Central Park: Wikis


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Central Park
The Pond looking North
Type Urban park
Location Manhattan, New York City
40°47′N 73°58′W / 40.783°N 73.967°W / 40.783; -73.967 (Central Park)
Size 843 acres (341 ha)
1.32 sq mi (3.4 km2)
Opened 1859
Operated by Central Park Conservancy
Annual visitors 25 million
Status Open all year
Central Park
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
U.S. National Historic Landmark
Central Park is located in New York City
Coordinates: 40°47′0″N 73°58′0″W / 40.783333°N 73.966667°W / 40.783333; -73.966667Coordinates: 40°47′0″N 73°58′0″W / 40.783333°N 73.966667°W / 40.783333; -73.966667
Built/Founded: 1857
Architect: Frederick Law Olmsted, Calvert Vaux
Added to NRHP: October 15, 1966[1]
Designated NHL: May 23, 1963
NRHP Reference#: 66000538
Central Park New York City.svg

Central Park is an urban park that occupies about 1.2 square miles (341 hectares, or 843 acres) in the heart of Manhattan in New York City. It is host to approximately twenty-five million visitors each year. Central Park was opened in 1859, completed in 1873 and designated a National Historic Landmark in 1963. Eighty-five percent of the park's operating budget comes from private sources via the Central Park Conservancy, which manages the park pursuant to a contract with New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.[2]


Central Park today

Central Park is an 843-acre (3.41 km2; 1.317 sq mi) public park in Manhattan, New York City. It is 2.5 miles (4 km) long between 59th Street (Central Park South) and 110th Street (Central Park North), and 0.5 miles (0.8 km) wide between Fifth Avenue and Central Park West. It is similar in size to San Francisco's Golden Gate Park, Chicago's Lincoln Park, Vancouver's Stanley Park and Munich's Englischer Garten; it is just over 1/3 of the size of London's Richmond Park. With about twenty-five million visitors annually, Central Park is the most visited city park in the United States,[3] and its appearance in many movies and television shows has made it famous.

The Mall & Literary Walk

The park is maintained by the Central Park Conservancy, a private, not-for-profit organization that manages the park under a contract with the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation,[2] in which the president of the Conservancy is ex officio Administrator of Central Park.

Central Park is bordered on the north by West 110th Street, on the south by West 59th Street, on the west by Eighth Avenue. Along the park's borders however, these are known as Central Park North, Central Park South, and Central Park West, respectively. Fifth Avenue retains its name along the eastern border of the park. Most of the areas immediately adjacent to the park are known for impressive buildings and valuable real estate.

The park was designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted and architect Calvert Vaux, who went on to collaborate on Brooklyn's Prospect Park. Central Park has been a National Historic Landmark since 1963.[4][5][6]

While much of the park looks natural, it is in fact almost entirely landscaped. It contains several natural-looking lakes and ponds,[7] extensive walking tracks, bridle paths, two ice-skating rinks (one of which is a swimming pool in July and August), the Central Park Zoo, the Central Park Conservatory Garden, a wildlife sanctuary, a large area of natural woods, a 106-acre (43 ha) billion gallon reservoir with an encircling running track, and an outdoor amphitheater called the Delacorte Theater which hosts the "Shakespeare in the Park" summer festivals. Indoor attractions include Belvedere Castle with its nature center, the Swedish Cottage Marionette Theatre, and the historic Carousel. In addition there are numerous major and minor grassy areas, some of which are used for informal or team sports, some are set aside as quiet areas, and there are a number of enclosed playgrounds for children.


The park has its own wildlife and also serves as an oasis for migrating birds, especially in the fall and the spring, making it a significant attraction for bird watchers; 200 species of birds are regularly seen.[8] The 6 miles (10 km) of drives within the park are used by joggers, bicyclists, skateboarders, and inline skaters, especially on weekends and in the evenings after 7:00 p.m., when automobile traffic is banned.

The Pond looking south

The real estate value of Central Park was estimated by property appraisal firm Miller Samuel to be $528,783,552,000 in December 2005.[9]


Early history

The park was not a part of the Commissioners' Plan of 1811; however, between 1821 and 1855, New York City nearly quadrupled in population. As the city expanded, people were drawn to the few open spaces, mainly cemeteries, to get away from the noise and chaotic life in the city.[10] Before long, however, New York City's need for a great public park was voiced by the poet and editor of the Evening Post (now the New York Post), William Cullen Bryant and by the first American landscape architect, Andrew Jackson Downing, who began to publicize the city's need for a public park in 1844. A stylish place for open-air driving, like the Bois de Boulogne in Paris or London's Hyde Park, was felt to be needed by many influential New Yorkers, and in 1853 the New York legislature designated a 700-acre (280 ha) area from 59th to 106th Streets for the creation of the park, to a cost of more than US$5 million for the land alone.

Initial development

Victor Prevost, The Terrace, Central Park, NY, Albumen print, September 10, 1862.
One of the park's bridges; no two are alike.[11]
Central-Park, Winter: The Skating Pond, 1862 (by Currier and Ives)
The buildings that line Central Park South include Essex House.
Cleopatra's Needle, Central Park

The state appointed a Central Park Commission to oversee the development of the park, and in 1857 the commission held a landscape design contest. Writer Frederick Law Olmsted and English architect Calvert Vaux developed the so-called "Greensward Plan," which was selected as the winning design. According to Olmsted, the park was "of great importance as the first real Park made in this century—a democratic development of the highest significance…," a view probably inspired by his stay, and various trips in Europe in 1850.[12] During that trip he visited several parks and was in particular impressed by Birkenhead Park and Derby Arboretum in England.

Several influences came together in the design. Landscaped cemeteries, such as Mount Auburn (Cambridge, Massachusetts) and Green-Wood (Brooklyn, New York) had set an example of idyllic, naturalistic landscapes. The most influential innovations in the Central Park design were the "separate circulation systems" for pedestrians, horseback riders, and pleasure vehicles. The "crosstown" commercial traffic was entirely concealed in sunken roadways (today called "transverses") screened with densely planted shrub belts, so as not to disturb the impression of a rustic scene. The Greensward plan called for some 36 bridges, all designed by Vaux, ranging from rugged spans of Manhattan schist or granite, to lacy neo-gothic cast iron, no two alike. The ensemble of the formal line of the Mall's doubled allées of elms culminating at Bethesda Terrace, whose centerpiece is The Bethesda Fountain, with a composed view beyond of lake and woodland, was at the heart of the larger design.

Before the construction of the park could start, the area had to be cleared of its inhabitants, most of whom were quite poor and either free African-Americans or immigrants of either German or Irish origin. Most of them lived in smaller villages, such as Seneca Village, Harsenville, the Piggery District or the Convent of the Sisters of Charity. The roughly 1,600 working-class residents occupying the area at the time were evicted under the rule of eminent domain during 1857, and Seneca Village and parts of the other communities were razed to make room for the park.

During the construction of the park, Olmsted fought constant battles with the Park Commissioners, many of whom were appointees of the city's Democratic machine. In 1860, he was forced out for the first of many times as Central Park's Superintendent, and Andrew Haswell Green, the former president of New York City's Board of Education took over as the chairman of the commission. Despite the fact that he had relatively little experience, he still managed to accelerate the construction, as well as to finalize the negotiations for the purchase of an additional 65 acres (260,000 m2) at the north end of the park between 106th and 110th Streets, which would be used as the "rugged" part of the park, its swampy northeast corner dredged and reconstructed as the Harlem Meer.

Between 1860 and 1873, the construction of the park had come a long way, and most of the major hurdles had been overcome. During this period, more than 18,500 cubic yards (14,000 m³) of topsoil had been transported in from New Jersey, as the original soil was not fertile or substantial enough to sustain the various trees, shrubs, and plants the Greensward Plan called for. When the park was officially completed in 1873, more than ten million cartloads of material were transported out of the park, including soil and rocks. More than four million trees, shrubs and plants representing approximately 1,500 species were transplanted to the park.

Interestingly, sheep actually grazed on the Sheep Meadow from the 1860s until 1934, when they were moved upstate since it was feared they would be used for food by impoverished depression-era New Yorkers.[13]

20th century

Following completion, the park quickly slipped into decline. One of the major reasons for this was the lack of interest of Tammany Hall, the political machine which was the largest political force in New York at the time.

Around the turn of the 20th century, the park faced several new challenges. Cars had been invented and were becoming commonplace, bringing with them their burden of pollution. Also, the general mental view of the people was beginning to change. No longer were parks to be used only for walks and picnics in an idyllic environment, but now also for sports, and similar recreation. Following the dissolution of the Central Park Commission in 1870 and Andrew Green's departure from the project and the death of Vaux in 1895, the maintenance effort gradually declined, and there were few or no attempts to replace dead trees, bushes and plants or worn-out lawn. For several decades, authorities did little or nothing to prevent vandalism and the littering of the park.

All of this changed in 1934, when Republican Fiorello La Guardia was elected mayor of New York City and unified the five park-related departments then in existence. Robert Moses was tasked with cleaning up the park. Moses, about to become one of the mightiest men in New York City, took over what was essentially a relic, a leftover from a bygone era.

According to historian Robert Caro in his 1974 book The Power Broker:

Lawns, unseeded, were expanses of bare earth, decorated with scraggly patches of grass and weeds, that became dust holes in dry weather and mud holes in wet…. The once beautiful Mall looked like a scene of a wild party the morning after. Benches lay on their backs, their legs jabbing at the sky...

In a single year, Moses managed to clean up Central Park and other parks in New York City: lawns and flowers were replanted; dead trees and bushes were replaced; walls were sandblasted; and bridges were repaired. Major redesigning and construction was also carried out: for instance, the Croton Lower Reservoir was filled in so the Great Lawn could be created. The Greensward Plan's intention of creating an idyllic landscape was combined with Moses' vision of a park to be used for recreational purposes—nineteen playgrounds, twelve ballfields, and handball courts were constructed. Moses also managed to secure funds from the New Deal program, as well as donations from the public.


The 1960s marked the beginning of an “Events Era” in Central Park that reflected the widespread cultural and political trends of the period. The Public Theater's annual Shakespeare in the Park festival was settled in the Delacorte Theater (1961), and summer performances were instituted on the Sheep Meadow and then on the Great Lawn by the New York Philharmonic Orchestra and the Metropolitan Opera. Increasingly through the 1970s, the park became a venue for events of unprecedented scale, including political rallies and demonstrations, festivals, and massive concerts.

Relaxing in the shade on an August day.

New York City was in the throes of economic and social crisis. Residents were fleeing the city and moving to the suburbs. Morale was low, and crime was high. The Parks Department, suffering from budget cuts and a lack of skilled management that rendered its workforce virtually ineffective, responded by opening the park to any and all activities that would bring people into it—regardless of their impact and without adequate management oversight or maintenance follow-up. Some of these events became important milestones in the social history of the park and the cultural history of the city. Many were positive experiences fondly remembered by the individuals who participated. But without essential management and enforcement of reasonable limitations, and combined with a total lack of park maintenance and repair, they also did an incredible amount of damage.

Central Park viewed from atop the GE Building.

By the mid-1970s, New York’s fiscal and social crisis had contributed to severe management neglect. "Years of poor management and inadequate maintenance had turned a masterpiece of landscape architecture into a virtual dustbowl by day and a danger zone by night," said the Conservancy president.[14] Time had hastened the deterioration of its infrastructure and architecture, and ushered in an era of vandalism, territorial use (as when a pick-up game of softball or soccer commandeered open space to the exclusion of others) and illicit activity.

Several citizen groups had emerged intent upon reclaiming the park by fundraising and organizing volunteer initiatives. One of these groups, the Central Park Community Fund, commissioned a study of the park’s management that concluded by calling for the establishment of a single position within the Parks Department responsible for overseeing the planning and management of Central Park, and for a board of guardians to provide citizen oversight. In 1979 Parks Commissioner Gordon Davis established the office of Central Park Administrator, appointing to the position the executive director of another citizen organization, the Central Park Task Force. The Central Park Conservancy was founded the following year to support the office and initiatives of the Administrator and to provide consistent leadership through a self-perpetuating, citizen-based board that would also include as ex-officio trustees the Parks Commissioner, Central Park Administrator, and mayoral appointees.

From Central Park South


The park's transformation under the leadership of the Central Park Conservancy began with modest but highly significant first steps toward reclaiming the park, addressing needs that could not be met within the existing structure and resources of the Parks Department. These included an initial focus on hiring interns and establishing a small restoration staff to reconstruct and repair unique rustic structures, undertaking horticultural projects, and removing graffiti, under the broken windows premise. Currently "Graffiti doesn't last 24 hours in the park," according to Conservancy president Douglas Blonsky.[15]

The Pond and Central Park South

By the early 1980s the conservancy was engaged in design efforts and long-term restoration planning, using a combination of its own staff and consultants. Through this work, the conservancy provided the impetus and leadership for several early restoration projects funded by the city, while at the same time preparing a comprehensive plan for rebuilding the park. With the completion of this plan in 1985, the conservancy launched its first capital campaign. Through the campaign, the conservancy assumed increasing responsibility for funding the comprehensive restoration of the park and full responsibility for designing, bidding, and supervising all capital projects in the park.

The restoration of Central Park has been accompanied by a crucial transformation of its management. As the conservancy rebuilt the park beginning in the mid-1980s, it instituted a revolutionary new zone-management system, in which Central Park was divided into territories, in which a designated supervisor was held responsible for maintaining restored areas; and as citywide budget cuts in the early 1990s resulted in attrition of the Parks Department staff responsible for routine maintenance, the conservancy began to hire staff to replace these workers. Management of the restored landscapes by the conservancy’s "zone gardeners" proved so successful that core maintenance and operations staff were reorganized in 1996. A zone-based system of management was implemented throughout the park, which was divided into 49 zones. Consequently, every zone of the park has a specific individual accountable for its day-to-day maintenance. Zone gardeners supervise the volunteers[16] assigned to them (who commit to a consistent work schedule), and are supported by specialized crews in areas of maintenance requiring specific expertise or equipment, or more effectively conducted on a parkwide basis. Today the conservancy employs four out of five maintenance and operations staff in the park and effectively oversees the work of both the private and public employees under the authority of the Central Park Administrator (a publicly appointed position reporting to the Parks Commissioner) who is also the President of the Conservancy. As of 2007, the conservancy had invested approximately $450 million in the restoration and management of the park; the organization presently contributes approximately 85% of Central Park’s annual operating budget of over $25 million.[2]

The system was functioning so well that in 2006 the conservancy created the Historic Harlem Parks Initiative, providing horticultural and maintenance support and mentoring in Morningside Park and St. Nicholas, Jackie Robinson and Marcus Garvey Parks.[17]

The park in 2004.


Carriage horses

One of the many carriage horses present throughout the park.

New York City has had carriage horses since 1935.[18] The carriages have appeared in many films, and the first female horse and carriage driver, Maggie Cogan, appeared in a Universal newsreel in 1967.[19] As such, they have become a symbolic institution of the city. After the terrorist attacks of September 11, in a much-publicized event, Mayor Rudolph Giuliani went to the stables himself to ask the drivers to go back to work to help return a sense of normalcy.[18]

Some activists and politicians have questioned the ethics of this tradition.[20] The history of accidents involving spooked horses has come under scrutiny with recent horse deaths.[21] Protests from People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, and celebrities including Alec Baldwin, Alecia Beth Moore and Cheryl Hines have raised the issue's profile.[22][23] Additional media accounts have corroborated some charges, but they have also shown that the standards vary from stable to stable.[24]

Both activists and horse owners who pride themselves on humane conditions agree that part of the problem is lack of enforcement of the city code.[24] Supporters of the trade say it needs to be reformed, not shut down, and that carriage drivers deserve a raise, which the city has not authorized since 1989.[25] Paris, London, Beijing, and several U.S. cities have banned carriage horses.[26]


Pedicabs have more recently offered visitors a more dynamic way in which to view the park. Covering three to ten times the distance of a typical Central Park horse carriage ride, pedicabs have become very popular with visitors and New Yorkers alike in the last five years.[27]


The Park Drive, just over 6 miles (9.7 km) long, is a haven for runners, joggers, bicyclists, and inline skaters. Nearly every weekend, races take place in the park, many of which are organized by the New York Road Runners. The New York City Marathon finishes in Central Park outside Tavern on the Green. Many other professional races are run in the park, including the recent USA Men's 8k Championships.

A long tradition of horseback riding in the park was kept alive by the one remaining stable nearby, Claremont Riding Academy until it closed in 2007. At the northern part of Central Park between 106th and 108th streets Lasker Rink and Pool is a large ice skating rink which converts to an outdoor swimming pool in summer.


Summerstage features free musical concerts throughout the summer.

Each summer, the Public Theater presents free open-air theatre productions, often starring well-known stage and screen actors. The Delacorte Theater is the summer performing venue of the New York Shakespeare Festival. Most, though not all, of the plays presented are by William Shakespeare, and the performances are generally regarded as being of high quality since its founding by Joseph Papp in 1962.

The New York Philharmonic gives an open-air concert every summer on the Great Lawn, and the Metropolitan Opera presents two operas. Many concerts have been given in the park including The Supremes, 1970; Carole King, 1973; Bob Marley & The Wailers, 1975; Elton John, 1980; the Simon and Garfunkel reunion, 1981; Diana Ross, 1983; Garth Brooks, 1997; Dave Matthews Band, 2003, Bon Jovi 2008.[28] Since 1992, local singer-songwriter David Ippolito has performed almost every summer weekend to large crowds of passers-by and regulars and has become a New York icon, often simply referred to as "That guitar man from Central Park."

Tavern on the Green, one of the most popular high-end restaurants in New York City, was located in Central Park.

Each summer, City Parks Foundation offers Central Park Summerstage, a series of free performances including music, dance, spoken word, and film presentations. SummerStage will celebrate its 25th anniversary in 2010. Throughout its history Summerstage has welcomed emerging artists and world renowned artists, including Celia Cruz, David Byrne, Curtis Mayfield, Ladysmith Black Mambazo, George Clinton and the P-Funk All Stars, and Nobel Laureate and Pulitzer winner Toni Morrison, Femi Kuti, Seun Kuti, Pulitzer winner Junot Diaz, Vampire Weekend, Dayton Contemporary Dance Company, Morphoses/The Wheeldon Company, and many more.

With the revival of the city and the park in the new century, Central Park has given birth to arts groups dedicated to performing in the park, notably Central Park Brass, which performs an annual concert series and the New York Classical Theatre, which produces an annual series of plays.

Central Park was home to the famed New York City restaurant Tavern on the Green which was located on the park's grounds at Central Park West and West 67th Street. Tavern on the Green had its last seating on December 31, 2009 before closing its doors.

Central Park was home to the largest concert ever on record. Country Superstar Garth Brooks performed a free concert in August 1997. About 980,000 attended the event, according to the NYFD.[29]


Boulderer climbing Rat Rock.

Central Park's glaciated rock outcroppings attract climbers, especially boulderers; Manhattan's bedrock, a glaciated schist, protrudes from the ground frequently and considerably in some parts of Central Park. The two most renowned spots for boulderers are Rat Rock and Cat Rock; others include Dog Rock, Duck Rock, Rock N' Roll Rock, and Beaver Rock, near the south end of the park.[30]


In addition to its 37 unique playgrounds, Central Park offers dozens of activities for children, including performances by master puppeteers at the historic Swedish Cottage Marionette Theatre. There are other activities such as children's yoga, modern art classes for infants, and wind chime making classes. The famous Central Park Carousel has excited and thrilled children since the original one was built in 1870.

Panorama of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir at Central Park looking North


Generations of children have rubbed Balto's nose to a shine.[citation needed]
Bronze statue of Christopher Columbus at the base of the Mall, by Jeronimo Suñol, 1894
Statue of Simón Bolivar
Untermyer Fountain/Three Dancing Maidens by Walter Schott, second cast (first cast 1903)

Though Olmsted disapproved of the clutter of sculptures in the park, a total of twenty-nine sculptures have been erected over the years, most of which have been donated by individuals or organizations. Much of the first statuary to appear in the park was of authors and poets, clustered along a section of the Mall that became known as Literary Walk. The better-known sculptors represented in Central Park include Augustus Saint-Gaudens and John Quincy Adams Ward. The "Angel of the Waters" at Bethesda Terrace by Emma Stebbins (1873), was the first large public sculpture commission for an American woman. The 1925 statue of the sled dog Balto who became famous during the 1925 serum run to Nome, Alaska is very popular among tourists, reflected in its near polished appearance as the result of being patted by countless visitors. The oldest sculpture is "Cleopatra's Needle," actually an Egyptian obelisk of Tutmose III much older than Cleopatra, which was donated to New York by the Khedive of Egypt. The largest and most impressive is equestrian King Jagiello bronze monument on the east end of Turtle Pond. North of Conservatory Water, the sailboat pond, there is a larger-than-life statue of Alice in Wonderland, sitting on a huge mushroom playing with her cat, while the Hatter and the March Hare look on. A large memorial to Duke Ellington created by sculptor Robert Graham was dedicated in 1997 near Fifth Avenue and 110th Street, in the Duke Ellington Circle.

For 16 days in 2005 (February 12–27), Central Park was the setting for Christo and Jeanne-Claude's installation The Gates. Though the project was the subject of very mixed reactions (and it took many years for Christo and Jeanne-Claude to get the necessary approvals), it was nevertheless a major, if temporary, draw for the park.[31]


Although often regarded as a kind of oasis of tranquility inside a "city that never sleeps," Central Park was once a very dangerous place — especially after dark — as measured by crime statistics. The park, like most of New York City, is considerably safer today, though during prior periods it was the site of numerous muggings and rapes. Well-publicized incidents of sexual and confiscatory violence, such as the notorious 1989 "Central Park Jogger" case, dissuaded many from visiting one of Manhattan's most scenic areas.

As crime has declined in the park and in the rest of New York City, many negative perceptions have waned, and the use of common sense is enough to reasonably protect visitors from harm. The park has its own New York City Police Department precinct (Central Park Precinct), which employs both regular police and auxiliary officers. In 2005, such safety measures held the number of crimes in the park — which has more than 25 million visitors annually — to fewer than one hundred per year (down from approximately 1,000 in the early 1980s). New York City Parks Enforcement Patrol also patrols Central Park.

On June 11, 2000, following the Puerto Rican Day Parade, gangs of drunken men sexually assaulted women in the park. Several arrests were made shortly after the attacks, but it was not until 2006 that a civil suit against the city for failing to provide police protection was finally settled.[32][33]

Other issues

Permission to hold issue-centered rallies in Central Park has been met with increasingly stiff resistance from the city. In 2004, the organization United for Peace and Justice wanted to hold a rally on the Great Lawn during the Republican National Convention. The city denied application for a permit, stating that such a mass gathering would be harmful to the grass and that such damage would make it harder to collect private donations to maintain the park. Courts upheld the refusal.

Since the 1960s, there has been a grassroots campaign to restore the park's loop drives to their original car-free state. Over the years, the number of car-free hours has increased, though a full closure is currently resisted by the New York City Department of Transportation.

The Central Park Medical Unit is an all-volunteer ambulance service that provides free emergency medical service to patrons of Central Park and the surrounding streets. It operates a rapid-response bicycle patrol, particularly during major events such as the New York City Marathon, the 1998 Goodwill Games, and concerts in the park.

An unobtrusively-sited bridge in Central Park, designed by Calvert Vaux, separates pedestrians from the carriage drive. No two bridges in the Park are identical.
Statue of King Jagiello, from the Polish pavilion at the 1939 New York World's Fair.

Central Park has one of the largest remaining stands of American Elms in the northeastern U.S., 1,700 of them, protected by their isolation from Dutch Elm Disease. Central Park was the site of the unfortunate unleashing of starlings in North America, which are considered an invasive species). Central Park is a popular birding spot during spring and fall migration, when birds flying over Manhattan are attracted to the prominent oasis. Over a quarter of all the bird species found in the United States have been seen in Central Park. A Red-tailed hawk known as Pale Male was the object of much attention by the media, the ornithologist-author Marie Winn and other Central Park birdwatchers. There are 215 bird species in New York City's Central Park.[34]

In 2002 a new genus and species of centipede was discovered in Central Park. The centipede is about four-tenths of an inch (10 mm) long, making it one of the smallest in the world. It is named Nannarrup hoffmani (after the man who discovered it) and lives in the park's leaf litter, the crumbling organic debris that accumulates under the trees.

Since the late 1990s, the Central Park Conservancy, the United States Department of Agriculture, and several city and state agencies have been fighting an infestation of the Asian long-horned beetle, which has been reported in Brooklyn, Queens, and Manhattan, including some parts of Central Park. The beetle, which likely was accidentally shipped from its native China in an untreated shipping crate, has no natural predators in the United States, and the fight to contain its infestation has been very expensive. The beetle infests trees by boring a hole in them to deposit its eggs, at which point the only way to end the infestation is to destroy the tree.

Central Park constitutes its own United States census tract, number 143. According to Census 2000, the park's population is eighteen persons, twelve male and six female, with a median age of 38.5 years, and a household size of 2.33, over 3 households.[35]


  1. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2007-01-23. http://www.nr.nps.gov/. 
  2. ^ a b c About the Central Park Conservancy, Central Park Conservancy. Accessed October 8, 2007.
  3. ^ "America's Most Visited City Parks" (PDF). The Trust for Public Land. June 2006. http://www.tpl.org/content_documents/ccpe_MostVisitedParks.pdf. Retrieved 2006-07-11. 
  4. ^ "Central Park". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. 2007-09-10. http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=388&ResourceType=District. 
  5. ^ "National Register of Historic Places Inventory". National Park Service. 1975-08-14. http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NHLS/Text/66000538.pdf. 
  6. ^ "National Register of Historic Places Inventory". National Park Service. 1975-08-14. http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NHLS/Photos/66000538.pdf. 
  7. ^ all the present bodies of water in the park have been created by damming natural seeps and flows.
  8. ^ Rebekah Kreshkoff and Marie Winn, The Birds of Central Park: An Annotated Checklist (on-line text).,
  9. ^ Robledo, S. Jhoanna; "Central Park: Because We Wouldn't Trade a Patch of Grass for $528,783,552,000" NYMag.com, December 18, 2005 (Retrieved: 26 August 2009)
  10. ^ John Emerson Todd, Frederick Law Olmsted (Boston: Twayne Publishers: Twayne’s World Leader Series) 1982:73; see the history of Green-Wood Cemetery.
  11. ^ Henry Hope Reed, Robert M. McGee and Esther Mipaas. The Bridges of Central Park. (Greensward Foundation) 1990.
  12. ^ Central Park's history 1800-1858
  13. ^ pbs.org – New York: A Documentary Film
  14. ^ Blonsky, Douglas. "Saving the Park: a key to NYC's revival". The New York Post, 3 November 2007 Op-Ed page.
  15. ^ Blonsky 2007 op. cit.
  16. ^ In 2007 3000 volunteers outnumbered under 250 workers over 12-to-1 (Blonsky 2007, op.cit.).
  17. ^ Blonsky 2007, op.cit..
  18. ^ a b Tradition or Cruelty?, Jessica Bennett, Newsweek, September 25, 2007; accessed August 23, 2008
  19. ^ Chris Hicks (April 16, 1996). "Jupiter's Wife". Deseret News (Salt Lake City). 
  20. ^ Bill Could Halt New York Carriage Horses, Keith B. Richburg, The Washington Post, December 17, 2007; accessed August 23, 2008
  21. ^ Another Horse Down in Central Park, Blog of the Association of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, September 17, 2007; accessed August 23, 2008.
  22. ^ PETA Fact Sheet on Horse Carriage; accessed August 23, 2008
  23. ^ Home on the Asphalt, Lloyd Grove, New York Magazine, March 16, 2008; accessed August 23, 2008
  24. ^ a b Carriage Horse Industry At A Crossroads, Kristin Cole, CBS News, November 5, 2007; Accessed August 23, 2008.
  25. ^ Horse Pucky, Editorial of The New York Sun, November 30, 2007; accessed August 23, 2008
  26. ^ Film Highlights Suffering of NYC Carriage Horses, Humane Society of the United States, April 24, 2008
  27. ^ "In recent years, pedicabs have become ubiquitous in Midtown. They pick up theatergoers on Broadway, courting couples in Central Park and give gawking tourists a new way to stare at the tall buildings" ("Keep the Big Wheels Turning ", The New York Times, 18 December 2005).
  28. ^ For the Bon Jovi concert, 12 July 2008, 60,000 free tickets were distributed by the city; a large section of Central Park was closed to the non-ticketed public.
  29. ^ Official Garth Brooks website: "In May of 1998, the New York Fire Department officially announced the final attendee numbers at 980,000." (accessed 14 February 2010).
  30. ^ Christopher S. Wren, "A Summit in Central Park; Boulder Gives Climbers a Taste of the Mountain", The New York Times, July 21, 1999. Accessed October 8, 2007.
  31. ^ February 25, 2005 CNN story about Christo and Jeanne-Claude's The Gates Central Park's 'Gates' to close
  32. ^ CourtTv.com
  33. ^ New York Lawyer
  34. ^ New York City Economic Development Corporation
  35. ^ "Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000". U.S. Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/QTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=14000US36061014300&-qr_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_DP1&-ds_name=D&-_lang=en&-redoLog=false. Retrieved 2006-07-11. 


  • Kelly, Bruce, Gail T. Guillet, and Mary Ellen W. Hern. Art of the Olmsted Landscape. New York: City Landmarks Preservation Commission: Arts Publisher, 1981. ISBN 0-941302-00-8.
  • Kinkead, Eugene. Central Park, 1857-1995: The Birth, Decline, and Renewal of a National Treasure. New York: Norton, 1990. ISBN 0-393-02531-4.
  • Miller, Sara Cedar. Central Park, An American Masterpiece: A Comprehensive History of the Nation's First Urban Park. New York: Abrams, 2003. ISBN 0-8109-3946-0.
  • Rosenzweig, Roy, and Elizabeth Blackmar. The Park and the People: A History of Central Park. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992. ISBN 0-8014-9751-5.
  • Swerdlow, Joel L. Central Park - Oasis in the city. National Geographic Magazine May 1993

External links

Official websites
Additional information

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Manhattan/Central Park article)

From Wikitravel

View north from Belvedere Castle
View north from Belvedere Castle

Central Park [1] is the largest park in New York City, forming a vast green swathe of open space in Uptown Manhattan and a district in its own right, neatly separating the Upper East Side from the Upper West Side, whilst lying south of Harlem. It covers 843 acres or 1 E6 m² (3.4 km²), in the shape of a rectangle 2.5 miles by one-half mile (or 4 km × 800 m) in the central part of Manhattan Island and represents a convenient oasis for New Yorkers escaping from their skyscrapers. Central Park is well-known globally after its appearance in many movies and television shows, making it one of the most famous city parks in the world.

Central Park is bordered on the north by Central Park North (110th Street), on the east by Fifth Avenue, on the south by Columbus Circle and Central Park South (59th Street), and on the west by Central Park West (Eighth Avenue, or Frederick Douglass Boulevard north of Central Park).


In the 1850s, realizing the need for a large public green space for New Yorkers to get away from the chaos and noise of the city, the New York legislature set aside a vast swath of land in Upper Manhattan. Landscape designers Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux developed the winning design for the park, influenced by naturalistic landscapes which were popular in park design at the time. Any architectural features and roads were to be visually integrated into the surrounding landscape, to maintain the "rustic" feel of the park. The park was officially completed in 1873, with more than 500,000 cubic feet of topsoil brought in from New Jersey and millions of trees, shrubs, and other plants laying the foundation of the park.

Through the early 20th century the park fell into a decline due to a lack of maintenance, with dead trees, worn-out lawns, and much litter and vandalism. The park received a major boost in the 1930s, when these issues were finally addressed, but the park once again fell into a decline in the late 20th century, becoming increasingly run-down and crime-ridden through the 1960s and 70s. In 1980, the Central Park Conservancy was founded under contract from the city to restore and maintain the park. Today, the violent night crimes of previous decades are all but gone, and common sense is all you really need to stay safe in the park today.

Get In

Central Park is accessible by subway, with the A, B, C, D, and 1 trains stopping at Columbus Circle (on the southwest corner of the park), and the B and C local trains continuing along Central Park West, with stops at 72nd St., 81st St. (under the Natural History Museum on the Upper West Side), 86th St., 96th St., 103rd St., and 110 St. Somewhat further west, the 1 (local) and 2/3 (express) lines travel up Broadway, though that avenue angles further and further to the west northward from Columbus Circle. The 2/3 also stop at 110th St. and Lenox Ave., near the northeast corner of the park. On the Upper East Side, the park can be accessed by taking the 4, 5, and 6 lines along Lexington Avenue and walking 3 blocks west. There is also a stop on the N, R and W lines at 5th Av. and 60th St., and a stop on the F train at 57th St. and 6th Av., both near the southern limits of the park.

The park is crossed by several bus routes that travel east-west along the transverse roads (the M106, M96, M86, M79, M72, and M66, all with subway connections), as well as the M1, M2, M3, and M4 bus routes along 5th Avenue/Madison Avenue, and the M10 along Central Park West.


Central Park is divided for convenience into four "quadrants". From south to north:

South End

The South End runs from Central Park South to the Lake, just north of Terrace Drive (72nd Street).

  • Arsenal, 64th Street and Fifth Avenue. M-F 9AM-5PM. A picturesque brick building that actually predates the park. It was built in 1851 to serve as a munitions supply depot for the New York State National Guard, and was designed to look like a medieval fortress, with battlements overlooking the area. Today the building holds a refreshment stand and WPA murals depicting park activities. Free.  edit
The Angel of the Waters, Bethesda Terrace
The Angel of the Waters, Bethesda Terrace
  • Bethesda Terrace and Fountain, Terrace Drive (72nd St.) (mid-way through the park). One of Manhattan's favorite meeting points, the centerpiece of this Terrace is the Angel of the Waters fountain, dedicated in 1873 and an enduring icon of the park (featuring recently, for example, in the production Angels in America).  edit
  • Billy Johnson Playground, 5th Avenue and 67th Street (just north of the Children's Zoo). A rustic-themed playground, with a stone bridge, a granite slide, a gazebo, a water feature, and playground equipment constructed of white cedar.  edit
  • Central Park Zoo, 5th Avenue and 64th Street, +1 212 439-6500, [2]. Nov-Mar: Daily 10AM-4:30PM, Apr-Oct: M-F 10AM-5PM, Sa-Su, holidays 10AM-5:30PM. Small and gem-like, New York's "oldest, newest zoo" opened in its current guise as recently as 1988, although animals in various zoo incarnations have resided here since the 1860s. This zoo is fairly small and doesn't have as many large animals as you might expect, but this zoo does include sea lions, penguins, polar bears, monkeys, red pandas, and exotic birds in pleasant exhibits. Next door is a children's zoo, covered in the cost of admission, which has a barnyard animals you can pet, a duck pond, and lots of play areas for kids. $10 adults, $7 seniors, $5 children, children under 3 free.  edit
  • Dairy, 65th Street, +1 212 794-6564. Daily 10AM-5PM. Built in the 1870s as an actual dairy farm, with a structure designed to resemble a country church. Today it is a visitor center and gift shop for the park, housed in a beautiful structure. Next door is the Chess & Checkers House, another visitor center and the volunteer headquarters, with a number of chess and checkers tables under a shady pergola.  edit
  • Friedsman Carousel, 65th Street, +1 212 879-0244. Apr-Oct: M-F 10AM-6PM, Sa-Su 10AM-7PM; Nov-Dec: Daily 10AM-dusk, Jan-Mar: Sa-Su/holidays only 10AM-dusk. A vintage carousel built in 1908 and situated on this spot since the 1950s (it's the fourth carousel to inhabit this location). $2 per ride.  edit
  • Grand Army Plaza, Fifth Avenue (between 58th and 60th Streets). A public square at the southeast corner of the park which marks one of the primary entrances to Central Park. The square is named for the Union Army of the Civil War and sports a gilded bronze statue of Union General William Sherman and the Pulitzer Fountain, which is crowned with a bronze figure of Pomona, the Roman goddess of fruit. Free.  edit
  • Heckscher Playground. Central Park's largest playground, Hecksher is unique among Central Park's playgrounds in that it is not on the boundaries of the park. The playground has a range of play equipment, including a large water feature.  edit
  • The Pond, Central Park South (between Fifth and Sixth Avenues). Near Grand Army Plaza, the Pond offers a tranquil setting just within the boundaries of the park. A rustic wood structure, "Cop Cot," overlooks the pond from an outcrop near the Sixth Avenue entrance.  edit
  • Rumsey Playfield. Site of the free SummerStage [3] shows.  edit
  • Sheep Meadow, west side of the park (between 66th and 69th Streets). A spacious green lawn that was originally home to a herd of sheep, which grazed in the meadow and tended to in their nearby pen - a Victorian style building which today is the Tavern on the Green restaurant (see Eat below).  edit
Imagine Mosaic - Strawberry Fields
Imagine Mosaic - Strawberry Fields
  • Strawberry Fields, Central Park West at 72nd Street. So named in 1981 in memory of John Lennon, the former Beatle, who was murdered close by outside his home in the Dakota building. Lennon's widow Yoko Ono, who still lives in the Dakota, subsequently donated $1 million to upgrade the area with hundreds of tree and flower species, including strawberries. The area serves as a Garden of Peace and includes a memorial floor mosaic (donated by the Italian city of Naples) that says simply "Imagine", referring to the title of one of Lennon's evocative songs.  edit

Great Lawn

The Great Lawn area runs from the Lake to the 86th Street Transverse Road.

  • Ancient Playground, Fifth Avenue and 85th Street. Inspired by the nearby Egyptian Wing of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, this playground contains several pyramid-like play structures.  edit
  • Belvedere Castle, 79th Street, +1 212 772-0210. Tu-Su 10AM-5PM. Sitting on Vista Rock, one of the highest points in the park, the castle provides excellent views of Central Park, particularly to the north. It is a popular spot for photography and contains a visitor center and a nature conservatory. Just below the castle to the north is Turtle Pond, a small, swamp-like pond holding various fish, frogs, insects, and birds. Free.  edit
  • Conservatory Pond, east side of the park (between 72nd and 75th Streets). Most well known as the Model Boat Pond, visitors can often see a racing regatta between members of the Model Yacht Club, or rent a model boat from a boathouse and cafe on the pond. Just to the north of the pond is the Alice in Wonderland sculpture depicting the Tea Party scene, and on the west side of the pond is the Hans Christian Andersen sculpture, which shows the writer seated on a bench reading a book to his Ugly Ducking character.  edit
  • Great Lawn. At the center of Central Park, the Great Lawn is a large clearing with lawns and ballfields, perfect for ballgames, sunbathing, and picnicking. Just to the east of the Lawn is the Obelisk, a 71-foot tall structure which is the oldest man-made object in the park, having been erected in Heliopolis, Egypt, around 1500 B.C.  edit
  • The Lake. The lake is a fine setting for a serene afternoon in the park. Rental boats are available from the Loeb Boathouse (on the eastern side of the lake) for a ride on the water. The Bow Bridge, a Central Park landmark, spans the middle of the lake. Free; boats are available for rental, $12/hour.  edit
  • Pat Hoffman Friedman Playground, 5th Avenue and 79th Street. A small toddler playground with some beautifully fashioned gates adorned with sculptures of animals. In front of the gates stands Paul Manship's Group of Bears sculpture.  edit
  • The Ramble, 79th Street (enter either from the Loeb Boat House to the south or from Belvedere Castle to the north). A sort of mini forest, described by its designer as a "wild garden," the Ramble is sculpted out of a wooded hillside, with winding paths, rocky outcrops, secluded glades, and a tumbling stream. The Ramble is also an excellent place to bird watch, with over 250 species of birds that stop here on their migration.  edit

Metropolitan Museum of Art

Greek and Roman statuary at the Metropolitan
Greek and Roman statuary at the Metropolitan

1000 Fifth Avenue (at 82nd Street), +1 212 535-7710, [4]. Tu–Th 9:30AM–5:30PM, F-Sa 9:30AM–9PM, Su 9:30AM–5:30PM, closed Mondays. Pay what you wish; includes admission to the Cloisters Museum & Gardens in Upper Manhattan (suggested admission $20 adults, $15 seniors, $10 students, children under 12 free).

One of the world's largest and most important museums of art and world culture, you'll have to devote several hours; nay, an entire day (if not more!), if you want to do this place justice. This massive gothic-style building, originally opened in 1872 and with numerous expansions added on over time, holds literally hundreds of rooms on its two floors, containing thousands of art pieces from across human history and around the world, covering virtually every field of art in existence. Along with the numerous permanent exhibit halls mentioned below are several changing exhibit halls.

The first floor holds the American Wing, with period rooms and decorative arts from the 19th and early 20th centuries; the Arms and Armor hall, with suits of armor, swords, guns, and other arms from around the world; Arts of Africa, Oceania, and the Americas; Egyptian Art, featuring the Roman Period Temple of Dendur; European Sculpture and Decorative Arts, with numerous period rooms and Renaissance sculpture; Greek and Roman Art, with numerous examples of classical sculpture, vases, and bronzes; Medieval Art, featuring a cathedral-like room with numerous Romanesque pieces; and Modern and Contemporary Art, showcasing the works of some of the most famous artists of modern times, such as Balthus, Boccioni, Bonnard, Matisse, and Picasso.

The second floor holds a continuation of the American Wing; Ancient Near Eastern Art, showcasing some monumental Assyrian reliefs and statues; Chinese Art, which holds some exceptional Buddhist sculpture, jades, calligraphy, and period rooms; Cypriot Art, with ancient art from Cyprus; European Paintings and Sculptures, with masterworks from Cezanne, Monet, Renoir, Rodin, Van Gogh, and numerous other old masters; an extremely comprehensive Islamic Art collection, Japanese Art, with numerous prints and textiles; Korean Art, a continuation of the Modern and Contemporary Art halls; and South Asian Art, with works from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Tibet, and Southeast Asia.

The Reservoir

The Reservoir area spans the area of the park from the 86th Street Transverse Road to the 97th Street Transverse Road.

  • The Reservoir. Constructed between 1858 and 1862, the Reservoir is a vast urban lake that covers 106 acres of Central Park and is the largest body of water within Manhattan. Renamed the "Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reservoir" in 1994, the Reservoir is probably best known for the 1.58 mile track that runs around its edge and which is a favorite for joggers, who can both run and enjoy the spectacular views of the city skyline.  edit
  • Safari Playground, Central Park West at 91st Street. A jungle themed playground with hippopotamus statues, a "canoe" play structure, and treehouses.  edit
  • Wild West Playground, Central Park West at 93rd Street. A western-themed playground with a wooded fortress-like setting, canals, sandboxes, and water sprays.  edit

North End

The North End spans the area of the park from the 97th Street Transverse Road to Central Park North.

  • Charles A. Dana Discovery Center, 110th Street (between Fifth and Lenox Avenues), +1 212 860-1370. Tu-Su 10AM-5PM. On the north shore of the Harlem Meer, the Discovery Center holds education and community programs and seasonal exhibits, as well as offering a popular place for catch-and-release fishing.  edit
  • Conservatory Garden, 5th Avenue (between 104th and 106th Streets). 8AM-dusk. A six-acre garden which is Central Park's only formal garden, representing Italian, French, and English landscape styles, with formal plantings and numerous sculptures. Free.  edit
  • Great Hill, west side of the park (between 103rd and 107th Streets). One of the highest points in the park, the Great Hill is a hilltop meadow surrounded by stately elm trees and serves as an excellent place to picnic.  edit
  • Harlem Meer, east side of the park (between 106th and 110th Streets). This 11 acre lake is one of Central Park's finest spots; surrounded by flowering trees and inhabited by several fish and turtle species.  edit
  • The Pool, west side of the park (between 100th to 103rd Streets). One of the most idyllic and tranquil landscapes in Central Park, the Pool is an excellent spot for quiet contemplation, with its grassy banks and nearby waterfalls. A stream, The Loch flows northeast from the Pool, through a stream valley called The Ravine. A trail that follows the Loch, winding under a canopy of tall trees as the stream goes over several waterfalls and passes under a couple of stone arches.  edit
Central Park is popular with walkers and joggers
Central Park is popular with walkers and joggers

Being the only large green space is such a densely populated area, Central Park is an extremely popular place for outdoor recreation. It's also a very pretty place to get outdoors, and you'll join numerous other New Yorkers as you explore the greenery of the park and take in views of the surrounding cityscape.

  • On foot. Central Park is a paradise for people looking to walk, hike, stroll, or jog. The entire park is friendly for hiking and strolling, with many hidden corners and a variety of terrains to explore. Speed walkers and joggers have three ideal spots in the park: the Park Drives, which circle the park and have a special lane for joggers; the Reservoir, which has a very well-used trail surrounding it; and three separate Bridle Paths, one adjacent to the Reservoir, one at the North Meadow, and one at the southern side of the park, all of which are loops that extend about 1-1.5 miles.  edit
  • Bicycling and roller skating. The Park Drives, which circle the entire park, are the best place to bicycle or do in-line or roller skating, with a dedicated lane for their use. Skaters can also use any of the paved trails running through the park, but bicyclists are prohibited on all pedestrian pathways. Bicycle rentals are available from the parking lot of the Loeb Boathouse.  edit
  • Horseback Riding, +1 914 633-0303. The Riverdale Equestrian Centre [5] in nearby Riverdale, New York offers guided horseback rides through Central Park, but you must already be at an advanced riding level.  edit
  • Sports. A wide variety of sports facilities are available for use in Central Park. A large Tennis Center near West Drive between 94th Street and 96th Street has multiple tennis courts. Both the Great Lawn and North Meadow have basketball courts, baseball/softball and soccer fields, with additional baseball fields at the Heckscher Ballfields, at 63rd Street between the west and center drives. The North Meadow also has fields for touch and flag football and handball courts. Lawn bowling and croquet can be played just north of the Sheep Meadow. Volleyball courts are located at Sheep Meadow and the Great Lawn. Note that permits are required for all these facilities except those for basketball, handball, and volleyball.  edit
  • Water recreation. Catch-and-release fishing is available at the Harlem Meer, and a shop with bait and poles is located at the north end of the Meer. Swimming is offered at the outdoor Lasker Pool at the north end of the park; admission is free, but you are restricted to bringing only a towel, shoes, book, and water bottle and must bring a lock; no bags allowed. Boating is available in two kinds: row boating at The Lake (boats can be rented from the Loeb Boathouse for $12/hour) and model sail boating at the Conservatory Pond.  edit
  • Winter sports. Ice skating is offered in the wintertime at two places in Central Park: the popular outdoor Woolman Rink [6] near the middle of the park (which is turned into the Victorian Gardens Amusement Park [7] in the summer), and the Lasker Pool, which is turned into an outdoor rink when the water freezes. Cross-country skiing is also a popular activity in Central Park and can be done in any meadow, although only when there's at least six inches of snow on the ground.  edit
  • Horse-Drawn Carriage Rides, the carriages depart from a line-up along Central Park South (59th Street) (between 5th and 6th Avenues, opposite the Plaza Hotel), +1 212 246-0529. Available year-round (except in extreme weather), a horse-drawn carriage ride is one of the most popular (and some say romantic) ways to see Central Park. $34 for the first 20 mins and $54 for a 45-50 min tour.  edit
  • Delacorte Theater. Home to the Public Theater/New York Shakespeare Festival in the summer.  edit


Central Park is dotted with vendors all over. A quick hotdog, pretzel, soda, or ice cream is always available. There are several cafes in the park but, because there are no street addresses, you may have trouble finding them. Many of the cafes are seasonal and operate from about early April to late October. Most of them serve burgers (including veggie ones), sandwiches, coffee/tea and cold drinks. Cafes are located on 65th Street (at the northern end of the ball fields near the carousel), at the Conservatory Pond near the Alice in Wonderland statue (approx. 73rd Street, on the east side of the park), at the northern end of the Sheep Meadow (west side of the park at approx. 69th Street), and in the North Meadow (approx. 100 Street).

  • Tavern on the Green, Central Park West and 67th Street, +1 212 873-3200, [8]. Now closed.  edit
  • The Boathouse, on Park Drive North on The Lake, [9]. Held in the Loeb Boathouse on the Lake, the Boathosue includes a sit-down restaurant with tables overlooking the lake, a sit down bar area outside, and an express cafe with counter service for quick takeout and eat-in food.  edit
  • Leaping Frog Cafe, at the Central Park Zoo. Counter service and seating areas are available both from inside as well as outside the zoo.  edit
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary


Wikipedia has an article on:


Proper noun

Central Park


Central Park

  1. A large public, urban park in the borough of Manhattan in New York City.

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|Cental Park in New York City]] Central Park is a large public park in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. Central Park has about twenty-five million visitors every year. It is the most visited city park in the United States.[1] The park contains lakes, a castle and the Central Park Zoo.[2] The park has been shown in many movies and television programs.

It is bigger than Monaco[3] and Vatican City.


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