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Political Map Of South Caucasus
A 1994 map of the Caucasus region, including the locations of valuable resources shared by the many states in the area: alunite, gold, chromium, copper, iron ore, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, lead, tungsten, zinc, oil, natural gas, and coal.
.The Caucasus or Caucas (also referred to as Caucasia,[1] Adyghe: Къэфкъас, Armenian: Կովկաս, Azerbaijani: Qafqaz, Georgian: კავკასია, Russian: Кавка́з, Ossetic: Кавказ, Chechen: Ковказ, Persian: قفقاز , Turkish: Kafkasya) is a geopolitical region at the border of Europe and Asia.^ In my estimation, there is a high probability that the current geopolitical borders of Central Asia will be different in ten years time.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this period, "freebooters" in the Russian Government (Parliament, regional governments, the military) had control of Russian policy toward Central Asia and the Caucasus.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The gradual penetration of new forms of electronic information-gathering and dissemination into the South Caucasus and Central Asia has made it increasingly easier to gather information on the regions from afar.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is home to the Caucasus Mountains, including Europe's highest mountain (Mount Elbrus).
North Caucasus comprises:
South Caucasus comprises:

Contents

Etymology

.The word Caucasus derives from Caucas, the ancestor of the North Caucasians.^ In addition, instability in Caucasian regions that remain within Russia--the entire North Caucasus--continues to affect the countries on the southern side of the mountains.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] He was a son of Togarmah, grandson of Biblical Noah's third son Japheth. .According to Leonti Mroveli after the fall of the Tower of Babel and the division of humanity into different languages, Togarmah settled with his sons: Kartlos, Haik (Georgian:ჰაოს, Haos), Movakos, Lekos (Lak people), Heros (Kingdom of Hereti), Kavkas, and Egros (Kingdom of Egrisi) between two inaccessible mountains, presumably Mount Ararat and Mount Elbrus.^ GHAZI-GHUMUQ The kingdom of the Laks, a North Caucasian people related to the Caucasian Avars, Lezgins, and (distantly) the Circassians and Abkhaz.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

Geography and ecology

.The lower parts of the Caucasus Mountains are situated in the Greater Middle East area.^ In each instance, these borders are for the most part in remote, mountainous areas, which means that they are often poorly guarded.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are generally perceived to be a dividing line between Asia and Europe, and territories in Caucasia are alternately considered to be in one or both continents.^ An additional problem in Central Asia is the growing "technology divide"--not only with the West, but also with Russia, and between the regional capitals and provincial cities and rural areas.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One way to view this younger generation is to determine whether they were "insiders" or "outsiders" with respect to the old system.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The highest peak in the Caucasus is Mount Elbrus (5,642 m) in the western Ciscaucasus in Russia, which is the highest point in Europe (according to the definitions of Europe as including Caucasus).^ OSSETIA A region in the north Caucasus Mountains, lying across the Georgia / Russia frontier north of Tblisi and including at the higher altitudes the source of the Terek River.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.The Caucasus is one of the most linguistically and culturally diverse regions on Earth.^ One might even observe, in view of Iran's policy in the region, especially in the North Caucasus and Tajikistan, that Tehran's regional policy has become increasingly "Russia centric."
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We will not understand Central Asia and the South Caucasus if we view the region through one filter.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The nation states that comprise the Caucasus today are the post-Soviet states Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan.^ All the states of the South Caucasus--Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia--suffer from the effects of two centuries of Russo-Soviet domination, a form of colonialism more pernicious than that experienced by most Third World countries.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As in the other South Caucasus states, the initial stages of state-building in Azerbaijan were affected by internal and external threats.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all of the states of Central Asia and the South Caucasus, the public sector has undergone significant redefinition since national independence.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Russian divisions include Krasnodar Krai, Stavropol Krai, and the autonomous republics of Adygea, Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia, Ingushetia, Chechnya, and Dagestan.^ Uzbekistan does not want to repeat Russia's mistake in Chechnya, in which Russian suppression of Islam created the conditions for discontent and extremism in the North Caucasus.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Three territories in the region claim independence but are not universally acknowledged as nation-states by the international community: Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh and South Ossetia.^ The output shock reflected a number of factors, including: (1) disruptions in economic activity that accompanied the dissolution of the USSR; (2) inflationary consequences of price liberalization in the context of the ruble zone; (3) weaknesses of nascent economic policy institutions; and (4) military conflicts over Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Central Asia is at the center or on the near periphery of the national security interests of all states in the region.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cascading Effects of the Ongoing Regional Conflicts The conflicts between Armenia and Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh adversely affect the economic and political development of both countries.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Caucasus is an area of great ecological importance. It harbors some 6400 species of higher plants, 1600 of which are endemic to the region.[3] Its wildlife includes leopards, brown bears, wolves, European bison, marals, golden eagles and Hooded Crows. Among invertebrates, some 1000 spider species are recorded in the Caucasus.[4] The natural landscape is one of mixed forest, with substantial areas of rocky ground above the treeline. .The Caucasus Mountains are also noted for a dog breed, the Caucasian Shepherd Dog (Ovcharka).^ In addition, instability in Caucasian regions that remain within Russia--the entire North Caucasus--continues to affect the countries on the southern side of the mountains.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Ciscaucasus contains the larger majority of the Greater Caucasus Mountain range, also known as the Major Caucasus mountains. .It includes Southwestern Russia and northern parts of Georgia and Azerbaijan.^ Azerbaijan is another close ally because it has similar problems as Georgia vis-a-vis Russia.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As long as Armenia retains close strategic links to Russia, it is likely to be primarily a nominal participant in most of the cooperative arrangements that Georgia and Azerbaijan value.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Russia's brutal assault on Chechnya, compounded by efforts to intimidate Georgia and Azerbaijan for their sympathy with the Chechens, has reverberated through the South Caucasus.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Transcaucasus is bordered on the north by Russia, on the west by the Black Sea and Turkey, on the east by the Caspian Sea, and on the south by Iran.^ Iran's relationship with Russia remains an enduring north-south axis .
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Caucasus A high mountain range extending across the land between the Caspian and Black Seas, this region has collected a tremendously varied number of small enclaves of cultures who have found life on the steppes to the north or the semi-arid plateau regions to the south too inhospitable.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Some panelists argued that cooperation with the South Caucasian states "made sense" for Russia in order to bound the quagmire in the North with stability in the South.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. .All of Armenia, Azerbaijan (excluding the northern parts) and Georgia (excluding the northern parts) are in South Caucasus.^ All the states of the South Caucasus--Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia--suffer from the effects of two centuries of Russo-Soviet domination, a form of colonialism more pernicious than that experienced by most Third World countries.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EU cooperation with Central Asian states varies from state to state and is less likely to be an active part of the CFSP than such cooperation with the South Caucasus states.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As long as Armenia retains close strategic links to Russia, it is likely to be primarily a nominal participant in most of the cooperative arrangements that Georgia and Azerbaijan value.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

History

Karte des Kaukasischen Isthmus. Entworfen und gezeichnet von J. Grassl, 1856.
Administrative map of Caucasus in USSR, 1952-1991.
Rock engravings in Gobustan, Azerbaijan dating back to 10,000 BC.
.Located on the peripheries of Turkey and Russia, the region has been an arena for political, military, religious, and cultural rivalries and expansionism for centuries.^ It would, however, disrupt the current balances of political influence in the region to Russia's (and Iran's) detriment.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, for both administrations since 1990, the concept of a regional security pact would include Iran as well as Russia and Turkey.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Central Asia, the Islamic culture dominates, but the region's view of development of economic, political, legal, and social system tends to be secular in nature.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Throughout its history, the Caucasus was usually incorporated into the Iranian world. .At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire conquered the territory from the Qajars.^ The Murid Imams of the 19th century were the source of considerable resistence to Russian advances in the region, and succeeded in gaining independence from Russian occupation for a time after 1834.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Each republic, of course, has its own legacies that are shaped by its native culture, including religion, language, and its history prior to the Russian conquest early in the 19th century.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BAKU A Khanate created after the death of of Persian Emperor Nadir Shah Afshar in 1747 and abolished at the beginning of the 19th century by the Russians.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

[5]
.Ancient kingdoms of the region included Armenia, Albania, Colchis and Iberia, among others.^ Armenia would clearly benefit from this, as would other states of the region.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than any other state, including Russia and China, Afghanistan has defined the regional dynamics of Central Asia to the present.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These kingdoms were later incorporated into various empires, including Media, Achaemenid Empire, Parthian Empire, and Sassanid Empire.^ A number of different filters--the perspectives of the major external actors--must be incorporated into our thinking on these regions.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Kingdom of Sarir "The Yellow Land"; an autonomous city-state in the Caucasus, under the domination of various empires.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.By this time, Zoroastrianism had become the dominant religion of the region; however, the region would go through two other religious transformations.^ It would, however, disrupt the current balances of political influence in the region to Russia's (and Iran's) detriment.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Armenia would clearly benefit from this, as would other states of the region.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Should Russia develop a more coherent policy toward these states, it would become a more pronounced and assertive player in these regions.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Owing to the rivalry between Persia and Rome, and later Byzantium, the latter would invade the region several times, although it was never able to hold the region.
However, because Armenia and Georgia had become a Christian entity, Christianity began to overtake Zoroastrianism. With the Islamic conquest of Persia, the region came under the rule of the Arabs. .Armenia and the majority of Georgia maintained Christianity and Georgian king David the Builder drove the Muslims out.^ The fact that the population of Georgia is overwhelmingly Orthodox Christian while that of Azerbaijan is predominately Shia Muslim has little effect on public attitudes or on these countries' political orientation.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To Armenia.........................................886-979 Kings of Tashir BAGRATUNI Gurgen (Kvirike) I.................................979-989 David I Lackland...................................989-1048 Gurgen II.........................................1048-1089 To the Seljuqs....................................1071-c.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.The region would later be conquered by the Seljuks, Ottomans, Mongols, local kingdoms and khanates, as well as, once again, Persia, until its conquest by Russia.^ It would be hard for a new generation to initiate innovative policy; it will be forced simply to react to domestic and regional (as well as broader international) pressures.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It would, however, disrupt the current balances of political influence in the region to Russia's (and Iran's) detriment.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, for both administrations since 1990, the concept of a regional security pact would include Iran as well as Russia and Turkey.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The region was unified as a single political entity twice – during the Russian Civil War (Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic) from 9 April 1918 to 26 May 1918, and under the Soviet rule (Transcaucasian SFSR) from 12 March 1922 to 5 December 1936.
.The Northern Caucasus has been under Scythian influence in antiquity, while the Southern Caucasus (Caucasian Albania, Colchis) was absorbed into the Persian Empire.^ In addition, instability in Caucasian regions that remain within Russia--the entire North Caucasus--continues to affect the countries on the southern side of the mountains.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ KUBA A district in northern Azerbaijan; briefly in control of much of that region in the era between the disappearance of the Persian Safavids and the extension of Czarist Russian control of ther Caucasus.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Kingdom of Sarir "The Yellow Land"; an autonomous city-state in the Caucasus, under the domination of various empires.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.In modern times, the Caucasus became a region of war among the Ottoman Empire, Iran and Russia, and was eventually conquered by the latter (see Caucasian Wars).^ One might even observe, in view of Iran's policy in the region, especially in the North Caucasus and Tajikistan, that Tehran's regional policy has become increasingly "Russia centric."
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It would, however, disrupt the current balances of political influence in the region to Russia's (and Iran's) detriment.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Furthermore, for both administrations since 1990, the concept of a regional security pact would include Iran as well as Russia and Turkey.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the 1940s, the Chechens and Ingush (480,000 altogether), along with the Balkars, Karachays, Meskhetian Turks (120,000), Kurds and Caucasus Germans (almost 200,000) were deported en masse to Central Asia and Siberia.^ Several panelists suggested considering the implications for Central Asia and the South Caucasus of a Russia in which power is significantly devolved to its borderlands, or that is even fragmented politically.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1943/44, many Balkars were deported and scattered throughout Kazakhstan and Central Asia, accused of having cooperated with the Germans.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The gradual penetration of new forms of electronic information-gathering and dissemination into the South Caucasus and Central Asia has made it increasingly easier to gather information on the regions from afar.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following the end of the Soviet Union, Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia became independent in 1991. The Caucasus region is subject to various territorial disputes since the collapse of the Soviet Union, leading to the Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988–1994), the Ossetian-Ingush conflict (1989-1991), the War in Abkhazia (1992–1993), the First Chechen War (1994–1996), the Second Chechen War (1999–2009), and the 2008 South Ossetia War.^ The output shock reflected a number of factors, including: (1) disruptions in economic activity that accompanied the dissolution of the USSR; (2) inflationary consequences of price liberalization in the context of the ruble zone; (3) weaknesses of nascent economic policy institutions; and (4) military conflicts over Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the states of the South Caucasus--Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia--suffer from the effects of two centuries of Russo-Soviet domination, a form of colonialism more pernicious than that experienced by most Third World countries.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Preserving existing trends in the near future might mean changes in details (Russian military presence in Georgia may diminish still more, for instance) but not in the general picture: conflicts in Abkhazia or Nagorno-Karabakh probably would continue in their 'frozen' or deadlocked stage, the South Caucasus will be seen as mainly an arena of Russian-American competition, and so forth.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Demographics

Ethno-Linguistic groups in the Caucasus region 2009
The region has many different languages and language families. .There are more than 50 ethnic groups living in the region.^ AVARISTAN The Caucasian Avars are an ethnic group living in southern Dagestan.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It consisted of six panels with presentations from more than 30 academic and regional experts, followed by question-and-answer sessions.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than any other state, including Russia and China, Afghanistan has defined the regional dynamics of Central Asia to the present.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .No less than three language families are unique to the area, but also Indo-European languages such as Armenian and Ossetic, and the Altaic language Azerbaijani are local to the area.^ EU cooperation with Central Asian states varies from state to state and is less likely to be an active part of the CFSP than such cooperation with the South Caucasus states.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The local government is becoming increasingly flexible (rather than obstructionist) in this area and open to innovation, especially at the microlevel.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most numerous peoples of the Caucasian-language family are Georgians (4,600,000); Chechens (1,500,000); and Avars (1,100,000).^ The Avars number approximately 600,000 and are now scattered throughout Georgia, Southern Russia, and Azerbaijan.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Ingush people are closely related to the Chechens and speak a similar language.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ GHAZI-GHUMUQ The kingdom of the Laks, a North Caucasian people related to the Caucasian Avars, Lezgins, and (distantly) the Circassians and Abkhaz.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.Georgians are the only Caucasian language-speaking people who have their own independent state - Georgia.^ In 1998, Georgia's exports to other members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was 54 percent, for Azerbaijan this ratio was 38 percent, and for Armenia 37 percent.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ KAYTAK A Caucasian people who converted to Islam in the 8th century.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Directions The directions they may take the Caucasian states are rooted firmly in their own attitudinal and behavioral tendencies, but will most likely be responsive or "reactive."
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Others of those peoples possess their republics within the Russian Federation: Adyghe (Adygea), Chechens (Chechnya), Cherkes (Karachay-Cherkessia), Kabardins (Kabardino-Balkaria), Ingush (Ingushetia), while Northeast Caucasian peoples mostly live in Dagestan.^ Today the Karachai are heavily Russified and exhibit much lower nationalist tendencies than other Caucasian peoples.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Kabardins were grouped with the Balkars , a Turkic people, in 1922 to form Kabardino-Balkaria.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Balkars were grouped with the Kabardins , a Circassian people, in 1922 to form Kabardino-Balkaria, in which they form a small minority to this day.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

Abkhazians live in Abkhazia, which is de facto independent, but de jure is an autonomous republic within Georgia.
.Today the peoples of the Northern and Southern Caucasus tend to be either Eastern Orthodox Christians, Oriental Orthodox Christians, or Sunni Muslims.^ DAGESTAN Northern and eastern Caucasus, approaching the central western Caspian coast.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The fact that the population of Georgia is overwhelmingly Orthodox Christian while that of Azerbaijan is predominately Shia Muslim has little effect on public attitudes or on these countries' political orientation.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were Georgian Orthodox Christians during the early Middle Ages, but Sunni Islam is the dominant faith today.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.Shia Islam has had many adherents historically in Azerbaijan, located in the eastern part of the region.^ HERETI A medieval kingdom in the extreme eastern end of Georgia, part of which is now within Azerbaijan.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

In mythology

In Greek mythology the Caucasus, or Kaukasos, was one of the pillars supporting the world. After presenting man with the gift of fire, Prometheus was chained there by Zeus, to have his liver eaten daily by an eagle.
The Roman poet Ovid placed Caucasus in Scythia and depicted it as a cold and stony mountain which was the abode of personified hunger. The Greek hero Jason sailed to the west coast of the Caucasus in pursuit of the Golden Fleece, and there met the famed Medea.
The Indian Book Ramayana stated that the second wife of King Dasharath and step mother of Lord Ram belong to country Kekaye (Caucasus), thats why she was called as Queen Kaikeyi.

Energy and mineral resources

.Caucasus has many economically important minerals and energy resources, such as: alunite, gold, chromium, copper, iron ore, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, lead, tungsten, uranium, zinc, oil, natural gas, and coal (both hard and brown).^ For president Aliyev, natural resources have been an important tool in his consolidation of power domestically, as well as in his foreign policy.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many factors that could lead to instability in Central Asia, such as irredentism, economic decline, possible conflict over transboundary resources, and "spillover" from events to the south.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The future nature of US-Iran relations is among the most important extra regional developments with strategic impact on key security and economic patterns in the South Caucasus and Central Asia in this decade.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

References

  • Caucasus: A Journey to the Land Between Christianity and Islam By Nicholas Griffin
  • Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus By Svante E. Cornell
  • The Caucasus By Ivan Golovin
  1. ^ http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/caucasia Merriam-Webster
  2. ^ G.Qoranashvili (1995), Questions of Ethnic Identity According to Leonti Mroveli's Historical Chronicles, Studies, Vol. 1, Tbilisi.
  3. ^ Endemic Species of the Caucasus
  4. ^ Caucasian Spiders » CHECKLISTS & MAPS
  5. ^ Thorez, Pierre. "Caucasus." Encyclopaedia Iranica - 2 June 2007
  6. ^ Caucasian peoples, Encyclopædia Britannica

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Caucasus
.The Caucasus region is a mountain range lying between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, considered part of the natural boundary between Europe and Asia.^ The Caucasus A high mountain range extending across the land between the Caspian and Black Seas, this region has collected a tremendously varied number of small enclaves of cultures who have found life on the steppes to the north or the semi-arid plateau regions to the south too inhospitable.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ KUBA A district in northern Azerbaijan; briefly in control of much of that region in the era between the disappearance of the Persian Safavids and the extension of Czarist Russian control of ther Caucasus.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ AZERBAIJAN The eastern end of the Caucasus Mountains, aside the southwest coast of the Caspian Sea.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.Geographically it is usually considered part of Western Asia, adjacent to northeastern Turkey and northwestern Iran.^ Files for neighboring regions: Anatolia , (Western) Central Asia , the Crimea , Iran , Russia .
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When they think about Central Asia, policy-makers should include Iran, Western China, Siberia, Turkey, and the North and South Caucasus.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But culturally, this portion of Russia and these small former Soviet republics are arguably part of Eastern Europe suffering from the same ethnic-hatred and tension that has plagued the Balkans including recent wars in Georgia, Armenia and Chechnya.^ Onnik Krikorian · 16:08 · Russia , Armenia lingua → es Today marks the 20th anniversary of Black January, the day when the fledgling independence movement in Azerbaijan was brutally suppressed by Soviet troops ostensibly to curtail inter-ethnic tensions in the capital, Baku.
  • Global Voices Online » Central Asia & Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC globalvoicesonline.org [Source type: General]

^ The rest of the talk on Georgia was a detailed condemnation of Russia’s pressure on the ex-Soviet republic: .
  • Blogian (www.blogian.net) » Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC blogian.hayastan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HERETI A medieval kingdom in the extreme eastern end of Georgia, part of which is now within Azerbaijan.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]


Caucasus regions
Caucasus regions
Armenia
An ancient, millennia-old civilization amidst stark mountain landscapes and remote canyons. Home to amazing world heritage sites, forgotten monasteries and boasting a wonderfully laid back and friendly culture.
.Azerbaijan
The richest state of the Caucasus, its capital awash in oil wealth and international business, wonderful old palaces of the Shirvan Shahs in Baku and Sheki, Zoroastrian fire temples, barren landscapes—oil and salt spreading across the surface, and world-class hikes in the lush heavily forested, mountainous north and south.^ Some panelists argued that cooperation with the South Caucasian states "made sense" for Russia in order to bound the quagmire in the North with stability in the South.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Level one represents the local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that operate mainly in the capital cities which receive support and financial assistance from the United States and international organizations.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EU cooperation with Central Asian states varies from state to state and is less likely to be an active part of the CFSP than such cooperation with the South Caucasus states.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Georgia
The lush green heart of the Caucasus, with fabulous cuisine and culture, incredibly diverse landscapes, and an exceptional wealth of ancient churches, cathedrals, monasteries, and cave cities
Russia's North Caucasus (Chechnya, Dagestan, Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia, North Ossetia)
A beautiful region of extraordinary mountains and river gorges, delicious food, stunning stone mountaintop villages, legendary hospitality, and a seemingly endless cycle of violence
.For the regions of Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and Nagorno-Karabakh see their claming countries' articles.^ Speakers from the South Caucasus and Central Asian regions were asked to outline how each of their respective countries is thinking about its strategic universe.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The output shock reflected a number of factors, including: (1) disruptions in economic activity that accompanied the dissolution of the USSR; (2) inflationary consequences of price liberalization in the context of the ruble zone; (3) weaknesses of nascent economic policy institutions; and (4) military conflicts over Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although another panelist believed that if left alone the South Caucasus countries could resolve their conflicts, he cautioned that a number of the problems-for example, Abkhazia, Chechnya, and Nagorno-Karabakh-have been created by the collapse of the Soviet Union and the politics that ensued.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the legitimacy of these governments is disputed, from a traveller's point of view they have de facto control of the country.^ These packages would slowly "restructure" the Caucasian states individually and move them, de facto, further from Russian influence.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the points highlighted in these summaries of the panel discussions were noted because they were thought provoking or outside of conventional wisdom.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This panel will examine the internal conditions and challenges these governments face as they modernize their political and economic institutions.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is not a political endorsement of claims by either side in the dispute.
  • Baku — the region's largest city, international oil hub, and ancient capital of Azerbaijan
  • Makhachkala — the largest city of the North Caucasus and capital of Dagestan
  • TbilisiGeorgia's vibrant capital, surrounded by mountains, and filled with good food and wine
  • Vladikavkaz — the North Ossetian capital, "Master of the Caucasus"
  • YerevanArmenia's capital is the region's most laid-back, with great places to eat, and within easy striking distance of the country's principal attractions
  • Dombai — Russia's premiere Caucasian resort
  • Khor Virap — the most photographed place in Armenia, a spectacular monastery atop a huge rock, right at the border, at the foot of Mount Ararat
  • The cathedral, churches, and museums of Echmiadzin, the center of the Armenian Apostolic Church
  • Davit Gareja Monastery — a cave monastery in the Georgian desert, full of beautiful old cave frescoes, and overlooking the vast empty expanse to the south in Azerbaijan
  • The Gates of Alexander at Derbent, Dagestan
  • Europe's three tallest mountains, of which the most famous is Mount Elbrus, all in Kabardino-Balkaria
  • The Petroglyphs at Qobustan — ancient petroglyphs, south of Baku
  • Breathtaking Tsminda Sameba Monastery on the slopes of Mount Kazbeg, Georgia
  • Vardzia — one of Georgia's impressive cave cities, hewn from the rock of a river gorge in Samtskhe-Javakheti

Understand

.The countries and territories of the Caucasus are all isolated but ancient lands inhabited by what is likely the world’s most ethnically diverse region.^ Footnotes (1) All data in this paper come from the relevant countries' statistical offices and national banks, as well as from the IMF, World Bank, Tacis, and other multilateral agencies.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the states of the South Caucasus--Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia--suffer from the effects of two centuries of Russo-Soviet domination, a form of colonialism more pernicious than that experienced by most Third World countries.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As is true in most (but not all) of the post-Soviet region, the situation is bleak.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All of places mentioned here were annexed by the Soviet Union at some point, only to gain independence in the 1900s.^ At the dawn of the post-Soviet era, the union of the Newly Independent States of Central Asia at first appeared to be entirely natural and realistic.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unfortunately since then the area has witnessed several ethnic conflicts, civil wars, and other conflicts both between and inside states.^ For example, in Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region, the external support of Uighur separatist tendencies could potentially cause ethnic conflicts between China and Kazakhstan.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Economic disparity may significantly exacerbate preexisting tensions between the titular group, the Kyrgyz, and other ethnic groups.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Civil society is a partnership between state and society, but in the Caucasus, the states are no longer partners.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Several regions such as Abkhazia, South Ossetia, and Nagorno-Karabakh gained virtual independence this way, but few nations recognize the legitimacy of these places.^ The output shock reflected a number of factors, including: (1) disruptions in economic activity that accompanied the dissolution of the USSR; (2) inflationary consequences of price liberalization in the context of the ruble zone; (3) weaknesses of nascent economic policy institutions; and (4) military conflicts over Nagorno-Karabakh, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This conference attempts to gain a new and deeper understanding of changes in the political, economic, and strategic orientations of each of the states of Central Asia and the South Caucasus and to explore how these states fit into the larger regional context.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SVANET'I The northwest coastal region of Georgia, just south of Abkhazia.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.While fighting continues in Russia's North Caucasus, countries here should be fairly safe.^ One might even observe, in view of Iran's policy in the region, especially in the North Caucasus and Tajikistan, that Tehran's regional policy has become increasingly "Russia centric."
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, instability in Caucasian regions that remain within Russia--the entire North Caucasus--continues to affect the countries on the southern side of the mountains.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Uzbekistan does not want to repeat Russia's mistake in Chechnya, in which Russian suppression of Islam created the conditions for discontent and extremism in the North Caucasus.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

While traveling here expect to meet friendly locals, eat food like none other on earth, and witness breathtaking mountain vistas.
Ethno-linguistic groups of the Caucasus
Ethno-linguistic groups of the Caucasus
.The Caucasus is one of the most complex linguistic regions in the world, containing more than 60 languages from five distinct language families.^ One might even observe, in view of Iran's policy in the region, especially in the North Caucasus and Tajikistan, that Tehran's regional policy has become increasingly "Russia centric."
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This political puzzle, more even than oil and gas production and pipelines, should be a focal point of analysis of this region.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Russia probably will continue to be weak but remain relatively stronger than its neighbors and possess more leverage than other actors in the Central Asian and South Caucasus regions.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This linguistic diversity in and of itself is a major draw for anyone interested in linguistics, but it also lends the region one of its most alluring charms - cultural diversity.^ Ultimately, Uzbekistan's security would benefit most if the United States and Russia could work together in the region on areas of common interest.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most countries in the region have multiple interests that converge in Central Asia.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since the end of the Soviet Union, the Caucasus has become decidedly less cosmopolitan as ethnic groups have migrated to their "heritage" countries.^ The post-Soviet era has allowed differences in the economic potential of individual Central Asian countries to become clearly apparent.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Balance of interests of various national, ethnic, and regional groups living in the country and maintenance of their real equality.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some discussants argued that the West requires a better understanding of these countries' cultures, histories, ethnic groups, economies, and the role of Islam.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This ethnolinguistic segregation has been especially deep where there has been ethnic conflict, such as between Armenians and Azeris, Abkhaz and Georgians, and Ossetes and Georgians.^ For example, in Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region, the external support of Uighur separatist tendencies could potentially cause ethnic conflicts between China and Kazakhstan.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because of this trend, there is less inter-ethnic interaction and therefore people are less multilingual than in the past.^ There is less a risk of upheaval here, in part because the country is further along in its economic transformation.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women today have less of a role in public discourse than they had during the Soviet period, in part, because most women are coping with day-to-day survival problems.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those that are officially licensed all managed to slip their registration documents past some less than attentive government official a few years ago.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.National languages are becoming ever more important to travelers in the region as fewer locals understand languages other than their own.^ But the energy sector will continue to be favored unless the local government provides incentives to attract more investment into other sectors.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Field studies demonstrate that whether at the national, regional, and local level, most respondents are convinced that politics and economics are determined by personal ties.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This political puzzle, more even than oil and gas production and pipelines, should be a focal point of analysis of this region.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, a traveler to Georgia would benefit from Georgian, a traveler to Azerbaijan - Azeri, a traveler to Armenia - Armenian, etc.^ As long as Armenia retains close strategic links to Russia, it is likely to be primarily a nominal participant in most of the cooperative arrangements that Georgia and Azerbaijan value.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Differences Perhaps the largest difference among these three countries lies in the fact that Azerbaijan is endowed with significant hydrocarbon resources while Georgia and Armenia are not.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Armenia would clearly benefit from this, as would other states of the region.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Russian remains the lingua franca of the former Soviet nations of the Caucasus and the most useful language for any traveler intent on visiting multiple countries in the Caucasus.^ US-Russian Energy Security in the Caucasus: The Prospects for Conflict in the National Interest By: Aaron G. Sander .
  • US-Russian Energy Security in the Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.sras.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The current trend is for English language study to displace Russian, but the spread of English proficiency remains extremely limited in all four countries of the Caucasus.^ In addition, instability in Caucasian regions that remain within Russia--the entire North Caucasus--continues to affect the countries on the southern side of the mountains.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Third, Russia remains all three countries' most important economic partner.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a rule, older people are more likely to speak Russian while younger people are more likely to speak a little English or no foreign language at all.^ The Ingush people are closely related to the Chechens and speak a similar language.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Informal and illegal rent-seeking should be called what it is--putting a "positive spin" on it helps no one, least of all the governments and people .
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes knowing a people's beliefs about the past is more informative in understanding today's motives than in knowing all the details of documented and verifiable history.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similarly, citizens who are ethnic minorities within their country are more likely to speak Russian because it is a means of inter-ethnic communication.^ Although these decisions were considered humiliating, they were also widely popular, because the country felt it had exhausted its resources in resisting Russian pressure.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Russia might respond aggressively (likely under any ruler, but perhaps more so under Putin) to keep the region from moving too far away from Russian influence.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Travelers can expect that ethnolinguistic minorities within Russia, Abkhazia, or South Ossetia will speak Russian, except in very small, isolated villages.^ Several panelists opined that many of the ethnic conflicts and separatist movements-for example, in Abkhazia and South Ossetia-would dissipate in the absence of external (predominantly Russian) support.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Supplied and supported by Russia, South Ossetia had by 2008 descended into open warfare with Georgia, leading to direct confrontation between Russian and Georgian forces.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ South Ossetia to Russia...........................2008- .
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.Knowledge of Turkish is very useful for travel in Azerbaijan because Azeri Turkish and Anatolian Turkish are closely enough related to be mutually intelligible.^ Azerbaijan is another close ally because it has similar problems as Georgia vis-a-vis Russia.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One discussant noted that Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan have had complicated relations, at best, with Iran since independence, because of Iranian support for the United Tajik Opposition and for opposition leaders in Azerbaijan.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Get around

Border Crossing

Border crossing is generally difficult throughout the Caucasus. .The Russian-Georgian border is closed to all traffic and the Russia-Azerbaijan border is only open for citizens of CIS countries.^ The two countries bordering Russia in this region are Georgia and Azerbaijan.
  • US-Russian Energy Security in the Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.sras.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Supplied and supported by Russia, South Ossetia had by 2008 descended into open warfare with Georgia, leading to direct confrontation between Russian and Georgian forces.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Azerbaijan and Armenia were the only two CIS countries to report strong GDP growth in 1998 and 1999.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For non-CIS citizens, there is no way of entering/exiting Russia through the Caucasus.^ There are, of course, significant variations between and within Central Asia and the South Caucasus no matter what the topic of comparison.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Russia has no single, integrated strategy toward either the South Caucasus or Central Asia.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Russia's brutal assault on Chechnya, compounded by efforts to intimidate Georgia and Azerbaijan for their sympathy with the Chechens, has reverberated through the South Caucasus.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aside from flying, there are ferries between Sochi, Russia & Trabzon, Turkey (near Georgia) and Baku, Azerbaijan & Aktau, Kazakhstan (near Russia).^ An alliance between Baku-Tbilisi is at the center of a larger axis of countries: Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Supplied and supported by Russia, South Ossetia had by 2008 descended into open warfare with Georgia, leading to direct confrontation between Russian and Georgian forces.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Azerbaijan is another close ally because it has similar problems as Georgia vis-a-vis Russia.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Armenian-Azerbaijani border is closed because these countries remain at war.^ Because of the regimes' inability to pay teacher salaries, many of these countries face a teacher shortage, particularly those qualified to teach languages.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although these decisions were considered humiliating, they were also widely popular, because the country felt it had exhausted its resources in resisting Russian pressure.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To travel overland between Armenia and Azerbaijan, it is necessary to go through either Georgia or Iran.^ Administratively partitioned between Armenia and Azerbaijan.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ During the late 1700's and early 1800's Nakhchivan was an independent Khanate; today it is a hotly-contested region between Armenia and Azerbaijan.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As long as Armenia retains close strategic links to Russia, it is likely to be primarily a nominal participant in most of the cooperative arrangements that Georgia and Azerbaijan value.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Georgia's borders with Turkey, Armenia, and Azerbaijan are all open, making the country somewhat of a regional transit hub for the Caucasus.^ The two countries bordering Russia in this region are Georgia and Azerbaijan.
  • US-Russian Energy Security in the Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.sras.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the states of the South Caucasus--Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia--suffer from the effects of two centuries of Russo-Soviet domination, a form of colonialism more pernicious than that experienced by most Third World countries.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Executive Summary In April 2000, the National Intelligence Council sponsored a conference that examined the strategic dynamics of the Central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, and the South Caucasus countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since 2003's Rose Revolution in Georgia, bribes are absolutely not necessary for foreign travelers crossing these borders.^ Where guard posts do exist on the roadways, it is a well-known fact that these guards are generally susceptible to bribes, thus affording easy access for the cross-border drugs or even arms trade.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Entering Azerbaijan with a used Armenian visa or vice versa could likely cause problems (suspicion) with border guards, but shouldn't prohibit entry.^ The Uighur problem could cause problems for the oil pipeline that the Chinese plan to build across the region.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, you will not be allowed entry to Azerbaijan with a Nagorno-Karabakh visa (you can ask to get the NKR visa on a separate piece of paper, though).^ Armenia, like Azerbaijan, may be losing its capacity to make sovereign decisions, particularly with regard to the settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cascading Effects of the Ongoing Regional Conflicts The conflicts between Armenia and Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh adversely affect the economic and political development of both countries.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

How

.Overnight trains travel between Tbilisi-Yerevan and Tbilisi-Baku.^ An alliance between Baku-Tbilisi is at the center of a larger axis of countries: Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

When traveling by rail, you have the option of rooms containing 4 beds (coupe, pronounced koo-peh') or 2 beds (SV, pronounced es veh). SV is a bit more expensive, but more comfortable and generally considered more safe from pickpockets.
.There are direct bus services between Tbilisi-Yerevan and Tbilisi-Baku.^ An alliance between Baku-Tbilisi is at the center of a larger axis of countries: Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If taking the air-conditioned bus between Tbilisi-Baku, bring a jacket!^ An alliance between Baku-Tbilisi is at the center of a larger axis of countries: Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Buses also operate across the Russian-Georgian border, but are not an option for non-CIS country nationals.^ While Georgians do consider the Western option as a generally preferable choice for their country's development, however, actual pro-Western orientation of the Georgian politics cannot be taken for granted.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If you would prefer a more social mode of transport, minivans (marshrutkas) operate across all open borders and throughout the entire Caucasus region.^ The US, with its increasing involvement in the region, would react sharply to renewed Russian expansion into the Caucasus (Blum 2001, 4).
  • US-Russian Energy Security in the Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.sras.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A South Caucasus common market would be logical from an economic and energy viewpoint; it also makes geographic sense, given the importance of expanding all forms of transport through the region in coordinated fashion.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Discussants raised the question of how Russia would react if Turkey took on a more prominent role in the South Caucasus.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are direct flights between Tbilisi and Baku.^ An alliance between Baku-Tbilisi is at the center of a larger axis of countries: Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and Kazakhstan.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Expect no trouble at the airports--they are small and efficient.
.Car rental is more expensive in the Caucasus than in the West, but car hire with a driver is quite affordable.^ In the decade since the collapse of the USSR, Turkish military academies have trained more than 4,000 military officers from the Caucasus and Central Asia.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Central Asia and the South Caucasus consist of more than eight countries.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For international travel, however, it will be necessary to pay for your driver's lodging unless he was already planning to make the trip.

See

Itineraries

Do

Ski in two very beautiful ski resorts of Georgia. Bakuriani and Gudauri.
Relaxing on the Georgian beaches on the black sea in Batumi, Kobuleti, Ureki, Gonia etc.

Eat

The Georgian "Khinkali" and "Khachapuri"!

Drink

The drinks of note in the Caucasus are Georgian wines, Armenian cognac (brandy), and Russian vodkas. Local beers throughout the Caucasus are excellent values.
Especially tasty Georgian wines:
  • Red: Saperavi, Mukuzani, Khvanchkara (semi-sweet), Kindzmarauli (semi-sweet)
  • White: Tsinandali, Kakheti, Tbilisuri

Stay safe

The Caucasus is a tinderbox of age-old rivalries, some frozen, some very hot indeed. .Much of the Russian North Caucasus is an active war zone.^ Uzbekistan does not want to repeat Russia's mistake in Chechnya, in which Russian suppression of Islam created the conditions for discontent and extremism in the North Caucasus.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ KUBA A district in northern Azerbaijan; briefly in control of much of that region in the era between the disappearance of the Persian Safavids and the extension of Czarist Russian control of ther Caucasus.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.Fragile ceasefires are more or less holding in Georgia's disputed regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia, as well as between Azerbaijan and Armenia, still officially at war over Nagorno-Karabakh.^ SVANET'I The northwest coastal region of Georgia, just south of Abkhazia.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Administratively partitioned between Armenia and Azerbaijan.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Preserving existing trends in the near future might mean changes in details (Russian military presence in Georgia may diminish still more, for instance) but not in the general picture: conflicts in Abkhazia or Nagorno-Karabakh probably would continue in their 'frozen' or deadlocked stage, the South Caucasus will be seen as mainly an arena of Russian-American competition, and so forth.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.CAUCASUS, a mountain range of Asia, wholly within the Russian empire, stretching north-west to south-east from the Strait of Kerch (between the Black Sea and Sea of Azov) to the Caspian Sea, over a length of 900 m., with a breadth varying from 30 to 140 m.^ CAUCASUS , a mountain range of Asia, wholly within the Russian empire, stretching north-west to south-east from the Strait of Kerch (between the Black Sea and Sea of Azov) to the Caspian Sea, over a length of 900 m., with a breadth varying from 30 to 140 m.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A division of Russia, bounded on the north by European Russia; on the east by the Caspian sea; on the south by Persia and Asiatic Turkey; and on the west by the Black sea.

^ Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea with the Caucasus Mountains to the north--about half of the country is mountainous.
  • Trans-Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC novaonline.nvcc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In its general character and conformation the Caucasus presents a closer analogy with the Pyrenees than with the Alps.^ In its general character and conformation the Caucasus presents a closer analogy with the Pyrenees than with the Alps.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Physical Geography The huge Alpine mountain chain, of which the Pyrenees, the Alps, the Carpathians, the Balkans, and the Caucasus are the principal links, traverses the continent from west to east.
  • Caucasus (geographic region) - Factbites 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later, a chain of mountains called the "Anticaucasian" range appeared in the southern part of the present Caucasus, the absolute height of which was more than the height of the Caucasus mountains of that time.
  • Magazine #1 - The Caucasus - from the Geological Past to Modern Times 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cenn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its general uniformity of direction, its comparatively narrow width, and its well-defined limits towards both south and north are all features which it has in common with the former.^ Its general uniformity of direction, its comparatively narrow width, and its well-defined limits towards both south and north are all features which it has in common with the former.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Part of the Caucasus Mountain range runs from northern Armenia to the southeast towards Iran, which makes travel from north to south difficult.
  • Trans-Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC novaonline.nvcc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus it has stumbled from one brutal intervention to another in both North and South Caucasian affairs.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The range of the Caucasus, like that of the Pyrenees, maintains for considerable distances a high average elevation, and is not cleft by deep trenches, forming natural passes across the range, such as are common in the Alps.^ The range of the Caucasus, like that of the Pyrenees, maintains for considerable distances a high average elevation, and is not cleft by deep trenches, forming natural passes across the range, such as are common in the Alps.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Physical Geography The huge Alpine mountain chain, of which the Pyrenees, the Alps, the Carpathians, the Balkans, and the Caucasus are the principal links, traverses the continent from west to east.
  • Caucasus (geographic region) - Factbites 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in recent years the insurgent groups across the North Caucasus have begun to form a linked command, though not yet a unified fighting force.
  • Government brutality gives rise to insurgency in NorthCaucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.windsorstar.com [Source type: News]

.In both ranges, too, some of the highest summits stand on spurs of the main range, not on the main range itself; as Mont Perdu and Maladetta lie south of the main backbone of the Pyrenees, so Mount Elbruz and Kasbek, Dykh-tau, Koshtan-tau, Janga-tau and Shkara - all amongst the loftiest peaks of the Caucasus - stand on a subsidiary range north of the principal range or on spurs connecting the two.^ In both ranges, too, some of the highest summits stand on spurs of the main range, not on the main range itself; as Mont Perdu and Maladetta lie south of the main backbone of the Pyrenees, so Mount Elbruz and Kasbek, Dykh-tau, Koshtan-tau, Janga-tau and Shkara—all amongst the loftiest peaks of the Caucasus—stand on a subsidiary range north of the principal range or on spurs connecting the two .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the main range itself stand Borbalo (10,175 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It's the highest peak in the eastern part of the Caucasus.
  • SummitPost - Caucasus -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the other hand, it is interesting to compare the arrangement of the drainage waters of the Caucasus with those of the Alps.^ On the other hand, it is interesting to compare the arrangement of the drainage waters of the Caucasus with those of the Alps .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Lyakhva and Aragva, tributaries of the Kura, carry off the waters of the main range south of Kasbek, and other tributaries, such as the Yora and the Alazan, collect the surplus drainage of the main Caucasus range farther east.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For some mountaineers, especially for those who mostly climbed in the European Alps, the Caucasus is a safe haven to escape the overcrowded peaks in the Alps.
  • SummitPost - Caucasus -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In both orographical systems the principal rivers start nearly all together from a central nucleus, and in both cases they radiate to opposite quarters of the compass; but whereas in the Alps the Rhone and the Rhine, flowing south-west and north-east respectively, follow longitudinal valleys, and the Aar and the Ticino, flowing north-west and south-east respectively, follow transverse valleys, in the Caucasus the streams which flow south-west and north-east, namely, the headwaters of the Rion and the Terek, travel along transverse valleys, and those of the Kura and the Kuban, flowing south-east and north-west respectively, traverse longitudinal valleys.^ Inboth orographical systems the principal rivers start nearly all together from a central nucleus, and in both cases they radiate to opposite quarters of the compass; but whereas in the Alps the Rhone and the Rhine, flowing south-west and north-east respectively, follow longitudinal valleys, and the Aar and the Ticino, flowing north-west and south-east respectively, follow transverse valleys, in the Caucasus the streams which flow south-west and north-east, namely, the headwaters of the Rion and the Terek, travel along transverse valleys, and those of the Kura and the Kuban, flowing south-east and north-west respectively, traverse longitudinal valleys.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Nearly all the larger rivers of Caucasia have their sources in the central parts of the Caucasus range.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is the region both west and east have their eyes on.
  • Dirty Oil Games In The Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: News]

.For purposes of description it is convenient to consider the range in four sections, a western, a middle with two subsections, and an eastern.^ For purposes of description it is convenient to consider the range in four sections, a western, a middle with two subsections, and an eastern.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It would be considered Middle Eastern if the Persians hadn’t lost it to the Russians 180 years ago, and it would still be “Russian” if it hadn’t broken away when the Soviet Union collapsed.
  • Michael J. Totten: The Explosive Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.michaeltotten.com [Source type: General]

^ The middle of the system is comparatively narrow, but its western and eastern ends have widths of 100 miles (160 km) or more.
  • Caucasus (region and mountains, Eurasia) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1. Western Caucasus. .This section, extending from the Strait of Kerch to Mount Elbruz in 42° 40' E., is over 420 m.^ This section, extending from the Strait of Kerch to Mount Elbruz in 42° 40' E., is over 420 m.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This sub-section, with a length of 200 m., reaches from Mount Elbruz to Kasbek and the Pass of Darial.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

long, and runs parallel to the north-east coast of the .Black Sea and at only a short distance from it.^ Black Sea and at only a short distance from it .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Black Sea and at only a short distance from it.

^ In the Turkish and Iranian part of the Caucasus dense forest cover occurs along the Black and Caspian Seas only.
  • Forests in the Caucasus ecoregion - Maps and Graphics at UNEP/GRID-Arendal 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC maps.grida.no [Source type: Reference]

.Between the main range and the sea there intervene at least two parallel ranges separated by deep glens, and behind it a third subsidiary parallel range, likewise separated by a deep trough-like valley, and known as the Bokovoi Khrebet.^ Between the main range and the sea there intervene at least two parallel ranges separated by deep glens, and behind it a third subsidiary parallel range, likewise separated by a deep trough-like valley, and known as the Bokovoi Khrebet.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Bokovoi Khrebet and other subsidiary ranges.

^ There are ethnic, religious and cultural differences between the two regions and Tbilisi that make unification impossible, even if the international community recognizes them as one country.

.All these ranges are shorn through transversely by numerous glens and gorges, and, the rainfall being heavy and the exposure favourable, they are densely clothed with vegetation.^ All these ranges are shorn through transversely by numerous glens and gorges, and, the rainfall being heavy and the exposure favourable, they are densely clothed with vegetation.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Down all these glens glacier streams descend, until they find an opportunity to pierce through the flanking ranges, which they do in deep and picturesque gorges, and then race down the northern slopes of the mountains to enter the Terek or the Kuban, or down the southern versant to join the Rion or the Kura .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But, austere and unattractive though these valleys are, the same epithets cannot be applied to the deep gorges by which in most cases the streams make their escape through the northern subsidiary range.

.Many of the spurs or broken segments of ranges thus formed abut steeply upon the Black Sea, so that this littoral region is on the whole very rugged and not readily accessible, especially as the general elevations are considerable.^ Many of the spurs or broken segments of ranges thus formed abut steeply upon the Black Sea, so that this littoral region is on the whole very rugged and not readily accessible, especially as the general elevations are considerable.

^ Many of the spurs or broken segments of ranges thus formed abut steeply upon the Black Sea, so that this littoral region is on the whole very rugged and not readily accessible, especially as the general elevations are considerable .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are two refugia of Tertiary flora in the region: the Colchis in the catchment basin of the Black Sea, and the Hyrcanian in the extreme southeastern end of the Caucasus on the Caspian Sea coast.
  • Biodiversity Hotspots - Caucasus - Overview 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.biodiversityhotspots.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Biological diversity in the Caucasus - Encyclopedia of Earth 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

.The seaward flanking ranges run up to 4000 ft.^ The seaward flanking ranges run up to 4000 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Along the northern border of Georgia run the Caucasus Mountains, the highest mountain range in Europe, rising to the 18,510 ft.
  • Armenia and Georgia, Culmen Europae 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Walnuts grow up to an altitude of 5400 ft., the vine and mulberry up to 3250 ft., the lime and ash to 4000 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

and more, and in many places shoot out cliffs which overhang the coast some 2000-3000 ft. sheer, while the main range gradually ascends to .10,000-12,000 ft.^ They mostly range at altitudes of 9000 - 12,500 ft., and between the pass of Nakhar in the west and that of Mamison in the east there is not a single pass below 10,000 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a rule the snow-line runs at 9500 to 10,000 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

as it advances eastwards, the principal peaks being .Fisht (8040 ft.^ Fisht (8040 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

), .Oshten (9210 ft.^ Oshten (9210 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

), .Shuguz (10,640 ft.^ Shuguz (10,640 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

), and .Psysh (12,425 ft.^ Psysh (12,425 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

). .And whereas the main range is built up of hard eruptive or crystalline rocks, the subsidiary chains are composed of softer (Cretaceous and Tertiary) laminated formations, which easily become disintegrated and dislocated.^ And whereas the main range is built up of hard eruptive or crystalline rocks, the subsidiary chains are composed of softer (Cretaceous and Tertiary) laminated formations, which easily become disintegrated and dislocated .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And whereas the main range is built up of hard eruptive or crystalline rocks, the subsidiary chains are composed of softer (Cretaceous and Tertiary) laminated formations, which easily become disintegrated and dislocated.

^ In this section of the Caucasus the loftiest peaks do not as a rule rise on the main range, but in many cases on the short spurs that link it with the Bokovoi Khrebet and other subsidiary ranges.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The snow-line runs here at about 9000 ft.^ As a rule the snow-line runs at 9500 to 10,000 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The snow-line runs here at about 9000 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The upper limit of arborescent vegetation is considered to run at 7000-7500 ft., of shrubs such as rhododendrons at 8500 ft., and of pasture-lands up to 9000 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

on the loftiest summits, and east of .Oshten the crest of the main range is capped with perpetual snow and carries many hanging glaciers, while larger glaciers creep down the principal valleys.^ Oshten the crest of the main range is capped with perpetual snow and carries many hanging glaciers, while larger glaciers creep down the principal valleys.

^ Oshten the crest of the main range is capped with perpetual snow and carries many hanging glaciers, while larger glaciers creep down the principal valleys .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As the main range approaches the Caspian its granite core gradually disappears, giving place to Palaeozoic schists, which spread down both the northern and the southern slopes.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The passes lie at relatively great altitudes and are few in number, so that although the northern versants of the various ranges all have a tolerably gentle slope, communication between the Black Sea and the valley of the Kuban, and the low steppe country beyond, is the reverse of easy.^ The passes lie at relatively great altitudes and are few in number, so that although the northern versants of the various ranges all have a tolerably gentle slope, communication between the Black Sea and the valley of the Kuban, and the low steppe country beyond, is the reverse of easy.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Down all these glens glacier streams descend, until they find an opportunity to pierce through the flanking ranges, which they do in deep and picturesque gorges, and then race down the northern slopes of the mountains to enter the Terek or the Kuban, or down the southern versant to join the Rion or the Kura .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is estimated that there are in all over nine hundred glaciers in this section of the range, and although they often rival those of the Alps in size, they do not descend generally to such low altitudes as the latter.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The more important passes, proceeding from west to east, are Pshekh (5435 ft.^ The more important passes, proceeding from west to east, are Pshekh (5435 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tskhinvali is the “cork in the bottle” leading from the Caucasus passes to the long plain that runs west to east across Georgia.

^ The most frequented pass, that of Alty-agach, necessitates a climb of not more than 4355 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

) west of .Oshten, and Shetlib (6060 ft.^ Oshten, and Shetlib (6060 ft.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

) east of .Oshten, Pseashka (6880 ft.^ Oshten, Pseashka (6880 ft.

) east of .Shuguz, Sanchar (7990 ft.^ Shuguz, Sanchar (7990 ft.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

) west of .Psysh; and between the last-named mountain and Elbruz, facilitating communication between Sukhum-Kaleh (and the coast as far as Poti) and the upper valley of the Kuban, are the passes of Marukh (11,500 ft.^ Psysh; and between the last-named mountain and Elbruz, facilitating communication between Sukhum-Kaleh (and the coast as far as Poti) and the upper valley of the Kuban, are the passes of Marukh (11,500 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sukhum-Kaleh and Batum), maize (yielding the staple food of the inhabitants), wheat (up to 6000 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Adai-khohk and Kasbek; and the two Karaul passes (11,680 and 11,270 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

), .Klukhor (9450 ft.^ Klukhor (9450 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

) and Nakhar (9 61 5 ft.).
Table of contents

Flora

.The southern exposure of this littoral region, the shelter afforded against the bitter winds of the north by the lofty Caucasus range, and the copious rainfall all combine to foster a luxuriant and abundant vegetation.^ The southern exposure of this littoral region, the shelter afforded against the bitter winds of the north by the lofty Caucasus range, and the copious rainfall all combine to foster a luxuriant and abundant vegetation.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the end of the 7th century the Arabic empire started to annex southern regions of the Caucasus, during the 16th century the Osmanians came and finally in the 19th century the Russian empire started to fight against the mountain peoples in the Caucasus.
  • SummitPost - Caucasus -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the north-west this rugged highland region is well defined by the distinctive trans-verse ridge of Andi, which to the east of Kasbek strikes off from the Caucasus range almost at right angles.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The most distinguishing feature of the flora of this region is the predominance of arborescent growths; forests cover in fact 56% of the area, and are not only dense but laced together with climbing and twining plants.^ The most distinguishing feature of the flora of this region is the predominance of arborescent growths; forests cover in fact 56% of the area, and are not only dense but laced together with climbing and twining plants.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An additional problem in Central Asia is the growing "technology divide"--not only with the West, but also with Russia, and between the regional capitals and provincial cities and rural areas.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Foreign direct investment and external assistance are the most important drivers for economic growth in the region .
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The commonest species of trees are such as grow in central Europe, namely, ash, fir, pine, beech, acacia, maple, birch, box, chestnut, laurel, holm-oak, poplar, elm, lime, yew, elder, willow, oak.^ The commonest species of trees are such as grow in central Europe, namely, ash, fir, pine, beech, acacia, maple, birch, box, chestnut, laurel, holm-oak, poplar, elm, lime, yew, elder, willow, oak.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A belt of dark coniferous forests grows between 1,000 and 2,000 m, 70% consisting of Caucasian fir Abies nordmanniana and various pines Pinus spp.
  • Western Caucasus, Russian Federation - Encyclopedia of Earth 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Problems of Post-Communism is published by M.E. Sharpe and, as the name suggests, addresses the ongoing transitions in Central and Eastern Europe and Eurasia.
  • Central Asia and the Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.sras.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The common box is especially prevalent, but the preponderating species are Coniferae, including the Caucasian species Pinus halepensis and P. insignis. The commonest firs are Abies nordmannia and A. orientalis. There are two native oaks, Quercus pont'icus and Q. sessiliflora. A great variety of shrubs grow on these slopes of the western Caucasus, chiefly the following species, several of which are indigenous - Rhododendron ponticum, Azalea pontica, Aristotelia maqui, Agave between 1864 and 1878, and the country where they had lived remained for the most part unoccupied until after the beginning of the 10th century.^ The Caucasus has a great variety of flora and also fauna.
  • SummitPost - Caucasus -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These consist of sessile and downy oaks Quercus petraea and Q.pubescens , pear Pyrus communis , European chestnut Castanea sativa , hornbeam Carpinus caucasica and oriental beech Fagus orientalis .
  • Western Caucasus, Russian Federation - Encyclopedia of Earth 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A belt of dark coniferous forests grows between 1,000 and 2,000 m, 70% consisting of Caucasian fir Abies nordmanniana and various pines Pinus spp.
  • Western Caucasus, Russian Federation - Encyclopedia of Earth 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

.Then, however, the Russian government held out inducements to settlers, and these have been responded to by Russians, Greeks, Armenians and Rumanians, but the process of repeopling the long deserted territory is slow and difficult.^ Then, however, the Russian government held out inducements to settlers, and these have been responded to by Russians, Greeks, Armenians and Rumanians, but the process of repeopling the long deserted territory is slow and difficult.

^ Armenians, Tartars, and the Russian government 9.
  • The peoples and history of the Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC armenianhouse.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Over the Frosty Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC armenianhouse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "The Russian government needs to work out a strategy, it needs to attack," the Chechen president said.

.The coast-line is remarkably regular, there being no deep bays and few seaports.^ The coast-line is remarkably regular, there being no deep bays and few seaports.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The best accommodation that these latter afford consists of more or less open roadsteads, e.g. Novo-rossiysk, Gelenjik, Anapa, Sukhum-Kaleh, Poti and Batum.^ The best accommodation that these latter afford consists of more or less open roadsteads, e.g.

^ The most promising of these little seaside places are Anapa, Gelenjik and Gagry.

^ Novo-rossiysk, Gelenjik, Anapa , Sukhum-Kaleh, Poti and Batum .

.Along the coast a string of summer bathing resorts is springing up similar to those that dot the south-east coast of the Crimea.^ Along the coast a string of summer bathing resorts is springing up similar to those that dot the south-east coast of the Crimea .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Where the central passes proved too difficult of access, the invaders crossed by the lower hills to the east or crept round along the Caspian coast.
  • Over the Frosty Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC armenianhouse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ ABASGIA Also known as Abkhazia or Akhazia, it is a mountainous district along the east coast of the Black Sea, to the northeast of Georgia.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.The most promising of these little seaside places are Anapa, Gelenjik and Gagry.^ The most promising of these little seaside places are Anapa, Gelenjik and Gagry.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.2. Middle Caucasus: (a) Western Half.-This sub-section, with a length of 200 m., reaches from Mount Elbruz to Kasbek and the Pass of Darial.^ This sub-section, with a length of 200 m., reaches from Mount Elbruz to Kasbek and the Pass of Darial.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The highest peak in the Caucasus is Mount Elbrus (5,642 m) in the western Ciscaucasus in Russia, which is the highest point in Europe (according to the definitions of Europe as including Caucasus).
  • Caucasus - Constructed worlds 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC conworld.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this section of the Caucasus the passes run somewhat lower than those between Elbruz and Kasbek, though still at appreciable heights, fully equal to those that lead up from the Black Sea to the valley of the Kuban in the western section of the range.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.It contains the loftiest summits of the entire range, fully a dozen exceeding Mont Blanc in altitude (see table below).^ It contains the loftiest summits of the entire range, fully a dozen exceeding Mont Blanc in altitude (see table below) .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The crest of the main range runs continuously at an altitude exceeding l0,000 ft., but even it is surpassed in elevation by the secondary range to the north, the Bokovoi Khrebet.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

Name of Peak.
Altitude
in Feet.
By whom ascended.
Date.
Elbruz, E. peak.. .
28 ,345
D. W. Freshfield, A. W. Moore and C. Tucker
1868
Elbruz, W. peak. .
18,465
F. C. Grove, H. Walker and F. Gardiner
1874
„ „
C. P. Woolley
2889
Donguz-orun
14,600
G. Merzbacher and L. Purtscheller
1890
and H. Fox
1888
Helbling, Reichert and Weber
1903
Shtavler
13, 05
Ficker, W. R. Rickmers, Scheck and Wigner
2903
Ledosht-tau.. .
12,580
Schuster and Wigner
2903
Hevai. .. .
13,055
Schuster and Wigner
1903
Lakra-tau
12,185
Rolleston and Longstaff
1903
Ushba, N.E. peak. .
15,400
Cockin
1888
Ushba, S.W. peak .
15,410
Helbling, Schulze, Reichert, Schuster and
1903
Weber
Ushba, both peak
..
Distel, Leuchs and Pfann
1903
Sultran-kol-bashi .
12,495
Grove, Walker and Gardiner
1874
Bak
11,739
Collier, Solly and Newmarch
2894
Gulba
12,500
Freshfield
1887
Salynan-bashi .
14,700
Cockin and H. W. Holder
1888
Shikildi-tau. .
14,170
Helbling, Reichert, Schulze and Weber
1903
Bshedukh. ... .
14,010
Distel, Leuchs and Pfann
2903
Ullu-tau-cha.na.. .
13,800
Rolleston and Longstaff
2903
Adyr-su-bashi.. .
24,335
Holder, Cockin and Woolley
2896
Sullu-kol-bashi.. .
23,970
Merzbacher and Purtscheller
2890
Tikhtengen
15,135
Rolleston and Longstaff
1903
Gestola
25,940
C. T. Dent and Donkin
1886
Tetnuld
15,920
Freshfield
1887
Adis': „ or Katuyn-tau .
16,295
Merzbacher and Purtscheller
Holder and Woolley
1890
1888
Janga-tau, E. peak .
16,525
Cockin
1888
„ „
and Purtscheller
18Qo
Janga-tau, E. and W.
peaks
W. peak,
16,660
Helbling, Reichert, Schulze and Weber
'903
Shkara
17,040
Cockin
1888
Ailama
14,855
Woolley
1889
Ullu-auz
15,350
V. Sella
1888
Dykh-tau 1
17,050
Cockin, Holder and Woolley
1888
Koshtan-tau 2 .
16,875
Woolley
1888
Mishirghi-tau, E. peak
26,350
Woolley
1889
Laboda
14,170
Dent and Woolley
1895
Tsikhvarga, E. peak .
23,575
V. Sella
2890
,,W. peak .
13,575
Holder and Cockin
1890
Karagom-khokh or
Burdshula. .
14,295
Holder and Cockin
1890
Adai-khokh.. .
15,275
Holder and Cockin
1890
Tepli. ... .
14,510
V. Sella
1896
Kasbek.. .
16,545
Freshfield, Moore and Tucker
1868
Woolley
1889
Merzbacher
2890
V. Sella
2896
Gimarai-khokh. .
15,670
Merzbacher
1890
Laila, N. peak .
13,045
Freshfield and Powell
2889
Laila, middle peak
13,155
V. Sella
2889
Laila, S. peak .
13,105
Merzbacher and Purtscheller
1890
Khamkhakhi-khokh. .
14,065
M. de Dechy
1884
.americana, Cephalaria tatarica, Cotoneaster pyracantha, Citrus aurantium, Diospyros ebenum, Ficus carica, Illicium anisatum, Ligustrum caucasicum, Punica granatum, Philadelphu.s coronarius, Pyrus salicifolia, Rhus cotinus and six species of Viburnum. Aquatic plants thrive excellently and occur in great variety.^ Aquatic plants thrive excellently and occur in great variety.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cephalaria tatarica, Cotoneaster pyracantha, Citrus aurantium, Diospyros ebenum, Ficus carica, Illicium anisatum, Ligustrum caucasicum, Punica granatum, Philadelphu.s coronarius, Pyrus salicifolia, Rhus cotinus and six species of Viburnum .

^ A great variety of shrubs grow on these slopes of the western Caucasus, chiefly the following species, several of which are indigenous— Rhododendron ponticum , Azalea pantica , Aristotelia maqui , Agave americana , Cephalaria tatarica , Cotoneaster pyracantha , Citrus aurantium , Diospyros ebenum , Ficus carica , Illicium anisatum , Ligustrum caucasicum , Punica granatum , Philadel phus coronarius , Pyrus salicifolia , Rhus cotinus and six species of Viburnum .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The following purely Caucasian species also grow on the coastfive species of spearwort, three of saxifrage, Aster caucasica, Dioscorea caucasica, Echinops raddeanus, Hedera colchica, Helleborus caucasica and Peucedanum caucasicum. Here too are found many of the more beautiful open-air flowering plants of a shrubby character, e.g. magnolia, azalea, camellia, begonia and paulownia.^ Here too are found many of the more beautiful open- air flowering plants of a shrubby character, e.g.

^ The following purely Caucasian species also grow on the coast-five species of spearwort, three of saxifrage, Aster caucasica , Dioscorea caucasica , Echinops raddeanus , Hedera colchica , Hellebores caucasica and Peucedanum caucasicum .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Here too are found many of the more beautiful open-air flowering plants of a shrubby character, e.g.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.Among the cultivated trees and shrubs the most valuable economically are the vine, peach, pomegranate, fig, olive (up to 1500 ft.^ Among the cultivated trees and shrubs the most valuable economically are the vine, peach, pomegranate, fig, olive (up to 1500 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Among the cultivated trees and shrubs the most valuable economically are the vine , peach , pomegranate , fig, olive (up to 1500 ft.

^ The upper limit of arborescent vegetation is considered to run at 7000-7500 ft., of shrubs such as rhododendrons at 850o ft., and of pasture-lands up to 9000 ft.

above sea-level), chestnut, .apricot, apple, pear, plum, cherry, melon, tea (on the coast between SukhumKaleh and Batum), maize (yielding the staple food of the inhabitants), wheat (up to 6000 ft.^ SukhumKaleh and Batum), maize (yielding the staple food of the inhabitants), wheat (up to 6000 ft.

^ Sukhum-Kaleh and Batum), maize (yielding the staple food of the inhabitants), wheat (up to 6000 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

), potatoes, peas, currants, cotton, rice, colza and tobacco. .Before the Russian conquest the native inhabitants of this region were Kabardians, Circassians (Adigheh) and Abkhasians, also a Circassian race.^ Before the Russian conquest the native inhabitants of this region were Kabardians, Circassians (Adigheh) and Abkhasians, also a Circassian race.

^ Before the Russian conquest the native inhabitants of this region were Kabardians, Circassians (Adigheh) and Abkhasians also a Circassian race But half a million of these th the yoke of Christian Russia, emigrated into Turkish territory between 1864 and 1878, and the country where they had lived remained for the most part unoccupied until after the beginning of the 20th century.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thereafter the Ossetians broke up into tribes and factions which were usually under Russian, Kabardian, Circassian or Georgian domination.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.But half a million of these people being Mahommedans, and refusing to submit to the yoke of Christian Russia, emigrated into Turkish territory List of Peaks in the west central Caucasus, with their altitudes, names and dates of mountaineers who have climbed them. 1 Formerly the Koshtan-tau.^ Formerly the Koshtan-tau.

^ But half a million of these people being Mahommedans, and refusing to submit to the yoke of Christian Russia , emigrated into Turkish territory List of Peaks in the west central Caucasus, with their altitudes, names and dates of mountaineers who have climbed them.

^ Dong-osenghi, 14,265 ft.; Kurmychi, 13,310 ft.; Ullu- % 14,070 ft.; Jailyk; 17,780 ft.; List of Peaks in the west central Caucasus, with their altitudes, names and dates of mountaineers Sarikol-bashi, 13,965 ft.; Dumala-tau, who have climbed them .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.2 Formerly the Dykh-tau.^ Formerly the Dykh-tau.

.The crest of the main range runs continuously at an altitude exceeding 10,000 ft., but even it is surpassed in elevation by the secondary range to the north, the Bokovoi Khrebet.^ On the main range itself stand Borbalo (10,175 ft.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The crest of the main range runs continuously at an altitude exceeding 10,000 ft., but even it is surpassed in elevation by the secondary range to the north, the Bokovoi Khrebet.

^ The crest of the main range runs continuously at an altitude exceeding l0,000 ft., but even it is surpassed in elevation by the secondary range to the north, the Bokovoi Khrebet.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.These two ranges are connected by more than half a dozen short transverse spurs or necks, inclosing as many cirques or high cauldron glens.^ These two ranges are connected by more than half a dozen short trans-verse spurs or necks, inclosing as many cirques or high cauldron glens.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These two ranges are connected by more than half a dozen short transverse spurs or necks, inclosing as many cirques or high cauldron glens.

^ Besides the Bokovoi Khrebet several other short subsidiary ranges branch off from the main range at acute angles, lifting up high montane glens between them; for instance, the two ranges in Svanetia, which divide, the one the river (glen) Ingur from the river (glen) Tskhenis-Tskhali, and the other the river (glen) Tskhenis-Tskhali from the rivers (glens) Lechkhum and Racha.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.Besides the Bokovoi Khrebet several other short subsidiary ranges branch off from the main range at acute angles, lifting up high montane glens between them; for instance, the two ranges in Svanetia, which divide, the one the river (glen) Ingur from the river (glen) Tskhenis-Tskhali, and the other the river (glen) TskhenisTskhali from the rivers (glens) Lechkhum and Racha.Down all these glens glacier streams descend, until they find an opportunity to pierce through the flanking ranges, which they do in deep and picturesque gorges, and then race down the northern slopes of the mountains to enter the Terek or the Kuban, or down the southern versant to join the Rion or the Kura.^ Down all these glens glacier streams descend, until they find an opportunity to pierce through the flanking ranges, which they do in deep and picturesque gorges, and then race down the northern slopes of the mountains to enter the Terek or the Kuban, or down the southern versant to join the Rion or the Kura .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ingur with the valley of the Tskhenis-Tskhali.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides the Bokovoi Khrebet several other short subsidiary ranges branch off from the main range at acute angles, lifting up high montane glens between them; for instance, the two ranges in Svanetia , which divide, the one the river (glen) Ingur from the river (glen) Tskhenis-Tskhali, and the other the river (glen) TskhenisTskhali from the rivers (glens) Lechkhum and Racha.Down all these glens glacier streams descend, until they find an opportunity to pierce through the flanking ranges, which they do in deep and picturesque gorges, and then race down the northern slopes of the mountains to enter the Terek or the Kuban, or down the southern versant to join the Rion or the Kura.

.Amongst all these high glens there is a remarkable absence of lakes and waterfalls; nor are there down in the lower valleys at the foot of the mountains, as one would naturally expect in a region so extensively glaciated, any sheets of water corresponding to the Swiss lakes.^ Amongst all these high glens there is a remarkable absence of lakes and waterfalls; nor are there down in the lower valleys at the foot of the mountains, as one would naturally expect in a region so extensively glaciated, any sheets of water corresponding to the Swiss lakes.

^ Amongst all these high glens there is a remark-able absence of lakes and waterfalls; nor are there down in the lower valleys at the foot bf the mountains, as one would naturally expect in a region so extensively glaciated, any sheets of water corresponding to the Swiss lakes.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Down all these glens glacier streams descend, until they find an opportunity to pierce through the flanking ranges, which they do in deep and picturesque gorges, and then race down the northern slopes of the mountains to enter the Terek or the Kuban, or down the southern versant to join the Rion or the Kura .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.In this section of the Caucasus the loftiest peaks do not In addition to the peaks enumerated in the table, the following also exist between Elbruz and Kasbek all exceeding 13,000 ft.^ In this section of the Caucasus no peak exceeds 9000 ft.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And the great height (13,000 ft.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this section of the Caucasus the loftiest peaks do not In addition to the peaks enumerated in the table, the following also exist between Elbruz and Kasbek all exceeding 13,000 ft.

in altitude: .Dong-osenghi, 14,265 ft.; Kurmychi, 13,310 ft.; Ullukara-tau, 24,070 ft.; Jailyk, 17,780 ft.; Sarikol-bashi, 13,965 ft.; Dumala-tau, 24,950 ft.; Sugan-tau, 14,730 ft.; Tiutiu-bashi, 14,500 ft.; Nuamkuam, 1 3,975 ft.; Zurungal, 13,915 ft.; Mala-tau, 24,950 ft.; Tiutiun-tau, 15,115 ft.; Khrumkol-tau, 14,653 ft.; Bubis-khokh, 24,500 ft.; Giulchi, 14,680 ft.; Doppakh, 14,240 ft.; Nakhashbita-khokh, '4,405 ft.; Shankhokh, 14,335 ft.; Mishirghi-tau (W. peak), 16,410 ft.; Fytnargyn-tau, 13,790 ft.; Gezeh-tau, 14,140 ft.; and Kaltber, 14,460 ft.^ Dong-osenghi, 14,265 ft.; Kurmychi, 13,310 ft.; Ullukara-tau, 24,070 ft.; Jailyk, 17,780 ft.; Sarikol-bashi, 13,965 ft.; Dumala-tau, 24,950 ft.; Sugan-tau, 14,730 ft.; Tiutiu-bashi, 14,500 ft.; Nuamkuam, 1 3,975 ft.; Zurungal, 13,915 ft.; Mala-tau, 24,950 ft.; Tiutiun-tau, 15,115 ft.; Khrumkol-tau, 14,653 ft.; Bubis-khokh, 24,500 ft.; Giulchi, 14,680 ft.; Doppakh, 14,240 ft.; Nakhashbita-khokh, '4,405 ft.; Shankhokh, 14,335 ft.; Mishirghi-tau (W. peak), 16,410 ft.; Fytnargyn-tau, 13,790 ft.; Gezeh-tau, 14,140 ft.; and Kaltber, 14,460 ft.

^ Mishirghi-tau, E. peak .

^ Here the principal peaks, again found for the most part on the spurs and subsidiary ranges, are the Tsmiakom-khokh (13,570 ft.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

as a rule rise on the main range, but in many cases on the short spurs that .link it with the Bokovoi Khrebet and other subsidiary ranges.^ Bokovoi Khrebet and other subsidiary ranges.

^ Between the main range and the sea there intervene at least two parallel ranges separated by deep glens, and behind it a third subsidiary parallel range, likewise separated by a deep trough-like valley, and known as the Bokovoi Khrebet.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides the Bokovoi Khrebet several other short subsidiary ranges branch off from the main range at acute angles, lifting up high montane glens between them; for instance, the two ranges in Svanetia, which divide, the one the river (glen) Ingur from the river (glen) Tskhenis-Tskhali, and the other the river (glen) Tskhenis-Tskhali from the rivers (glens) Lechkhum and Racha.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

." The central chain of the Caucasus," writes Mr Douglas W. Freshfield,' " consists of a number of short parallel or curved horseshoe ridges, crowned with rocky peaks and enclosing basins filled by the neves of great glaciers..^ "The central chain of the Caucasus," writes Mr Douglas W .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The central chain of the Caucasus," writes Mr Douglas W. Freshfield,' " consists of a number of short parallel or curved horseshoe ridges, crowned with rocky peaks and enclosing basins filled by the neves of great glaciers..

^ Freshfield, [1] "consists of a number of short parallel or curved horse-shoe rides, crowned with rocky peaks and enclosing basins filled by the névés of great glaciers .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.On either side of the main chain the same succession is repeated, with one important difference.^ On either side of the main chain the same succession is repeated, with one important difference.

^ On either side of the main chain the same succession is repeated, with one important difference .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The difference in character of the Jurassic beds on the two sides of the chain appears to indicate that a ridge existed Metamorphic Plutonic & Volcanic in that period.

.On the north the schists come first, sometimes rising into peaks and ridges in a state of ruin.^ On the north the schists come first, sometimes rising into peaks and ridges in a state of ruin .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the north the schists come first, sometimes rising into peaks and ridges in a state of ruin.

^ Expediting dissolution in the North Caucasus only increases the risk of Russian nuclear materials and other weapons coming into the possession of terrorists.
  • America's Inheritance in the Caucasus - by Christopher Deliso 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.antiwar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.. but more often worn to rolling .downs; then the limestone range - writing-desk mountains that turn their steep fronts to the central snows; lastly low Cretaceous foothills, that sink softly into the steppe.^ Cretaceous foothills, that sink softly into the steppe .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cretaceous foothills, that sink softly into the steppe.

^ Oshten the crest of the main range is capped with perpetual snow and carries many hanging glaciers, while larger glaciers creep down the principal valleys.

.But on the south side the crystalline rocks are succeeded by a broad belt of slates, as to the age of which the evidence is at present conflicting and the opinion of geologists divided.^ But on the south side the crystal-line rocks are succeeded by a broad belt of slates, as to the age of which the evidence is at present conflicting and the opinion of geologists divided.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.East of Adai-khokh, by what seems a strange freak of nature, the granitic [main] range is rent over and over again to its base by gorges, the watershed being transferred to the parallel chain of clay slates.^ East of Adai-khokh, by what seems a strange freak of nature, the granitic [main] range is rent over and over again to its base by gorges, the watershed being transferred to the parallel chain of clay slates .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ East of Adai-khokh, by what seems a strange freak of nature, the granitic [main] range is rent over and over again to its base by gorges, the watershed being transferred to the parallel chain of clay slates.

^ As the main range approaches the Caspian its granite core gradually disappears, giving place to Palaeozoic schists, which spread down both the northern and the southern slopes.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.. which has followed it from the .Black Sea, attaining on its way the height of 13,400 ft.^ And the great height (13,000 ft.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Black Sea, attaining on its way the height of 13,400 ft.
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^ Koisu and rising to over 13,400 ft.

in the Laila, and limiting the great parallel basins of the Rion, Ingur and Skenis Shari [ = Tskhenis-Tskhali] ..." " At the base of the central core of the chain spread (to the north) broad, smooth, grassy downs, the pastures of the Turk and the Ossete.. .Their ridges attain to 9000 to Io,000 ft.^ Their ridges attain to 9000 to Io,000 ft.

^ They mostly range at altitudes of 900012,500 ft., and between the pass of Nakhar in the west and that of Mamison in the east there is not a single pass below io,000 ft.

^ As a rule the snow-line runs at 9500 to Io,000 ft.

.They are composed of friable crystalline schists..^ They are composed of friable crystalline schists..

^ They are composed of friable crystalline schists .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.Beyond these schists rises a broken wall of limestone, cleft to the base by gorges, through which flow the mountain torrents, and capped by pale precipitous battlements, which face the central chain at a height of 11,000 to 12,000 ft.^ Beyond these schists rises a broken wall of limestone, cleft to the base by gorges, through which flow the mountain torrents, and capped by pale precipitous battlements, which face the central chain at a height of 11,000 to 12,000 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And the great height (13,000 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Caucasia is a broad isthmus between the Black Sea and the Caspian, traversed by a great chain of mountains rising to a height of 18,000 feet.
  • The peoples and history of the Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC armenianhouse.org [Source type: Original source]

.Beyond, again, lies a broad furrow, or ` longitudinal fold,' as geologists call it, parallel to the ridges, and then rises the last elevation, a belt of low calcareous hills, on which, here and there among the waves of beech forest, purple or blue with distance, a white cliff retains its local colour and shines like a patch of fresh snow.^ Beyond, again, lies a broad furrow, or 'longitudinal fold,' as geologists call it, parallel to the ridges, and then rises the last elevation, a belt of low calcareous hills, on which, here and there among the waves of beech forest, purple or blue with distance, a white cliff retains its local colour and shines like a patch of fresh snow.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Beyond, again, lies a broad furrow, or ` longitudinal fold ,' as geologists call it, parallel to the ridges, and then rises the last elevation, a belt of low calcareous hills, on which, here and there among the waves of beech forest, purple or blue with distance, a white cliff retains its local colour and shines like a patch of fresh snow.

^ Again we toil up hill and down dale, through a narrow gorge, and out into a broad space beyond where two valleys meet; there on a rocky eminence commanding the passage rises the picturesque stronghold of Annanur, “ le seul sourire du Caucase ” as a French writer called it.
  • Over the Frosty Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC armenianhouse.org [Source type: Original source]

.Beyond, once more beyond, spreads the Scythian steppe, not the dead level of Lombardy, but an expanse of long low modulations, which would be reckoned hills in our home counties, seamed by long shining ribbons, which mark the courses of the tributaries of the Terek..^ Beyond, once more beyond, spreads the Scythian steppe, not the dead level of Lombardy, but an expanse of long low modulations, which would be reckoned hills in our home counties, seamed by long shining ribbons, which mark the courses of the tributaries of the Terek .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Beyond, once more beyond, spreads the Scythian steppe, not the dead level of Lombardy , but an expanse of long low modulations, which would be reckoned hills in our home counties, seamed by long shining ribbons , which mark the courses of the tributaries of the Terek..

^ By Mark Dillen Tuesday, April 14 11:46 am EST Georgia may have once been America’s darling in the Caucasus, but no more.

.Southwards too, immediately under the snows, we find ` crystalline schists,' smooth grassy heights, separated by shallow trenches, which form the lesser undulations of the three basins, the drei Langenhochthdler Imeritiens of Dr Radde.^ Southwards too, immediately under the snows, we find 'crystalline sclusts,' smooth grassy heights, separated by shallow trenches, which form the lesser undulations of the three basins, the drei Langenhochthäler Imeritiens of Dr Radde.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Southwards too, immediately under the snows, we find ` crystalline schists,' smooth grassy heights, separated by shallow trenches, which form the lesser undulations of the three basins, the drei Langenhochthdler Imeritiens of Dr Radde.

.These basins or ` longitudinal folds ' are enclosed on the south by the long high ridge of dark slates, which extends parallel to the crystalline [main] chain from the neighbourhood of Sukhum-Kale to the Krestovaya Gora [pass of Darial.] Behind this slate crest spreads a confused multitude of hills, Jurassic and Cretaceous in their formation..^ Behind this slate crest spreads a confused multitude of hills, Jurassic and Cretaceous in their formation..

^ These basins or ` longitudinal folds ' are enclosed on the south by the long high ridge of dark slates, which extends parallel to the crystalline [main] chain from the neighbourhood of Sukhum-Kale to the Krestovaya Gora [pass of Darial.

^ These basins or 'longitudinal folds' are enclosed on the south by the long high ridge of dark slates, which extends parallel to the crystalline [main) chain from the neighbourhood of Sukhum-Kale to the Krestovaya Gora [pass of Darial.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.. .Their outer edge, distant some 30 to 40 m.^ Their outer edge, distant some 30 to 4om.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Their outer edge, distant some 30 to 40 m.

from the snows, is marked by a limestone belt, lower and less continuous than that on the north, which frames the gorges of the .Rion, and rises in the Kuamli (6352 ft.^ Rion, and rises in the Kuamli (652 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rion, and rises in the Kuamli (6352 ft.

) and .Nakarala 4774 ft.^ Nakarala 4774 ft.

) near Kutais, its best known elevations." 2 It may be added that, south of the central watershed, the strata, both Mesozoic and Palaeozoic, are compressed, crumpled, faulted and frequently overfolded, with their apices pointing to the south.

Glaciers

.As a rule the snow-line runs at 9500 to Io,000 ft.^ As a rule the snow-line runs at 9500 to Io,000 ft.

^ As a rule the snow-line runs at 9500 to 10,000 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The snow-line runs here at about 9000 ft.
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on the northern face and t000 ft. higher on the southern face. .It is estimated that there are in all over nine hundred glaciers in this section of the range, and although they often rival those of the Alps in size, they do not descend generally to such low altitudes as the latter.^ It is estimated that there are in all over nine hundred glaciers in this section of the range, and although they often rival those of the Alps in size, they do not descend generally to such low altitudes as the latter.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Down all these glens glacier streams descend, until they find an opportunity to pierce through the flanking ranges, which they do in deep and picturesque gorges, and then race down the northern slopes of the mountains to enter the Terek or the Kuban, or down the southern versant to join the Rion or the Kura .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fresh-field's description of the valley of the Terek above Kasbek will apply pretty generally to all the valleys that descend on that face of the range: " treeless valleys, bold rocks, slopes of forbidding steepness (even to eyes accustomed to those of the Alps), and stonebuilt villages, scarcely distinguishable from the neighbouring crags."
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The best known are the Bezingi or Ullu, between Dykh-tau and Janga-tau, 102 m.^ The best known are the Bezingi or Ullu, between Dykh-tau and Janga-tau, 102 m.

^ The best known are the Bezingi or Ullu, between Dykh-tau and Janga-tau, 10½ m.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

long, covering an area of 31 sq. m., and descending to 6535 ft. above sea-level; .Leksyr, situated south of Adyr-su-bashi, 72 m.^ Leksyr, situated south of Adyr-su-bashi, 72 m.

^ Leksyr, situated south of Adyr-su-bashi, 7½ m.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Adyr-su-bashi..

long, 19 sq. m. in area, and creeping down to as low as .5690 ft., this being the lowest point to which any glacier descends on the south side of the range; Tseya or Zea, descending 6 m.^ Tseya or Zea, descending 6 m.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The pass by which this road crosses the main range, farther south, is known as the Krestovaya Gora (Mountain of the Cross) and lies 7805 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On some of these peaks again there is a considerable amount of glaciation, more particularly on the slopes of Diklos-mta, where the glaciers descend to 7700 ft.
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from the .Adai-khokh to an altitude of 6730 ft.; Karagom, from the same mountain, 92 m.^ Adai-khokh to an altitude of 6730 ft.; Karagom, from the same mountain, 9½ m.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Adai-khokh to an altitude of 6730 ft.; Karagom, from the same mountain, 92 m.

^ The Mamison Pass, over which runs the Ossetic military road (made passable for vehicles in 1889)from the Terek(below Vladikavkaz) to Kutais in the valley of the Rion, skirting the eastern foot of the Adai-khokh, lies at an altitude of 9270 ft.

long, 14 sq. m. in area and reaching down to .5790 ft., the lowest on the north side; Dyevdorak or Devdorak, from Kasbek, 22 m.^ Dyevdorak or Devdorak, from Kasbek, 22 m.

^ Dyevdorak or Devdorak, from Kasbek, 24 m.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

long, its lower end at .7530 ft.; Khaldeh or Geresho 44 m.^ Khaldeh or Geresho 44 m.

long, from .Shkara and Janga-tau; Tuyber from Tetnuld, 6z m.^ Shkara and Janga-tau; Tuyber from Tetnuld, 64 m.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Shkara and Janga-tau; Tuyber from Tetnuld, 6z m.

long, area 21 sq. m., and reaching down to .6565 ft.; Tsanner or Zanner, the same length and the same area, but stopping short 240 ft.^ Tsanner or Zanner, the same length and the same area, but stopping short 240 ft.
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higher, likewise given off by .Tetnuld; while between that peak, Adish and Gestola originates the Adish or Lardkhat glacier, 5 m.^ Tetnuld; while between that peak, Adish and Gestola originates the Adish or Lardkhat glacier, 5 M. long and terminating at 7450 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tetnuld; while between that peak, Adish and Gestola originates the Adish or Lardkhat glacier, 5 m.

long and terminating at 7450 ft. .The total area covered by glaciers in the central Caucasus is estimated at 625 to 650 sq.^ The total area covered by glaciers in the central Caucasus is estimated at 625 to 65o sq.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The total area covered by glaciers in the central Caucasus is estimated at 625 to 650 sq.

m., the longest being the .Maliev on Kasbek, 36 m.^ Maliev on Kasbek, 36 m.
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long; but according to the investigations of .M. Rossikov several 1 Exploration of the Caucasus (2nd ed., 1902), i.^ M. Rossikov several 1 Exploration of the Caucasus (2nd ed., 1902), i.

^ Exploration of the Caucasus (2nd ed., 1902), i.
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30-31. 2 Op. cit. i. 35-36.
of the largest glaciers are shrinking or retreating, the .Tseya at the rate of something like 40-45 ft.^ Tseya at the rate of something like 40-45 ft.
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per annum.

Passes

.It is in this section that the entire mountain system is narrowest, and here it is that (apart from the " gate " at Derbent close beside the Caspian) the principal means of communication exist between north and south, between the steppes of southern Russia and the highlands of Armenia and Asia Minor.^ It is in this section that the entire mountain system is narrowest, and here it is that (apart from the " gate " at Derbent close beside the Caspian) the principal means of communication exist between north and south, between the steppes of southern Russia and the highlands of Armenia and Asia Minor .

^ It is in this section that the entire mountain system is narrowest, and here it is that (apart from the "gate" at Derbent close beside the Caspian) the principal means of communication exist between north and south, between the steppes of southern Russia and the highlands of Armenia and Asia Minor .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Moslems from the south and the highlanders from the north.
  • The peoples and history of the Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC armenianhouse.org [Source type: Original source]

.These means of communication are the passes of Darial and Mamison.^ These means of communication are the passes of Darial and Mamison .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.Over the former, which lies immediately east of Kasbek, runs the Georgian military road (made 1811-1864) from Vladikavkaz to Tiflis, cutting through the mountains by a gorge (8 m.^ Over the former, which lies immediately east of Kasbek, ' runs the Georgian military road (made 1811-1864) from Vladikavkaz to Tiflis, cutting through the mountains by a gorge (8 m.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Over the former, which lies immediately east of Kasbek, runs the Georgian military road (made 1811-1864) from Vladikavkaz to Tiflis , cutting through the mountains by a gorge (8 m.

^ The Mamison Pass, over which runs the Ossetic military road (made passable for vehicles in 1889) from the Terek (below Vladikavkaz) to Kutais in the valley of the Rion, skirting the eastern foot of the Adai-khokh, lies at an altitude of 9270 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

long) of singular beauty, shut in by precipitous mountain walls nearly 6000 ft. high, and so narrow that there is only just room for the carriage-road and the brawling river Terek side by side. .The pass by which this road crosses the main range, farther south, is known as the Krestovaya Gora (Mountain of the Cross) and lies 7805 ft.^ The pass by which this road crosses the main range, farther south, is known as the Krestovaya Gora (Mountain of the Cross) and lies 7805 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The best known are the Krestovaya Gora (7805 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mamison Pass, over which runs the Ossetic military road (made passable for vehicles in 1889)from the Terek(below Vladikavkaz) to Kutais in the valley of the Rion, skirting the eastern foot of the Adai-khokh, lies at an altitude of 9270 ft.

above sea-level. .The Mamison Pass, over which runs the Ossetic military road (made passable for vehicles in 1889)from the Terek(below Vladikavkaz) to Kutais in the valley of the Rion, skirting the eastern foot of the Adai-khokh, lies at an altitude of 9270 ft.^ The Mamison Pass, over which runs the Ossetic military road (made passable for vehicles in 1889)from the Terek(below Vladikavkaz) to Kutais in the valley of the Rion, skirting the eastern foot of the Adai-khokh, lies at an altitude of 9270 ft.

^ The Mamison Pass, over which runs the Ossetic military road (made passable for vehicles in 1889) from the Terek (below Vladikavkaz) to Kutais in the valley of the Rion, skirting the eastern foot of the Adai-khokh, lies at an altitude of 9270 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ F. Loewinson-Lessing has an account of the geology of the district along the military road from Vladikavkaz to Tiflis in the Guide des Excursions du VII' Congrks geol.

and is situated a little south of the main range. .Scarce any of the remaining passes in this west-central region are better than mountain paths; horses can traverse the best of them only during a few weeks in the height of summer.^ Scarce any of the remaining passes in this west-central region are better than mountain paths; horses can traverse the best of them only during a few weeks in the height of summer.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Caucasia is a broad isthmus between the Black Sea and the Caspian, traversed by a great chain of mountains rising to a height of 18,000 feet.
  • The peoples and history of the Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC armenianhouse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the tour experts shared information with more than 20 journalists from the local regions – Khachmaz, Devechi, Siazan and Guba-Gusar.
  • The Regional Environmental Centre for the Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.rec-caucasus.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They mostly range at altitudes of 900012,500 ft., and between the pass of Nakhar in the west and that of Mamison in the east there is not a single pass below io,000 ft.^ They mostly range at altitudes of 9000 - 12,500 ft., and between the pass of Nakhar in the west and that of Mamison in the east there is not a single pass below 10,000 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They mostly range at altitudes of 900012,500 ft., and between the pass of Nakhar in the west and that of Mamison in the east there is not a single pass below io,000 ft.

^ It is estimated that there are in all over nine hundred glaciers in this section of the range, and although they often rival those of the Alps in size, they do not descend generally to such low altitudes as the latter.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The best known in this section are the three Baksan passes of Chiper (io,800 and 10,720 ft.^ The best known in this section are the three Baksan passes of Chiper (io,800 and 10,720 ft.

^ They mostly range at altitudes of 900012,500 ft., and between the pass of Nakhar in the west and that of Mamison in the east there is not a single pass below io,000 ft.

^ The best known are the Krestovaya Gora (7805 ft.

), .Bassa (9950 ft.^ Bassa (9950 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

) and .Donguz-orun (10,490 ft.^ Donguz-orun (10,490 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

), south of .Elbruz; those of Becho (11,070 ft.^ Elbruz; those of Becho (11,070 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Elbruz and Dykh-tau; and those of Shari-vizk (11,560 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

), .Akh-su (12,465 ft.^ Akh-su (12,465 ft.
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^ Adyr-su (12,305 ft.
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), .Bak (10,220 ft.^ Bak (10,220 ft.
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), .Adyr-su (12,305 ft.^ Akh-su (12,465 ft.

^ Adyr-su (12,305 ft.

) and .Bezingi (10,090 ft.^ Bezingi (10,090 ft.

), between .Elbruz and Dykh-tau; and those of Shari-vizk (11,560 ft.^ Elbruz; those of Becho (11,070 ft.

^ Elbruz and Dykh-tau; and those of Shari-vizk (11,560 ft.

^ Dykh-tau and Adai-khokh; the Bakh-fandak (9570 ft.

), .Edena, Pasis-mta or Godivizk (11,270 ft.^ Edena, Pasis-mta or Godivizk (11,270 ft.

^ Adai-khohk and Kasbek; and the two Karaul passes (11,680 and 11,270 ft.

), .Shtulu-vizk (10,860 ft.^ Shtulu-vizk (10,860 ft.

^ Gurdzi-vizk (10,970 ft.

), .Fytnargyn (11,130 ft.^ Fytnargyn (11,130 ft.
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), between .Dykh-tau and Adai-khokh; the Bakh-fandak (9570 ft.^ Dykh-tau and Adai-khokh; the Bakh-fandak (9570 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Elbruz and Dykh-tau; and those of Shari-vizk (11,560 ft.
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^ Adai-khokh to an altitude of 6730 ft.; Karagom, from the same mountain, 9½ m.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

), between .Adai-khohk and Kasbek; and the two Karaul passes (11,680 and 11,270 ft.^ Adai-khohk and Kasbek; and the two Karaul passes (11,680 and 11,270 ft.
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^ Edena, Pasis-mta or Godivizk (11,270 ft.
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) and .Gurdzi-vizk (10,970 ft.^ Shtulu-vizk (10,860 ft.
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^ Gurdzi-vizk (10,970 ft.
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), connecting the valley of the Urukh with that of the Rion. .The most frequented pass in Svanetia is that of Latpari (9260 ft.^ The most frequented pass in Svanetia is that of Latpari (9260 ft.
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^ The most frequented pass, that of Alty-agach, necessitates a climb of not more than 4355 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The most frequented pass, that of Alty-agach, necessitates a climb of not: more than 4355 ft.

), situated in the first of the southern subsidiary ranges mentioned above, and thus connecting the valley of the .Ingur with the valley of theTskhenis-Tskhali.^ Ingur with the valley of the Tskhenis-Tskhali.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ingur with the valley of theTskhenis-Tskhali.

Flora

.In this section of the range again the southern slopes are clothed with vegetation of remarkable luxuriance and richness, more especially in the region of Svanetia (42°-43° E.).^ In this section of the range again the southern slopes are clothed with vegetation of remarkable luxuriance and richness, more especially in the region of Svanetia (42°-43°E.) .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this section of the range again the southern slopes are clothed with vegetation of remarkable luxuriance and richness, more especially in the region of Svanetia (42°-43° E.).

^ The southern exposure of this littoral region, the shelter afforded against the bitter winds of the north by the lofty Caucasus range, and the copious rainfall all combine to foster a luxuriant and abundant vegetation.
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.Not only are the plants bigger than they grow in the Alps, but the blossoms are more abundant.^ Not only are the plants bigger than they grow in the Alps, but the blossoms are more abundant .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only are the plants bigger than they grow in the Alps, but the blossoms are more abundant.

^ It is not that women are any more poor than men, but they are more burdened.
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.Here again forests of Coniferae predominate, especially on the northern and eastern slopes; and the other distinguishing features of the flora are gigantic male ferns (Aspidium filix-mas), Paris incompleta (a member of the Trilliaceae), Usnea or tree-moss, box, holly (Ilex aquifolium), Lilium monadelphum and many of the familiar herbaceous plants which flower in English gardens, though here they grow to an altogether extraordinary size - " monkshoods, Cephalaria, Mulgedia and groundsels, among which men on horseback might play at hide and seek without stooping " (E. Levier).^ Here again forests of Coniferae predominate, especially on the northern and eastern slopes; and the other distinguishing features of the flora are gigantic male ferns ( Aspidium filix-mas ), Paris incompleta (a member of the Trilliaceae), Usnea or tree-moss, box, holly ( Ilex agui folium ), Lilium monadelphum and many of the familiar herbaceous plants which flower in English gardens, though here they grow to an altogether extraordinary size— "monkshoods, Cephalaria , Mulgedia and groundsels, among which men on horseback might play at hide and seek without stooping " (E .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Here again forests of Coniferae predominate, especially on the northern and eastern slopes; and the other distinguishing features of the flora are gigantic male ferns ( Aspidium filix-mas), Paris incompleta (a member of the Trilliaceae), Usnea or tree - moss , box, holly ( Ilex aquifolium), Lilium monadelphum and many of the familiar herbaceous plants which flower in English gardens, though here they grow to an altogether extraordinary size - " monkshoods, Cephalaria, Mulgedia and groundsels, among which men on horseback might play at hide and seek without stooping " (E. Levier).

^ The most distinguishing feature of the flora of this region is the predominance of arborescent growths; forests cover in fact 56% of the area, and are not only dense but laced together with climbing and twining plants.
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.Other prominent species are Campanula, Pyrethrum, aconite, Cephaelis, speedwell, Alchemilla sericea, Centaurea macrocephala, Primula grandis and a species of primrose.^ Other prominent species are Campanula , Pyrethrum , aconite, Cephaglis , speedwell, Alchemilla sericea , Centaurea macrocephala , Primula grandis and a species of primrose.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Other prominent species are Campanula , Pyrethrum , aconite , Cephaelis, speedwell, Alchemilla sericea, Centaurea macrocephala, Primula grandis and a species of primrose .

.And the great height (13,000 ft.^ And the great height (13,000 ft.
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^ Black Sea, attaining on its way the height of 13,400 ft.
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^ In addition to the peaks enumerated in the table, the following also exist between Elbruz and Kasbek all exceeding 13,000 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

) at which the flowering plants blossom is not less remarkable than the great beauty and abundance of the flowers. .Species which grow on both the northern and the southern slopes ascend 2000 ft.^ Species which grow on both the northern and the southern slopes ascend, 2000 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Species which grow on both the northern and the southern slopes ascend 2000 ft.

^ As the main range approaches the Caspian its granite core gradually disappears, giving place to Palaeozoic schists, which spread down both the northern and the southern slopes.
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higher on the latter than on the former. .Walnuts grow up to an altitude of 5400 ft., the vine and mulberry up to 3250 ft., the lime and ash to 4000 ft.^ Walnuts grow up to an altitude of 5400 ft., the vine and mulberry up to 3250 ft., the lime and ash to 4000 ft.
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^ Among the cultivated trees and shrubs the most valuable economically are the vine, peach, pomegranate, fig, olive (up to 1500 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Among the cultivated trees and shrubs the most valuable economically are the vine , peach , pomegranate , fig, olive (up to 1500 ft.

.The forests extend to the upper end of the limestone gorges.^ The forests extend to the upper end of the limestone gorges.
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.Above that the crystalline schists are bare of tree vegetation.^ Above that the crystalline schists are bare of tree vegetation .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Above that the crystalline schists are bare of tree vegetation.

.The upper limit of arborescent vegetation is considered to run at 7000-7500 ft., of shrubs such as rhododendrons at 850o ft., and of pasture-lands up to 9000 ft.^ The upper limit of arborescent vegetation is considered to run at 7000-7500 ft., of shrubs such as rhododendrons at 850o ft., and of pasture-lands up to 9000 ft.

^ The upper limit of arborescent vegetation is considered to run at 7000-7500 ft., of shrubs such as rhododendrons at 8500 ft., and of pasture-lands up to 9000 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Among the cultivated trees and shrubs the most valuable economically are the vine, peach, pomegranate, fig, olive (up to 1500 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The principal cultivated varieties of plants in this section are wheat, rye, oats, barley, beans, millet and tobacco.^ The principal cultivated varieties of plants in this section are wheat, rye, oats, barley, beans, millet and tobacco.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The principal cultivated varieties of plants in this section are wheat, rye , oats, barley , beans, millet and tobacco.

.3. Middle Caucasus: (b) Eastern Part.^ WESTERN CAUCASUS 1.1 Flora 2 Middle Cucasus - Western Half 2.1 Glaciers 2.2 Passes 2.3 Flora 3 Middle Caucasus - Eastern Part 4 The EASTERN SECTION 4.1 Slopes of Range 4.2 Hydrography 4.3 Volcanic Evidences 4.4 Geology 5 Bibliography 6 References .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Middle Caucasus - Eastern Part .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Middle Caucasus : ( b) Eastern Part.

- .In
this sub-section, which stretches from Kasbek and the Darial gorge eastwards to the Baba-dagh in 48° 25' E., a distance of 230 m., the Caucasus attains its greatest breadth.^ In this sub-section, which stretches from Kasbek and the Darial gorge eastwards to the Baba-dagh in 48° 25' E., a distance of 230 m., the Caucasus attains its greatest breadth.
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^ Middle Caucasus : ( a) Western Half.-This sub-section, with a length of 200 m., reaches from Mount Elbruz to Kasbek and the Pass of Darial .

^ In this section of the Caucasus the loftiest peaks do not In addition to the peaks enumerated in the table, the following also exist between Elbruz and Kasbek all exceeding 13,000 ft.

.For the whole of that distance the main range keeps at an average elevation of 10,000 ft., though the peaks in many instances tower up 2000 to nearly 5000 ft.^ On the main range itself stand Borbalo (10,175 ft.
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^ For the whole of that distance the main range keeps at an average elevation of 10,000 ft., though the peaks in many instances tower up 2000 to nearly 5000 ft.
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^ And not only do the snow-clad ranges and the ice -panoplied peaks which tower up above them surpass the loftiest summits of the Alps in altitude; they also in many cases excel them in boldness and picturesqueness of outline, and equal the most difficult of them in steepness and relative inaccessibility.

higher, the altitudes increasing towards the east. .As the main range approaches the Caspian its granite core gradually disappears, giving place to Palaeozoic schists, which spread down both the northern and the southern slopes.^ As the main range approaches the Caspian its granite core gradually disappears, giving place to Palaeozoic schists, which spread down both the northern and the southern slopes.
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^ Down all these glens glacier streams descend, until they find an opportunity to pierce through the flanking ranges, which they do in deep and picturesque gorges, and then race down the northern slopes of the mountains to enter the Terek or the Kuban, or down the southern versant to join the Rion or the Kura .
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^ At the base of the central core of the chain spread (to the north) broad, smooth, grassy downs, the pastures of the Turk and the Ossete..

.The glaciers too decrease in the same proportion both in magnitude and in extent.^ The glaciers too decrease in the same proportion both in magnitude and in extent.
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.Here the principal peaks, again found for the most part on the spurs and subsidiary ranges, are the Tsmiakom-khokh (13,570 ft.^ Here the principal peaks, again found for the most part on the spurs and subsidiary ranges, are the Tsmiakom-khokh (13,570 ft.
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^ In the same direction, but again outside the main range, lie Shah-dagh (13,955 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this section of the Caucasus the loftiest peaks do not as a rule rise on the main range, but in many cases on the short spurs that link it with the Bokovoi Khrebet and other subsidiary ranges.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

), .Shan-tau (1 4,53 0 ft.^ Shan-tau (1 4,53 0 ft.

^ Shan-tau (14,530 ft.
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), .Kidenais-magali (13,840 ft.^ Kidenais-magali (13,840 ft.
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), .Zilga-khokh (12,645 ft.^ Zilga-khokh (12,645 ft.
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), .Zikari (12,565 ft.^ Zikari (12,565 ft.
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), .Choukhi (12,110 ft.^ Choukhi (12,110 ft.

), .Julti-dagh (12,430 ft.^ Maghi-dagh (12,445 ft.
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^ Alakhun-dagh (12,690 ft.
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^ Julti-dagh (12,430 ft.
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), .Alakhun-dagh (12,690 ft.^ Maghi-dagh (12,445 ft.

^ Alakhun-dagh (12,690 ft.

^ Julti-dagh (12,430 ft.

) and .Maghi-dagh (12,445 ft.^ Maghi-dagh (12,445 ft.

^ Julti-dagh (12,430 ft.

^ Alakhun-dagh (12,690 ft.

). .On the main range itself stand Borbalo (10,175 ft.^ On the main range itself stand Borbalo (10,175 ft.
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^ Terek, has its sources, not in the main ranges of the Caucasus, but in an outlying group of mountains near Pyatigorsk , the highest summit of which, Besh-tau, does not exceed 4600 ft.

^ In the same direction, but again outside the main range, lie Shah-dagh (13,955 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

), .Great Shavi-kildeh (12,325 ft.^ Great Shavi-kildeh (12,325 ft.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

), .Murov (II,110 ft.^ Murov (II,110 ft.

^ Murov (11,110 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

), .Ansal (11,740 ft.^ Ansal (11,740 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

), .Ginor-roso (II,120 ft.^ Ginor-roso (II,120 ft.

^ Ginor-roso (11,120 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

), while farther east come .Trfan-dagh (13,765 ft.^ Trfan-dagh (13,765 ft.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the same direction, but again outside the main range, lie Shah-dagh (13,955 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

) and .Bazardyuz or Kichen (14,727 ft.^ Bazardyuz or Kichen (14,727 ft.

). .In the same direction, but again outside the main range, lie Shah-dagh (13955 ft.^ In the same direction, but again outside the main range, lie Shah-dagh (13,955 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the same direction, but again outside the main range, lie Shah -dagh (13955 ft.

^ Terek, has its sources, not in the main ranges of the Caucasus, but in an outlying group of mountains near Pyatigorsk , the highest summit of which, Besh-tau, does not exceed 4600 ft.

), .Shalbuz (13,675 ft.^ Shalbuz (13,675 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

) and .Malkamud (12,750 ft.^ Malkamud (12,750 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

).
.But the most noteworthy feature of this section is the broad highland region of Daghestan, which flanks the main range on the north, and sinks down both eastwards to the Black Sea and northwards to the valley of the Terek.^ But the most noteworthy feature of this section is the broad highland region of Daghestan , which flanks the main range on the north, and sinks down both eastwards to the Black Sea and northwards to the valley of the Terek.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Between the main range and the sea there intervene at least two parallel ranges separated by deep glens, and behind it a third subsidiary parallel range, likewise separated by a deep trough-like valley, and known as the Bokovoi Khrebet.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Caucasus A high mountain range extending across the land between the Caspian and Black Seas, this region has collected a tremendously varied number of small enclaves of cultures who have found life on the steppes to the north or the semi-arid plateau regions to the south too inhospitable.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

.On the north-west this rugged highland region is well defined by the distinctive transverse ridge of Andi, which to the east of Kasbek strikes off from the Caucasus range almost at right angles.^ On the north-west this rugged highland region is well defined by the distinctive trans-verse ridge of Andi, which to the east of Kasbek strikes off from the Caucasus range almost at right angles.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the north-west this rugged highland region is well defined by the distinctive transverse ridge of Andi, which to the east of Kasbek strikes off from the Caucasus range almost at right angles.

^ The southern exposure of this littoral region, the shelter afforded against the bitter winds of the north by the lofty Caucasus range, and the copious rainfall all combine to foster a luxuriant and abundant vegetation.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The rest of the Daghestan region consists of a series of roughly parallel folds, of Jurassic or Cretaceous age, ranging in altitudes from 7500 up to 12,500 ft., separated from one another by deep gorge-like river glens which cut it up into a number of arid, treeless plateaus which have something of the appearance of independent ranges, or rather elongated tablelands of a mountainous character.^ The rest of the Daghestan region consists of a series of roughly parallel folds, of Jurassic or Cretaceous age, ranging in altitudes from 7500 up to 12,500 ft., separated from one another by deep gorge-like river glens which cut it up into a number of arid, treeless plateaus which have something of the appearance of independent ranges, or rather elongated tablelands of a mountainous character .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The rest of the Daghestan region consists of a series of roughly parallel folds, of Jurassic or Cretaceous age, ranging in altitudes from 7500 up to 12,500 ft., separated from one another by deep gorge-like river glens which cut it up into a number of arid, treeless plateaus which have something of the appearance of independent ranges, or rather elongated tablelands of a mountainous character.

^ Down all these glens glacier streams descend, until they find an opportunity to pierce through the flanking ranges, which they do in deep and picturesque gorges, and then race down the northern slopes of the mountains to enter the Terek or the Kuban, or down the southern versant to join the Rion or the Kura .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The most prominent of these tablelands is Bash-lam, which stretches east and west between the Chanti Argun and the Andian Koisu, both tributaries of the Terek.^ The most prominent of these tablelands is Bash-lam, which stretches east and west between the Chanti Argun and the Andian Koisu, both tributaries of the Terek.

^ Farther east come the Bogos tableland, stretching from south-south-west to east-north-east between the Andian Koisu and the Av.

^ It is possible now to see the significance of the Caucasian bridge between east and west.
  • US-Russian Energy Security in the Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.sras.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Upon it rise the conspicuous peaks of Tebulos-mta (14775 ft.^ Upon it rise the conspicuous peaks of Tebulos-mta (14,775 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon it rise the conspicuous peaks of Tebulos-mta (14775 ft.

^ On some of these peaks again there is a considerable amount of glaciation, more particularly on the slopes of Diklos-mta, where the glaciers descend to 7700 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

), .Tugo-mta (1 3795 ft.^ Tugo-mta (1 3795 ft.

), .Komito-tavi or Kachu (14,010 ft.^ Komito-tavi or Kachu (14,010 ft.

), .Donos-mta (13,560 ft.^ Diklos-mta (13,740 ft.

^ Donos-mta (13,560 ft.

^ Kvavlos-mta or Kolos-mta (13,080 ft.

), .Diklos-mta (13,740 ft.^ Diklos-mta (13,740 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Donos-mta (13,560 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On some of these peaks again there is a considerable amount of glaciation, more particularly on the slopes of Diklos-mta, where the glaciers descend to 7700 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

), .Kvavlos-mta or Kolos-mta (13,080 ft.^ Diklos-mta (13,740 ft.

^ Kvavlos-mta or Kolos-mta (13,080 ft.

^ Donos-mta (13,560 ft.

), .Motshekh-tsferi (13,140 ft.^ Motshekh-tsferi (13,140 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Galavanas-tsferi (13,260 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

) and .Galavanas-tsferi (13,260 ft.^ Motshekh-tsferi (13,140 ft.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Galavanas-tsferi (13,260 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

). .Farther east come the Bogos tableland, stretching from south-south-west to east-north-east between the Andian Koisu and the Av.^ Farther east come the Bogos tableland, stretching from south-south-west to east-north-east between the Andian Koisu and the Av.

^ Farther east come the Bogos tableland, stretching from south-south-west to east-north-east between the Andian Koisu and the Avarian Koisu and rising to over 13,400 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ CAUCASUS , a mountain range of Asia, wholly within the Russian empire, stretching north-west to south-east from the Strait of Kerch (between the Black Sea and Sea of Azov) to the Caspian Sea, over a length of 900 m., with a breadth varying from 30 to 140 m.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

arian .Koisu and rising to over 13,400 ft.^ Koisu and rising to over 13,400 ft.

^ Farther east come the Bogos tableland, stretching from south-south-west to east-north-east between the Andian Koisu and the Avarian Koisu and rising to over 13,400 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Black Sea, attaining on its way the height of 13,400 ft.
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in several peaks, .e.g. Antshovala(13,440 ft.^ Antshovala(13,440 ft.

), .Botshokh-meer (13515 ft.^ Botshokh-meer (13,515 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Botshokh-meer (13515 ft.

), .Kosara-ku (13,420 ft.^ Kosara-ku (13,420 ft.

) and .Addala-shuogchol-meer (13,580 ft.^ Addala-shuogchol-meer (13,580 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Botshokh-meer (13,515 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

); and the .Dyulty tableland, reaching 12,400 ft.^ Dyulty tableland, reaching 12,400 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Farther east come the Bogos tableland, stretching from south-south-west to east-north-east between the Andian Koisu and the Avarian Koisu and rising to over 13,400 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

between the .Kara Koisu and the Kazikumukh Koisu.^ Kara Koisu and the Kazikumukh Koisu.

.On some of these peaks again there is a considerable amount of glaciation, more particularly on the slopes of Diklos-mta, where the glaciers descend to 7700 ft.^ On some of these peaks again there is a considerable amount of glaciation, more particularly on the slopes of Diklos-mta, where the glaciers descend to 7700 ft.

^ Diklos-mta (13,740 ft.

^ Some of these properties may have belonged to displaced persons, making their eventual return even more difficult.
  • Blogian (www.blogian.net) » Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC blogian.hayastan.com [Source type: Original source]

on the north side and to 8350 ft. on the south side. .In this section of the Caucasus the passes run somewhat lower than those between Elbruz and Kasbek, though still at appreciable heights, fully equal to those that lead up from the Black Sea to the valley of the Kuban in the western section of the range.^ In this section of the Caucasus the passes run somewhat lower than those between Elbruz and Kasbek, though still at appreciable heights, fully equal to those that lead up from the Black Sea to the valley of the Kuban in the western section of the range.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Between the main range and the sea there intervene at least two parallel ranges separated by deep glens, and behind it a third subsidiary parallel range, likewise separated by a deep trough-like valley, and known as the Bokovoi Khrebet.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ CAUCASUS , a mountain range of Asia, wholly within the Russian empire, stretching north-west to south-east from the Strait of Kerch (between the Black Sea and Sea of Azov) to the Caspian Sea, over a length of 900 m., with a breadth varying from 30 to 140 m.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The best known are the Krestovaya Gora (7805 ft.^ The best known are the Krestovaya Gora (7805 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The pass by which this road crosses the main range, farther south, is known as the Krestovaya Gora (Mountain of the Cross) and lies 7805 ft.
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^ The best known in this section are the three Baksan passes of Chiper (io,800 and 10,720 ft.

) on the .Georgian military road, south of Darial; Kodor (93 00 ft.^ Georgian military road, south of Darial; Kodor (93 00 ft.

^ Over the former, which lies immediately east of Kasbek, runs the Georgian military road (made 1811-1864) from Vladikavkaz to Tiflis , cutting through the mountains by a gorge (8 m.

^ The pass by which this road crosses the main range, farther south, is known as the Krestovaya Gora (Mountain of the Cross) and lies 7805 ft.

) and .Satskheni, leading up from Telav in the upper valley of the Alazan; and Gudur (10,120 ft.^ Satskheni, leading up from Telav in the upper valley of the Alazan; and Gudur (10,120 ft.

^ Akhty military road from the valley of the Samur up past the Shah-dagh and the Bazar-dyusi to the valley of the Alazan.

^ The upper limit of arborescent vegetation is considered to run at 7000-7500 ft., of shrubs such as rhododendrons at 850o ft., and of pasture-lands up to 9000 ft.

) and .Salavat (9280 ft.^ Salavat (9280 ft.
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), carrying the .Akhty military road from the valley of the Samur up past the Shah-dagh and the Bazar-dyusi to the valley of the Alazan.^ Akhty military road from the valley of the Samur up past the Shah-dagh and the Bazar-dyusi to the valley of the Alazan.

^ Satskheni, leading up from Telav in the upper valley of the Alazan; and Gudur (10,120 ft.

.The flora of this section bears a general resemblance to that farther west.^ The flora of this section bears a general resemblance to that farther west.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.Ample details will be found in Dr G. Radde's (1831-1903) monographs on Daghestan, quoted at the end of the present article.^ Ample details will be found in Dr G .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ample details will be found in Dr G. Radde's (1831-1903) monographs on Daghestan, quoted at the end of the present article.

^ Radde's (1831–1903) monographs on Daghestan, quoted at the end of the present article.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.4. The Eastern Section of the Caucasus gradually dies away east of Baba-dagh (11,930 ft.^ The Eastern Section of the Caucasus gradually dies away east of Baba-dagh (11,930 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this section of the Caucasus no peak exceeds 9000 ft.
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^ It is, however, continued under the waters of the Caspian, as stated in the article on that sea, and reappears on its eastern side in the Kopet-dagh, which skirts the north-east frontier of Persia .

) towards the .Caspian, terminating finally in the peninsula of Apsheron.^ Caspian, terminating finally in the peninsula of Apsheron.

^ Caspian, terminating finally in the peninsula of Apsheron .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is, however, continued under the waters of the Caspian, as stated in the article on that sea, and reappears on its eastern side in the Kopet-dagh, which skirts the north-east frontier of Persia.^ It is, however, continued under the waters of the Caspian, as stated in the article on that sea, and reappears on its eastern side in the Kopet-dagh, which skirts the north-east frontier of Persia .

^ AZERBAIJAN The eastern end of the Caucasus Mountains, aside the southwest coast of the Caspian Sea.
  • Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC web.raex.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Both rivers discharge their waters into the Caspian; as also does the Zumgail, a small stream which drains the eastern extremity of the Caucasus range in the government of Baku .

.In this section of the Caucasus no peak exceeds 9000 ft.^ In this section of the Caucasus no peak exceeds 9000 ft.

^ Terek, has its sources, not in the main ranges of the Caucasus, but in an outlying group of mountains near Pyatigorsk , the highest summit of which, Besh-tau, does not exceed 4600 ft.

^ The Eastern Section of the Caucasus gradually dies away east of Baba-dagh (11,930 ft.

in altitude and the crest of the main range retains no snow. .The most frequented pass, that of Alty-agach, necessitates a climb of not: more than 4355 ft.^ The most frequented pass, that of Alty-agach, necessitates a climb of not more than 4355 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The most frequented pass in Svanetia is that of Latpari (9260 ft.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The most frequented pass, that of Alty-agach, necessitates a climb of not: more than 4355 ft.

.Slopes of Range.-Between the northern and the southern sides of the range there is quite as great a difference in climate, productions and scenery as there is between the Swiss and the Italian sides of the Alps.^ Slopes of Range.-Between the northern and the southern sides of the range there is quite as great a difference in climate, productions and scenery as there is between the Swiss and the Italian sides of the Alps.

^ The passes lie at relatively great altitudes and are few in number, so that although the northern versants of the various ranges all have a tolerably gentle slope, communication between the Black Sea and the valley of the Kuban, and the low steppe country beyond, is the reverse of easy.

^ In this section of the range again the southern slopes are clothed with vegetation of remarkable luxuriance and richness, more especially in the region of Svanetia (42°-43° E.).

.In the south-western valleys and on the south-western slopes of the Caucasus, where a heavy rainfall is combined with a warm temperature, magnificent forests clothe the mountain-sides and dip their skirts into the waters of the Black Sea.^ Abkhazia is located on the eastern coast of the Black Sea and the south-western flank of the Caucasus.

^ In the south-western valleys and on the south-western slopes of the Caucasus, where a heavy rainfall is combined with a warm temperature, magnificent forests clothe the mountain-sides and dip their skirts into the waters of the Black Sea.
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  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ CAUCASUS , a mountain range of Asia, wholly within the Russian empire, stretching north-west to south-east from the Strait of Kerch (between the Black Sea and Sea of Azov) to the Caspian Sea, over a length of 900 m., with a breadth varying from 30 to 140 m.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.There not only the littoral from (say) Sukhum-Kaleh to Batum but the inland parts of the basin of the Rion will bear comparison with any of the provinces of Italy in point of fertility, and in richness and variety of products.^ There not only the littoral from (say) Sukhum-Kaleh to Batum but the inland parts of the basin of the Rion will bear comparison with any of the provinces of Italy in point of fertility, and in richness and variety of products.

^ Novo-rossiysk, Gelenjik, Anapa , Sukhum-Kaleh, Poti and Batum .

.But farther inland, upon proceeding eastwards towards Tiflis, a great change becomes noticeable on the other side of the transverse ridge of the Suram or Meskes mountains.^ But farther inland, upon proceeding eastwards towards Tiflis, a great change becomes noticeable on the other side of the transverse ridge of the Suram or Meskes mountains.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A very similar change likewise becomes noticeable in the higher regions of the Caucasus Mountains upon proceeding north of the pass of Mamison, which separates the head-waters of the Rion from those of the Ardon, an important tributary of the Terek.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A panelist described Iran's policy toward Azerbaijan as a tit-for-tat approach, in which both sides are responding to what they perceive as threats on the other side.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Arid upland plains and parched hillsides take the place of the rich verdure and luxuriant arborescent growth of Imeretia, Svanetia and Mingrelia, the districts which occupy the valleys of the Ingur and Rion and the tributaries of the latter.^ Arid upland plains and parched hillsides take the place of the rich verdure and luxuriant arborescent growth of Imeretia , Svanetia and Mingrelia , the districts which occupy the valleys of the Ingur and Rion and the tributaries of the latter.

^ Arid upland plains and parched hillsides take the place of the rich verdure and luxuriant arborescent growth of Imeretia, Svanetia and Mingrelia, the districts which occupy the valleys of the Ingur and Rion and the tributaries of the latter.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In this section of the range again the southern slopes are clothed with vegetation of remarkable luxuriance and richness, more especially in the region of Svanetia (42°-43°E.) .
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.A very similar change likewise becomes noticeable in the higher regions of the Caucasus Mountains upon proceeding north of the pass of Mamison, which separates the head-waters of the Rion from those of the Ardon, an important tributary of the Terek.^ A very similar change likewise becomes noticeable in the higher regions of the Caucasus Mountains upon proceeding north of the pass of Mamison, which separates the head-waters of the Rion from those of the Ardon, an important tributary of the Terek.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mamison Pass, over which runs the Ossetic military road (made passable for vehicles in 1889)from the Terek(below Vladikavkaz) to Kutais in the valley of the Rion, skirting the eastern foot of the Adai-khokh, lies at an altitude of 9270 ft.

^ The Mamison Pass, over which runs the Ossetic military road (made passable for vehicles in 1889) from the Terek (below Vladikavkaz) to Kutais in the valley of the Rion, skirting the eastern foot of the Adai-khokh, lies at an altitude of 9270 ft.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.The valleys of the two streams last mentioned, and of others that flow in the same direction, are almost wholly destitute of trees, but where the bare rock does not prevail, the mountain slopes are carpeted with grass.^ The valleys of the two streams last mentioned, and of others that flow in the same direction, are almost wholly destitute of trees, but where the bare rock does not prevail, the mountain slopes are carpeted with grass .

^ The valleys of the two streams last mentioned, and of others that flow in the same direction, are almost wholly destitute of trees, but where the bare rock does not prevail, the mountain slopes are carpeted with grass.
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The only other stream deserving of mention in this province is the Samur.
  • Caucasus - LoveToKnow 1911 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.1911encyclopedia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Caucasus - Wikisource 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

.Freshfield's description of the valley of the Terek above Kasbek will apply pretty generally to all the valleys that descend on that face of the range: " treeless valleys, bold rocks, slopes of forbidding steepness (even to eyes accustomed to those of the Alps), and stonebuilt villages, scarcely distinguishable from the neighbouring crags."^ Freshfield's description of the valley of the Terek above Kasbek will apply pretty generally to all the valleys that descend on that face of the range: " treeless valleys, bold rocks, slopes of forbidding steepness (even to eyes accustomed to those of the Alps), and stonebuilt villages, scarcely distinguishable from the neighbouring crags."

^ It is estimated that there are in all over nine hundred glaciers in this section of the range, and although they often rival those of the Alps in size, they do not descend generally to such low altitudes as the latter.

^ Ancient, but now extinct, volcanic upheavals are pretty common at the intersections of the main range with the transverse ranges; of these the most noteworthy are Elbruz and Kasbek.

.But, austere and unattractive though these valleys are, the same epithets cannot be applied to the deep gorges by which in most cases the streams make their escape through the northern subsidiary range.^ But, austere and unattractive though these valleys are, the same epithets cannot be applied to the deep gorges by which in most cases the streams make their escape through the northern subsidiary range.

^ Between the main range and the sea there intervene at least two parallel ranges separated by deep glens, and behind it a third subsidiary parallel range, likewise separated by a deep trough-like valley, and known as the Bokovoi Khrebet.

^ At the same time, the most corrupt individuals often use these campaigns to root out their enemies.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These defiles are declared to be superior in grandeur to anything of the kind in the Alps. .That of Darial (the Terek) is fairly well known, but those of the Cherek and the Urukh, farther west, are stated to be still more magnificent.^ That of Darial (the Terek) is fairly well known, but those of the Cherek and the Urukh, farther west, are stated to be still more magnificent.

.And not only do the snow-clad ranges and the ice-panoplied peaks which tower up above them surpass the loftiest summits of the Alps in altitude; they also in many cases excel them in boldness and picturesqueness of outline, and equal the most difficult of them in steepness and relative inaccessibility.^ And not only do the snow-clad ranges and the ice -panoplied peaks which tower up above them surpass the loftiest summits of the Alps in altitude; they also in many cases excel them in boldness and picturesqueness of outline, and equal the most difficult of them in steepness and relative inaccessibility.

^ It is estimated that there are in all over nine hundred glaciers in this section of the range, and although they often rival those of the Alps in size, they do not descend generally to such low altitudes as the latter.

^ Oshten the crest of the main range is capped with perpetual snow and carries many hanging glaciers, while larger glaciers creep down the principal valleys.

.Hydrography.-Nearly all the larger rivers of Caucasia have their sources in the central parts of the Caucasus range.^ Hydrography .-Nearly all the larger rivers of Caucasia have their sources in the central parts of the Caucasus range.

^ The other large river of this region, the Aras , has its sources, not in the Caucasus range, but on the Armenian highlands a long way south-west of Ararat .

^ Terek, has its sources, not in the main ranges of the Caucasus, but in an outlying group of mountains near Pyatigorsk , the highest summit of which, Besh-tau, does not exceed 4600 ft.

.The short, steep, torrential streams of Mdzimta, Pzou, Bzyb and Kodor drain the country west of Elbruz.^ The short, steep, torrential streams of Mdzimta, Pzou, Bzyb and Kodor drain the country west of Elbruz.

^ The Ingur, TskhenisTskhali, Rion and its tributaries ( e.g.th.e Kvirila) are longer, but also in part torrential; they drain the great glacier region between Elbruz and Kasbek.

.The Ingur, TskhenisTskhali, Rion and its tributaries (e.g.th.e Kvirila) are longer, but also in part torrential; they drain the great glacier region between Elbruz and Kasbek.^ The Ingur, TskhenisTskhali, Rion and its tributaries ( e.g.th.e Kvirila) are longer, but also in part torrential; they drain the great glacier region between Elbruz and Kasbek.

^ The Transcaspian region, being the link between Central Asia and the Caucasus, is a focus of the new Great Game.
  • US-Russian Energy Security in the Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.sras.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The short, steep, torrential streams of Mdzimta, Pzou, Bzyb and Kodor drain the country west of Elbruz.

.The Rion is the Phasis of the ancients and flows through the classic land of Colchis, associated with the legends of Medea and the Argonauts.^ The Rion is the Phasis of the ancients and flows through the classic land of Colchis , associated with the legends of Medea and the Argonauts .

.The Lyakhva and Aragva, tributaries of the Kura, carry off the waters of the main range south of Kasbek, and other tributaries, such as the Yora and the Alazan, collect the surplus drainage of the main Caucasus range farther east.^ The Lyakhva and Aragva, tributaries of the Kura, carry off the waters of the main range south of Kasbek, and other tributaries, such as the Yora and the Alazan, collect the surplus drainage of the main Caucasus range farther east.

^ On the north-west this rugged highland region is well defined by the distinctive transverse ridge of Andi, which to the east of Kasbek strikes off from the Caucasus range almost at right angles.

^ The other large river of this region, the Aras , has its sources, not in the Caucasus range, but on the Armenian highlands a long way south-west of Ararat .

.The other large river of this region, the Aras, has its sources, not in the Caucasus range, but on the Armenian highlands a long way south-west of Ararat.^ The other large river of this region, the Aras , has its sources, not in the Caucasus range, but on the Armenian highlands a long way south-west of Ararat .

^ The rivers which go down from the central Caucasus northwards have considerably longer courses than those on the south side of the range, partly as a consequence of the gentler versant and partly also because of the great distances to which the steppes extend across which they make their way to the sea.

^ On the north-west this rugged highland region is well defined by the distinctive transverse ridge of Andi, which to the east of Kasbek strikes off from the Caucasus range almost at right angles.

.The rivers which go down from the central Caucasus northwards have considerably longer courses than those on the south side of the range, partly as a consequence of the gentler versant and partly also because of the great distances to which the steppes extend across which they make their way to the sea.^ The rivers which go down from the central Caucasus northwards have considerably longer courses than those on the south side of the range, partly as a consequence of the gentler versant and partly also because of the great distances to which the steppes extend across which they make their way to the sea.

^ Several panelists suggested considering the implications for Central Asia and the South Caucasus of a Russia in which power is significantly devolved to its borderlands, or that is even fragmented politically.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The passes lie at relatively great altitudes and are few in number, so that although the northern versants of the various ranges all have a tolerably gentle slope, communication between the Black Sea and the valley of the Kuban, and the low steppe country beyond, is the reverse of easy.

.The most important of these are the Kuban and the Terek; but it is the latter that picks up most of the streams which have their sources among the central glaciers, e.g. the Malka, Baksan, Chegem, Cherek, Urukh, Ardon, all confined to deep narrow glens until they quit the mountains.^ The most important of these are the Kuban and the Terek; but it is the latter that picks up most of the streams which have their sources among the central glaciers, e.g.

^ Malka, Baksan, Chegem, Cherek, Urukh, Ardon, all confined to deep narrow glens until they quit the mountains.

^ But, austere and unattractive though these valleys are, the same epithets cannot be applied to the deep gorges by which in most cases the streams make their escape through the northern subsidiary range.

.The Kuma, which alone pursues an independent course through the steppes, farther north than the v.^ The Kuma, which alone pursues an independent course through the steppes, farther north than the v.

.18 a Terek, has its sources, not in the main ranges of the Caucasus, but in an outlying group of mountains near Pyatigorsk, the highest summit of which, Besh-tau, does not exceed 4600 ft.^ Terek, has its sources, not in the main ranges of the Caucasus, but in an outlying group of mountains near Pyatigorsk , the highest summit of which, Besh-tau, does not exceed 4600 ft.

^ The other large river of this region, the Aras , has its sources, not in the Caucasus range, but on the Armenian highlands a long way south-west of Ararat .

^ On the main range itself stand Borbalo (10,175 ft.

.But its waters become absorbed in the sands of the desert steppes before they reach the Caspian.^ But its waters become absorbed in the sands of the desert steppes before they reach the Caspian.

.Of the streams that carve into chequers the elevated plateau or highland region of Daghestan four are known by the common name of the Koisu, being distinguished inter se as the Andian Koisu, the Avarian Koisu, the Kara Koisu and the Kazikumukh Koisu, which all unite to form the Sulak.^ Of the streams that carve into chequers the elevated plateau or highland region of Daghestan four are known by the common name of the Koisu, being distinguished inter se as the Andian Koisu, the Avarian Koisu, the Kara Koisu and the Kazikumukh Koisu, which all unite to form the Sulak.

^ A South Caucasus common market would be logical from an economic and energy viewpoint; it also makes geographic sense, given the importance of expanding all forms of transport through the region in coordinated fashion.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In principle, Armenia accepts and encourages all forms of membership in and cooperation with regional and international organizations and projects.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The only other stream deserving of mention in this province is the Samur.^ The only other stream deserving of mention in this province is the Samur.

.Both rivers discharge their waters into the Caspian; as also does the Zumgail, a small stream which drains the eastern extremity of the Caucasus range in the government of Baku.^ Both rivers discharge their waters into the Caspian; as also does the Zumgail, a small stream which drains the eastern extremity of the Caucasus range in the government of Baku .

^ The other large river of this region, the Aras , has its sources, not in the Caucasus range, but on the Armenian highlands a long way south-west of Ararat .

^ Terek, has its sources, not in the main ranges of the Caucasus, but in an outlying group of mountains near Pyatigorsk , the highest summit of which, Besh-tau, does not exceed 4600 ft.

Volcanic Evidences

.Ancient, but now extinct, volcanic upheavals are pretty common at the intersections of the main range with the transverse ranges; of these the most noteworthy are Elbruz and Kasbek.^ Ancient, but now extinct, volcanic upheavals are pretty common at the intersections of the main range with the transverse ranges; of these the most noteworthy are Elbruz and Kasbek.

^ All these ranges are shorn through transversely by numerous glens and gorges, and, the rainfall being heavy and the exposure favourable, they are densely clothed with vegetation.

^ But the most noteworthy feature of this section is the broad highland region of Daghestan , which flanks the main range on the north, and sinks down both eastwards to the Black Sea and northwards to the valley of the Terek.

.The town of Shemakha, near the eastern end of the system, was the scene of volcanic outbreaks as late as 1859, 1872 and 1902; while in the adjacent peninsula of Apsheron mud volcanoes exist in large numbers.^ The town of Shemakha , near the eastern end of the system, was the scene of volcanic outbreaks as late as 1859, 1872 and 1902; while in the adjacent peninsula of Apsheron mud volcanoes exist in large numbers.

.All along the northern foot of the system hot mineral springs gush out at various places, such as Pyatigorsk, Zhelesnovodsk, Essentuki and Kislovodsk; and the series is continued along the northeastern foot of the highlands of Daghestan,
e.g.^ All along the northern foot of the system hot mineral springs gush out at various places, such as Pyatigorsk, Zhelesnovodsk , Essentuki and Kislovodsk ; and the series is continued along the northeastern foot of the highlands of Daghestan, e.g.

^ It has all along maintained kitchens at Igdir, Etchmiadzin, and Alexandropol, as well as hospitals in various places ; has organised a proper system of medical aid ; and has opened refugee orphanages, schools and workshops for the children.
  • Documents 46-52. Bryce. Armenians. V--The Refugees in the Caucasus. 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC net.lib.byu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Near the northern foot of the Caucasus, especially in the neighbourhood of the hot mineral springs of Pyatigorsk, a group of hills of igneous rocks rises above the plain.

.Isti-su, Eskiendery, Akhta.^ Isti-su, Eskiendery, Akhta.

.In this connexion it may also be mentioned that similar evidences of volcanic activity characterize the northern border of the Armenian highlands on the southern side of the Rion-Kura depression, in the mountains of Ararat, Alagoz, Akmangan, Samsar, Godoreby, Great and Little Abull, and in the mineral springs of Borzhom, Abbas-tuman, Sleptzov, Mikhailovsk and Tiflis.^ In this connexion it may also be mentioned that similar evidences of volcanic activity characterize the northern border of the Armenian highlands on the southern side of the Rion-Kura depression, in the mountains of Ararat, Alagoz, Akmangan, Samsar, Godoreby, Great and Little Abull, and in the mineral springs of Borzhom , Abbas-tuman , Sleptzov, Mikhailovsk and Tiflis.

^ All along the northern foot of the system hot mineral springs gush out at various places, such as Pyatigorsk, Zhelesnovodsk , Essentuki and Kislovodsk ; and the series is continued along the northeastern foot of the highlands of Daghestan, e.g.

^ The other large river of this region, the Aras , has its sources, not in the Caucasus range, but on the Armenian highlands a long way south-west of Ararat .

(J. T. BE.; P. A. K.)
Geology. - .The general structure of the Caucasus is comparatively simple.^ The general structure of the Caucasus is comparatively simple.

.The strata are folded so as to form a fan.^ The strata are folded so as to form a fan .

.In the centre of the fan lies a band of crystalline rocks which disappears towards the east.^ In the centre of the fan lies a band of crystalline rocks which disappears towards the east.

Beneath it, on both sides, plunge the strongly folded Palaeozoic and Jurassic schists. .On the northern flank the folded beds are followed by a zone of Jurassic and Cretaceous beds which rapidly assume a gentle inclination towards the plain.^ On the northern flank the folded beds are followed by a zone of Jurassic and Cretaceous beds which rapidly assume a gentle inclination towards the plain.

^ In general the Upper Jurassic beds are much more calcareous on the north flank of the chain than they are on the south.

^ The northern Mesozoic zone is very much broader, and is thrown into simple folds like those of the Jura .

.On the south the corresponding zone is affected by numerous secondary folds which involve the Sarmatian or Upper Miocene deposits.^ On the south the corresponding zone is affected by numerous secondary folds which involve the Sarmatian or Upper Miocene deposits.

^ F. Loewinson-Lessing states that there is a more or less marked discordance between the Lias and the Upper Jurassic and between the latter and the Cretaceous; E. Fournier north are nearly horizontal but on the south are in part included the folds - the Eocene and Miocene being folded, while the later beds, though sometimes elevated, are not affected by the folding.

.In the eastern part of the chain the structure is somewhat modified.^ In the eastern part of the chain the structure is somewhat modified.

.The crystalline band is lost.^ The crystalline band is lost.

.The northern Mesozoic zone is very much broader, and is thrown into simple folds like those of the Jura.^ The northern Mesozoic zone is very much broader, and is thrown into simple folds like those of the Jura .

^ On the northern flank the folded beds are followed by a zone of Jurassic and Cretaceous beds which rapidly assume a gentle inclination towards the plain.

The southern Mesozoic zone is absent, and the Palaeozoic zone sinks abruptly in a series of faulted steps to the plain of the Kura, beneath which no doubt the continuation of the Mesozoic zone is concealed.
.The geological sequence begins with the granite and schists of the central zone, which form a band extending from Fisht on the west to a point some distance beyond Kasbek on the east.^ This would counter the East-West axis-potentially anti-Armenia-which is perceived to be the goal of some countries.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Then follow the Palaeozoic schists and slates. Fossils are extremely rare in these beds; Buthotrephis has long been known, and doubtful traces of Calamites and ferns have been found, but it was not until 1897 that undoubted Palaeozoic fossils were obtained. .They appear to indicate a Devonian age.^ They appear to indicate a Devonian age.

.Upon the Palaeozoic beds rest a series of Mesozoic deposits, beginning with the Lias and ending with the Upper Cretaceous.^ Upon the Palaeozoic beds rest a series of Mesozoic deposits, beginning with the Lias and ending with the Upper Cretaceous.

^ The southern Mesozoic zone is absent, and the Palaeozoic zone sinks abruptly in a series of faulted steps to the plain of the Kura, beneath which no doubt the continuation of the Mesozoic zone is concealed.

^ The Mesozoic beds are followed by the Tertiary deposits, which on the Math.

.Whether the series is continuous or not is a matter of controversy.^ Whether the series is continuous or not is a matter of controversy.

.F. Loewinson-Lessing states that there is a more or less marked discordance between the Lias and the Upper Jurassic and between the latter and the Cretaceous; E. Fournier north are nearly horizontal but on the south are in part included the folds - the Eocene and Miocene being folded, while the later beds, though sometimes elevated, are not affected by the folding.^ F. Loewinson-Lessing states that there is a more or less marked discordance between the Lias and the Upper Jurassic and between the latter and the Cretaceous; E. Fournier north are nearly horizontal but on the south are in part included the folds - the Eocene and Miocene being folded, while the later beds, though sometimes elevated, are not affected by the folding.

^ Some panelists argued that cooperation with the South Caucasian states "made sense" for Russia in order to bound the quagmire in the North with stability in the South.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is less a risk of upheaval here, in part because the country is further along in its economic transformation.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The final folding of the chain undoubtedly occurred at the close of the Miocene period.^ The final folding of the chain undoubtedly occurred at the close of the Miocene period.

.That there were earlier periods of folding is almost equally certain, but there is considerable difference of opinion as to their dates.^ That there were earlier periods of folding is almost equally certain, but there is considerable difference of opinion as to their dates.

^ There seem to have been two periods of eruption, and as some of the lavas have flowed over Quaternary gravels, the latest outbursts must have been of very recent date.

.The difference in character of the Jurassic beds on the two sides of the chain appears to indicate that a ridge existed Metamorphic Plutonic & Volcanic in that period.^ The difference in character of the Jurassic beds on the two sides of the chain appears to indicate that a ridge existed Metamorphic Plutonic & Volcanic in that period.

^ In general the Upper Jurassic beds are much more calcareous on the north flank of the chain than they are on the south.

^ On either side of the main chain the same succession is repeated, with one important difference.

.The last phase in the history of the Caucasus was marked by the growth of the great volcanoes of Elbruz and Kasbek, which stand upon the old rocks of the central zone, and by the outflow of sheets of lava upon the sides of the chain.^ Last but not least, both Turkey and Israel offer successful models to the newly emergent nations of the Caucasus and Central Asia of how to deal with internal insurgencies.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By Mark Dillen Monday, January 12 12:27 pm EST With the signing last Friday of a U.S.-Georgian “Charter on Strategic Partnership ,” the difficult politics of the Caucasus enter a new phase in several critical respects.

.The cones themselves are composed largely of acid andesites, but many of the lavas are augite andesites and basalts.^ The cones themselves are composed largely of acid andesites, but many of the lavas are augite andesites and basalts.

.There seem to have been two periods of eruption, and as some of the lavas have flowed over Quaternary gravels, the latest outbursts must have been of very recent date.^ There seem to have been two periods of eruption, and as some of the lavas have flowed over Quaternary gravels, the latest outbursts must have been of very recent date.

^ That there were earlier periods of folding is almost equally certain, but there is considerable difference of opinion as to their dates.

.Near the northern foot of the Caucasus, especially in the neighbourhood of the hot mineral springs of Pyatigorsk, a group of hills of igneous rocks rises above the plain.^ Near the northern foot of the Caucasus, especially in the neighbourhood of the hot mineral springs of Pyatigorsk, a group of hills of igneous rocks rises above the plain.

^ All along the northern foot of the system hot mineral springs gush out at various places, such as Pyatigorsk, Zhelesnovodsk , Essentuki and Kislovodsk ; and the series is continued along the northeastern foot of the highlands of Daghestan, e.g.

^ Terek, has its sources, not in the main ranges of the Caucasus, but in an outlying group of mountains near Pyatigorsk , the highest summit of which, Besh-tau, does not exceed 4600 ft.

.They are laccolites of trachytic rock, and raised the Tertiary beds above them in the form of blisters.^ They are laccolites of trachytic rock, and raised the Tertiary beds above them in the form of blisters.

.Subsequent denudation has removed the sedimentary covering and exposed the igneous core.^ Subsequent denudation has removed the sedimentary covering and exposed the igneous core.

(P. LA.) Bibliography. - Of the older works the following are still useful: A. von Haxthausen, Transkaukasia (2 vols., Leipzig, 1856); A. Petzholdt, Der Kaukasus (2 vols., Leipzig, 1866-1867); M. G. von Thielmann, Travels in the Caucasus (Eng. trans., vols., .London, 1875); F. C. Grove, The Frosty Caucasus (London, 1875); G. Radde, Reisen im mingrelischen Hochgebirge (Tiflis, 1866) and Vier Vortreige fiber den Kaukasus (Gotha, 1874); E. Favre, Recherches geologiques dans la partie centrale de la chafne du Caucase (Geneva, 18 75); Batsevich, Simonovich and others, Mat.^ London , 1875); F. C. Grove, The Frosty Caucasus (London, 1875); G. Radde, Reisen im mingrelischen Hochgebirge (Tiflis, 1866) and Vier Vortreige fiber den Kaukasus (Gotha, 1874); E. Favre, Recherches geologiques dans la partie centrale de la chafne du Caucase (Geneva, 18 75); Batsevich, Simonovich and others, Mat .

^ F. Loewinson-Lessing has an account of the geology of the district along the military road from Vladikavkaz to Tiflis in the Guide des Excursions du VII' Congrks geol.

^ G. Merzbacher, Aus den Hochregionen des Kaukasus (2 vols., Leipzig, 1901); A. Fischer, Zwei Kaukasische Expeditionen (Berne, 1891); E. Fournier, Description geologique du Caucase central (Marseilles, 1896); G. Radde, Reisen an der persisch-russischen Grenze.

dlya geologiy .Kavkaza
(Tiflis, 1873 seq.^ Kavkaza (Tiflis, 1873 seq.

); .O. Schneider, Naturwissenschaftliche Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Kaukasuslcinder (Dresden, 1879), and J. Bryce, Transcaucasia (London, 1878).^ O. Schneider, Naturwissenschaftliche Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Kaukasuslcinder (Dresden, 1879), and J. Bryce, Transcaucasia (London, 1878).

.The more important amongst the more recent books are D. W. Freshfield, Exploration of the Caucasus (2nd ed., 1902, 2 vols., London; A. F. Mummery, My Climbs in the Alps and Caucasus (London, 1895); H. Abich, Geologische Forschungen in den kaukasischen Landern (3 vols., Vienna, 1878-1887), Aus kaukasischen Lc ndern (2 vols., Vienna, 1896), and " Vergleichende Grundziige des Kaukasus wie der armenischen and nordpersischen Gebirge," in Mem.^ The more important amongst the more recent books are D. W. Freshfield, Exploration of the Caucasus (2nd ed., 1902, 2 vols., London; A. F. Mummery, My Climbs in the Alps and Caucasus (London, 1895); H. Abich, Geologische Forschungen in den kaukasischen Landern (3 vols., Vienna , 1878-1887), Aus kaukasischen Lc ndern (2 vols., Vienna, 1896), and " Vergleichende Grundziige des Kaukasus wie der armenischen and nordpersischen Gebirge," in Mem.

^ Talysch and seine Bewohner (Leipzig, 1886), Die Fauna and Flora des sudwestlichen Kaspigebiets (Leipzig, 1886), Karabagh (Gotha, 1890), and Aus den daghestanischen Hochalpen (Gotha, 1887); and Count J. Zichy , Voyages au Caucase (2 vols., Budapest , 1897).

^ G. Merzbacher, Aus den Hochregionen des Kaukasus (2 vols., Leipzig, 1901); A. Fischer, Zwei Kaukasische Expeditionen (Berne, 1891); E. Fournier, Description geologique du Caucase central (Marseilles, 1896); G. Radde, Reisen an der persisch-russischen Grenze.

Acad. Sc. St-Petersb.
(ser. 6, Quaternary ® Tertiary I?
Col de la Croix
Cretaceous Jurassic N k Bodorno  :s: Vladikaukaz Lars `n - - - n ° Tiflis a =Plain of Vladikaukaz; b= Upper Jurassic; Moraine terrace; d= Folded lias shales; e = Upper Jurassic; = Paleozoic schists; Creenstone dykes; h= Granite; g°= Gneiss; i = Andesites; k = Jurassic?; I = Pliocene fNagelfluh); m = Miocene; 11 = Oligocene; r = Nullipore limesto n e & conglomerate. Lessing Horizontal Scale r:s60,000. Vertical Scale 1:210,000.
asserts that there exists a very strongly marked unconformity at the base of the .Tithonian, and other writers have expressed other views.^ Tithonian, and other writers have expressed other views.

.In general the Upper Jurassic beds are much more calcareous on the north flank of the chain than they are on the south.^ It is not that women are any more poor than men, but they are more burdened.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When they think about Central Asia, policy-makers should include Iran, Western China, Siberia, Turkey, and the North and South Caucasus.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At present, however, they are more latent than real threats.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Mesozoic beds are followed by the Tertiary deposits, which on the Math. Phys., vii. .359-534); R. von Erckert, Der Kaukasus and seine Volker (Leipzig, 1887); E. Chantre, Recherches anthropologiques dans le Caucase (4 vols., Lyons and Paris, 1885-1887); C. von Hahn, Aus dem Kaukasus (Leipzig, 1892), Kaukasische Reisen and Studien (Leipzig, 1896), and Bilder aus dem Kaukasus (Leipzig, 1900); V. Sella and D. Vallino, Nel Caucaso Centrale (Turin, 1890); K. Koch, Der Kaukasus (Berlin, 1882); C. Phillipps Woolley, Savage Svanetia (2 vols., London, 1883); E. Levier, A travers le Caucase (Paris, ed.^ The more important amongst the more recent books are D. W. Freshfield, Exploration of the Caucasus (2nd ed., 1902, 2 vols., London; A. F. Mummery, My Climbs in the Alps and Caucasus (London, 1895); H. Abich, Geologische Forschungen in den kaukasischen Landern (3 vols., Vienna , 1878-1887), Aus kaukasischen Lc ndern (2 vols., Vienna, 1896), and " Vergleichende Grundziige des Kaukasus wie der armenischen and nordpersischen Gebirge," in Mem.

^ London , 1875); F. C. Grove, The Frosty Caucasus (London, 1875); G. Radde, Reisen im mingrelischen Hochgebirge (Tiflis, 1866) and Vier Vortreige fiber den Kaukasus (Gotha, 1874); E. Favre, Recherches geologiques dans la partie centrale de la chafne du Caucase (Geneva, 18 75); Batsevich, Simonovich and others, Mat .

^ R. von Erckert, Der Kaukasus and seine Volker (Leipzig, 1887); E. Chantre, Recherches anthropologiques dans le Caucase (4 vols., Lyons and Paris, 1885-1887); C. von Hahn, Aus dem Kaukasus (Leipzig, 1892), Kaukasische Reisen and Studien (Leipzig, 1896), and Bilder aus dem Kaukasus (Leipzig, 1900); V. Sella and D. Vallino, Nel Caucaso Centrale (Turin, 1890); K. Koch , Der Kaukasus (Berlin, 1882); C. Phillipps Woolley, Savage Svanetia (2 vols., London, 1883); E. Levier, A travers le Caucase (Paris, ed.

.1905), especially valuable for botany; G. Merzbacher, Aus den Hochregionen des Kaukasus (2 vols., Leipzig, 1901); A. Fischer, Zwei Kaukasische Expeditionen (Berne, 1891); E. Fournier, Description geologique du Caucase central (Marseilles, 1896); G. Radde, Reisen an der persisch-russischen Grenze.^ G. Merzbacher, Aus den Hochregionen des Kaukasus (2 vols., Leipzig, 1901); A. Fischer, Zwei Kaukasische Expeditionen (Berne, 1891); E. Fournier, Description geologique du Caucase central (Marseilles, 1896); G. Radde, Reisen an der persisch-russischen Grenze.

^ The more important amongst the more recent books are D. W. Freshfield, Exploration of the Caucasus (2nd ed., 1902, 2 vols., London; A. F. Mummery, My Climbs in the Alps and Caucasus (London, 1895); H. Abich, Geologische Forschungen in den kaukasischen Landern (3 vols., Vienna , 1878-1887), Aus kaukasischen Lc ndern (2 vols., Vienna, 1896), and " Vergleichende Grundziige des Kaukasus wie der armenischen and nordpersischen Gebirge," in Mem.

^ London , 1875); F. C. Grove, The Frosty Caucasus (London, 1875); G. Radde, Reisen im mingrelischen Hochgebirge (Tiflis, 1866) and Vier Vortreige fiber den Kaukasus (Gotha, 1874); E. Favre, Recherches geologiques dans la partie centrale de la chafne du Caucase (Geneva, 18 75); Batsevich, Simonovich and others, Mat .

.Talysch and seine Bewohner
(Leipzig, 1886), Die Fauna and Flora des sudwestlichen Kaspigebiets (Leipzig, 1886), Karabagh (Gotha, 1890), and Aus den daghestanischen Hochalpen (Gotha, 1887); and Count J. Zichy, Voyages au Caucase (2 vols., Budapest, 1897).^ Talysch and seine Bewohner (Leipzig, 1886), Die Fauna and Flora des sudwestlichen Kaspigebiets (Leipzig, 1886), Karabagh (Gotha, 1890), and Aus den daghestanischen Hochalpen (Gotha, 1887); and Count J. Zichy , Voyages au Caucase (2 vols., Budapest , 1897).

^ G. Merzbacher, Aus den Hochregionen des Kaukasus (2 vols., Leipzig, 1901); A. Fischer, Zwei Kaukasische Expeditionen (Berne, 1891); E. Fournier, Description geologique du Caucase central (Marseilles, 1896); G. Radde, Reisen an der persisch-russischen Grenze.

.F. Loewinson-Lessing has an account of the geology of the district along the military road from Vladikavkaz to Tiflis in the Guide des Excursions du VII' Congrks geol.^ F. Loewinson-Lessing has an account of the geology of the district along the military road from Vladikavkaz to Tiflis in the Guide des Excursions du VII' Congrks geol.

^ Over the former, which lies immediately east of Kasbek, runs the Georgian military road (made 1811-1864) from Vladikavkaz to Tiflis , cutting through the mountains by a gorge (8 m.

internat.
.(St Petersburg, 1897).^ (St Petersburg , 1897).

.N. Y. Dinnik writes on the fauna in Bull.^ N. Y. Dinnik writes on the fauna in Bull.

Soc. Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou
(1901); J. Mourier on the folk-tales in Contes et legendes du Caucase (1888); and on modern history G. Baumgarten, Sechzig Jahre des kaukasischen Krieges (Leipzig, 1861). .But a very great amount of most valuable imformation about the Caucasus is preserved in articles in encyclopaedias and scientific periodicals, especially the Izvestia and Zapiski of the Russian and Caucasian geographical societies, in P. P. Semenov's Geographical Dictionary (in Russian, 5 vols., St Petersburg, 1863-1884), and in the Russkiy encyklopedicheskiy slovar (1894), and in the Kavkazskiy kalendar (annually at Tiflis).^ In the field, I was able to acquire considerable information about the contexts in which bribes are most frequently presented, the cash value placed on bribes for various services, and the proper etiquette for presenting bribes.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All three South Caucasian countries value membership in the United Nations and most of its subordinate organizations.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is also a great deal of room for "old-style" history concerning the region, since we know only the most basic facts about its past.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also G. Radde and E. Koenig, " Der Nordfuss des Daghestan and das vorlagernde Tiefland bis zur Kuma " (Erganzungsheft No. 117 to Petermanns Mitteilungen), and " Das Ostufer des Pontus and seine kulturelle Entwickelung im Verlaufe der letzten 30 Jahre " (Erganzungsheft No. 112 of the same); by V. Dingelstedt in Scot. Geog. Mag. - ." Geography of the Caucasus (July 1889); " The Caucasian Highlands " (June 1895); " The Hydrography of the Caucasus " (June 1899); " The Riviera of Russia " (June 1904), " The Small Trades of the Caucasus " (March 1892); and " Caucasian Idioms " (June 1888).^ In addition, instability in Caucasian regions that remain within Russia--the entire North Caucasus--continues to affect the countries on the southern side of the mountains.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Russia retains a significant position in the trade profiles of the countries in Central Asia and the Caucasus.
  • NIC Conference Report - Central Asia and the South Caucasus 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.odni.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The best map is that of the Russian General Staff on the scale of I: 210,000 (ed. 1895-1901). (J. T. BE.; P. A. K.)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Pronunciation

Etymology

.Via Latin Caucasus from Ancient Greek Καύκασος (Kaukasos).^ This find is one more piece of evidence supporting the hypothesis that ancient humans moving from Africa to the north reached Europe via the Caucasus.
  • Magazine #1 - The Caucasus - from the Geological Past to Modern Times 30 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cenn.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From Scythian kroy-khasis (ice-shining, white with snow). Another possibility is the Pelasgian *kau- (mountain).

Proper noun

Singular
Caucasus
Plural
-
Caucasus
  1. A mountain range in West Asia, between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, on the territory of Russia, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan.

Usage notes

Usually as the Caucasus but not always (see quot. 1887)

Quotations

  • 1851, Lieutenant Maturin Murray, The Circassian Slave, or The Sultan's Favorite:
    [] from the long and rugged ravines of the Caucasus, []
  • 1887, Walter Savage Landor, Gebir:
    Driven with that weak blast which Winter leaves, / Closing his palace gates on Caucasus, / []
  • 1895, Robert W. Chambers, The King In Yellow:
    Germany, Italy, Spain and Belgium writhed in the throes of Anarchy, while Russia, watching from the Caucasus, stooped and bound them one by one.

Translations

Related terms


Simple English


The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region in Eurasia bordered on the south by Iran, on the southwest by Turkey, on the west by the Black Sea, on the east by the Caspian Sea, and on the north by Russia. The Persian name for the region is Qafqâz. Caucasia includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands.

The Caucasus Mountains are commonly known as a line between Asia and Europe, and the lands in Caucasia are different considered to be in one or both continents. The northern portion of the Caucasus is known as the Ciscaucasus and the southern portion as the Transcaucasus. The highest peak in the Caucasus is Mount Elbrus (5,642 m) which, in the western Ciscaucasus in Russia, is generally considered the highest point in Europe.

Contents

Countries in Caucasus

Myths and Legends

The Biblical Mount Ararat where Noah's Ark landed is known as the landmark of the ancient Armenian realm. The peak of Ararat is seasonally capped with snow. In Greek mythology, the Caucasus or Kaukasos was one of the pillars supporting the world. Prometheus was chained there by Zeus. The Roman poet Ovid placed Caucasus in Scythia and said it was a cold and stony mountain which was the abode of personified hunger.

Other pages

References

  • Caucasus: A Journey to the Land Between Christianity and Islam By Nicholas Griffin
  • Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus By Svante E. Cornell
  • The Caucasus By Ivan Golovin

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 29, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Caucasus, which are similar to those in the above article.








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