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Several examples of non-flip mobile phones, from the early 2000s.
.A mobile phone or mobile (also called cellphone and handphone[1]) is an electronic device used for mobile telecommunications (mobile telephone, text messaging or data transmission) over a cellular network of specialized base stations known as cell sites.^ It carries data and is transmitted by the cell site.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Base stations use one frequency of that channel and mobiles use the other.
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^ The codes are shared by both the mobile station (cellular phone) and the base station, and are called "pseudo-Random Code Sequences."
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.Mobile phones differ from cordless telephones, which only offer telephone service within limited range, e.g.^ The latter is responsible for the high voice quality and high signaling reliability of the Advanced Mobile Phone Service.
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^ (Time division duplexing, as used in cordless telephone schemes: DECT and Personal Handy Phone systems might have a place but this still isn't clear.
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^ More recent systems (the MJ system at 150 KHz and the MK system at 450 KHz) [ Improved Mobile Telephone Service or IMTS, ed.
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within a home or an office, through a fixed line and a base station owned by the subscriber and also from satellite phones and radio telephones. .As opposed to a radio telephone, a cell phone offers full duplex communication, automates calling to and paging from a public land mobile network (PLMN), and handoff (handover) during a phone call when the user moves from one cell (base station coverage area) to another.^ Moving from one service area to another causes registration to begin again.
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^ Managing handoffs or handovers, that is, moving from cell to cell, is handled in a similar manner.
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^ A cell site gives radio coverage to a cell.
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.Most current cell phones connect to a cellular network consisting of switching points and base stations (cell sites) owned by a mobile network operator.^ The cell site can initiate registration on its own by sending a signal to the mobile.
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^ Mobiles transmit on certain frequencies, cellular base stations transmit on others.
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^ The cell site relays this information to the mobile telecommunications switching office.
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.In addition to the standard voice function, current mobile phones may support many additional services, and accessories, such as SMS for text messaging, email, packet switching for access to the Internet, gaming, Bluetooth, infrared, camera with video recorder and MMS for sending and receiving photos and video, MP3 player, radio and GPS.^ Integrated Wifi & 3G technology for high-speed internet access Slim design with full QWERTY keyboard 3.2 Megapixel Camera and Video with 2x zoom - for Picture Messaging Stereo Bluetooth Capable Check if AT&T Coverage is right for you » Price w/New 2 Year Contract.
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Bluetooth Connectivity 1.3 Megapixel Camera/Camcorder Instant Messaging Clients built-in Instant email client access Check if T-Mobile Coverage is right for you » Price w/New 2 Year Contract.
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Mega-pixel camera with 4x zoom EDGE technology for high speed data Video Capture and Playback Bluetooth™ v2.0 connectivity Check if T-Mobile Coverage is right for you » Price w/New 2 Year Contract.
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

.The International Telecommunication Union estimated that mobile cellular subscriptions worldwide would reach approximately 4.6 billion by the end of 2009. Mobile phones have gained increased importance in the sector of Information and communication technologies for development in the 2000s and have effectively started to reach the bottom of the economic pyramid.^ As the Cellular Development group puts it, "A CDMA call starts with a standard rate of 9600 bits per second (9.6 kilobits per second).
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^ American cell phone frequencies start at 824 MHz and end at 894 MHz.
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^ In cellular, however, path does not, or should not, describe a transmission link, but rather the direction in which information flows.The forward path denotes information flowing from the base station to the mobile.
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[2]

Contents

History

Mobile car phone 1964.jpg
Portable Cellphone 1970's
Mobile phone 1973.jpg
Analog Motorola DynaTAC 8000X Advanced Mobile Phone System mobile phone as of 1983
In 1908, U.S. Patent 887,357 for a wireless telephone was issued to Nathan B. Stubblefield of Murray, Kentucky. .He applied this patent to "cave radio" telephones and not directly to cellular telephony as the term is currently understood.^ Channels, frequencies, and paths: Cellular radio employs an arcane and difficult terminology; many terms apply to all of wireless, many do not.
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[3] .Cells for mobile phone base stations were invented in 1947 by Bell Labs engineers at AT&T and further developed by Bell Labs during the 1960s.^ Even if "pseudo-random code" is fiercesomely titled, it's chore is simple to state: keep base station traffic to its own cell site by issuing a code.
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^ In this system, a mobile or portable unit in a given cell transmits to and receives from a cell site, or base station, on a channel assigned to that cell.
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^ The engineers at Bell Labs who developed the technology foresaw this kind of thing, and built in a mechanism to prioritize traffic.
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Radiophones have a long and varied history going back to Reginald Fessenden's invention and shore-to-ship demonstration of radio telephony, through the Second World War with military use of radio telephony links and civil services in the 1950s, while hand-held mobile radio devices have been available since 1973. A patent for the first wireless phone as we know today was issued in US Patent Number 3,449,750 to George Sweigert of Euclid, Ohio on June 10, 1969.
In 1945, the zero generation (0G) of mobile telephones was introduced..November 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Like other technologies of the time, it involved a single, powerful base station covering a wide area, and each telephone would effectively monopolize a channel over that whole area while in use.^ Base stations use one frequency of that channel and mobiles use the other.
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^ Base stations in the system distinguish themselves from each other by transmitting different portions of the code at a given time.
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^ In other words, the base stations transmit time offset versions of the same pseudo-random code."
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.In 1960, the world’s first partly automatic car phone system Mobile System A (MTA)|MTA was launched in Sweden.^ The mobile sends its phone number, its electronic serial number, and its home system ID. Among other things.
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^ Registration lets the local system know that a phone is active, in a particular area, and that the mobile can now take incoming calls.
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^ Compatibility with manual mobile units is maintained in many areas served be the automatic systems by providing mobile-service operators.
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.With MTA, calls could be made and received in the car to/from the public telephone network, and the car phone could be paged.^ From the user's standpoint, calls are initiated and received as they would be from any business or residence telephone.
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^ The MK head, the handheld device you actually made phone calls with, was a stripped-out version of Motorola's "FACTS" control head.
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^ Broad and deep knowledge of digital switching and transmission technology in the public switched telephone network, radio, signal processing, antennas, etc.
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The phone number was dialed using a rotary dial. Calling from the car was fully automatic, while calling to it required an operator. .The person who wanted to call a mobile phone had to know which base station the mobile phone was covered by.^ That code lets the operating system reassemble the jumbled calls at the base station.
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^ In this system, a mobile or portable unit in a given cell transmits to and receives from a cell site, or base station, on a channel assigned to that cell.
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^ Forward voice path: Base station to mobile .
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.The system was developed by Sture Laurén and other engineers at Televerket network operator.^ Hughes Network Systems developed this E-TDMA or Enhanced TDMA. It runs on their equipment.
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Ericsson provided the switchboard while Svenska Radioaktiebolaget (SRA) owned by Ericsson and Marconi provided the telephones and base station equipment. MTA phones were consisted of vacuum tubes and relays, and had a weight of 40 kg. .In 1962, a more modern version called Mobile System B (MTB) was launched, which was a push-button telephone, and which used transistors in order to enhance the telephone’s calling capacity and improve its operational reliability.^ That code lets the operating system reassemble the jumbled calls at the base station.
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^ A frequency might be 1.25 or even 5 MHz wide, 10 times or more the width a conventional call might use.
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^ (Time division duplexing, as used in cordless telephone schemes: DECT and Personal Handy Phone systems might have a place but this still isn't clear.
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In 1971 the MTD version was launched, opening for several different brands of equipment and gaining commercial success.[4][5]
.The concepts of frequency reuse and handoff, as well as a number of other concepts that formed the basis of modern cell phone technology, were described in the 1970s; see for example Fluhr and Nussbaum,[6] Hachenburg et al.^ The mobile sends its phone number, its electronic serial number, and its home system ID. Among other things.
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^ The cell phone's transmitting frequency, by comparison, is called the reverse path.
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^ When a system is newly installed in an area (when large cells are serving only a few customers), frequency reuse is unnecessary.
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[7] , and U.S. Patent 4,152,647, issued May 1, 1979 to Charles A. Gladden and Martin H. Parelman, both of Las Vegas, Nevada and assigned by them to the United States Government.
.Martin Cooper, a Motorola researcher and executive is considered to be the inventor of the first practical mobile phone for hand-held use in a non-vehicle setting, after a long race against Bell Labs for the first portable mobile phone.^ Advanced Mobile Phone Service overcomes these problems be using a novel cellular approach.
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^ The efficient use of frequencies that results from the cellular approach permits Advanced Mobile Phone Service customers to enjoy a level of service almost unknown with present mobile telephone service.
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^ In particular, cell phones or mobiles use the frequencies from 824.04 MHz to 848.97 and the base stations operate on 869.04 MHz to 893.97 MHz.
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.Cooper is the first inventor named on "Radio telephone system" filed on October 17, 1973 with the US Patent Office and later issued as US Patent 3,906,166;[8] other named contributors on the patent included Cooper's boss, John F. Mitchell, Motorola's chief of portable communication products, who successfully pushed Motorola to develop wireless communication products that would be small enough to use outside the home, office or automobile and participated in the design of the cellular phone.^ Besides acting as a backup or default operating system for digital cellular, including some dual mode PCS phones, analog based Advanced Mobile Phone Service continues as a primary operating system, bringing much needed basic wireless communications to many rural parts of the world.
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^ Major participant in design of Nortel DMS-MTX 800 MHz Digital Cellular system (IS-54/IS-136 technology), and participated in the standards development of IS-54 and North American Authentication and Encryption Standard used in IS-136 and IS-95.
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^ As a backup for digital cellular, including some dual mode PCS phones, and as a primary system in some rural areas.
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[9][10] Using a modern, if somewhat heavy portable handset, Cooper made the first call on a hand-held mobile phone on April 3, 1973 to his rival, Dr. Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs.[11]

Analog cellular telephony (1G)

The first commercially automated cellular network (the 1G generation) was launched in Japan by NTT in 1979. The initial launch network covered the full metropolitan area of Tokyo's over 20 million inhabitants with a cellular network of 23 base stations. Within five years, the NTT network had been expanded to cover the whole population of Japan and became the first nation-wide 2G network.
.The second launch of 1G networks was the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) system in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden in 1981.[12].^ More recent systems (the MJ system at 150 KHz and the MK system at 450 KHz) [ Improved Mobile Telephone Service or IMTS, ed.
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^ One desirable feature of a mobile telephone system is the ability to roam; that is, subscribers must be able to call and be called in cities other than their home areas.
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^ Originally, all mobile telephone systems operated manually, much as most private radio systems do today.
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.NMT was the first mobile phone network featuring international roaming.^ One desirable feature of a mobile telephone system is the ability to roam; that is, subscribers must be able to call and be called in cities other than their home areas.
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.The Swedish electrical engineer Östen Mäkitalo started to work on this vision in 1966, and is considered as the father of the NMT system and some consider him also the father of the cellular phone.^ As a backup for digital cellular, including some dual mode PCS phones, and as a primary system in some rural areas.
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^ A five digit code called the home system identification number (SID or sometimes SIDH) identifies the cellular carrier your phone is registered with.
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^ Before we turn to another multiplexing scheme, CDMA, let's consider how a digital cellular phone determines how to choose a digital channel and not an analog one.
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[13][14]
Personal Handy-phone System mobiles and modems used in Japan around 1997–2003
Several countries were among the earliest to launch 1G networks in the early 1980s including the UK, Mexico and Canada. .The first 1G network launched in the USA was Chicago based Ameritech in 1983 using the famous first hand-held mobile phone Motorola DynaTAC.^ Base stations use one frequency of that channel and mobiles use the other.
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^ The base station serving your call sends a hand-off request to the mobile switch after your signal drops below a handover threshold.
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^ Advanced Mobile Phone Service overcomes these problems be using a novel cellular approach.
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.In 1984, Bell Labs developed modern commercial cellular technology (based, to a large extent, on the Gladden, Parelman Patent), which employed multiple, centrally controlled base stations (cell sites), each providing service to a small area (a cell).^ Although the Bell System had trialed cellular in early 1978 in Chicago, and worldwide deployment of AMPS began shortly thereafter, American commercial cellular development began in earnest only after AT&T's breakup in 1984.
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^ CDMA is a part of an overall operating system that provides cellular radio service.
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^ Even if "pseudo-random code" is fiercesomely titled, it's chore is simple to state: keep base station traffic to its own cell site by issuing a code.
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.The cell sites would be set up such that cells partially overlapped.^ The cell site's transceiver got this information and began setting things up.
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^ In this example, just below , the cell site transmits and receives on three different sets of channels, one for each part or sector of the three cells it covers.
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^ The cell site equipment provides each sector with its own set of channels.
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In a cellular system, a signal between a base station (cell site) and a terminal (phone) only need be strong enough to reach between the two, so the same channel can be used simultaneously for separate conversations in different cells.
The first NMT installations as well as the First AMPS installations were based on the Ericsson AXE digital exchange nodes.
.Cellular systems required several leaps of technology, including handover, which allowed a conversation to continue as a mobile phone traveled from cell to cell.^ Besides acting as a backup or default operating system for digital cellular, including some dual mode PCS phones, analog based Advanced Mobile Phone Service continues as a primary operating system, bringing much needed basic wireless communications to many rural parts of the world.
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^ The mobile sends its phone number, its electronic serial number, and its home system ID. Among other things.
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^ As a backup for digital cellular, including some dual mode PCS phones, and as a primary system in some rural areas.
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.This system included variable transmission power in both the base stations and the telephones (controlled by the base stations), which allowed range and cell size to vary.^ That code lets the operating system reassemble the jumbled calls at the base station.
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^ Even if "pseudo-random code" is fiercesomely titled, it's chore is simple to state: keep base station traffic to its own cell site by issuing a code.
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^ Base stations in the system distinguish themselves from each other by transmitting different portions of the code at a given time.
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.As the system expanded and neared capacity, the ability to reduce transmission power allowed new cells to be added, resulting in more, smaller cells and thus more capacity.^ Start-up and small-city systems use a somewhat more conventional configuration with a single cell site at the center of each cell.
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^ Use of conventional systems on the new channels would increase the traffic-handling capacity by a factor of about 10.
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^ Adding new channels later to increase capacity is even more difficult.
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.The evidence of this growth can still be seen in the many older, tall cell site towers with no antennae on the upper parts of their towers.^ "Most people see the cell as the blue hexagon, being defined by the tower in the center, with the antennae pointing in the directions indicated by the arrows.
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^ Multiple access means the cell site can handle many calls at once.
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^ Each cell site has a base station with a computerized 800 or 1900 megahertz transceiver and an antenna.
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.These sites originally created large cells, and so had their antennae mounted atop high towers; the towers were designed so that as the system expanded—and cell sizes shrank—the antennae could be lowered on their original masts to reduce range.^ Later, as the service grows, a dense system will have many small cells and many customers), a given channel in a large city could be serving customers in twenty or more nonadjacent cells simultaneously.
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^ "Most people see the cell as the blue hexagon, being defined by the tower in the center, with the antennae pointing in the directions indicated by the arrows.
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^ In this system, a mobile or portable unit in a given cell transmits to and receives from a cell site, or base station, on a channel assigned to that cell.
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A 1991 GSM mobile phone

Digital mobile communication (2G)

.The first "modern" network technology on digital 2G (second generation) cellular technology was launched by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Group) in 1991 in Finland on the GSM standard which also marked the introduction of competition in mobile telecoms when Radiolinja challenged incumbent Telecom Finland (now part of TeliaSonera) who ran a 1G NMT network.^ He is now a freelance technology writer who contributes regularly to the site.
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^ As the Cellular Development group puts it, "A CDMA call starts with a standard rate of 9600 bits per second (9.6 kilobits per second).
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^ Major participant in design of Nortel DMS-MTX 800 MHz Digital Cellular system (IS-54/IS-136 technology), and participated in the standards development of IS-54 and North American Authentication and Encryption Standard used in IS-136 and IS-95.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first data services appeared on mobile phones starting with person-to-person SMS text messaging in Finland in 1993. First trial payments using a mobile phone to pay for a Coca Cola vending machine were set in Finland in 1998. The first commercial payments were mobile parking trialled in Sweden but first commercially launched in Norway in 1999. The first commercial payment system to mimic banks and credit cards was launched in the Philippines in 1999 simultaneously by mobile operators Globe and Smart.^ Windows Mobile 6.1 Standard with Sliding Panel UI home screen 3G speed for simultaneous voice & data.
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Camera with Video Capture Bluetooth Text, Picture and Video Messaging Speakerphone Check if T-Mobile Coverage is right for you Price w/New 2 Year Contract.
  • Cell Phones from wireless carriers AT&T, BlackBerry, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

^ GMail for Mobile App Computer Syncing Sync with Microsoft Outlook Instant Messaging Support Multiple Phone Numbers per Contact .
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

The first content sold to mobile phones was the ringing tone, first launched in 1998 in Finland. The first full internet service on mobile phones was introduced by NTT DoCoMo in Japan in 1999.

Wideband mobile communication (3G)

An early 3G handset
In 2001 the first commercial launch of 3G (Third Generation) was again in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard.[15] The standard 2G CDMA networks became 3G compliant with the adoption of Revision A to EV-DO. Revision A of EV-DO makes several additions to the protocol while keeping it completely backwards compatible with older versions of EV-DO.
.These changes included the introduction of several new forward link data rates that increase the maximum burst rate from 2.45 Mbit/s to 3.1 Mbit/s.^ Motadata.htm"> Geoff Fors (external link) makes these important points: "There are some errors in AT&T's history of mobile telephone data.
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^ At the same time, the number of customers in a large city can be increased from a maximum of about one thousand for a conventional system to several hundred thousand.
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^ Note that data fields and channels change depending on the direction or the path that occurs at the time, that is, a link to the mobile from the base station, or a call from the mobile to the base station.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also included were protocols that would decrease connection establishment time (called enhanced access channel MAC), the ability for more than one mobile to share the same time slot (multi-user packets) and the introduction of QoS flags.^ In time division multiple access we separate calls by time, one after another.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Slots so designated are called channels, ones that do certain jobs.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One call per channel.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All these were put in place to allow for low latency, low bit rate communications such as VoIP.^ As the Cellular Development group puts it, "A CDMA call starts with a standard rate of 9600 bits per second (9.6 kilobits per second).
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These data bits are transmitted along with the signals of all the other users in that cell.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16]
.One of the newest 3G technologies to implemented is High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA).^ G, while still delivering voice, will emphasize data, packet switching, and high speed access.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each mobile or portable unit is equipped with a frequency synthesizer (to generate any one of the 333 channels) and a high speed modem (10 kbps).
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is an enhanced 3G (third generation) mobile telephony communications protocol in the High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) family, also coined 3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G, which allows networks based on Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity.^ G, while still delivering voice, will emphasize data, packet switching, and high speed access.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ G technology for high-speed data Microsoft® Windows Mobile 6 Edition(TM) Mobile versions of Microsoft® Office(TM) applications Windows Media Player® 10 Mobile Check if AT&T Coverage is right for you » Price w/New 2 Year Contract.
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

^ In this system, a mobile or portable unit in a given cell transmits to and receives from a cell site, or base station, on a channel assigned to that cell.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Current HSDPA deployments support down-link speeds of 1.8, 3.6, 7.2 and 14.0 Mbit/s. Further speed increases are available with HSPA+, which provides speeds of up to 42 Mbit/s downlink and 84 Mbit/s with Release 9 of the 3GPP standards.

Broadband Fourth generation (4G)

.The recently released 4th generation, also known as Beyond 3G, aims to provide broadband wireless access with nominal data rates of 100 Mbit/s to fast moving devices, and 1 Gbit/s to stationary devices defined by the ITU-R[17] 4G systems may be based on the 3GPP LTE (Long Term Evolution) cellular standard, offering peak bit rates of 326.4 Mbit/s.^ The most commonly used digital cellular system in America is IS-136, colloquially known as D-AMPS or digital AMPS. (Concentrate on the industry name, not the marketing terms like D-AMPS.) It was formerly known as IS-54, and is an evolutionary step up from that technology.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mark continues, "Cellular pioneers knew most sites would be in cities using a road system based on a grid.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the Cellular Development group puts it, "A CDMA call starts with a standard rate of 9600 bits per second (9.6 kilobits per second).
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It may perhaps also be based on WiMax or Flash-OFDM wireless metropolitan area network technologies that promise broadband wireless access with speeds that reaches 233 Mbit/s for mobile users.^ Bluetooth® Wireless Technology Camera with 4x Zoom EDGE technology for high-speed data Instant Messaging: AOL®, Yahoo!®, MSN® Check if T-Mobile Coverage is right for you » Price w/New 2 Year Contract.
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

^ (Access technology, although a current wireless phrase, is, to me, an open and formless term.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Megapixel Camera Music Player Removable Memory Mobile Broadband Check if Verizon Wireless Coverage is right for you » Price w/New 2 Year Contract.
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

.The radio interface in these systems is based on all-IP packet switching, MIMO diversity, multi-carrier modulation schemes, dynamic channel assignment (DCA) and channel-dependent scheduling.^ Although first in each cell's lineup, most radio engineers place priority on the voice channels in a system.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This allocation is split equally between wire-line and radio common carriers (each is allocated 333 channels).
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The system responded by sending a voice channel assignment to the cell you were in.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A 4G system should be a complete replacement for current network infrastructure and is expected to be able to provide a comprehensive and secure IP solution where voice, data, and streamed multimedia can be given to users on a "Anytime, Anywhere" basis, and at much higher data rates than previous generations.^ When a user talks, the 9600 bps data rate is generally used.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The AMPS system control channel has a bit in its data stream which is called the 'Extended Protocol Bit.'
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Next, as Will Galloway writes, "After an AMPS phone selects the strongest channel, it tries to decode the data stream and in particular the System ID, to see if it's at home or roaming.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sprint has a 4G network in select areas. By 2011 it is expected that more wireless companies will launch 4G Broadband networks.[17]

Uses

.Mobile phones are used for a variety of purposes, including keeping in touch with family members, conducting business, and having access to a telephone in the event of an emergency.^ There was discussion last night about in case of an emergency the students should not be able to use their cell phones because it would overload the cell towers and interfere with emergency personnel.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Time division duplexing, as used in cordless telephone schemes: DECT and Personal Handy Phone systems might have a place but this still isn't clear.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each phone was to be assigned an "Access Overload Class", and phones owned by bona fide emergency agencies would have a special ACCOC assigned.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Organizations that aid victims of domestic violence may offer a cell phone to potential victims without the abuser's knowledge. These devices are often old phones that are donated and refurbished to meet the victim's emergency needs.[18]
.Child predators have taken advantage of cell phones to secretly communicate with children without the knowledge of their parents or teachers.^ The first point is that cell phones and base stations transmit or communicate with each other on dedicated paired frequencies called channels.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]
.The advent of widespread text messaging has resulted in the cell phone novel; the first literary genre to emerge from the cellular age via text messaging to a website that collects the novels as a whole.^ The first point is that cell phones and base stations transmit or communicate with each other on dedicated paired frequencies called channels.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Advanced Mobile Phone Service overcomes these problems be using a novel cellular approach.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The efficient use of frequencies that results from the cellular approach permits Advanced Mobile Phone Service customers to enjoy a level of service almost unknown with present mobile telephone service.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] Paul Levinson, in Information on the Move (2004), says "...nowadays, a writer can write just about as easily, anywhere, as a reader can read" and they are "not only personal but portable".

Multiple phones

.Individuals may have multiple cell phones for separate purposes, such as for business and personal use.^ (Time division duplexing, as used in cordless telephone schemes: DECT and Personal Handy Phone systems might have a place but this still isn't clear.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was discussion last night about in case of an emergency the students should not be able to use their cell phones because it would overload the cell towers and interfere with emergency personnel.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using this method, a T1 line can carry 24 separate phone lines into your house or business with just an extra twisted pair.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Multiple phones (or multiple SIM cards) may be used to take advantage of the benefits of different calling plans—a particular plan might provide cheaper local calls, long-distance calls, international calls, or roaming.^ How is it possible, you might ask, that a one to three watt cellular phone call can take up a path that is three times wider than a 50,000 watt broadcast station?
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A frequency might be 1.25 or even 5 MHz wide, 10 times or more the width a conventional call might use.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mobile can now take incoming calls since the system is aware that it is in use.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A study by Motorola found that one in ten cell phone subscribers have a second phone that often is kept secret from other family members.^ The first point is that cell phones and base stations transmit or communicate with each other on dedicated paired frequencies called channels.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Every cell phone starts out with just one ESN. This number gets electronically burned into the phone's ROM, or read only memory chip.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These phones may be used to engage in activities including extramarital affairs or clandestine business dealings.^ Advanced Mobile Phone Service overcomes these problems be using a novel cellular approach.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using this method, a T1 line can carry 24 separate phone lines into your house or business with just an extra twisted pair.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]

Sharing

Cell phone sharing is a phenomenon which exists around the world. It is prevalent in urban India, as families and groups of friends often share one or more mobiles among their members. Two types of sharing which exist are "conspicuous" and "stealthy" sharing. An example of conspicuous sharing takes place when someone calls the friend of the person they are trying to reach in hopes of being able to talk to that individual; the latter type of sharing occurs when an individual uses another's cell phone without their knowledge. Phone sharing does not only take place because of its economic benefits, but also often due to familial customs and traditional gender roles.[22]
.Another example of cell phone sharing occurs in Burkina Faso.^ The ESN gets transmitted whenever the phone is turned on, handed over to another cell or at regular intervals decided by the system.
  • Cellular Telephone Basics 16 September 2009 22:41 UTC www.privateline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There it is not uncommon for a village to only have access to one cell phone. This cell phone is typically owned by a person who is not natively from the village, such as a teacher or missionary. Although the cell phone is the sole property of one individual, it is the expectation that other members of the village are allowed to use the cell phone to make necessary calls. Although some may consider this a burden, it can actually be an opportunity to engage in reciprocal obligations. This type of cell phone sharing is an important for the small villages in Burkina Faso because it allows them to keep up with the expectations of the globalizing world.[23]

Handsets

A Nokia phone with box.
A printed circuit board inside a mobile phone
There are several categories of mobile phones, from basic phones to feature phones such as musicphones and cameraphones. There are also smartphones, the first smartphone was the Nokia 9000 Communicator in 1996 which incorporated PDA functionality to the basic mobile phone at the time. As miniaturisation and increased processing power of microchips has enabled ever more features to be added to phones, the concept of the smartphone has evolved, and what was a high-end smartphone five years ago, is a standard phone today. Several phone series have been introduced to address a given market segment, such as the RIM BlackBerry focusing on enterprise/corporate customer email needs; the SonyEricsson Walkman series of musicphones and Cybershot series of cameraphones; the Nokia Nseries of multimedia phones, the Palm Pre the HTC Dream and the Apple iPhone.

Features

.Mobile phones often have features extending beyond sending text messages and making voice calls, including call registers, GPS navigation, music (MP3) and video (MP4) playback, RDS radio receiver, alarms, memo and document recording, personal organiser and personal digital assistant functions, ability to watch streaming video or download video for later viewing, video calling, built-in cameras (1.0+ Mpx) and camcorders (video recording), with autofocus and flash, ringtones, games, PTT, memory card reader (SD), USB (2.0), infrared, Bluetooth (2.0) and WiFi connectivity, instant messaging, Internet e-mail and browsing and serving as a wireless modem for a PC, and soon will also serve as a console of sorts to online games and other high quality games.^ Full MIL-Spec plus immersion Dual Mic for Noise Cancellation 2 MP Camera with Flash PTT call conversion to interconnect call Check if Sprint Coverage is right for you Price w/New 2 Year Contract.
  • Cell Phones from wireless carriers AT&T, BlackBerry, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Innovative dual slide/double keyboard design Powered by Windows Mobile 6.1 for push email and Office document editing Tr-band 3G and quad-band GSM for global roaming Compatible with AT&T Navigator GPS, Video Share, AT&T Mobile Music, and more Check if AT&T Coverage is right for you » Price w/New 2 Year Contract.
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Integrated Wifi & 3G technology for high-speed internet access Slim design with full QWERTY keyboard 3.2 Megapixel Camera and Video with 2x zoom - for Picture Messaging Stereo Bluetooth Capable Check if AT&T Coverage is right for you » Price w/New 2 Year Contract.
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

Some phones also include a touchscreen.
Nokia and the University of Cambridge are demonstrating a bendable cell phone called the Morph.[24]
See also: Videophone, for UMTS-type mobile phones employing simultaneous video and audio

Software and applications

A phone with touchscreen feature.
Mobile phone subscribers per 100 inhabitants 1997–2007
.The most commonly used data application on mobile phones is SMS text messaging, with 74% of all mobile phone users as active users (over 2.4 billion out of 3.3 billion total subscribers at the end of 2007).^ GMail for Mobile App Computer Syncing Sync with Microsoft Outlook Instant Messaging Support Multiple Phone Numbers per Contact .
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

^ G Data Connectivity Full QWERTY KEyboard 2 MP Camera w/ Video Capture Video/IM/Text Messaging Check if T-Mobile Coverage is right for you » Price w/New 2 Year Contract.
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Speakerphone Text Messaging Picture Messaging Web2go capable Check if T-Mobile Coverage is right for you » Price w/New 2 Year Contract.
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

.SMS text messaging was worth over 100 billion dollars in annual revenues in 2007 and the worldwide average of messaging use is 2.6 SMS sent per day per person across the whole mobile phone subscriber base (source Informa 2007).^ Camera with Video Capture Bluetooth Text, Picture and Video Messaging Speakerphone Check if T-Mobile Coverage is right for you Price w/New 2 Year Contract.
  • Cell Phones from wireless carriers AT&T, BlackBerry, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

^ GMail for Mobile App Computer Syncing Sync with Microsoft Outlook Instant Messaging Support Multiple Phone Numbers per Contact .
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Speakerphone Voice-activated Dialing Personal Tools MMS, EMS, and SMS Messaging Services .
  • Cell Phones from wireless carriers AT&T, BlackBerry, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

The first SMS text message was sent from a computer to a mobile phone in 1992 in the UK, while the first person-to-person SMS from phone to phone was sent in Finland in 1993.
The other non-SMS data services used by mobile phones were worth 31 billion dollars in 2007, and were led by mobile music, downloadable logos and pictures, gaming, gambling, adult entertainment and advertising (source: Informa 2007). The first downloadable mobile content was sold to a mobile phone in Finland in 1998, when Radiolinja (now Elisa) introduced the downloadable ringing tone service. In 1999 Japanese mobile operator NTT DoCoMo introduced its mobile internet service, i-Mode, which today is the world's largest mobile internet service and roughly the same size as Google in annual revenues.
The first mobile news service, delivered via SMS, was launched in Finland in 2000. Mobile news services are expanding with many organisations providing "on-demand" news services by SMS. Some also provide "instant" news pushed out by SMS. Mobile telephony also facilitates activism and public journalism being explored by Reuters and Yahoo![25] and small independent news companies such as Jasmine News in Sri Lanka.
Companies are starting to offer mobile services such as job search and career advice. Consumer applications are on the rise and include everything from information guides on local activities and events to mobile coupons and discount offers one can use to save money on purchases. Even tools for creating websites for mobile phones are increasingly becoming available.
Mobile payments were first trialled in Finland in 1998 when two Coca-Cola vending machines in Espoo were enabled to work with SMS payments. Eventually the idea spread and in 1999 the Philippines launched the first commercial mobile payments systems, on the mobile operators Globe and Smart. Today mobile payments ranging from mobile banking to mobile credit cards to mobile commerce are very widely used in Asia and Africa, and in selected European markets. For example in the Philippines it is not unusual to have one's entire paycheck paid to the mobile account. In Kenya the limit of money transfers from one mobile banking account to another is one million US dollars. In India paying utility bills with mobile gains a 5% discount. In Estonia mobile phones are the most popular method of paying for public parking.

Power supply

Mobile phone charging service in Uganda
Mobile phones generally obtain power from rechargeable batteries. There are a variety of ways used to charge cell phones, including USB, portable batteries, mains power (using an AC adapter), cigarette lighters (using an adapter), or a dynamo. In 2009, wireless charging became a reality, and the first wireless charger was released for consumer use.[26]
Standardization of Micro-USB connector for charging
Starting from 2010, many mobile phone manufacturers have agreed to use the Micro-USB connector for charging their phones.[27] The mobile phone manufacturers who have agreed to this standard include:
  • Apple
  • LG
  • Motorola
  • Nokia
  • Research In Motion
  • Samsung
  • Sony Ericsson
On 17 February 2009, the GSM Association announced[28] that they had agreed on a standard charger for mobile phones. The standard connector to be adopted by 17 manufacturers in the Open Mobile Terminal Platform including Nokia, Motorola and Samsung is to be the micro-USB connector (several media reports erroneously reported this as the mini-USB). The new chargers will be much more efficient than existing chargers. Having a standard charger for all phones, means that manufacturers will no longer have to supply a charger with every new phone.
In addition, on 22 October 2009 the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) announced that it had embraced micro-USB as the Universal Charger Solution its "energy-efficient one-charger-fits-all new mobile phone solution", and added: "Based on the Micro-USB interface, UCS chargers will also include a 4-star or higher efficiency rating — up to three times more energy-efficient than an unrated charger."[29]
Charger efficiency
The world's five largest handset makers introduced a new rating system in November 2008 to help consumers more easily identify the most energy-efficient chargers
The majority of energy lost in a mobile phone charger is in its no load condition, when the mobile phone is not connected but the charger has been left plugged in and using power. .To combat this in November 2008 the top five mobile phone manufacturers Nokia, Samsung, LG Electronics, Sony Ericsson and Motorola set up a star rating system to rate the efficiency of their chargers in the no-load condition.^ Sony Ericsson TM506 Amber (T-Mobile Flexpay) .
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Sony Ericsson TM506 Scarlet (T-Mobile) .
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Sony Ericsson TM506 Emerald Green (T-Mobile Flexpay) .
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

Starting at zero stars for >0.5 W and going up to the top five star rating for <0.03 W (30 mW) no load power.
A number of semiconductor companies offering flyback controllers, such as Power Integrations and CamSemi, now claim that the five star standard can be achieved with use of their product.
Battery
Formerly, the most common form of mobile phone batteries were nickel metal-hydride, as they have a low size and weight. lithium ion batteries are sometimes used, as they are lighter and do not have the voltage depression that nickel metal-hydride batteries do. Many mobile phone manufacturers have now switched to using lithium-polymer batteries as opposed to the older Lithium-Ion, the main advantages of this being even lower weight and the possibility to make the battery a shape other than strict cuboid. .Mobile phone manufacturers have been experimenting with alternative power sources, including solar cells and Coca Cola.^ Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more .
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

[30]

SIM card

Typical mobile phone SIM card
In addition to the battery, GSM mobile phones require a small microchip, called a Subscriber Identity Module or SIM Card, to function. Approximately the size of a small postage stamp, the SIM Card is usually placed underneath the battery in the rear of the unit, and (when properly activated) stores the phone's configuration data, and information about the phone itself, such as which calling plan the subscriber is using. When the subscriber removes the SIM Card, it can be re-inserted into another phone that is configured to accept the SIM card[31] and used as normal.
Each SIM Card is activated by use of a unique numerical identifier; once activated, the identifier is locked down and the card is permanently locked in to the activating network. For this reason, most retailers refuse to accept the return of an activated SIM Card.
Those cell phones that do not use a SIM Card have the data programmed in to their memory. This data is accessed by using a special digit sequence to access the "NAM" as in "Name" or number programming menu. From here, one can add information such as a new number for the phone, new Service Provider numbers, new emergency numbers, change their Authentication Key or A-Key code, and update their Preferred Roaming List or PRL. However, to prevent someone from accidentally disabling their phone or removing it from the network, the Service Provider puts a lock on this data called a Master Subsidiary Lock or MSL.
.The MSL also ensures that the Service Provider gets payment for the phone that was purchased or "leased". For example, the Motorola RAZR V9C costs upwards of CAD $500. Depending on the carrier, such a phone may be available for as little as $200. The difference is paid by the customer in the form of a monthly bill.^ May require a one or two year service term agreement with featured wireless carrier.
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Mail-in rebates may require customer to submit rebate form with proof of purchase to carrier, manufacturer, or other sponsor.
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

If the carrier did not use an MSL, then they may lose the $300–$400 difference that is paid in the monthly bill, since some customers would cancel their service and take the phone to another carrier.
The MSL applies to the SIM only so once the contract has been completed the MSL still applies to the SIM. The phone however, is also initially locked by the manufacturer into the Service Providers MSL. This lock may be disabled so that the phone can use other Service Providers SIM cards. Most phones purchased outside the US are unlocked phones because there are numerous Service Providers in close proximity to one another or have overlapping coverage. The cost to unlock a phone varies but is usually very cheap and is sometimes provided by independent phone vendors.
Having an unlocked phone is extremely useful for travelers due to the high cost of using the MSL Service Providers access when outside the normal coverage areas. It can cost sometimes up to 10 times as much to use a locked phone overseas as in the normal service area, even with discounted rates. T-Mobile will provide a SIM unlock code to account holders in good standing after 90 days according to their FAQ.
For example, in Jamaica, an AT&T subscriber might pay in excess of US$1.65 per minute for discounted international service while a B-Mobile (Jamaican) customer would pay US$0.20 per minute for the same international service. Some Service Providers focus sales on international sales while others focus on regional sales. .For example, the same B-Mobile customer might pay more for local calls but less for international calls than a subscriber to the Jamaican national phone C&W (Cable & Wireless) company.^ Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more .
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Cell Phones from wireless carriers AT&T, BlackBerry, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless Your cart has been updated...
  • Cell Phones from wireless carriers AT&T, BlackBerry, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

These rate differences are mainly due to currency variations because SIM purchases are made in the local currency. In the US, this type of service competition does not exist because some of the major Service Providers do not offer Pay-As-You-Go services. [Needs Pay-As-You-Go references, rumored T-Mobile, Verizon provide one, AT&T does not as of 12/2008]

Market

Mobile phone manufacturers' market share in Q3/2008
The world's largest individual mobile operator is China Mobile with over 500 million mobile phone subcribers. The world's largest mobile operator group by subscribers is UK based Vodafone. There are over 600 mobile operators and carriers in commercial production worldwide. Over 50 mobile operators have over 10 million subscribers each, and over 150 mobile operators have at least one million subscribers by the end of 2008 (source wireless intelligence).
.In mobile phone handsets, in Q3/2008, Nokia was the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones, with a global device market share of 39.4%, followed by Samsung (17.3%), Sony Ericsson (8.6%), Motorola (8.5%) and LG Electronics (7.7%).^ Sony Ericsson TM506 Amber (T-Mobile Flexpay) .
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]
  • Cell Phones from wireless carriers AT&T, BlackBerry, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Sony Ericsson Equinox (T-Mobile Flexpay) .
  • Cell Phones from wireless carriers AT&T, BlackBerry, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Sony Ericsson Equinox (T-Mobile) .
  • Cell Phones from wireless carriers AT&T, BlackBerry, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless 28 January 2010 1:30 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

These manufacturers accounted for over 80% of all mobile phones sold at that time.[32]
Other manufacturers include Apple Inc., Audiovox (now UTStarcom), Benefon, BenQ-Siemens, CECT, HTC Corporation, Fujitsu, Kyocera, Mitsubishi Electric, NEC, Neonode, Panasonic, Palm, Matsushita, Pantech Wireless Inc., Philips, Qualcomm Inc., Research In Motion Ltd. (RIM), Sagem, Sanyo, Sharp, Siemens, Sendo, Sierra Wireless, SK Teletech, T&A Alcatel, Huawei, Trium, Toshiba and Vidalco. There are also specialist communication systems related to (but distinct from) mobile phones.

Media

The mobile phone became a mass media channel in 1998 when the first ringtones were sold to mobile phones by Radiolinja in Finland. Soon other media content appeared such as news, videogames, jokes, horoscopes, TV content and advertising. In 2006 the total value of mobile phone paid media content exceeded internet paid media content and was worth 31 Billion dollars (source Informa 2007). The value of music on phones was worth 9.3 Billion dollars in 2007 and gaming was worth over 5 billion dollars in 2007.[33]
The mobile phone is often called the Fourth Screen (if counting cinema, TV and PC screens as the first three) or Third Screen (counting only TV and PC screens). It is also called the Seventh of the Mass Media (with Print, Recordings, Cinema, Radio, TV and Internet the first six). Most early content for mobile tended to be copies of legacy media, such as the banner advertisement or the TV news highlight video clip. Recently unique content for mobile has been emerging, from the ringing tones and ringback tones in music to "mobisodes," video content that has been produced exclusively for mobile phones.
The advent of media on the mobile phone has also produced the opportunity to identify and track Alpha Users or Hubs, the most influential members of any social community. AMF Ventures measured in 2007 the relative accuracy of three mass media, and found that audience measures on mobile were nine times more accurate than on the internet and 90 times more accurate than on TV.

Privacy

Cell phones have numerous privacy issues associated with them, and are regularly used by governments to perform surveillance.
Law enforcement and intelligence services in the UK and the US possess technology to remotely activate the microphones in cell phones in order to listen to conversations that take place nearby the person who holds the phone.[34][35]
Mobile phones are also commonly used to collect location data. .The geographical location of a mobile phone can be determined easily (whether it is being used or not), using a technique known multilateration to calculate the differences in time for a signal to travel from the cell phone to each of several cell towers near the owner of the phone.^ Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more .
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

[36][37]

Restriction on usage

There exists a growing body within the scientific community which believes mobile phone use represents a long-term health risk, particularly to young children. Certain countries, including France, restrict the use and sale of cell phones to minors for this reason. The telecommunications insdustry rejects such claims, claming there is no proof of long-term adverse health effects. Groups of scientists, however, such as the U.S. - based group "Bioinitiative (see www.bioinitiative.org) argue that because mobile phone use is recently-introduced technology, long-term 'proof' has been impossible - and use should be restricted, or monitored closely, while the technology is still new. The very first generation of cell-phone users, for example, are only now entering middle-age. Studies in Europe, for example, are only now emerging which link long-term cell phone use to brain tumours. Other studies link cell-phone use to child-diabetes, concentration difficulty, and sleep disorders.

Use while driving

Mobile phone use while driving is common but controversial. Being distracted while operating a motor vehicle has been shown to increase the risk of accident. Because of this, many jurisdictions prohibit the use of mobile phones while driving. Egypt, Israel, Japan, Portugal and Singapore ban both hand-held and hands-free use of a mobile phone whilst many other countries –including the UK, France, and many US states– ban hand-held phone use only, allowing hands-free use.
.Due to the increasing complexity of mobile phones –often more like mobile computers in their available uses– it has introduced additional difficulties for law enforcement officials in being able to tell one usage from another as drivers use their devices.^ Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more .
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

^ GMail for Mobile App Computer Syncing Sync with Microsoft Outlook Instant Messaging Support Multiple Phone Numbers per Contact .
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

.This is more apparent in those countries who ban both hand-held and hands-free usage, rather those who have banned hand-held use only, as officials cannot easily tell which function of the mobile phone is being used simply by visually looking at the driver.^ Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more .
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

This can mean that drivers may be stopped for using their device illegally on a phone call, when in fact they were not; instead using the device for a legal purpose such as the phones' incorporated controls for car stereo or satnav usage – either as part of the cars' own device or directly on the mobile phone itself.
Cases like these can often only be proved otherwise by a check of the mobile operators phone call records to see if a call was taking place during the journey concerned. Although in many countries the law enforcement official may have stopped the driver for a differing offence, for example, for lack of due care and attention in relation to their driving.

Schools

Some schools limit or restrict the use of mobile phones. .Schools set restrictions on the use of mobile phones because of the use of cell phones for cheating on tests, harassment and bullying, causing threats to the schools security, distractions to the students and facilitating gossip and other social activity in school.^ Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more .
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

Many mobile phones are banned in school locker room facilities, public restrooms and swimming pools due to the built-in cameras that most phones now feature, though some countries and manufacturers have taken steps to protect privacy in such areas by giving their products audible 'shutter noises', that cannot be disabled.[citation needed]
A recently published study has reviewed the incidence of mobile phone use while cycling and its effects on behaviour and safety. [38]

Comparison to similar systems

Car phone 
A type of telephone permanently mounted in a vehicle, these often have more powerful transmitters, an external antenna and loudspeaker for hands free use. They usually connect to the same networks as regular mobile phones.
Cordless telephone (portable phone) 
Cordless phones are telephones which use one or more radio handsets in place of a wired handset. The handsets connect wirelessly to a base station, which in turn connects to a conventional land line for calling. Unlike mobile phones, cordless phones use private base stations (belonging to the land-line subscriber), which are not shared.
Professional Mobile Radio 
Advanced professional mobile radio systems can be very similar to mobile phone systems. Notably, the IDEN standard has been used as both a private trunked radio system as well as the technology for several large public providers. Similar attempts have even been made to use TETRA, the European digital PMR standard, to implement public mobile networks.
Radio phone 
This is a term which covers radios which could connect into the telephone network. These phones may not be mobile; for example, they may require a mains power supply, or they may require the assistance of a human operator to set up a PSTN phone call.
Satellite phone 
This type of phone communicates directly with an artificial satellite, which in turn relays calls to a base station or another satellite phone. A single satellite can provide coverage to a much greater area than terrestrial base stations. .Since satellite phones are costly, their use is typically limited to people in remote areas where no mobile phone coverage exists, such as mountain climbers, mariners in the open sea, and news reporters at disaster sites.^ MB flash memory Check if T-Mobile Coverage is right for you » Price w/New 2 Year Contract.
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Camera/Camcorder 4GB of internal storage Windows Mobile® 6.1 Pro OS Check if Sprint Coverage is right for you » Price w/New 2 Year Contract.
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

^ Megapixel camera w/video capture Check if T-Mobile Coverage is right for you » Price w/New 2 Year Contract.
  • Wireless Cell Phones from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, Verizon Wireless, and more | LetsTalk.com 11 September 2009 20:56 UTC www.letstalk.com [Source type: General]

IP Phone 
This type of phone delivers or receives calls over internet, LAN or WAN networks using VoIP as opposed to traditional CDMA and GSM networks. In business, the majority of these IP Phones tend to be connected via wired Ethernet, however wireless varieties do exist. Several vendors have developed standalone WiFi phones. Additionally, some cellular mobile phones include the ability to place VoIP calls over cellular high speed data networks and/or wireless internet.[39]

See also

References

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  2. ^ Heeks, Richard (2008). "ICT4D 2.0: The Next Phase of Applying ICT for International Development". IEEE Computer 41 (6): 26–33. doi:10.1109/MC.2008.192. http://doi.ieeecomputersociety.org/10.1109/MC.2008.192. 
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  4. ^ Mingtao Shi, Technology base of mobile cellular operators in Germany and China, page 55
  5. ^ Facts about the Mobile. A Journey through Time
  6. ^ "Switching Plan for a Cellular Mobile Telephone System:, Z. Fluhr and E. Nussbaum, IEEE Transactions on Communications volume 21, #11 p. 1281 (1973)
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  8. ^ Cooper, et al., "Radio Telephone System", US Patent number 3,906,166; Filing date: Oct 17, 1973; Issue date: September 1975; Assignee Motorola
  9. ^ "Motorola Executive Helped spur Cellphone Revolution, Oversaw Ill-fated Iridium Project". The Wall Street Journal, June 20–21, 2009, p. A10.
  10. ^ "John F. Mitchell, 1928-2009: Was president of Motorola from 1980 to '95, Chicago Tribune, June 17, 2009, retrieved June 17, 2009". Chicagotribune.com. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/chi-hed-jmitchell-17-jun17,0,955426.story. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 
  11. ^ Shiels, Maggie (2003-04-21). [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/2963619.stm "BBC interview with Martin CooperCell phones or cellular phones are so called as they cover compartmentalized, cell like areas. The origin of the Cell phone can be traced back to the year 1973 when Motorola came up with World`s first cellular portable telephone which was commercialised as Motorola DynaTAC 8000X. These days, new cell phones are being added at a rapid pace. The parts of them typically consist of following: circuit board; antenna; keyboard; LCD - liquid crystal display; battery; microphone; speaker. In recent times, they are available with a wide range of functions. To list a few functions, depending on the type of cell phone you choose: store contact information; keep track of appointments; set reminders; prepare to-do lists; send/receive e-mail; play games; send text messages (sms); access to internet; watch and enjoy TV; built-in calculator; integration with other devices like GPS receivers, MP3 players, etc. Cell phones, operating on radio frequency, have come up with an innovative cellular approach to counter limited availability of RF spectrum. Now, several cell phone towers are used to cater to a large geographic area. Each tower (base station), covers a circular area called a cell. A large region is split into a number of cells allowing different base stations to use the same channels/frequencies for communication. This enables thousands and thousands of mobile telephone users to share far fewer channels."]. BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/2963619.stm. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 
  12. ^ "Swedish National Museum of Science and Technology". Tekniskamuseet.se. http://www.tekniskamuseet.se/mobilen/engelska/1980_90.shtml. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 
  13. ^ Mobile and technology: The Basics of Mobile Phones
  14. ^ The cell phone 50 years - facts and numbers
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  17. ^ a b Young Kyun, Kim; Prasad, Ramjee (2006). 4G Roadmap and Emerging Communication Technologies. Artech House 2006. pp. 12–13. ISBN 1-58053-931-9. 
  18. ^ By RICHARD BROOKSThe Press-Enterprise (2007-08-13). "Donated cell phones help battered women | San Bernardino County | PE.com | Southern California News | News for Inland Southern California". PE.com. http://www.pe.com/localnews/sbcounty/stories/PE_News_Local_S_helpphones13.3d74734.html. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  19. ^ By Christy Oglesby CNN (2008-01-11). "Cells, texting give predators secret path to kids". CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/01/11/teachers.charged/index.html. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
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  22. ^ Donner, Jonathan, and Steenson, Molly Wright. "Beyond the Personal and Private: Modes of Mobile Phone Sharing in Urban India." In The Reconstruction of Space and Time: Mobile Communication Practices, edited by Scott Campbell and Rich Ling, 231-250. Piscatawy, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2008.
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  30. ^ Daily Mail
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  33. ^ "Downloads_Guide". Netsize. http://www.netsize.com/Ressources_Guide.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 
  34. ^ McCullagh, Declan; Anne Broache (December 1, 2006). "FBI taps cell phone mic as eavesdropping tool". CNet News. http://news.cnet.com/FBI-taps-cell-phone-mic-as-eavesdropping-tool/2100-1029_3-6140191.html. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  35. ^ Odell, Mark (August 1, 2005). "Use of mobile helped police keep tabs on suspect". Financial Times. http://news.ft.com/cms/s/7166b8a2-02cb-11da-84e5-00000e2511c8.html. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
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  38. ^ de Waard, D., Schepers, P., Ormel, W. and Brookhuis, K., 2010, Mobile phone use while cycling: Incidence and effects on behaviour and safety, Ergonomics, Vol 53, No. 1, January 2010, pp 30 - 42.
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Further reading

  • Agar, Jon, Constant Touch: A Global History of the Mobile Phone, 2004 ISBN 1840465417
  • Ahonen, Tomi, m-Profits: Making Money with 3G Services, 2002, ISBN 0-470-84775-1
  • Ahonen, Kasper and Melkko, 3G Marketing 2004, ISBN 0-470-85100-7
  • Fessenden, R. A. (1908). "Wireless Telephony". Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution: 161–196. http://books.google.com/books?id=gtQWAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA161. Retrieved 2009-08-07. 
  • Glotz, Peter & Bertsch, Stefan, eds. Thumb Culture: The Meaning of Mobile Phones for Society, 2005
  • Katz, James E. & Aakhus, Mark, eds. Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance, 2002
  • Kavoori, Anandam & Arceneaux, Noah, eds. The Cell Phone Reader: Essays in Social Transformation, 2006
  • Kopomaa, Timo. The City in Your Pocket, Gaudeamus 2000
  • Levinson, Paul, Cellphone: The Story of the World's Most Mobile Medium, and How It Has Transformed Everything!, 2004 ISBN 1-4039-6041-0
  • Ling, Rich, The Mobile Connection: the Cell Phone's Impact on Society, 2004 ISBN 1558609369
  • Ling, Rich and Pedersen, Per, eds. Mobile Communications: Re-negotiation of the Social Sphere, 2005 ISBN 1852339314
  • Home page of Rich Ling [1]
  • Nyíri, Kristóf, ed. Mobile Communication: Essays on Cognition and Community, 2003
  • Nyíri, Kristóf, ed. Mobile Learning: Essays on Philosophy, Psychology and Education, 2003
  • Nyíri, Kristóf, ed. Mobile Democracy: Essays on Society, Self and Politics, 2003
  • Nyíri, Kristóf, ed. A Sense of Place: The Global and the Local in Mobile Communication, 2005
  • Nyíri, Kristóf, ed. Mobile Understanding: The Epistemology of Ubiquitous Communication, 2006
  • Plant, Dr. Sadie, on the mobile – the effects of mobile telephones on social and individual life, 2001
  • Rheingold, Howard, Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution, 2002 ISBN 0738208612
  • Singh, Rohit (April 2009). Mobile phones for development and profit: a win-win scenario. Overseas Development Institute. p. 2. http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/odi-publications/opinions/128-mobile-phones-business-development-private-sector.pdf. 

External links


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