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Centipedes
Fossil range: 418–0 Ma
Late Silurian to Recent
Scolopendra sp.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Myriapoda
Class: Chilopoda
Latreille, 1817
Orders and Families
See text
Centipedes (from Latin prefix centi-, "hundred", and Latin pes, pedis, "foot") are arthropods belonging to the class Chilopoda and the Subphylum Myriapoda. They are elongated metameric animals with one pair of legs per body segment. Despite the name, centipedes can have a varying number of legs from under 20 to over 300. All centipedes (discounting individual mutants) always have an odd number of pairs of legs, e.g. 15 or 17 pairs of legs (30 or 34 legs) but never 16 pairs (32 legs).[1][2] A key trait uniting this group is a pair of venom claws or forcipules formed from a modified first appendage. This also means that centipedes are an exclusively predatory taxon, which is uncommon.[citation needed]
Centipedes normally have a drab coloration combining shades of brown and red. .Cavernicolous and subterranean species may lack pigmentation and many tropical Scolopendromorphs have bright aposematic colors.^ While the timing may or may not be designed to take the heat of yet more hacking threats to WordPress.org users, I’m somewhat frustrated that WordPress lacks many basic features and [...
  • WordPress › Blog » How to Keep WordPress Secure 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC wordpress.org [Source type: General]

Size can range from a few millimeters in the smaller Lithobiomorphs and Geophilomorphs to about 30 cm in the largest Scolopendromorphs. Centipedes can be found in a wide variety of environments.
Worldwide there are estimated to be 8,000 species.[3] Currently there are about 3,000 described species. Geographically, centipedes have a wide range, which reaches beyond the Arctic Circle.[4] Centipedes are found in an array of terrestrial habitats from tropical rainforests to deserts. .Within these habitats centipedes require a moist micro-habitat because they lack the waxy cuticle of insects and arachnids, and so lose water rapidly through the skin.^ And how you were wrong in deciding to come back here, because they still haven’t figured out how to get hot water in the shower by throwing a switch.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I’m wary of these things, because they are not good to me.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

[5] Accordingly, they are found in soil and leaf litter, under stones and deadwood, and inside logs. In addition, centipedes are one of the largest terrestrial invertebrate predators and often they contribute a significant proportion to invertebrate predatory biomass in terrestrial ecosystems.

Contents

Evolution

 


Pleurostigmorpha


Phylactometria


Epimorpha







Internal phylogeny of the Chilopoda. The upper three groups form the paraphyletic Anamorpha.
Centipedes have an ancestry dating back 430 million years to the late Silurian.[6] They belong to the subphylum Myriapoda which includes Diplopoda, Symphyla, and Pauropoda. The oldest known fossil land animal is a Myriapod. Being one of the earliest terrestrial animals, centipedes were one of the first to fill a fundamental niche as ground level generalist predators in detrital food webs. Today centipedes are abundant and exist in many harsh habitats. Centipedes also have jointed legs and a exoskeleton.
Within the myriapods, centipedes are believed to be the first of the extant classes to branch from a common ancestor. There are five orders of centipede: Craterostigmomorpha, Geophilomorpha, Lithobiomorpha, Scolopendromorpha, and Scutigeromorpha. These orders are united into the clade Chilopoda by the following synapomorphies.[7]
  1. first post-cephalic appendage modified to poison claws
  2. embryonic cuticle on second maxilliped has egg tooth
  3. the trochanter-prefemur joint is fixed
  4. a spiral ridge on the nucleus of spermatazoan
Chilopoda is then split into two clades: the Notostigmomorpha including the Scutigeromorpha and the Pluerostigmomorpha including the other four orders. The main difference is that the Notostigmomorpha have their spiracles located mid-dorsally. It was previously believed that Chilopoda was split into Anamorpha including the Lithobiomorpha and the Scutigeromorpha, and Epimorpha including the Geophilomorpha and Scolopendromorpha based on developmental modes, with the relationship of Craterostigmomorpha being uncertain. Recent phylogenetic analyses using combined molecular and morphological characters supports the previous phylogeny.[8] The Epimorpha group still exists as monophyletic within the Pleurostigmomorpha, but the Anamorpha group is paraphyletic.
Geophilomorph centipedes are used to argue for the developmental constraint of evolution, because they have variable segment numbers within species, yet as with all centipedes they always have an odd number of pairs of legs.

Description

Centipedes have a rounded or flattened head, bearing a pair of antennae at the forward margin. They have a pair of elongated mandibles, and two pairs of maxillae. The first pair of maxillae form the lower lip, and bear short palps. The first pair of limbs stretch forward from the body to cover the remainder of the mouth. These limbs, or maxillipeds, end in sharp claws and include poison glands that help the animal to kill or paralyse its prey.[5]
Centipedes possess a variable number of ocelli, which are sometimes clustered together to form true compound eyes. Even so, it appears that centipedes are only capable of discerning light and dark, and not of true vision. Indeed, many species lack eyes altogether. In some species the final pair of legs act as sense organs similar to antennae, but facing backwards. An unusual sense organ found in some groups are the organs of Tömösvary. These are located at the base of the antennae, and consist of a disc-like structure with a central pore surrounded by sensory cells. They are probably used for sensing vibrations, and may even provide a sense of hearing.[5]
Behind the head, the body consists of fifteen or more segments. Most of the segments bear a single pair of legs, with the maxillipeds projecting forward from the first body segment, and the final two segments being small and legless. Each pair of legs is slightly longer than the pair immediately in front of it, ensuring that they do not overlap, and therefore reducing the chance that they will collide with each other while moving swiftly. In extreme cases, the last pair of legs may be twice the length of the first pair. The final segment bears a telson and includes the openings of the reproductive organs.[5]
Centipedes are predators, and mainly use their antennae to seek out their prey. The digestive tract forms a simple tube, with digestive glands attached to the mouthparts. Like insects, centipedes breathe through a tracheal system, typically with a single opening, or spiracle on each body segment. They excrete waste through a single pair of malpighian tubules.[5]

Life cycle

Centipede sex does not involve copulation. Males deposit a spermatophore for the female to take up. In one clade, this spermatophore is deposited in a web, and the male undertakes a courtship dance to encourage the female to engulf his sperm. In other cases, the males just leave them for the females to find. .In temperate areas egg laying occurs in spring and summer but in subtropical and tropical areas there appears to be little seasonality to centipede breeding.^ There was a nest in the mango tree opposite with three little eggs snuggled inside.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So the pigeons come there, pile up twigs in some wayward approximation of nest-making, lay eggs and try to hatch them into respectable baby pigeons.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

It is also notable that there are a few known species of parthenogenetic centipedes.[4]
Centipede protecting its eggmass
The Lithobiomorpha, and Scutigeromorpha lay their eggs singly in holes in the soil, the female fills the hole in on the egg and leaves it. .Number of eggs laid ranges from about 10 to 50. Time of development of the embryo to hatching is highly variable and may take from one to a few months.^ While the timing may or may not be designed to take the heat of yet more hacking threats to WordPress.org users, I’m somewhat frustrated that WordPress lacks many basic features and [...
  • WordPress › Blog » How to Keep WordPress Secure 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC wordpress.org [Source type: General]

Time of development to reproductive period is highly variable within and among species. For example, it can take 3 years for S. coleoptera to achieve adulthood, whereas under the right conditions Lithiobiomorph species may reach a reproductive period in 1 year. In addition, centipedes are relatively long-lived when compared to their insect cousins. For example: the European Lithobius forficatus can live for 5 or 6 years. The combination of a small number of eggs laid, long gestation period, and long time of development to reproduction has led authors to label Lithobiomorph centipedes as K-selected.[9]
Females of Geophilomorpha and Scolopendromorpha show far more parental care, the eggs 15 to 60 in number are laid in a nest in the soil or in rotten wood, the female stays with the eggs, guarding and licking them to protect them from fungi. The female in some species stays with the young after they have hatched, guarding them until they are ready to leave. If disturbed the females tend to either abandon the eggs of their young or eat them; abandoned eggs tend to fall prey to fungi rapidly. .Some species of Scolopendromorpha are matriphagic, meaning that the offspring eat their mother.^ Peculiar choices some species make.’ ‘You mean you are allowed to choose?’ ‘Of course.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

Little is known of the life history of Craterostigmomorpha.

Anamorphy vs. epimorphy

Centipedes grow their legs at different points in their development. In the primitive condition, exhibited by the L, Scutigeromorpha and Craterostigmomorpha, development is anamorphic. That is to say, more pairs of legs are grown between moults; for example, Scutigera coleoptera, the American house centipede, hatches with only 4 pairs of legs and in successive moults has 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 15, 15 and 15 before becoming a sexually mature adult. Life stages with fewer than 15 pairs of legs are called larval stadia (~5 stages). .After the full complement of legs is achieved, the now post-larval stadia (~5 stages) develop gonopods, sensory pores, more antennal segments, and more ocelli.^ The entire operation has now taken considerably more than the 10 seconds it usually takes and you've got roach legs on the floor.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A post by Matt Mullenweg about this hack on the WordPress Development Blog – I think the advice could be a little more rounded and pragmatic, personally.
  • WordPress › Blog » How to Keep WordPress Secure 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC wordpress.org [Source type: General]

^ I found this post on the Wordpress development blog which explains in more details about what these worms do and how [...
  • WordPress › Blog » How to Keep WordPress Secure 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC wordpress.org [Source type: General]

All mature apomorphic centipedes have 15 leg-bearing segments.
The Craterostigmomorpha only have one phase of anamorphis, with embryos having 12 pairs, and moultees 15.
The clade Epimorpha, consisting of orders Geophilomorpha and Scolopendromorpha, derived epimorphy. .Here, all pairs of legs are developed in the embryonic stages, offspring do not develop more legs between moults.^ With a baby, the milestones happen every alternate day or so and I don’t grudge the parents’ need to capture their offspring’s every gesture, every stage of development.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is this clade that contains the longest centipedes; the maximum number of thoracic segments may also vary intra-specifically, often on a geographical basis; in most cases, females bear more legs than males.^ May I remind you that I have spent more time outside the country than you?
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The entire operation has now taken considerably more than the 10 seconds it usually takes and you've got roach legs on the floor.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.The number of leg-bearing segments varies widely, from 15 to 191, but the developmental mode of their creation means that they are always added in pairs — hence the total number present is always even.^ They tried various means to teach us that there are three genders in Marathi.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I’m always amazed when someone says they miss a place, when what they really mean is that they miss the people.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

Ecology

Centipedes are an exclusively predatory taxon. They are known as generalist predators which means that they have adapted to eat a variety of different available prey items. Centipedes are also known to be nocturnal. .Studies on centipede activity rhythms confirm this, although there are a few observations of centipedes active during the day and one species Strigamia chinophila that is diurnal.^ But in those days there was only one place to go to.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are few reasons I tolerate company during a movie.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the Bombay in there was a few decades younger than the one I grew up in.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.What centipedes actually eat is not well known because of their cryptic lifestyle and thorough mastication of food.^ A woman not obese, not thin as a rail, but comfortable with her body, someone who loves food but knows about healthy eating as well.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

Laboratory feeding trials support that they will feed as generalists, taking most anything that is soft-bodied and in a reasonable size range. It has been suggested that earthworms provide the bulk of diets for Geophilomorphs, since geophilomorphs burrow through the soil and earthworm bodies would be easily pierced by their poison claws. Observations suggest that Geophilomorphs cannot subdue earthworms larger than themselves, and so smaller earthworms may be a substantial proportion of their diet.[10] Scolopendromorphs, given their size, are able to feed on vertebrates as well as invertebrates. They have been observed eating reptiles, amphibians, small mammals, bats and birds. Collembola may provide a large proportion of Lithiobiomorph diet. Little is known about Scutigeromorph or Craterostigmomorph diets. All centipedes are potential intraguild predators. Centipedes and spiders may frequently prey on one another.[4]Video
Centipedes are eaten by a great many vertebrates and invertebrates, and form the staple diet of some. The African ant Amblyopone pluto feeds solely on Geophilomorphs and the South African Cape Black-headed snake Aparallactus capensis mainly feeds on centipedes.
Centipedes are found in moist microhabitats. Water relations are an important aspect of their ecology, since they lose water rapidly in dry conditions. Water loss is a result of centipedes lacking a waxy covering of their exoskeleton and excreting waste nitrogen as ammonia, which requires extra water. Centipedes deal with water loss through a variety of adaptations. .Geophilomorphs lose water less rapidly than Lithobiomorphs even though they have a greater surface area to volume ratio.^ Add about 100ml of water less than what’s specified on pack.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cities by nature are 'resilient', more than villages (though we have seen that even villages can be really resilient, in spite of the presence of a constant threat...remember Ramgarh and Gabbar?
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But after that first involuntary half-giggle, you realise that this is greater than such impulses, however primal they may be.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.This may be explained by the fact that Geophilomorphs have a more heavily sclerotized pleural membrane.^ Upon closer scrutiny a few days later, when I went in heavily armed and all, a few more facts came to light.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

Spiracle shape, size and ability to constrict also have an influence on rate of water loss. In addition, it has been suggested that number and size of coxal pores may be variables affecting centipede water balance.
Centipedes live in many different habitat types; forest, savannah, prairie, and desert to name a few. Some Geophilomorphs are adapted to littoral habitats, where they feed on barnacles.[11] Species of all orders excluding Craterostigmomorpha have adapted to caves. Centipede densities have been recorded as high as 600/m2 and biomass as high as 500 mg/m2 wet weight. Small Geophilomorphs attain highest densities, followed by small Lithobiomorphs. Large Lithobiomorphs attain densities of 20/m2. One study of Scolopendromorphs records Scolopendra morsitans in a Nigerian savannah at a density of 0.16/m2 and a biomass of 140 mg/m2 wet weight.[12]

Hazards to humans

Some species of centipede can be hazardous to humans because of their bite. .Although a bite to an adult human is usually only very painful, it can be dangerous to small children and those with allergies to bee stings.^ Since the advent of summer one usually sees only boisterous kids at play or flabby adults waddling and/or jogging about.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

The bite of larger centipedes can induce anaphylactic shock in such people. Smaller centipedes usually do not puncture human skin.
Man holding Scolopendra gigantea. Trinidad, 1961.

Largest centipede

Scolopendra gigantea, also known as the Amazonian giant centipede, is the largest existing species of centipede in the world, reaching over 30 cm (12 in) in length. It is known to eat lizards, frogs, birds, mice, and even bats, catching them in midflight[13], as well as rodents and spiders. The now extinct Euphoberia was the largest centipede, growing up to 1 m (39 in) in length.
The extremely potent venom is toxic to humans and causes severe swelling, chills, fever, and weakness. However, although bites are painful, they are very unlikely to be fatal.[14]

Orders and families

The orders of centipedes are listed below, from primitive to derived.

Scutigeromorpha

Scutigeromorpha
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Myriapoda
Class: Chilopoda
Subclass: Anamorpha
Order: Scutigeromorpha
Families
The Scutigeromorpha are anamorphic, reaching 15 leg-bearing segments in length. They are very fast creatures, and able to withstand falling at great speed: they reach up to 15 body-lengths per second when dropped, surviving the fall. They are the only centipede group to retain their original compound eyes, with which a crystalline layer analogous to that seen in chelicerates and insects can be observed. They also bear long and multisegmented antennae. Adaption to a burrowing lifestyle has led to the degeneration of compound eyes in other orders. This feature is of great use in phylogenetic analysis. The group is the sole extant representative of the Notostigmomorpha, defined by having a single spiracle opening at the posterior of each dorsal plate. The more derived groups bear a plurality of spiracular openings on their sides, and are termed the Pleurostigmomorpha. Some even have 7 unpaired spiracles that can be found along the middorsal line and closer to their posterior section of tergites.

Lithobiomorpha

Lithobiomorpha
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Myriapoda
Class: Chilopoda
Subclass: Anamorpha
Order: Lithobiomorpha
Families
    • Family Henicopidae
    • Family Lithobiidae
The lithobiomorpha represent the other main group of anamorphic centipedes; they also reach a mature length of 15 thoracic segments. This group has lost the compound eyes, and sometimes has no eyes altogether. Instead, its eyes have facets or groups of facets. Its spiracles are paired and can be found laterally. Every leg-bearing segment of this organism has a separate tergite. It also has relatively short antennae and legs.

Craterostigmomorpha

Craterostigmomorpha
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Myriapoda
Class: Chilopoda
Subclass: Anamorpha
Order: Craterostigmomorpha
Families
Family Craterostigmidae
The craterostigmomorpha are the least diverse centipede clade, comprising only two species.[15] Their geographic range is restricted to Tasmania and New Zealand. They have a distinct body plan; their anamorphosis comprises a single stage; they grow from 12 to 15 segments in their first moult. Their low diversity and intermediate position between the primitive Anamorphic centipedes and the derived Epimorpha has led to them being described as the "platypus of the centipede world".[16] They represent a "highly pruned" version of a once diverse clade. Maternal brooding unites Craterostigomomorpha with the Epimorphs into the clade Phylactometria. This trait is thought to be closely linked with the presence of sternal pores, which secrete sticky or noxious secretions, which mainly serve to repel predators and parasites. The presence of these pores on the Devonian Devonobius permits its inclusion in this clade, allowing its divergence to be dated to 375 (or more) million years ago[17]

Scolopendromorpha

Scolopendromorpha
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Myriapoda
Class: Chilopoda
Subclass: Epimorpha
Order: Scolopendromorpha
Families
The more primitive of the Epimorpha, the Scolopendromorpha comprise 21 or more segments with the same number of paired legs. Their antennae have 17 or more segments. Their eyes will have at least 4 facets on each side.

Geophilomorpha

Geophilomorpha
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Myriapoda
Class: Chilopoda
Subclass: Epimorpha
Order: Geophilomorpha
Foddai & Minelli 2000[18]
Suborders and Families
Suborder Placodesmata
  • Family Mecistocephalidae
Suborder Adesmata
  • Superfamily 1
    • Family Neogeophilidade
  • Superfamily 2
    • Family Geophilidae (Geophilus)
  • Superfamily 3
    • Family Geophilidae
    • Family Linotaeniidae
The Geophilomorpha are the most derived group of centipedes, and bear upwards of 27 leg-bearing segments. .They are without fail eyeless and blind, and bear spiracles on all leg-bearing segments — in contrast to other groups, who only bear them on their 3rd, 5th, 8th, 10th and 12th segments — a "mid-body break", accompanied by a change in tagmatic shape, occurring roughly at the interchange from odd to even segments.^ If only it was some other chap they had sent to bring him back.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If they had simply assimilated a few songs, maybe without the accompanied dancing talents of Mr.Astaire or Mr.Kelly (Gene, not R), would the tale have been differently told?
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is to inform all concerned (and unconcerned) that due to a change in geographical co-ordinates, regular programming has been interrupted, till lost bearings are found.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

This group, at 1260 spp. the most diverse, also contains the largest and leggiest specimens at 29 or more pairs of legs. They also have 14 segmented antennae.

List of common species

Scientific name Common name
Alipes grandidieri Feather tail centipede
Ethmostigmus trigonopodus Blue ring centipede
Lithobius forficatus Stone centipede
Pachymerium ferrugineum Earth centipede
Scolopendra galapagoensis Galápagos centipede
Scolopendra gigantea Peruvian giant orange leg centipede
Scolopendra heros Giant Red-headed centipede
Scolopendra morsitans Red-headed centipede
Scolopendra polymorpha Giant Sonoran centipede
Scolopendra subspinipes Vietnamese centipede
Scutigera coleoptrata House centipede

See also

References

  1. ^ Arthur, W. 2002. The interaction between developmental bias and natural selection from centipede segmentation to a general hypothesis. Heredity, 89: 239-246.
  2. ^ Arthur, W., and A.D. Chapman. 2005. The centipede Strigamia maritima: what it can tell us about development and evolution of segmentation. Bioessays, 27(6): 653-660.
  3. ^ Adis, J. and M.J. Harvey. 2000. How many Arachnida and Myriapoda are there worldwide and in Amazonia? Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 35: 139-141.
  4. ^ a b c Lewis, J.G.E. 1981. The biology of centipedes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  5. ^ a b c d e Barnes, Robert D. (1982). Invertebrate Zoology. Philadephia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 810–816. ISBN 0-03-056747-5. 
  6. ^ Shear, W.A. 1992. Early Life on Land. American Scientist, 80: 444-456.
  7. ^ Edgecombe, G. D. and Giribet, G. 2002. Myriapod phylogeny and the relationships of Chilopoda. 143-168. In: Llorente Bousquets, J. and Morrone, J. J. (eds) Biodiversidad, Taxonomía y Biogeografia de Artrópodos de México: Hacia una Síntesis de su Conocimiento, Volumen III. Prensas de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México.
  8. ^ Edgecombe, G. D. and Giribet, G. 2002. Myriapod phylogeny and the relationships of Chilopoda. 143-168. In: Llorente Bousquets, J. and Morrone, J. J. (eds) Biodiversidad, Taxonomía y Biogeografia de Artrópodos de México: Hacia una Síntesis de su Conocimiento, Volumen III. Prensas de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México.
  9. ^ Albert, A.M. 1979. Chilopoda as part of the predatory macroarthropod fauna in forests: abundance, life-cycle, biomass, and metabolism. Ch 22. in Myriapod biology. Academic Press, London.
  10. ^ Weil, E. 1958. Biologie der einheimischen Geophiliden. Z. angew. Ent., 42: 173-209.
  11. ^ Lewis, J.G.E. 1961. The life history and ecology of the littoral centipede Strigamia maritima (Leach). Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 137: 221-248.
  12. ^ Lewis, J.G.E. 1972. The population density and biomass of the centipede S. amazonica (Bucherl) (Scolopendromorpha: Scolopendridae) in Sahel savannah in Nigeria. Ent. Mon. Mag., 108: 16-18.
  13. ^ Molinari, J., Gutierrez, E.E., De Ascencae, A.A., Nasar, J.M., Arends, A., and R.J. Marquez. 2005. Predation by Giant Centipedes, S. gigantea, on 3 species of bats in a Venezuelan cave. Caribbean Journal of Science, 4(2): 340-346
  14. ^ Bush SP, King BO, Norris RL, Stockwell SA (2001). "Centipede envenomation". Wilderness & environmental medicine 12 (2): 93–9. PMID 11434497. 
  15. ^ Edgecome, in press, describes the second species
  16. ^ Greg Edgecombe
  17. ^ . Giribet, G.; Edgecombe, G.D. (2006). "Conflict between datasets and phylogeny of centipedes: an analysis based on seven genes and morphology" (PDF). Proceedings: Biological Sciences 273 (1586): 531–538. doi:10.1098/rspb.2005.3365. http://www.journals.royalsoc.ac.uk/index/P9H138012763G136.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-16. 
  18. ^ Foddai, D., & A. Minelli. 2000. Phylogeny of geophilomorph centipedes: old wisdom and new insight from morphology. Fragmenta Faunistica, 43 Supplement:61-71.

External links


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Strategy wiki

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From StrategyWiki, the free strategy guide and walkthrough wiki

Centipede
Box artwork for Centipede.
Developer(s) Atari
Publisher(s) Atari
Designer(s) Dona Bailey
Release date(s)
Genre(s) Action
System(s) Arcade, Apple II, Atari 8-bit, Atari 2600, Atari 5200, Atari 7800, Intellivision, ColecoVision, Commodore 64/128, Commodore VIC-20, Game Boy, Game Boy Color, TI-99/4A, Xbox Live Arcade, GameTap, Game.com
Players 1-2
Centipede marquee
Centipede is regarded as the first arcade game designed by a woman, Dona Bailey. It arrived in the arcades in 1980 from Atari and became an instant hit with men and women alike for a number of reasons. It used bright attractive colors throughout the game that alternated between stages. Additionally, it had a simple and intuitive control interface, a trackball. .Along with a single fire button, it was a game that just about anyone could approach and immediately know what to do.^ The really interesting thing about these approaches, from a game theory perspective, is that they are all Club solutions, not Lojack solutions .
  • WordPress › Blog » How to Keep WordPress Secure 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC wordpress.org [Source type: General]

Even the side art was very impressive and inviting.
.The object of every stage is simply to eliminate all of the centipede's body segments by shooting up at them, through a multitude of mushrooms.^ So after the ritual four-day postponement (every cleaning decision of mine goes through a four-day postponement cycle, it is simply a means to validate the job’s necessity.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.What made the game novel was that if the centipede was shot in the middle, it split up in to two separate body segments, each with it's own head, that moved independently of one another.^ When discussing the move to Dubai, one question that came up was 'supply of books'.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A friend voiced my inner feelings when she asked, 'How do you end up with the half-headed ones?'
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sisyphus put his back to the rock and started to push it up, one arduous inch after another.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.The centipedes would eventually break down to a single segment containing only a head that made for a very difficult target at high speeds.^ We are thinking how we have made a nice bargain by cutting down the price by six but the size only by three.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

The Centipede is not alone in this mushroom forest. He is surrounded by fellow insects, each of which have their own behaviors. There's the spider who likes to bounce around the area that your blaster can occupy, making a nuisance of himself and eating mushrooms that he passes. There's the flea who dive bombs down from the top of the screen, depositing mushrooms as he falls. And there's the Scorpion who can poison mushrooms. If a centipede head touches a poison mushroom, he is driven mad and drills down to the bottom of the screen instead of taking his usual lazy approach.
Centipede was quite popular at home as well, thanks to Atari porting it, not only to it's own home systems, but to just about every other popular platform through their Atarisoft label. .Although, the truth is you can't quite capture the play experience with a joystick, you really need a trackball, which Atari released for their systems.^ You don’t believe me?” Well, there really was a girl in a white and red skirt playing in the distance, something I couldn’t take my eyes off.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You need to believe that the immune systems of those hapless dependents are as crumbly as soggy cookies and as susceptible to micro‑organisms as aforementioned cookies.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

Story

title
.Typical of many classic arcade games, there is no proper story for Centipede.^ Well, do consider that with so many gardeners around there was no reason why they wouldn’t flower, get pollinated and thence burst into fruit.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some people claim that you are a garden gnome with a magic bug-zapping wand charged with eliminating the pests.^ And how you hate the people around you now for making the magic disappear.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.Others claim that these bugs are not ordinary bugs, but Godzilla sized insects that threaten to trample your home town and it's up to you to stop them.^ They come in on a motorbike, the pillion rider takes charge of your car and drives you back home with the bikerider as escort (and obviously to take your temporary chauffeur back).
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Pingback from Kill All Humans / A self indulgence » Are you keeping your wordpress blog software up to date?
  • WordPress › Blog » How to Keep WordPress Secure 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC wordpress.org [Source type: General]

^ Will you stay cooped up nursing a felt need all your life?
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

Table of Contents

Gameplay summary

  • You control the Bug Blaster at the bottom of the screen with the trackball.
  • You must fire up into the mushroom forest, attempting to hit the Centipede.
  • When the Centipede's body is hit, it splits in to two smaller Centipedes.
  • You must destroy every segment of the Centipede in order to advance to the next stage.
  • You must avoid contact with the Centipede, as well as any other insects.
  • The Scorpion poisons mushrooms that drive the Centipedes mad if they touch one.

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Worm article)

From BibleWiki

  1. Heb. sas (Isa 51:8), denotes the caterpillar of the clothes-moth.
  2. The manna bred worms (tola'im), but on the Sabbath there was not any worm (rimmah) therein (Ex 16:20, 24). Here these words refer to caterpillars or larvae, which feed on corrupting matter.
These two Hebrew words appear to be interchangeable (Job 25:6; Isa 14:11). .Tola'im in some places denotes the caterpillar (Deut 28:39; Jonah 4:7), and rimmah, the larvae, as bred from putridity (Job 17:14; 21:26; 24:20).^ Pingback from Philip Oakley (outserve) 's status on Saturday, 05-Sep-09 21:28:17 UTC - Identi.ca on September 5, 2009 .
  • WordPress › Blog » How to Keep WordPress Secure 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC wordpress.org [Source type: General]

.In Mic 7:17, where it is said, "They shall move out of their holes like worms," perhaps serpents or "creeping things," or as in the Revised Version, "crawling things," are meant.^ They've both moved on, and years have passed, but he hasn't figured out who to blame/hate for her death.

^ If the other volumes are filled with the same vicious worms, this comic would be worth the read just for the creep-you-out effect.

^ Supposedly, people lazy and rich enough to afford it don’t move out of their houses if they see it’s raining.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

.The word is used figuratively in Job 25:6; Ps 226; Isa 41:14; Mk 9:44, 46, 48; Isa 66:24.^ Pingback from Mike Linksvayer (mlinksva) 's status on Saturday, 05-Sep-09 22:14:44 UTC - Identi.ca on September 5, 2009 .
  • WordPress › Blog » How to Keep WordPress Secure 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC wordpress.org [Source type: General]

^ Hyd Ctls Attch 40,41,44,46 Manual .
  • Caterpillar Tractors - Caterpillar Tractor Parts & Manuals 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ssbtractor.com [Source type: Academic]

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)
This article needs to be merged with WORM (Jewish Encyclopedia).

Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!

Centipede

Developer(s) Atari
Code Monkeys
Publisher(s) Atari
Accolade
Nintendo
Designer(s) Ed Logg
Dona Bailey
Release date Atari 2600:
1982 (NA)
Intellivision:
1983 (NA)
ColecoVision:
1983 (NA)
Genre Fixed Vertical Shoot 'em up
Mode(s) Single player
1-2 players alternating
Age rating(s) N/A
Arcade
Atari 2600
Intellivision
ColecoVision
Platform(s) Arcade
Atari 2600
Intellivision
ColecoVision
Atari 5200
Atari 7800
Game Boy (As part of Arcade Classic 2: Centipede / Millipede)
Input Arcade:
Trackball, Button
Atari 2600 Joystick
Intellivision Controller
ColecoVision Controller
Atari 5200 Controller
Atari 7800 Joystick
Credits | Soundtrack | Codes | Walkthrough
Centipede is a shooter arcade game released in 1980 by Atari. Two key designers were Ed Logg and Dona Bailey. It was also one of the first arcade games to have a female player base. The game became a really popular game and included a sequel (Millipede), clones, and ports to consoles like the Atari 2600.

Contents

Gameplay

Shoot the Centipede to win.
The player controls a gnome shaped head character on the bottom of the screen using a trackball. The player uses the button to fire at a huge centipede at the top of the screen that is moving left and right. .Mushrooms cover the level and when the centipede hits one it descends one level and continues and the mushrooms take four shots to be destroyed.^ There are a number of relationships on my blog that I would love to take to the one-one level.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

More mushrooms are created when the centipede is hit by a projectile. When the centipede is shot in the middle segments it splits in two. Both pieces act on their own. Once the centipede reaches the bottom of the screen where the player is it will move back in forth in front of the player. A new segment is added to the centipede in the time it is at the bottom of the screen. Each time a centipede is completely destroyed a new one forms at the top of the screen and the head segment is faster each time and the new centipede is smaller than the last. Smaller enemies include fleas who leave mushrooms behind when less than five enemies are on the screen each time. Spiders walk toward the player to do harm. The scorpions can poison mushrooms and when the centipede hits a poison mushroom it runs straight into the player's direction.

Enemies

  • Centipede- the main enemy is a huge centipede which is divided into segments. .If a segment in-between the end and front most segments is destroyed, the one behind that eliminated segment splits off into a new, but smaller centipede.^ Empty noodles into clean, empty bowl that will most probably be the one in which you will consume the end result.
    • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As soon as I was three hesitant steps into the hall, a man sitting on a seat at the far end brusquely waved me towards the row in front of him.
    • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

    Aim for the head to destroy the entire body. Centipedes travel in straight, scanning horizontal lines. When making contact with a mushroom or the side of the screen, they briefly turn one row down and move in the opposite direction.
  • Spiders- They jump about the playing field in erratic patterns within the player's mobility zone, making them dangerous.
  • Fleas- can make mushrooms when less than five enemies are on the screen in the player's mobility zone.
  • Scorpions- can make mushrooms poisonous and cause problems when a centipede runs into one of these mushrooms.

Scoring

During play:
  • Centipede -- 10 points per body segment, 100 points per head segment
  • Spider -- 300, 600, or 900 points, depending on proximity to the creature
  • Flea -- 200 points
  • Scorpion -- 1000 points
When the player loses a life:
  • Damaged mushroom -- 5 points
  • Poisoned mushroom -- 5 points

Legacy

Centipede was followed by Millipede in 1982, a somewhat less successful arcade game. In 1992, Atari Games developed a prototype of an arcade game called Arcade Classics for their 20th anniversary. It included Missile Command 2 and Super Centipede.
In 1998, Hasbro-owned Atari released a new version of the game for the PC, PlayStation, and Dreamcast. .This version looks and plays very differently to the original game, with free movement around the map, 3D graphics, and a campaign which can be played in single-player or multiplayer mode.^ While I still have some way to go on this, I'm sure the seasoned campaigner can accord the word zillions of meanings by playing around with the myriad possibilities the word hides within itself.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There’s a very nasty worm going around that exploits a weakness in earlier versions.
  • WordPress › Blog » How to Keep WordPress Secure 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC wordpress.org [Source type: General]

^ The experience itself was not very different from any of the similar ones had in India, except for two things - No advertisements, no trailers, no ‘coming attractions’ or ‘now playing’ teasers.
  • Travels With a Centipede 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC rhyncus.blogspot.com [Source type: Original source]

The original version of Centipede is available in this version, albeit with slightly updated graphics.

Gallery


This article uses material from the "Centipede" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

Centipedes
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Chilopoda
Orders
  • Geophilomorpha
  • Lithobiomorpha
  • Scolopendromorpha
  • Scutigeromorpha

A centipede is an arthropod with many legs. Centipedes are predators. They hunt during the night, they are nocturnal. Some centipedes are venomous, though none can kill a human that is not allergic. Centipedes are among the fastest moving arthropod predators that cannot fly. Centipedes are in the class Chilopoda, and related to millipedes, which are not poisonous. As the millipedes, they are very segmented. They have between 5 and 173 segments, but only one pair of legs per segment.


The house centipede is a carnivore that feeds on cockroaches, house flies and other domestic pests. It is therefore beneficial. But because it has a scary appearance it is often exterminated.

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Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
bjn:Halilipan


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 20, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Centipede, which are similar to those in the above article.








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