Church.

    In others (such as the Anglican), clerical marriage is permitted, as is the ordination of women.[56] Moreover, some sectors of Anglicanism "in isolation of the whole" have approved the ordination of openly active homosexuals to the priesthood and episcopacy, in spite of the support that Rowan Williams, the Archbishop of Canterbury, voiced for the Anglican Church's teaching on homosexuality, which he said the Church "could not change simply because of a shift in society's attitude", noting also that those churches blessing same-sex unions and consecrating openingly gay bishops would not be able "to take part as a whole in ecumenical and interfaith dialogue." Thus in ecumenical matters, only if the Roman Catholic as well as Orthodox churches come to an understanding with first tier or primary bishops of the Anglican Communion can those churches (representing 95% of global Catholicism) implement an agreement with second tier or secondary Anglican bishops and their respective Anglican communities.[57][58][59][60]
  • .
  • Marriage (or Holy Matrimony) - is the sacrament of joining a man and a woman (according to the churches' doctrines) for mutual help and love (the unitive purpose), consecrating them for their particular mission of building up the Church and the world, and providing grace for accomplishing that mission.^ Foreword, ex cathedra : For the completion of the salutary doctrine of Justification it has seemed fitting to treat of the most holy sacraments of the Church, through which all true justice either begins, or being begun is increased or being lost is restored .

    ^ In like manner I accept Sacred Scripture according to the meaning which has been held by holy Mother Church and which she now holds.

    ^ And on the testimony of Jesus Christ—the only one who can speak with authority on the subject of life after death —no man (or woman) has gone up to heaven.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    Western tradition sees the sacrament as conferred by the canonically expressed mutual consent of the partners in marriage; Eastern and some recent Western theologians not in communion with the see of Rome view the blessing by a priest as constituting the sacramental action.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b McBrien, Richard P. (1994). Catholicism. HarperCollins. pp. 3–19. ISBN 9780060654054. 
  2. ^ For McBrien, the "broad term" refers exclusively and specifically to that "Communion of Catholic Churches" in communion with the Bishop of Rome. Richard McBrien, The Church: The Evolution of Catholicism (New York: HarperOne, 2008), 6, 281-2, and 356. In its Letter on Some Aspects of the Church Understood as Communion the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith stressed that the idea of the universal Church as a communion of Churches must not be presented as meaning that "every particular Church is a subject complete in itself, and that the universal Church is the result of a reciprocal recognition on the part of the particular Churches". It insisted that "the universal Church cannot be conceived as the sum of the particular Churches, or as a federation of particular Churches".
  3. ^ a b Pierre Whalon, What is the difference between Anglicanism and Roman Catholicism
  4. ^ Parsons, Evelyn C. (2007). It Makes a Difference Being a Catholic. AuthorHouse. p. 40. ISBN 9781434314772. 
  5. ^ The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3), article Catholic, p. 308
  6. ^ Connor, Charles Patrick (2001). Classic Catholic Converts. Ignatius Press. ISBN 9780898707878. 
  7. ^ Timothy Ware,The Orthodox Church (Oxford: Penguin Books, 1993), 214-217.
  8. ^ In his book, Catholicism, he notes (on page 19) that his book was "written in the midst of yet another major crisis in the history of the Roman Catholic Church...." Never once does he indicate in his book that Catholicism refers to churches not in communion with the See of Rome. McBrien, 19-20.
  9. ^ "Chapter VIII.—Let nothing be done without the bishop". Christian Classics Ethereal Library. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/anf01.v.vii.viii.html. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  10. ^ Angle, Paul T. (2007). The Mysterious Origins of Christianity. Wheatmark, Inc.. ISBN 9781587368219. 
  11. ^ [J.H. Srawley, The Epistles of St. Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, vol. II,] pp. 41-42
  12. ^ another edition, p.97
  13. ^ Knight, Kevin. "Catechetical Lecture 18 - #26". New Advent. http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/310118.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  14. ^ "Chapter 5.—Against the Title of the Epistle of Manichæus". Christian Classics Ethereal Library. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf104.iv.viii.vi.html?. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  15. ^ Bettenson, Henry (1967). Documents of the Christian Church. Oxford University Press US. p. 22. ISBN 9780195012934. http://books.google.com/books?id=k9L2UaDJLGkC&pg=PP1&dq=. 
  16. ^ This Church is commonly referred to by this name even by others (see for instance Cultural Portraits: A Synoptic Guide, by Byron P. Palls (AuthorHouse, 2008 ISBN 1434388670) and even by those who are hostile to it mention that it is "commonly called the Catholic Church" (A discourse on the worship of Priapus, and its connection with the mystic theology of the ancients).
  17. ^ Porvaznik, Phil. "Papal Authority and the Primacy of Rome". Evangelical Catholic Apologetics. http://www.bringyou.to/apologetics/num12.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  18. ^ "Dogmatic Constitution on the Church - Chapter 1: The Mystery of the Church". The Vatican. 1964-11-21. http://www.vatican.va/archive/hist_councils/ii_vatican_council/documents/vat-ii_const_19641121_lumen-gentium_en.html. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  19. ^ John Allen, "the 'Patriarch of the West' retires," The National Catholic Reporter April 7, 2006, 21.
  20. ^ Joseph Ratzinger, "Sister Churches," The Tablet 9 September, 2000, 1205.
  21. ^ "Apostles' Creed". The Lutheran Church--Missouri Synod. http://www.lcms.org/pages/internal.asp?NavID=3355. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  22. ^ "Nicene Creed". Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. http://www.wels.net/cgi-bin/site.pl?2617&collectionID=711&contentID=4334&shortcutID=2077#nicene. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  23. ^ "Texts of the Three Chief Symbols are taken from the Book of Concord, Tappert edition". The International Lutheran Fellowship. http://www.ilflutheran.org/page11.html. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  24. ^ Radeck, Francisco; Dominic Radecki (2004). Tumultuous Times. St. Joseph's Media. p. 79. ISBN 9780971506107. 
  25. ^ "The Hierarchical Constitution of the Church - 880-881". The Vatican. http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/_P2A.HTM#RC. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  26. ^ McBrien, The Church, 356. McBrien also says they form the "Communion of Catholic Churches", a name not used by the Church itself, which has pointed out the ambiguity of this term in a 1992 letter from the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith "on some aspects of the Church understood as communion", 8.
  27. ^ a b "The Catholic Church is also called the Roman Church to emphasize that the centre of unity, which is an essential for the Universal Church, is in the Roman See" (Thomas J. O'Brien, An Advanced Catechism of Catholic Faith and Practice, Kessinger Publishers, 2005, ISBN 1417984473, page 70)
  28. ^ "Number of Catholics and Priests Rises". Zenit News Agency. 12 February 2007. http://www.zenit.org/article-18894?l=english. Retrieved 21 February 2008. 
  29. ^ "CIA World Factbook". United States Government Central Intelligence Agency. 2008. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx.html#People. Retrieved 22 December 2008. 
  30. ^ Richard McBrien, The Church: The Evolution of Catholicism, 6. ISBN 978-0-06-124521-3 McBrien says this: Vatican II "council implicitly set aside the category of membership and replaced it with degrees." "...it is not a matter of either/or—either one is in communion with the Bishop of Rome, or one is not. As in a family, there are degrees of relationships: parents, siblings, aunts, uncles, cousins, nephews, neices, in-laws. In many cultures, the notion of family is broader than blood and legal relationships."
  31. ^ Orientalium Ecclesiarum, 2
  32. ^ Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 43
  33. ^ Annuario Pontificio, 2007 edition, pages 1169–1170 (ISBN 978-88-209-7908-9).
  34. ^ Orientalium Ecclesiarum, 3
  35. ^ Thomas P. Rausch, S.J., Catholicism in the Third Millennium (Collegeville: The Liturgical Press), xii.
  36. ^ For example, in his encyclical Humani Generis, 27-28 Pope Pius XII decried the error of those who denied that they were bound by "the doctrine, explained in Our Encyclical Letter of a few years ago, and based on the Sources of Revelation, which teaches that the Mystical Body of Christ and the Roman Catholic Church are one and the same thing"; and in his Divini Illius Magistri Pope Pius XI wrote: "In the City of God, the Holy Roman Catholic Church, a good citizen and an upright man are absolutely one and the same thing." On other occasions too, both when signing agreements with other Churches (e.g. that with Patriarch Mar Ignatius Yacoub III of the Syrian Orthodox Church) and in giving talks to various groups (e.g. Benedict XVI in Warsaw, the Popes refer to the Church that they head as the Roman Catholic Church.
  37. ^ Richard McBrien, The Church, 6.
  38. ^ McBrien, The Church, 351-371
  39. ^ Simon Scott Plummer, "China's Growing Faiths" in The Tablet, March, 2007. Based on a review of Religious Experience in Contemporary China by Kinzhong Yao and Paul Badham (University of Wales Press).
  40. ^ a b Fahlbusch, Erwin; Geoffrey William Bromiley (2005). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. David B. Barrett. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 269,494. ISBN 9780802824165. 
  41. ^ Anglican-Lutheran agreement signed," The Christian Century 13 November, 1996, 1005.
  42. ^ "Two Churches Now Share a Cleric," New York Times, 20 October, 1996, 24.
  43. ^ Rowan A. Greer," "Anglicanism as an ongoing argument," The Witness May, 1998, 23.
  44. ^ Matt Cresswell, "Anglican conservatives say 'second reformation' is already under way," The Tablet 28 June, 2008, 32.
  45. ^ Philip Jenkins, "Defender of the Faith," The Atlantic Monthly November, 2003, 46-9.
  46. ^ Edward Yarnold, S.J., "A word in due season", The Tablet 18, July 1998, 935-6. Yarnold, a Jesuit ecumenist and former member of the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission, says this: "The recent agreements made between parts of the Anglican Communion and different Lutheran Churches are a case in point [of this inconsistency] -- in Germany (Meissen), in northern Europe (Provoo), and in the United States (though the Lutherans failed to ratify this third scheme). Each of these documents involves not only the mutual participation of Anglican and Lutheran bishops in future ordinations, but in the interim recognizes orders as they stand, even though there was an acknowledged breach in the episcopal succession. Yet when Anglicans are talking to Catholics, a different principle is accepted: both the Final Report of the first Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission (ARCIC) and the Clarifications to that report affirm the need for ordination to take place within an unbroken episcopal succession. I am glad to acknowledge that the drafters of Porvoo made an effort not to contradict ARCIC, but although I have looked again and again, I cannot see that they were successful. The problem once again illustrates the impossibility of deciding which voice speaks for the Anglican Communion."
  47. ^ Daniel Burke, "Williams suggests secondary role for rebel Episcopal church", National Catholic Reporter 7 August, 2009, 6.
  48. ^ David Barrett, "Christian World Communities: Five Overviews of Global Christianity, AD 1800-2025," in International Bulletin of Missionary Research January, 2009, Vol. 33, No 1, pp. 31.
  49. ^ Fowler, Jeaneane D. (1997). World Religions. Sussex Academic Press. p. 82. ISBN 9781898723486. 
  50. ^ "The ecclesial communities which have not preserved the valid Episcopate and the genuine and integral substance of the Eucharistic mystery are not Churches in the proper sense; however, those who are baptized in these communities are, by Baptism, incorporated in Christ and thus are in a certain communion, albeit imperfect, with the Church" (Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Declaration Dominus Iesus, 17
  51. ^ "(The expression sister Churches) has been applied improperly by some to the relationship between the Catholic Church on the one hand, and the Anglican Communion and non-catholic ecclesial communities on the other. ... it must also be borne in mind that the expression sister Churches in the proper sense, as attested by the common Tradition of East and West, may only be used for those ecclesial communities that have preserved a valid episcopate and Eucharist" (Note on the expression "sister Churches" issued by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith on 30 June 2000).
  52. ^ Mc Brien, The Church, 6.
  53. ^ "And I tell you, you are Peter [Πετρός, meaning "rock"], and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not prevail against it." (Mt 16:18)
  54. ^ Code of Canon Law, canon 891
  55. ^ "Chapter II : The Minister of the Sacrament of Penance". IntraText. http://www.intratext.com/IXT/ENG0017/_P3F.HTM. Retrieved 2008-11-21. 
  56. ^ In regard to the ordination of women to the episcopacy, one cannot underestimate the chasm that is currently developing between the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental and Roman Catholic Chuches, on the one hand, and the Lutheran, Anglican and Independent Catholic Churches, on the other hand. Cardinal Walter Kasper, President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, for example, noted this when he addressed some Anglican bishops in 2006. Quoting St Cyprian of Carthage (d. 258), he said the episcopate is one, which means that "each part of it is held by each one for the whole"; that bishops were instruments of unity not only within the contemporary Church, but also across time, within the universal Church. This being the case, he continued, "the decision for the ordination of women to the Episcopal office ... must not in any way involve a conflict between the majority and the minority." Such a decision should be made "with the consensus of the ancient Churches of the East and West." To do otherwise "would spell the end" to any kind of unity. James Roberts, "Women bishops 'would spell the end of unity hopes'" in The Tablet, 10 June 2006, 34.
  57. ^ "Rowan Williams predicts schism over homosexuality" (The Tablet 1 August 2009, 33).
  58. ^ The Russian Orthodox Church, which because of the episcopal ordination of Gene Robinson severed its dialogue with the United States Episcopal Church, while declaring itself open to "contacts and cooperation with those American Episcopalians who remain faithful to the gospel’s moral teaching", stated that it was willing to restore relations with those Episcopal dioceses that refused to recognize the election of Katharine Jefferts Schori as their Church's presiding bishop (Letter of Metropolitan Kirill of Smolensk and Kaliningrad).
  59. ^ Stan Chu Ilo, "An African view on ordaining Gene Robinson," The National Catholic Reporter, 12 December, 2003, 26.
  60. ^ Matthew Moore, "Archbishop of Canterbury foresees a 'two-tier' church to avoid gay schism," The Telegraph.co.uk, 27 July, 2009.

Further reading

.
  • Without Roots: The West, Relativism, Christianity, Islam by Pope Benedict XVI, formerly Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (Basic Books, 0465006345, 2006).
  • Catechism of the Catholic Church English translation (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2000).^ According to a document produced in 2000 by then-Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (now Pope Benedict XVI), salvation comes through grace.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Notice what the Catechism of the Catholic Church teaches: .
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Pope Benedict XVI taught: .
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    .ISBN 1-57455-110-8
  • H. W. Crocker III, Triumph—The Power and the Glory of the Catholic Church: A 2,000-Year History (Prima Publishing, 2001).^ He had studied the history of the Church for thirty years ; but nothing could be found for Papal Infallibility in the ancient Church.
    • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He considers that the true remedy is not to extend the papal power, but to exercise more faith in the Holy Spirit and the Catholic Church.
    • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On March 20, 2001 at St. Joseph on the Rio Grande Roman Catholic Church, Alb., NM. [3] See Henry Halley, Halley’s Bible Handbook (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1965), p.

    ISBN 0-7615-2924-1
  • Leo J. Trese, The Faith Explained Third Edition (Fides/Claretian, 2001). .ISBN 1-889334-29-4
  • Eamon Duffy, Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes (Yale Nota Bene, 2002).^ Saints & Sinners: A History of the Popes, 2nd ed.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Laisney, not a single saint or pope in the history of the Church denied the existence of baptism of desire!

    ^ Saints & Sinners: A History of the Popes.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0-300-09165-6
  • K. O. Johnson, Why Do Catholics Do That? (Ballantine, 1994). .ISBN 0-345-39726-6
  • Ludwig von Pastor, History of the Popes from the Close of the Middle Ages; Drawn from the Secret Archives of the Vatican and other original sources, 40 vols.^ It is not to be expected that the Constitution Pastor Eternus will be revoked by a future Pope, or the fourth session of the Vatican Council pronounced invalid.
    • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Archbishop F6nelon's opinion, which Gosselin quotes and accepts, was that the deposition of princes by the Pope in the Middle Ages was based in the belief that none but Catholics could rule over Catholic nations.
    • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In January 1870 the crisis became acute when Manning and other members of the Vatican Council presented the Pope with an Address, urging him to declare his own Infallibility.
    • Roman Catholic Opposition to Papal Infallibility - Wikisource 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    St. Louis, B.Herder 1898
  • Basic Catechism Seventh Revised Edition (Pauline Books & Media, 1999). .ISBN 0-8198-0623-4
  • Peter Lynch, The Church's Story: A History of Pastoral Care and Vision (Pauline Books & Media, 2005).^ The Church has ever seen in the occupant of the See of Rome the successor of Peter in the supreme pastorate (Joyce G.H. Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In his book Church History , Father John Laux, M. A., writes: .

    ^ Church History, Book V, Chapter 24.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ISBN 0-8198-1575-6

External links


Study guide

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(Redirected to Topic:Roman Catholic studies article)

From Wikiversity

Welcome to the Department of Roman Catholic Studies!
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.Feel free to add your name to the list if you like.^ Do not be like them , for your Father knows what you need before you ask him” (Matthew 6:7-8).

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^ Justin tells me that you have a test to study for, so feel no obligation to respond to this tonight, or any time before your test.
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Learning Projects

See: Learning Projects and the Wikiversity:Learning model.
Learning materials and learning projects are located in the main Wikiversity namespace. .Simply make a link to the name of the learning project (learning projects are independent pages in the main namespace) and start writing!^ The term universal or "Catholic" was not in the Bible or shown in early writings to be the name of the true Church, simply a description of one aspect of it.
  • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

We suggest the use of the learning project template, by doing {{subst:Template:Learning project}} on the new page.
Learning materials and learning projects can be used by multiple departments. .Cooperate with other departments that use the same learning resource.^ Finally the same dogma is also expressly mentioned in the profession of faith proposed by the Apostolic See, not only that which all Latin churches use, but also that which other Eastern Catholics use.

Remember, Wikiversity has adopted the "learning by doing" model for education. Lessons should center on learning activities for Wikiversity participants. We learn by doing.

Resources


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /kə'θɔləsɪzm/

Etymology

Noun

Singular
Catholicism
Catholicism (uncountable)
.
  1. The faiths, practices and doctrines of a Catholic Church, but especially of the Roman Catholic Church
  2. The state or quality of being catholic or universal; catholicity.^ Hence the Roman Catholic Church has clearly changed from the original practices.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hence the Roman Catholic Church are not faithful to that portion of Justin's teaching.
    • Roman Catholic and Church of God Teachings 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.cogwriter.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Roman Catholic Church is guilty of the same.
    • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

    Jer. Taylor.
  3. Liberality of sentiment; breadth of view.

Translations


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

< Biblical Studies | Christianity

Introduction and Statistics

.The name "Roman Catholicism" denotes the beliefs of those Christians who are in communion with the Pope who, as the successor of St Peter as Bishop of Rome, has primacy among all the bishops.^ The world is convinced that Roman Catholicism is Christianity.

^ These were placed in St. Peter’s at Rome for all to see.
  • The Schism of the Roman Catholic Church from the Eastern Orthodox - Church History 28 January 2010 0:45 UTC www.orthodoxresearchinstitute.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Primacy of Peter is such a cardinal doctrine in Catholicism that those who deny it are cursed.
  • Roman Catholicism 10 January 2010 21:26 UTC www.vscoc.org [Source type: Original source]

.Such Christians may be termed "Roman Catholics" or simply "Catholics". Historically speaking, the word "Catholic" has always been applied to the Church (it means "universal") and "Roman" goes before it to emphasise both the primacy of the Pope and continuity with the teachings of Jesus Christ and his apostles.^ Roman Catholic Church, Orthodox Christian churches, and the Anglican churches).
  • Roman Catholic 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.socwel.ku.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The term Protestant is used to distinguish it from the Roman Catholic Church.

^ The Roman Catholic Church is different from catholics (means universal).
  • What are the beliefs of the Catholic church? [Archive] - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 17 September 2009 22:022 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: Original source]

.According to the 2006 Annuario Pontificio, the official yearbook of the Vatican, the membership of the Catholic Church was approximately 1,098,000,000 in 2004. There were 405,891 priests, 32,324 permanent deacons, and 113,044 seminarians when the data was compiled [1][2].^ There is no physical "Catholic" church.
  • Keith Devens .com - Weblog: Why I'm not a Roman Catholic - August 11, 2002 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC keithdevens.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There were 405,891 priests, 32,324 permanent deacons, and 113,044 seminarians when the data was compiled [1] [2] .
  • Biblical Studies/Christianity/Roman Catholicism - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Should there be a permanent Anglican Rite in the Roman Catholic Church?
  • Mister Poll: Should the Roman Catholic Church have an Anglican Rite? 6 February 2010 13:11 UTC www.misterpoll.com [Source type: General]

Include statistics of cardinals, bishops, episcopal sees, religious, parishes.

Simple English

Catholicism often means the Roman Catholic Church. Sometimes it also refers to the Eastern Orthodox Churches, or other Churches that believe in the great lists of Christian beliefs called "creeds" (from the Latin word credo, meaning "I believe"), such as the Anglican Church. The word catholic means "everywhere or universal" (belief that the Church is one big family).

Contents

How it was started

The Great Church Orthodox and Catholic was supposedly started by Jesus of Nazareth, a Jew who descended from the line of King David who was crucified by the Romans, at the Jewish feast of Passover, in accordance with and fulfillment of the Hebrew scriptures - especially Isaiah and the Psalms ca. 33 AD. The followers of Jesus reported in the scriptures as they witnessed it - that he was resurrected by God the Father and appeared to over 500 people for forty daysmen before he ascended into heaven. It's believed that he later sent the holy spirit onto his disciples at Pentecost when they spoke in tongues and understood each others different languages.

One of his followers, Saint Peter, was appointed leader by Jesus and later became recognized as the first Pope, or Bishop of Rome, soon after that - he was captured and died in Rome. He was given the keys of the kingdom of heaven and was the first to recognize Jesus as Messiah when questioned by Jesus as to "Who do you say that I am?" Today, the pope is Benedict XVI, who is the leader of the Church (like the male head of a family, or father). This is where the word pope comes from. That is why the pope is also called the Holy Father - he is our spiritual father here on earth.

In 325, the First Council of Nicaea agreed on how to organize the church. The council agree the Church had five patriarchs (patriarch was the highest type of church leader). They were the archbishops of Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, Constantinople, and Jerusalem. The Patriarch of Rome, was honored as "first among equals."

Quarrels within the church

In time, the Church split apart with fights over who is right; these fights caused breaks in the Church called schisms. Most schisms happen because people have different beliefs about what is true, but politics is often a big reason for these fights too.

In 451, a church division happened when all the church leaders meeting at the Church Council in the city of Chalcedon excommunicated (cut off) three leaders, because they would not accept the view that Jesus had two natures (fully divine and fully human). These three were the bishops of Egypt, Syria, and Armenian. Of course, these three bishops did not accept being excommunicated either, so the churches under them are still known today as Oriental Orthodox Churches.

In 1054, the Great Church Orthodox and Catholic split into the Western (Roman) Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church . The Eastern Orthodox Church was divided into national churches, making the Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Ukrainian Orthodox, Serbian Orthodox, Romanian Orthodox, and so on. The Roman Catholic Church developed the idea of one united church leader with the pope. Some Eastern Orthodox Churches believe the emperor or king is the head of the Church as well as the country.[needs proof] In England, the Anglican Church is like this.

Protestantism

The next big schism was the Protestant Reformation, which protested against the central authority of the Church in Rome and against what it thought were wrong ways of doing and believing things about God in the Catholic Church. It started in Germany, where Martin Luther sent his demands for change to the Church. Because of politics in Europe, many nations supported Luther. The Lutheran Church was started. Later the Calvinist or Presbyterian Church started.

One of the most famous people in this period is King Henry VIII of England, who started the Anglican church because he wanted to divorce his first wife and the Pope said he was not allowed to do that. First his Church, the Church of England, was like the Catholic Church, but with the king as leader instead of the pope. Later, under his son, Edward VI, and his daughter, Elizabeth I, the Anglican Church became more reformed or Protestant, but Anglicans still believe they are reformed Catholics, as well as Protestants.

In the Reformation, other Churches also split off from the Catholic Church and became Protestant. Even inside Protestant churches, disagreements over beliefs resulted in more splits. This is why there are so many Protestant churches. Some of these Protestant or Reformed churches are: Lutheran, Anglican, Presbyterian, Calvinist, Methodist, Baptist, to name just a few. Later on, some people split again to make new kinds of churches which most Protestants do not believe are Christian at all, like Mormons, Jehovah's Witnesses, Unitarian Universalist, and many others.

If a child refuses to obey his/her father, the father punishes his child; in church-talk this is called excommunication. In the Roman Catholic Church, if believers disobey the pope, they can also be punished or excommunicated. There is only one way of belief for Catholics who want to be with the pope. This is why Roman Catholics believe there is only one Catholic Church.

What is the same as other Christians

  • The Ten Commandments
  • The belief that God knows everything.
  • The belief that Jesus Christ died, rose again, and one day "will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead."
  • The importance of worshipping God.

What is different from other Eastern Orthodox Christians

  • They are different from followers of the Eastern Orthodox Church in that they have a different approach to the Trinity. Christians believe that God has three aspects: the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. Eastern Orthodox Churches believe these are three different persons (hypostases) of one divine essence (ousia); Roman Catholics believe God is of one substance in three persons (consubstantiation).
  • the Filioque clause (Nicene creed)
  • Caesaropapism

What is different from other mainstream Protestants

  • Catholics believe in the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist (this is called Transubstantiation).
  • Roman Catholics believe God can forgive sins through the sacrament of reconciliation (penance) done by a priest, while most Protestants do not believe the priest is needed
  • Roman Catholics believe it is important to live by Scripture and Tradition, which the teaching of the Church's Magisterium (the bishops in communion with the Pope) come from, while most Protestants believe in Sola Scriptura (the Bible alone)
  • Roman Catholics believe that papal authority and the Bible are infallible, while most Protestants believe in an infallible Bible but not an infallible Pope. Papal infallibility has been declared twice in the history of the Catholic Church. Once to state that Mary was conceived without sin and another to state that Mary was assumed into heaven body and soul.
  • The Bible Roman Catholics use often include a few texts that are usually not found in those Protestants use. The best known of these is called deuterocanon.
  • Roman Catholics venerate saints, especially the Virgin Mary (Mother of God). "Venerating saints" means that Roman Catholics give special honor to saints (people in heaven) because they believe that saints can pray for them directly to God. Many Protestants do not believe this because they mistake "venerating saints" as "worshiping saints". Because they believe that only God should be worshipped, they do not venerate. Many Protestants also simply do not believe that any veneration is necessary
  • the interpretation of Mary as the "Mother of God" differs


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 08, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Catholic Church, which are similar to those in the above article.








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