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Celsius temperature conversion formulae
from Celsius to Celsius
Fahrenheit [°F] = [°C] × 95 + 32 [°C] = ([°F] − 32) × 59
Kelvin [K] = [°C] + 273.15 [°C] = [K] − 273.15
Rankine [°R] = ([°C] + 273.15) × 95 [°C] = ([°R] − 491.67) × 59
For temperature intervals rather than specific temperatures,
1 °C = 1 K = 1.8 °F = 1.8 °R
Comparisons among various temperature scales
Thermometer with Fahrenheit units on the outer scale and Celsius units on the inner scale
.Celsius (known until 1948 as centigrade) is a temperature scale that is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who developed a similar temperature scale two years before his death.^ Celsius, Anders (1701-1744) Swedish astronomer who devised the centigrade thermometer (1742).
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Yes it has been cooler the last two years or so and before that (5 years or so)” .
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Actually, I recall a Realclimate piece a year or two ago trumpeting abnormally high temperatures on the arctic island of Svaalbard.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The degree Celsius (°C) can refer to a specific temperature on the Celsius scale as well as a unit to indicate a temperature interval (a difference between two temperatures or an uncertainty).^ The scientists estimate the level of uncertainty in the measurements is between 2-3 degrees Celsius .
  • Oekologismus.de » La Niña reitet wieder 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.oekologismus.de [Source type: General]

^ That means the temperature difference between the poles and the equator shrinks and with it the difference in air pressure in the two regions.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the new research, the scientists used light to transfer quantum information between two well-separated atoms.
  • Science & Light 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC lightworker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From 1744 until 1954, 0 °C was defined as the freezing point of water and 100 °C was defined as the boiling point of water, both at a pressure of one standard atmosphere.^ C Of or relating to a temperature scale that registers the freezing point of water as 0 °C and the boiling point as 100 °C, under normal atmospheric pressure.
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

^ That’s because, as you point out, the melting occurs at the interface of the underside of the ice & the water, taking heat directly from the ocean – not the atmosphere.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (In essence, a quantum coin toss would be both heads and tails until someone actually looked at the coin, at which time the coin instantly becomes one or the other.
  • Science & Light 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC lightworker.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.September 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Although these defining correlations are commonly taught in schools today, by international agreement the unit "degree Celsius" and the Celsius scale are currently defined by two different points: absolute zero, and the triple point of VSMOW (specially prepared water).^ "Scott, it should be pointed out that two plants-the Calpin and Sunrise both closed in 2009.
  • tbirdnow.mee.nu 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC tbirdnow.mee.nu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Point 1: In electronics, two terms exist to describe two very different power sources: "constant-current" and "constant-voltage."
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

^ That two of these Presidents are Democrats and two are Republicans only proves my point: both the Democratic and Republican parties have succumbed to New World Order ideology.
  • Conspiracy : NOVAKEO.COM 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

.This definition also precisely relates the Celsius scale to the Kelvin scale, which defines the SI base unit of thermodynamic temperature (symbol: K).^ Got no problem understanding that “kelvin” is a unit, not a scale.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C Of or relating to a temperature scale that registers the freezing point of water as 0 °C and the boiling point as 100 °C, under normal atmospheric pressure.
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

Absolute zero, the hypothetical but unattainable temperature at which matter exhibits zero entropy, is defined as being precisely 0 K and −273.15 °C. The temperature value of the triple point of water is defined as being precisely 273.16 K and 0.01 °C.[1]
.This definition fixes the magnitude of both the degree Celsius and the kelvin as precisely 1 part in 273.16 parts, the difference between absolute zero and the triple point of water.^ Just one tiny point, the pedant in me forces me to point out that there are no °K or “degrees kelvin”.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So you hired him part time and make a few bucks in the difference between the cost of the labor and what your customer paid.
  • Open thread 9/8 | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: General]
  • Open thread 9/8 | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: General]

^ The report found that the difference in water levels between Lake Michigan-Huron and Lake Erie of 9 inches between 1962 and 2006 was caused by three factors: .
  • tbirdnow.mee.nu 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC tbirdnow.mee.nu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, it sets the magnitude of one degree Celsius and that of one kelvin as exactly the same.^ Just one tiny point, the pedant in me forces me to point out that there are no °K or “degrees kelvin”.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additionally, it establishes the difference between the two scales' null points as being precisely 273.15 degrees Celsius (−273.15 °C = 0 K and 0 °C = 273.15 K).^ Point 1: In electronics, two terms exist to describe two very different power sources: "constant-current" and "constant-voltage."
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

^ That means the temperature difference between the poles and the equator shrinks and with it the difference in air pressure in the two regions.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A two-dimensional coordinate system in which the coordinates of a point in a plane are its distances from two perpendicular lines that intersect at an origin, the distance from each line being measured along a straight line parallel to the other.
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

[2]
.Some key temperatures relating the Celsius scale to other temperature scales are shown in the table below.^ If we get a La Nina on the scale of the 1997/98 el Nino, will temperatures drop down to below pre-1998 levels?
  • UAH: global temperature down in August by .181°C, SH sees biggest drop of 0.4°C « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As I pointed out, air and water temperatures have only been shown to rise based on some dubious measurements.
  • tbirdnow.mee.nu 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC tbirdnow.mee.nu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C Of or relating to a temperature scale that registers the freezing point of water as 0 °C and the boiling point as 100 °C, under normal atmospheric pressure.
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

Kelvin Celsius Fahrenheit
Absolute zero
(precisely, by definition)
0 K −273.15 °C −459.67 °F
Melting point of ice
(approximate) [3]
273.15 K 0 °C 32 °F
Water's triple point
(precisely, by definition)
273.16 K 0.01 °C 32.018 °F
Water's boiling point at 1 atm (101.325 kPa)
(approximate: see Boiling point)[4]
373.1339 K 99.9839 °C 211.9710 °F
.
An illustration of Anders Celsius's original thermometer.
^ Celsius, Anders (1701-1744) Swedish astronomer who devised the centigrade thermometer (1742).
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

Note the reversed scale, where 0 is the boiling point of water and 100 is its freezing point.

Contents

History

.In 1742 Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744) originally created a "reversed" version of the modern Celsius temperature scale whereby zero represented the boiling point of water and one hundred represented the freezing point of water.^ Celsius, Anders (1701-1744) Swedish astronomer who devised the centigrade thermometer (1742).
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Salt water freezes well below zero C, so sub zero water is not supercooled if it is salty enough.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The floating ice however is largely fresh water, so it does melt at around zero C, so there is a temperature hysteresis, between freezing, and melting; once frozen the ice is stable till it gets heated back to zeroC. .
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In his paper Observations of two persistent degrees on a thermometer, he recounted his experiments showing that ice's melting point was essentially unaffected by pressure.^ Page 352 graphic picture 4.10 shows a steady decline of ice from a high point in 1860, the exact time when contemporary observations were being made that the ice was increasing again following a long period of low levels.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The melt anomaly of 2002 on the Greenland Ice Sheet from active and passive microwave satellite observations.
  • Weather : NOVAKEO.COM 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That’s because, as you point out, the melting occurs at the interface of the underside of the ice & the water, taking heat directly from the ocean – not the atmosphere.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He also determined with remarkable precision how water's boiling point varied as a function of atmospheric pressure.^ That’s because, as you point out, the melting occurs at the interface of the underside of the ice & the water, taking heat directly from the ocean – not the atmosphere.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C Of or relating to a temperature scale that registers the freezing point of water as 0 °C and the boiling point as 100 °C, under normal atmospheric pressure.
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

^ By positioning the two surfaces very close together an electrical capacitor is created whose capacitance varies as a function of sound pressure.
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

.He proposed that zero on his temperature scale (water's boiling point) would be calibrated at the mean barometric pressure at mean sea level.^ It also results in a level that equals the output of one source, meaning the amount of mutual coupling is effectively equal to zero.
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If we get a La Nina on the scale of the 1997/98 el Nino, will temperatures drop down to below pre-1998 levels?
  • UAH: global temperature down in August by .181°C, SH sees biggest drop of 0.4°C « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ C Of or relating to a temperature scale that registers the freezing point of water as 0 °C and the boiling point as 100 °C, under normal atmospheric pressure.
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

This pressure is known as one standard atmosphere. (The BIPM's 10th CGPM later defined one standard atmosphere to equal precisely 1,013,250 dynes per square centimeter (101.325 kPa))
.In 1744, coincident with the death of Anders Celsius, the famous Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus (1707–1778) effectively reversed[5] Celsius's scale upon receipt of his first thermometer featuring a scale where zero represented the melting point of ice and 100 represented water's boiling point.^ Celsius, Anders (1701-1744) Swedish astronomer who devised the centigrade thermometer (1742).
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If melting is brutal, it only means that ice melts faster, not that more heat is taken from the environment and then the environment cools down below 0º Celsius (32º Fahrenheit) .
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That’s because, as you point out, the melting occurs at the interface of the underside of the ice & the water, taking heat directly from the ocean – not the atmosphere.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

His custom-made "linnaeus-thermometer", for use in his greenhouses, was made by Daniel Ekström, Sweden's leading maker of scientific instruments at the time and whose workshop was located in the basement of the Stockholm observatory. .As often happened in this age before modern communications, numerous physicists, scientists, and instrument makers are credited with having independently developed this same scale;[6] among them were Pehr Elvius, the secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (which had an instrument workshop) and with whom Linnaeus had been corresponding; Christian of Lyons; Daniel Ekström, the instrument maker; and Mårten Strömer (1707–1770) who had studied astronomy under Anders Celsius.^ Celsius, Anders (1701-1744) Swedish astronomer who devised the centigrade thermometer (1742).
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As mentioned before, we’ve got 10.5 million children under 10 years of age dying annually of starvation or starvation related diseases.
  • Weather : NOVAKEO.COM 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I would think that the National Academy of Science, the Royal Society, GISS, etc.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first known document[7] reporting temperatures in this modern "forward" Celsius scale is the paper Hortus Upsaliensis dated 16 December 1745 that Linnaeus wrote to a student of his, Samuel Nauclér.^ First the classical case: The history of compressors dates back to the late '20s and '30s (the earliest reference I have located is a 1934 paper in the Bell Labs Journal.
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

In it, Linnaeus recounted the temperatures inside the orangery at the Botanical Garden of Uppsala University:
"... since the caldarium (the hot part of the greenhouse) by the angle of the windows, merely from the rays of the sun, obtains such heat that the thermometer often reaches 30 degrees, although the keen gardener usually takes care not to let it rise to more than 20 to 25 degrees, and in winter not under 15 degrees ..."
.For the next 204 years, the scientific and thermometry communities worldwide referred to this scale as the "centigrade scale". Temperatures on the centigrade scale were often reported simply as "degrees" or, when greater specificity was desired, "degrees centigrade". The symbol for temperature values on this scale was °C (in several formats over the years).^ Flanagan (06:56:56) : Again: the temperature DID exceed 273 K several times earlier this year and is now higher, so why keep this post?
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because the term centigrade was also the Spanish and French language name for a unit of angular measurement (1/10,000 of a right angle) and had a similar connotation in other languages, the term "centesimal degree" was used when very precise, unambiguous language was required by international standards bodies such as the Bureau international des poids et mesures (BIPM).^ The term used to represent the ratio of the peak (crest) value to the rms value of a waveform measured over a specified time interval.
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If these numbers are used to “do math” on any other numbers, the lowest precision going in is what you can take out.
  • UAH: global temperature down in August by .181°C, SH sees biggest drop of 0.4°C « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You could use Natural Hydraulic Lime, which cures quicker, but would have similar enough properties that it would cover other limes.
  • GSBN: Digest for 4/26/06 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC greenbuilder.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 9th CGPM (Conférence générale des poids et mesures) and the CIPM (Comité international des poids et mesures) formally adopted "degree Celsius" (symbol: °C) in 1948.[8][9] Some people still use the old term.^ In some parts of the U.S., safety regulations regarding conduit use became stricter, forcing distributed systems to adopt a 25 volt rms standard.
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

^ CCITT ( Comité Consultatif International des Téléphonique et Télégraphique , or International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee ) Merged with the ITU and became the ITU-T telecommunications division.
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

^ CCIR ( Comité Consultatif International des Radio Communications , or International Radio Consultative Committee ) ( International Radio Consultative Committee ) Merged with the ITU and became the ITU-R radiocommunications division.
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

Formatting

The "degree Celsius" has been the only SI unit whose full unit name contains an uppercase letter since its SI base unit, the kelvin, became the proper name in 1967 for the obsolete term, the "degree Kelvin". The correct plural form is "degrees Celsius".
The general rule is that the numerical value always precedes the unit, and a space is always used to separate the unit from the number, e.g., "23 °C" (not "23°C" or "23° C"). .Thus the value of the quantity is the product of the number and the unit, the space being regarded as a multiplication sign (just as a space between units implies multiplication).^ Regarding plasters, curiosity got the best of me and I pulled some numbers from the SB Registry to see just what people are using on their walls.
  • GSBN: Digest for 4/26/06 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC greenbuilder.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regarding plasters, curiosity got the best of me and I pulled some > numbers > from the SB Registry to see just what people are using on their walls.
  • GSBN: Digest for 4/26/06 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC greenbuilder.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Being surrounded by space is a blessing, and the numbers seeking open views and the spaciousness of a small farm show how important this urge is.
  • Weather : NOVAKEO.COM 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The only exceptions to this rule are for the unit symbols for degree, minute, and second for plane angle, °, ′, and ″, respectively, for which no space is left between the numerical value and the unit symbol.^ Just a head’s up, there’s no degree symbol in the Kelvin system.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]

The special Unicode degree Celsius character

.Unicode provides a compatibility character for the degree Celsius at U+2103 (decimal 8451), for compatibility with CJK encodings that provide such a character (as such, in most fonts the width is the same as for fullwidth characters).^ In the future, could you avoid weird character such as the degree symbol, and ellipsis and quote marks?
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Its appearance is similar to the one synthesized by individually typing its two components (°) and (C). Shown below is the degree Celsius character followed immediately by the two-component version:
℃ °C
When viewed on computers that properly support Unicode, the above line may be similar to the image in the line below (enlarged for clarity):
Unicode degree Centigrade comparison
The canonical decomposition is simply an ordinary degree sign and "C", so some browsers may simply display "°C" in its place due to Unicode normalization.

Temperatures and intervals

The degree Celsius is a special name for the kelvin for use in expressing Celsius temperatures.[11] .The degree Celsius is also subject to the same rules as the kelvin with regard to the use of its unit name and symbol.^ It is being used to extend the power of the ruling elite while at the same time amassing a perpetual debt that will never be paid.
  • Conspiracy : NOVAKEO.COM 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Merrick (05:30:36) : Actually, we don’t say, “degrees Kelvin.” The Kelvin is a unit, not a degree, so it’s 273.15 K. .
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Actually, we don’t say, “degrees Kelvin.” The Kelvin is a unit, not a degree, so it’s 273.15 K.” .
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Thus, besides expressing specific temperatures along its scale (e.g. ."Gallium melts at 29.7646 °C" and "The temperature outside is 23 degrees Celsius"), the degree Celsius is also suitable for expressing temperature intervals: differences between temperatures or their uncertainties (e.g.^ The scientists estimate the level of uncertainty in the measurements is between 2-3 degrees Celsius .
  • Oekologismus.de » La Niña reitet wieder 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.oekologismus.de [Source type: General]

^ The inside of a boulder can be a very different temperature from the outside.
  • UAH: global temperature down in August by .181°C, SH sees biggest drop of 0.4°C « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jared (23:35:42) : Flanagan’s original hypothesis that the lower Arctic temperatures are due to more melting ice is complete bunk and absolutely unprovable.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."The output of the heat exchanger is hotter by 40 degrees Celsius", and "Our standard uncertainty is ±3 °C").^ The scientists estimate the level of uncertainty in the measurements is between 2-3 degrees Celsius .
  • Oekologismus.de » La Niña reitet wieder 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC www.oekologismus.de [Source type: General]

[12] .Because of this dual usage, one must not rely upon the unit name or its symbol to denote that a quantity is a temperature interval; it must be unambiguous through context or explicit statement that the quantity is an interval.^ Namely cherry-picking and taking a statement totally out of context to buttress the rest of your weak argument.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .What is often confused about the Celsius measurement is that it follows an interval system but not a ratio system or it follows a relative scale not an absolute scale.^ The term used to represent the ratio of the peak (crest) value to the rms value of a waveform measured over a specified time interval.
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

.This is put simply by illustrating that while 10 °C and 20 °C have the same interval difference as 20 °C and 30 °C the temperature 20 °C is not twice the air heat energy as 10 °C. As this example shows degrees Celsius is a useful interval measurement but does not possess the characteristics of ratio measures like weight or distance.^ Alexej Buergin (06:03:42) : “Harry Eagar (20:06:48) : I do not believe anybody knows the global temperature to a ten-thousandth of a degree.
  • UAH: global temperature down in August by .181°C, SH sees biggest drop of 0.4°C « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ DMI uses > 30% (your link showed the explanation at the top left).
  • UAH: global temperature down in August by .181°C, SH sees biggest drop of 0.4°C « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ E.M.Smith (00:44:10) : Harry Eagar (20:06:48) : I do not believe anybody knows the global temperature to a ten-thousandth of a degree.
  • UAH: global temperature down in August by .181°C, SH sees biggest drop of 0.4°C « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: Original source]

[14]

Why technical articles use a mix of kelvin and Celsius scales

In science (especially) and in engineering, the Celsius scale and the kelvin are often used simultaneously in the same article (e.g. "…its measured value was 0.01023 °C with an uncertainty of 70 µK…"). This practice is permissible because:
  1. the degree Celsius is a special name for the kelvin for use in expressing Celsius temperatures, and
  2. the magnitude of the degree Celsius is precisely equal to that of the kelvin.
.Notwithstanding the official endorsement provided by decision #3 of Resolution 3 of the 13th CGPM, which stated "a temperature interval may also be expressed in degrees Celsius," the practice of simultaneously using both "°C" and "K" remains widespread throughout the scientific world as the use of SI prefixed forms of the degree Celsius (such as "µ°C" or "microdegrees Celsius") to express a temperature interval has not been well-adopted.^ Temperature term generally not used in scientific contexts apart from meteorology.
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When ice melts, it takes energy from the environment to change its physical state, and while ice is melting the temperature in equilibrium should be 0º Celsius.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rajendra Pachauri told Reuters that an appeal last month by the world’s poorest nations and small island states to cap global warming at a 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 F) temperature rise over pre-industrial times should be taken “very seriously.” “ .
  • Open thread 9/8 | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: General]
  • Open thread 9/8 | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: General]

.This practice should be avoided for literature directed to lower-level technical fields and in non-technical articles intended for the general public where both the kelvin and its symbol, K, are not well recognised and could be confusing.^ In the future, could you avoid weird character such as the degree symbol, and ellipsis and quote marks?
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Good article found here: "Critical Distance and Direct Sound Field," by Peter Mapp, Sound and Communication , April 2009, p.
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It’s 273 K which is the abbreviation for 273 Kelvin, the proper abbreviation being K to avoid confusion with the lower case k which is the prefix for ‘kilo’.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The melting point of ice and the boiling point of water

.One effect of defining the Celsius scale at the triple point of Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water (VSMOW, 273.16 K and 0.01 °C), and at absolute zero (0 K and −273.15 °C), is that neither the melting and boiling point of water under one standard atmosphere (101.325 kPa) remain defining points for the Celsius scale.^ That’s because, as you point out, the melting occurs at the interface of the underside of the ice & the water, taking heat directly from the ocean – not the atmosphere.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After checking the link, the last data points are slightly over 273.15 K, but still below the green line.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C Of or relating to a temperature scale that registers the freezing point of water as 0 °C and the boiling point as 100 °C, under normal atmospheric pressure.
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

.In 1948 when the 9th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) in Resolution 3 first considered using the triple point of water as a defining point, the triple point was so close to being 0.01 °C greater than water's known melting point, it was simply defined as precisely 0.01 °C.[15] However, current measurements show that the triple and melting points of VSMOW are actually very slightly (<0.001 °C) greater than 0.01 °C apart.^ As I pointed out, air and water temperatures have only been shown to rise based on some dubious measurements.
  • tbirdnow.mee.nu 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC tbirdnow.mee.nu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From 2004 to the first half of 2006, non-petroleum sectors of the economy showed growth rates greater than 10%.
  • Conspiracy : NOVAKEO.COM 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, the actual melting point of ice is very slightly (less than a thousandth of a degree) below 0 °C. Also, defining water's triple point at 273.16 K precisely defined the magnitude of each 1 °C increment in terms of the absolute thermodynamic temperature scale (referencing absolute zero).^ If we get a La Nina on the scale of the 1997/98 el Nino, will temperatures drop down to below pre-1998 levels?
  • UAH: global temperature down in August by .181°C, SH sees biggest drop of 0.4°C « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Salt water freezes well below zero C, so sub zero water is not supercooled if it is salty enough.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ April and May will be slightly cooler than normal, with below-normal precipitation continuing and raising concern of summer drought.
  • UAH: global temperature down in August by .181°C, SH sees biggest drop of 0.4°C « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: Original source]

.Now decoupled from the actual boiling point of water, the value "100 °C" is hotter than 0 °C — in absolute terms — by a factor of precisely 	extstyle\frac{373.15}{273.15} (approximately 36.61% thermodynamically hotter).^ C Of or relating to a temperature scale that registers the freezing point of water as 0 °C and the boiling point as 100 °C, under normal atmospheric pressure.
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

When adhering strictly to the two-point definition for calibration, the boiling point of VSMOW under one standard atmosphere of pressure is actually 373.1339 K (99.9839 °C). When calibrated to ITS-90 (a calibration standard comprising many definition points and commonly used for high-precision instrumentation), the boiling point of VSMOW is slightly less, about 99.974 °C.[16]
.This boiling-point difference of 16.1 millikelvin (thousandths of a degree Celsius) between the Celsius scale's original definition and the current one (based on absolute zero and the triple point) has little practical meaning in real life because water's boiling point is extremely sensitive to variations in barometric pressure.^ Pamela Gray (08:31:16) : A truly hilarious chart with linear trend lines would be to start at different points but end at the same point.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As someone said, “Just because you are paranoid does not mean they really aren’t trying to get you.” .
  • Conspiracy : NOVAKEO.COM 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It also results in a level that equals the output of one source, meaning the amount of mutual coupling is effectively equal to zero.
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

.For example, an altitude change of only 28 cm (11 in) causes water's boiling point to change by one millikelvin.^ As I pointed out, air and water temperatures have only been shown to rise based on some dubious measurements.
  • tbirdnow.mee.nu 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC tbirdnow.mee.nu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I do know if i add salt to water it changes the temperature that it freezes and boils at( I add salt to ice to help freeze ice cream and salt to pasta water to cook it quicker).
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Worldwide adoption

.Throughout the world, except in the U.S. and a few other countries (for example, Belize[17]), the Celsius temperature scale is used for practically all purposes.^ The growth of financial capitalism made possible a centralization of world economic control and use of this power for the direct benefit of financiers and the indirect injury of all other economic groups”.
  • Conspiracy : NOVAKEO.COM 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It appears that MON 810 is also believed to be the “Frankenstein” of GM crops by at least five other European countries — France, Austria, Hungary, Greece and Luxembourg — all of whom have banned its use.
  • Conspiracy : NOVAKEO.COM 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC novakeo.com [Source type: Original source]

.The only exceptions are some specialist fields (e.g., low-temperature physics, astrophysics, light temperature in photography) where the closely related Kelvin scale dominates instead.^ C Of or relating to a temperature scale that registers the freezing point of water as 0 °C and the boiling point as 100 °C, under normal atmospheric pressure.
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

.Even in the U.S., almost the entire scientific field and many engineering fields, especially high-tech ones, use the Celsius scale, and the metric system in general.^ Some large U.S. installations used as high as 210 volts rms, with wire runs of over one mile!
  • Pro Audio Reference C 25 September 2009 0:18 UTC www.rane.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For an example of a particular line of code, just ONE, that warms the entire data set by 1/1000 C (it warms 1/100 of the records by 1/10 C, depending on what compiler you use to compile the code.
  • UAH: global temperature down in August by .181°C, SH sees biggest drop of 0.4°C « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of us here have been banned from the aforementioned “reliable scientific” blogs, not for breaches of etiquette, but for disagreeing with the “high priests” and daring to present reasonable counter-arguments.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, most Americans remain more accustomed to the Fahrenheit scale, which is the scale that U.S. broadcasters use in weather forecasting. The Fahrenheit scale is also commonly used in the U.S. for body temperatures. The Fahrenheit system is used in the U.S. and Canada for cooking, and is the scale commonly seen on ovens and in recipes.
The United Kingdom has almost exclusively used the Celsius scale since the 1970s (but it is sometimes called centigrade). .A notable exception is that some broadcasters and publications still quote Fahrenheit air temperatures alongside Celsius in weather forecasts (especially during summer)[citation needed], for the benefit of generations born before 1960, and air-temperature thermometers sold still show both scales for the same reason.^ Permalink The tally of positive things leftists and Democrats have done for ANYBODY’s civil rights could fit in a thimble and still leave room for an air show .
  • Open thread 9/8 | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: General]
  • Open thread 9/8 | WE Blog | Wichita Eagle Blogs 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC blogs.kansas.com [Source type: General]

^ August was marked by some individual days which were exceptionally hot, especially in northern NSW and Queensland.
  • UAH: global temperature down in August by .181°C, SH sees biggest drop of 0.4°C « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Just put some ice cube in a glass half-filled with (salty if you like) water and measure the temperature of the air above it while it’s melting.
  • Arctic temperature is still not above 0°C – the latest date in fifty years of record keeping « Watts Up With That? 25 September 2009 13:013 UTC wattsupwiththat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Schools teach Celsius exclusively.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "SI brochure, section 2.1.1.5". International Bureau of Weights and Measures. http://www1.bipm.org/en/si/si_brochure/chapter2/2-1/2-1-1/kelvin.html. Retrieved 9 May 2008. 
  2. ^ "Essentials of the SI: Base & derived units". http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/units.html. Retrieved 9 May 2008. 
  3. ^ The ice point of purified water has been measured to be 0.000 089(10) degrees Celsius - see Magnum, B.W. (June 1995). "Reproducibility of the Temperature of the Ice Point in Routine Measurements" (PDF). Nist Technical Note 1411. http://www.cstl.nist.gov/div836/836.05/papers/magnum95icept.pdf. Retrieved 11 February 2007. 
  4. ^ For Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water at one standard atmosphere (101.325 kPa) when calibrated solely per the two-point definition of thermodynamic temperature. Older definitions of the Celsius scale once defined the boiling point of water under one standard atmosphere as being precisely 100 °C. However, the current definition results in a boiling point that is actually 16.1 mK less. For more about the actual boiling point of water, see VSMOW in temperature measurement. There is a different approximation using ITS-90 which approximate the temperature to 99.974 °C
  5. ^ Citation: Uppsala University (Sweden), Linnaeus' thermometer
  6. ^ Citation for Daniel Ekström, Mårten Strömer, Christian of Lyons: The Physics Hypertextbook, Temperature; citation for Christian of Lyons: Le Moyne College, Glossary, (Celsius scale); citation for Linnaeus' connection with Pehr Elvius and Daniel Ekström: Uppsala University (Sweden), Linnaeus' thermometer; general citation: The Uppsala Astronomical Observatory, History of the Celsius temperature scale
  7. ^ Citations: University of Wisconsin–Madison, Linnæus & his Garden and; Uppsala University, Linnaeus' thermometer
  8. ^ "CIPM, 1948 and 9th CGPM, 1948". International Bureau of Weights and Measures. http://www.bipm.org/en/committees/cipm/cipm-1948.html. Retrieved 9 May 2008. 
  9. ^ According to The Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the term "Celsius' thermometer" had been used at least as early as 1797. Further, the term "The Celsius or Centigrade thermometer" was again used in reference to a particular type of thermometer at least as early as 1850. The OED also cites this 1928 reporting of a temperature: "My altitude was about 5,800 metres, the temperature was 28° Celsius." However, dictionaries seek to find the earliest use of a word or term and are not a useful resource as regards the terminology used throughout the history of science. According to several writings of Dr. Terry Quinn CBE FRS, Director of the BIPM (1988–2004), including Temperature Scales from the early days of thermometry to the 21st century (herePDF (146 KiB)) as well as Temperature (2nd Edition / 1990 / Academic Press / 0125696817), the term Celsius in connection with the centigrade scale was not used whatsoever by the scientific or thermometry communities until after the CIPM and CGPM adopted the term in 1948. The BIPM was not even aware that "degree Celsius" was in sporadic, non-scientific use before that time. It is also noteworthy that the twelve-volume, 1933 edition of OED didn't even have a listing for the word Celsius (but did have listings for both centigrade and centesimal in the context of temperature measurement). The 1948 adoption of Celsius accomplished three objectives:
    1.    All common temperature scales would have their units named after someone closely associated with them; namely, Kelvin, Celsius, Fahrenheit, Réaumur and Rankine.
    2.    Notwithstanding the important contribution of Linnaeus who gave the Celsius scale its modern form, Celsius' name was the obvious choice because it began with the letter C. Thus, the symbol °C that for centuries had been used in association with the name centigrade could continue to be used and would simultaneously inherit an intuitive association with the new name.
    3.    The new name eliminated the ambiguity of the term "centigrade", freeing it to refer exclusively to the French-language name for the unit of angular measurement.
  10. ^ For more information on conventions used in technical writing, see the informative SI Unit rules and style conventions by the NIST as well as the BIPM's SI brochure: Subsection 5.3.3, Formatting the value of a quantity.
  11. ^ Note (e) of SI Brochure, Section, 2.2.2, Table 3
  12. ^ Decision #3 of Resolution 3 of the 13th CGPM
  13. ^ In 1948, Resolution 7 of the 9th CGPM stated, "To indicate a temperature interval or difference, rather than a temperature, the word 'degree' in full, or the abbreviation 'deg' must be used." This resolution was abrogated in 1967/1968 by Resolution 3 of the 13th CGPM which stated that ["The names "degree Kelvin" and "degree", the symbols "°K" and "deg" and the rules for their use given in Resolution 7 of the 9th CGPM (1948),] …and the designation of the unit to express an interval or a difference of temperatures are abrogated, but the usages which derive from these decisions remain permissible for the time being." Consequently, there is now wide freedom in usage regarding how to indicate a temperature interval. The most important thing is that one's intention must be clear and the basic rule of the SI must be followed; namely that the unit name or its symbol must not be relied upon to indicate the nature of the quantity. Thus, if a temperature interval is, say, 10 K or 10 °C (which may be written 10 kelvin or 10 degrees Celsius), it must be unambiguous through obvious context or explicit statement that the quantity is an interval. Rules governing the expressing of temperatures and intervals are covered in the BIPM's SI Brochure, 8th edition ([1]PDF (1.39 MiB)).
  14. ^ This fact is demonstrated in the book 'Biostatistics: A Guide to Design, Analysis, and Discovery' By Ronald N. Forthofer, Eun Sul Lee and Mike Hernandez
  15. ^ "Resolution 3 of the 9th CGPM (1948)". International Bureau of Weights and Measures. http://www.bipm.org/en/CGPM/db/9/3/. Retrieved 9 May 2008. 
  16. ^ Citation: London South Bank University, Water Structure and Behavior, notes c1 and c2
  17. ^ "Belize Weather Bureau". http://www.hydromet.gov.bz/. Retrieved 9 May 2008. 

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Etymology

After Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who first proposed the centigrade scale in 1742.

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /sɛlsiːəs/

Adjective

Celsius
.
  1. A metric scale of temperature, originally defined as having the freezing point of water as 0° and its boiling point as 100°, at standard atmospheric pressure.^ On the Celsius scale the boiling point of water at standard atmospheric pressure is 99.975 C in contrast to the 100 degrees defined by the Centigrade scale.
    • About Temperature 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC eo.ucar.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ On this scale, the difference between the reference temperatures of the freezing and boiling points of water is divided into 100 degrees.
    • Celsius temperature scale Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Celsius temperature scale 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Freezing point is represented by 0 degrees and boiling point is represented by 100 degrees.

    The standardized definition has 0.01° C as the triple point of water, and a difference in temperature of 1° C corresponds to 1/273.16 of the difference in temperature between the triple point and the absolute zero.

Synonyms

Translations

Adjective

Celsius
  1. Of the Celsius temperature scale.

Synonyms

Translations

  • Russian: Цельсий (Tsél’sij)
  • Vietnamese: thuộc về độ bách phân

See also

External links

.
  • Entry for "degree Celsius" in How Many?^ Jacobson estimates as many as 20,000 air-pollution related deaths may occur worldwide each year with each one degree Celsius increase.
    • SurfWax: News, Reviews and Articles On Degree Celsius 11 September 2009 23:47 UTC news.surfwax.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Oct 22 2008 4:07 AM Hello Celsius Beverage, We like to know how many sample can you send us for this event?
    • MySpace - CELSIUS BEVERAGE Burns Over 100 Calories - 29 - Female - DELRAY BEACH, Florida - myspace.com/celsius2007 11 September 2009 23:47 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ How Many Degrees Fahrenheit Are In 50 Degrees Celcius ?
    • What Is 30 Degrees Celcius In Fahrenheit? - Blurtit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.blurtit.com [Source type: General]

    A Dictionary of Units of Measurement

Anagrams


Finnish

Noun

Celsius
  1. The letter "C" in the Finnish tavausaakkoset, a spelling system similar to ICAO spelling alphabet.
  2. Alternative spelling of celsius.

Simple English

Celsius (more precisely, a degree Celsius), sometimes called centigrade, is a unit of measurement used in many countries to measure temperature. This unit was created by Anders Celsius (1701-1744), a Swedish astronomer.

0 degrees (°) Celsius is the melting point of water at what is called normal pressure. 100° Celsius is the boiling point of water at normal pressure.

1 °C is therefore one hundredth (the 100th part) of that difference.

Since 1948 this unit is called Celsius, Centigrade was the name of the unit before the change.

The other commonly used measurement of temperature is the Fahrenheit scale.

Contents

History

In 1742, Anders Celsius (1701 – 1744) created a “reversed” version of the modern Celsius temperature scale. In it zero represented the boiling point of water and 100 represented the melting point of ice. In his paper Observations of two persistent degrees on a thermometer, he wrote about his experiments. His could show in his experiments that the melting point of ice was effectively unaffected by pressure. This was not the case for the boiling point of water. It varied as a function of atmospheric pressure. He proposed that zero on his temperature scale (water’s boiling point) would be calibrated at the mean barometric pressure at sea level. This pressure is known as one standard atmosphere. In 1954, Resolution 4 of the 10th CGPM (the General Conference on Weights and Measures) established internationally that one standard atmosphere was a pressure equivalent to 1,013,250 dynes per cm2 (101.325 kPa). 

In 1744, the year Anders Celsius died, the famous Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus (1707 – 1778) effectively reversed [1] Celsius’s scale when he received his first thermometer with a scale where zero represented the melting point of ice and 100 represented water’s boiling point. His custom-made “linnaeus-thermometer,” for use in his greenhouses, was made by Daniel Ekström, Sweden’s leading maker of scientific instruments at the time. Eckstöm's workshop was located in the basement of the Stockholm observatory. As often happened in this age before modern communications, numerous physicists, scientists, and instrument makers are credited with having independently developed this same scale;[2] among them were Pehr Elvius, the secretary of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (which had an instrument workshop) and with whom Linnaeus had been corresponding; Christian of Lyons; Daniel Ekström, the instrument maker; and Mårten Strömer (1707 – 1770) who had studied astronomy under Anders Celsius.

The first known document[3] reporting temperatures in this modern “forward” Celsius scale is the paper Hortus Upsaliensis dated 16 December 1745 that Linnaeus wrote to a student of his, Samuel Nauclér. In it, Linnaeus told the temperatures inside the orangery at the Botanical Garden of Uppsala University:

“…since the caldarium (the hot part of the greenhouse) by the angle
of the windows, merely from the rays of the sun, obtains such heat
that the thermometer often reaches 30 degrees, although the keen
gardener usually takes care not to let it rise to more than 20 to 25
degrees, and in winter not under 15 degrees…”

For the next 204 years, the scientific and thermometry communities worldwide referred to this scale as the “centigrade scale.” Temperatures on the centigrade scale were often reported simply as “degrees” or, when greater specificity was desired, “degrees centigrade.” The symbol for temperature values on this scale was °C (in several formats over the years). Because the term “centigrade” was also the Spanish and French language name for a unit of angular measurement (one-hundredth of a right angle) and had a similar connotation in other languages, the term “centesimal degree” was used when very precise, clear language was required by international standards bodies such as the Bureau international des poids et mesures (BIPM). The 9th CGPM (Conférence générale des poids et mesures) and the CIPM (Comité international des poids et mesures) formally adopted “degree Celsius” (symbol: °C) in 1948.[4] For common people worldwide — including school textbooks — the full change from centigrade to Celsius required nearly two decades after this formal adoption.

Examples

  • On the Celsius scale, water freezes at 0° and boils at 100°.
  • Room temperature is about 20 °C.
  • Absolute zero is -273.15 °C
  • Winters in Antarctica can be between -80 and -90 °C.
  • A human's body temperature is usually 37 °C.

Temperature conversions

  • To make a temperature in degrees Celsius into kelvins a person must add 273.15. For example 0 degrees Celsius, which is the temperature at which water freezes, is 273.15 kelvins.
  • To make a temperature in kelvins into degrees Celsius a person must subtract 273.15. For example 310 K is the same temperature as 36.85 °C, which is about the temperature of a human body.
  • To make a temperature in degrees Celsius into degrees Fahrenheit a person must multiply it by 9/5 and add 32.
  • To make a temperature in degrees Fahrenheit into degrees Celsius a person must subtract 32 and multiply the result by 5/9.

References

  1. Thermodynamics-information.net, A Brief History of Temperature Measurement and; Uppsala University (Sweden), Linnaeus’ thermometer
  2. Citation for Daniel Ekström, Mårten Strömer, Christian of Lyons: The Physics Hypertextbook, Temperature; citation for Christian of Lyons: Le Moyne College, Glossary, (Celsius scale); citation for Linnaeus’ connection with Pehr Elvius and Daniel Ekström: Uppsala University (Sweden), Linnaeus’ thermometer; general citation: The Uppsala Astronomical Observatory, History of the Celsius temperature scale
  3. University of Wisconsin–Madison, Linnæus & his Garden and; Uppsala University, Linnaeus’ thermometer
  4. According to The Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the term “Celsius’s thermometer” had been used at least as early as 1797. The term “The Celsius or Centigrade thermometer” was again used to refer to a particular type of thermometer at least as early as 1850. The OED also cites this 1928 reporting of a temperature: “My altitude was about 5,800 metres, the temperature was 28° Celsius.” However, dictionaries seek to find the earliest use of a word or term and are not a useful resource as regards the terminology used throughout the history of science. According to several writings of Dr. Terry Quinn CBE FRS, Director of the BIPM (1988 – 2004), including Temperature Scales from the early days of thermometry to the 21st century (148 kB PDF, here) as well as Temperature (2nd Edition / 1990 / Academic Press / 0125696817), the term Celsius in connection with the centigrade scale was not used whatsoever by the scientific or thermometry communities until after the CIPM and CGPM adopted the term in 1948. The BIPM wasn’t even aware that “degree Celsius” was in sporadic, non-scientific use before that time. It’s also noteworthy that the twelve-volume, 1933 edition of OED didn’t even have a listing for the word Celsius (but did have listings for both centigrade and centesimal in the context of temperature measurement). The 1948 adoption of Celsius accomplished three objectives:
    1) All common temperature scales would have their units named after someone closely associated with them; namely, Kelvin, Celsius, Fahrenheit, Réaumur and Rankine.
    2) Notwithstanding the important contribution of Linnaeus who gave the Celsius scale its modern form, Celsius’s name was the obvious choice because it began with the letter C. Thus, the symbol °C that for centuries had been used in association with the name centigrade could continue to be used and would simultaneously inherit an intuitive association with the new name.
    3) The new name eliminated the ambiguity of the term “centigrade,” freeing it to refer exclusively to the French-language name for the unit of angular measurement.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 15, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Celsius, which are similar to those in the above article.








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