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Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor (actual size: 12×6.75 mm) in its packaging.
.The Central Processing Unit (CPU) or the processor is the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program, and is the primary element carrying out the computer's functions.^ CPU Abbreviation of central processing unit .
  • Cpu Definition | Definition of Cpu at Dictionary.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Central processing unit.
  • PhotoNotes.org Dictionary - CPU 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC photonotes.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The central processing unit (CPU) is considered to be "the computer" .
  • Introduction to Computers 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.hitmill.com [Source type: Reference]

.This term has been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s [1].^ The first CPUs were used in the early 1960s.
  • What is a CPU? 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.wisegeek.com [Source type: General]

^ However, the term itself and its acronym have been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s (Weik 1961).
  • Central Processing Unit - Real Estate Web Design 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.webcontentsolutions.com [Source type: General]
  • Real Estate Web Site Design - Site MapProgramming::Central Processing Unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.webcontentsolutions.com [Source type: General]

^ However, the term itself and its initialism have been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s (Weik 1961).
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

.The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed dramatically since the earliest examples, but their fundamental operation remains much the same.^ It is the implementation that is going to change dramatically.
  • Enterprise Java Community: Scalability with GigaSpaces' Processing Units and Spring 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.theserverside.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed dramatically since the earliest examples, but their fundamental operation has remained much the same.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • NGC - Central processing unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ngc2003.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Central Processing Unit - Real Estate Web Design 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.webcontentsolutions.com [Source type: General]
  • Real Estate Web Site Design - Site MapProgramming::Central Processing Unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.webcontentsolutions.com [Source type: General]
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, some 16-bit instruction word architectures (like xr16) require 2 instructions to form a 16-bit constant whereas some 32-bit instruction word designs need only one.
  • fpga-cpu : Message: RE: [fpga-cpu] Fpga and Cpu cores 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC groups.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.Early CPUs were custom-designed as a part of a larger, sometimes one-of-a-kind, computer.^ They were custom designed as part of a larger computer, making them prohibitively expensive.
  • What is a CPU? 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.wisegeek.com [Source type: General]

^ CPU knows computer parts.
  • Computers, Laptops, Computer Parts, Computer Repair & More at CPU 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cpu.com [Source type: General]

^ These CPUs were designed to work as a part of a larger computer.
  • What is a CPU? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC brainz.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, this costly method of designing custom CPUs for a particular application has largely given way to the development of mass-produced processors that are made for one or many purposes.^ However, this costly method of designing custom CPUs for a particular application has largely given way to the development of mass-produced processors that are suited for one or many purposes.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • NGC - Central processing unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ngc2003.org [Source type: Reference]

^ There are many different CPU designs.
  • CPU: Central Processing Unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.javvin.com [Source type: Reference]

^ However, this costly methodology of designing custom CPUs for a particular application has largely given way to the development of inexpensive and standardized classes of processors that are suited for one or many purposes.
  • Central Processing Unit - Real Estate Web Design 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.webcontentsolutions.com [Source type: General]
  • Real Estate Web Site Design - Site MapProgramming::Central Processing Unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.webcontentsolutions.com [Source type: General]

.This standardization trend generally began in the era of discrete transistor mainframes and minicomputers and has rapidly accelerated with the popularization of the integrated circuit (IC).^ This standardization trend generally began in the era of discrete transistor mainframes and minicomputers and has rapidly accelerated with the popularization of the integrated circuit (IC).
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • NGC - Central processing unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ngc2003.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Central Processing Unit - Real Estate Web Design 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.webcontentsolutions.com [Source type: General]
  • Real Estate Web Site Design - Site MapProgramming::Central Processing Unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.webcontentsolutions.com [Source type: General]
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A microchip is an example of an integrated circuit, or IC. .
  • What is the definition of central processing unit? 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ TTL stands for "transistor-transistor logic" and refers to a set of first-generation integrated circuits (I.C.'s) that contain simple logic gates , buffers , a binary adder , flip-flops , registers , decoders , multiplexors etc.
  • Home-Built TTL CPU 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cpuville.com [Source type: General]

.The IC has allowed increasingly complex CPUs to be designed and manufactured to tolerances on the order of nanometers.^ The IC has allowed increasingly complex CPUs to be designed and manufactured in very small spaces (in the order of millimeters).
  • Central Processing Unit - Real Estate Web Design 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.webcontentsolutions.com [Source type: General]
  • Real Estate Web Site Design - Site MapProgramming::Central Processing Unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.webcontentsolutions.com [Source type: General]

^ The IC has allowed increasingly complex CPUs to be designed and manufactured in very small spaces (on the order of millimeters).
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The IC has allowed increasingly complex CPUs to be designed and manufactured to tolerances on the order of nanometers.
  • NGC - Central processing unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ngc2003.org [Source type: Reference]

.Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have increased the presence of these digital devices in modern life far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machines.^ Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have increased the presence of these digital devices in modern life far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machines.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • NGC - Central processing unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ngc2003.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Central Processing Unit - Real Estate Web Design 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.webcontentsolutions.com [Source type: General]
  • Real Estate Web Site Design - Site MapProgramming::Central Processing Unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.webcontentsolutions.com [Source type: General]
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For other CPUs, increase the digit in cpu0 .
  • CPU Frequency Scaling - SlackWiki 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC slackwiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have increased their presence far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machines.
  • CPU (Central Processing Unit) - Mobile terms glossary - GSMArena.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.gsmarena.com [Source type: General]

.Modern microprocessors appear in everything from automobiles to cell phones and children's toys.^ Modern microprocessors appear in everything from automobiles to cell phones to children's toys.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • NGC - Central processing unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ngc2003.org [Source type: Reference]
  • Central Processing Unit - Real Estate Web Design 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.webcontentsolutions.com [Source type: General]
  • Real Estate Web Site Design - Site MapProgramming::Central Processing Unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.webcontentsolutions.com [Source type: General]
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Modern microprocessors appear in everything from automobiles to mobile phones.
  • CPU (Central Processing Unit) - Mobile terms glossary - GSMArena.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.gsmarena.com [Source type: General]

^ Often, it takes more than one microprocessor to perform all of the functions of a CPU. Microprocessors are also commonly used in cell phones, automobiles, and children’s electronic toys.
  • What is a CPU? 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.wisegeek.com [Source type: General]

Contents

History

EDVAC, one of the first electronic stored program computers.
Computers such as the ENIAC had to be physically rewired in order to perform different tasks, these machines are "fixed-program computers." Since the term "CPU" is generally defined as a software (computer program) execution device, the earliest devices that could rightly be called CPUs came with the advent of the stored-program computer.
.The idea of program computer was already present in the design of J. Presper Eckert and John William Mauchly's ENIAC, but was initially omitted so the machine could be finished sooner.^ The idea of a stored-program computer was already present during ENIAC's design, but was initially omitted so the machine could be finished sooner.
  • NGC - Central processing unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ngc2003.org [Source type: Reference]
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The idea is that if you're not actively using your computer, Beagle can use those resources to aggressively index your data and finish more quickly.
  • Troubleshooting CPU - Beagle 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC beagle-project.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ OlAENIACvA\lENIACpB The idea behind the program method, ENIAC's design had existed at the time, considering the performance we used the ENIAC. ENIACO 1945N 630Aw WEtHEmC} A First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC _\B Prior to the completion of ENIAC 1945 On June 30, mathematician John von Neumann is, First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC paper said.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

On June 30, 1945, before ENIAC was even completed, mathematician John von Neumann distributed the paper entitled "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC." It outlined the design of a stored-program computer that would eventually be completed in August 1949 [2]. .EDVAC was designed to perform a certain number of instructions (or operations) of various types.^ EDVAC was designed to perform a certain number of instructions (or operations) of various types.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • NGC - Central processing unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ngc2003.org [Source type: Reference]
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ EDVAClXWsvB EDVAC collection of a variety of instruction is designed to perform.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The number and types of registers in a CPU vary according to the CPU’s design.
  • Hacder's Lab » Blog Archive » unit 3 The Central Processing Unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.hacder.cn [Source type: Reference]

.These instructions could be combined to create useful programs for the EDVAC to run.^ Run the command rpm to use the program.
  • http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-9-Manual/glossary/index.html 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.redhat.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These instructions could be combined to create useful programs for the EDVAC to run.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • NGC - Central processing unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ngc2003.org [Source type: Reference]
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Could I use these Sensor modules?
  • OnTarget CPU Cool (aka Waterfall Pro) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC softwarecove.com [Source type: General]

.Significantly, the programs written for EDVAC were stored in high-speed computer memory rather than specified by the physical wiring of the computer.^ Significantly, the programs written for EDVAC were stored in high-speed computer memory rather than specified by the physical wiring of the computer.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • NGC - Central processing unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ngc2003.org [Source type: Reference]
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ EDVACvO i[AIzXw_dvB The program EDVAC especially in high-speed memory is stored in a physically to change the wiring is specified in point is not that important.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In a stored-program computer , programs and data in memory are indistinguishable.
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.This overcame a severe limitation of ENIAC, which was the considerable time and effort required to reconfigure the computer to perform a new task.^ Provide additional time for the individual to perform tasks that require writing.
  • Central Processing Skills 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.vdps.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This overcame a severe limitation of ENIAC, which was the large amount of time and effort it took to reconfigure the computer to perform a new task.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • NGC - Central processing unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ngc2003.org [Source type: Reference]
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Installing a new CPU is a relatively simple task, but one that still needs some required components to be ready and organized.
  • Sharky Extreme - '+$ArtG+' - '+$ArtC+' - '+$ArtN+' 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.sharkyextreme.com [Source type: General]

.With von Neumann's design, the program, or software, that EDVAC ran could be changed simply by changing the contents of the computer's memory.^ With von Neumann's design, the program, or software, that EDVAC ran could be changed simply by changing the contents of the computer's memory.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • NGC - Central processing unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ngc2003.org [Source type: Reference]
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ C}^vAEDVACvOXB In the design of von Neumann, EDVAC a program to work with to change theKIERE memory of it is good.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Modern CPU computers owe their existence to Von Neumann's EDVAC. .
  • What is CPU - Define CPU - Central Processing Unit, The Computer Brain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.wdpi.com [Source type: Reference]

[3]
.While von Neumann is most often credited with the design of the stored-program computer because of his design of EDVAC, others before him, such as Konrad Zuse, had suggested and implemented similar ideas.^ While von Neumann is most often credited with the design of the stored-program computer because of his design of EDVAC, others before him such as Konrad Zuse had suggested similar ideas.
  • NGC - Central processing unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ngc2003.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Most computer lingo is often confusing, so this...
  • Tag: Cpu - Explore content tagged Cpu on eHow.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ The first computer network - - - Konrad Zuse .
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The so-called Harvard architecture of the Harvard Mark I, which was completed before EDVAC, also utilized a stored-program design using punched paper tape rather than electronic memory.^ Additionally, the so-called Harvard architecture of the Harvard Mark I, which was completed before EDVAC, also utilized a stored-program design using punched paper tape rather than electronic memory.
  • NGC - Central processing unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ngc2003.org [Source type: Reference]

^ External cache memory, known as secondary cache or Level 2 (L2) cache, can also be added to help supplement the amount of memory available to the CPU. L2 cache, however, resides outside of the CPU rather than within its architecture.
  • Smart Computing Article - Central Processing Units 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.smartcomputing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The key difference between the von Neumann and Harvard architectures is that the latter separates the storage and treatment of CPU instructions and data, while the former uses the same memory space for both.
  • NGC - Central processing unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ngc2003.org [Source type: Reference]

.The key difference between the von Neumann and Harvard architectures is that the latter separates the storage and treatment of CPU instructions and data, while the former uses the same memory space for both.^ The key difference between the von Neumann and Harvard architectures is that the latter separates the storage and treatment of CPU instructions and data, while the former uses the same memory space for both.
  • NGC - Central processing unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ngc2003.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Storage is required to hold both the program instructions and the data on which the instructions work.
  • Central Processing Unit, 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.il.pw.edu.pl [Source type: Reference]

^ Suppose, for a moment, that the CPU has two separate memory spaces, one for instructions and one for data, each with their own bus.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Most modern CPUs are primarily von Neumann in design, but elements of the Harvard architecture are commonly seen as well.^ A: CPU architecture is the actual design of a chip.
  • Smart Computing Article - Central Processing Units 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.smartcomputing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most modern CPUs are primarily von Neumann in design, but elements of the Harvard architecture are commonly seen as well.
  • NGC - Central processing unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ngc2003.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The micro-architecture of a CPU is its design, so to speak.
  • Central Processing Unit (CPU) Features and Specifications - a knol by Alec Radford 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: General]

.As a digital device, a CPU is limited to a set of discrete states, and requires some kind of switching elements to differentiate between and change states.^ W^ @CPUAX\A XCb` KvB Digital Equipment as a CPU, or to change the state or to express some kind of switch is needed.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Differentiate between types of CPU memory.
  • What is the definition of central processing unit? 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ To achieve these discreet states CPU s use switching devices.
  • What is CPU - Define CPU - Central Processing Unit, The Computer Brain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.wdpi.com [Source type: Reference]

.Prior to commercial development of the transistor, electrical relays and vacuum tubes (thermionic valves) were commonly used as switching elements.^ Later, devices such as vacuum tubes and electrical relays replaced the mechanical switches.
  • What is CPU - Define CPU - Central Processing Unit, The Computer Brain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.wdpi.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Prior to commercial acceptance of the transistor, electrical relays and vacuum tubes (thermionic valves) were commonly used as switching elements.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • NGC - Central processing unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ngc2003.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Transistorized CPUs during the 1950s and 1960s no longer had to be built out of bulky, unreliable, and fragile switching elements like vacuum tubes and electrical relays.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

.Although these had distinct speed advantages over earlier, purely mechanical designs, they were unreliable for various reasons.^ Although these had distinct speed advantages over earlier, purely mechanical designs, they were unreliable for various reasons.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • NGC - Central processing unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ngc2003.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The problem is, these designers lost track of what they were trying to do, or to use the old cliche, they couldn't see the forest for the trees.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ One is the snoopy bus protocol in which the caches listen in on transport of variables to any of the CPUs and update their own copies of these variables if they have them.
  • CPU Design HOW-TO 12 October 2009 10:49 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.For example, building direct current sequential logic circuits out of relays requires additional hardware to cope with the problem of contact bounce.^ A _ H[\zA `^O n[hEFAKvB For example, the direct logical order to build a relay circuit, the chattering problem called a correction was needed additional hardware.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, building direct current sequential logic circuits out of relays requires additional hardware to cope with the problem of contact bounce.
  • NGC - Central processing unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ngc2003.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Generally, computers programs are executed serially and hardware descriptions are primarily parallel and near instantaneous, (disregarding sequential circuits for the moment).
  • Your First CPU - Chapter 1 - Basic CPU 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.colinmackenzie.net [Source type: General]

.While vacuum tubes do not suffer from contact bounce, they must heat up before becoming fully operational, and they eventually cease to function due to slow contamination of their cathodes that occurs in the course of normal operation.^ While vacuum tubes do not suffer from contact bounce, they must heat up before becoming fully operational and eventually stop functioning altogether.
  • NGC - Central processing unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ngc2003.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Usually, small tasks can be completed between pulses, but more complex tasks might take up to several pulses before they can be finished.
  • Welcome to CYBER-CLUB web site"Computer Parts"Hardware"Motherboard"Central Processing Unit (CPU)" 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the data cache is fully coherent with all DMA operations, then this function can just return EFI_SUCCESS. If the processor does not support flushing a range of the data cache, then the entire data cache can be flushed.
  • gPXE: include/gpxe/efi/Protocol/Cpu.h File Reference 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.etherboot.org [Source type: Reference]

.If a tube's vacuum seal leaks, as sometimes happens, cathode contamination is accelerated.^ Leaks would never happen, since the coolant path would be completely sealed.

.Usually, when a tube failed, the CPU would have to be diagnosed to locate the failed component so it could be replaced.^ The earliest CPUs were based around vacuum tubes, meaning that they would be very large.
  • Central Processing Unit - LIS 488-03 Spring 2009 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC gslis.simmons.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The CPU, and any of these components that are in separate chips, are usually all located on the same printed circuit board , known as the motherboard .
  • Central processing unit Definition | Definition of Central processing unit at Dictionary.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Since the mid-1970s, single-chip microprocessors have almost totally replaced all other types of CPUs, and today the term \"CPU\" is usually applied to some type of microprocessor.
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

.Therefore, early electronic (vacuum tube based) computers were generally faster but less reliable than electromechanical (relay based) computers.^ Therefore, the 32-bit computer is faster than the 16-bit computer.

^ The earliest CPUs were based around vacuum tubes, meaning that they would be very large.
  • Central Processing Unit - LIS 488-03 Spring 2009 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC gslis.simmons.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AdqvZ@AdC@BvZ@MB Therefore, the initial speed of the electronic calculator, but the realization electromechanical calculator less than reliable.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

.Tube computers like EDVAC tended to average eight hours between failures, whereas relay computers like the (slower, but earlier) Harvard Mark I failed very rarely [1].^ PerformanceTest conducts eight different tests and then averages the results together to determine the CPU Mark rating for a system.
  • PassMark Software - CPU Benchmark Charts 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cpubenchmark.net [Source type: General]

^ EDVAC ^vZ@i MTBF = Mean Time Between Failurej 8 A Harvard Mark I [vZ@B EDVAC tube-like machine failure and the mean time between failure (MTBF = Mean Time Between Failure) was about eight hours, Harvard Mark I calculator, such as relay ceremony almost did not malfunction.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ These factors include things like the speed of the processor, the speed that data can be transferred between the processor and other components inside the computer (bus speed), and the speed of the computer's memory.
  • Dave's Guide to Buying a Home Computer 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.css.msu.edu [Source type: General]

.In the end, tube based CPUs became dominant because the significant speed advantages afforded generally outweighed the reliability problems.^ Most motherboards will accept more than one type of CPU as far as model, manufacturer, and speed is concerned, but they generally only accept one socket type.

^ With aftermarket heat sinks, one has a separate tube of lubricant that goes on top of the CPU to seal the connection with the sink, but on this heat sink the sealer is applied to the base of the heat sink, which is very convenient.
  • Amazon Zone - AMD HDZ965FBGIBOX Phenom II X4 965 3.4GHZ Central Processing Unit (Black) 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.fireworkszone.com [Source type: General]

^ The earliest CPUs were based around vacuum tubes, meaning that they would be very large.
  • Central Processing Unit - LIS 488-03 Spring 2009 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC gslis.simmons.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of these early synchronous CPUs ran at low clock rates compared to modern microelectronic designs (see below for a discussion of clock rate).^ Several of these computers are discussed below.
  • Comparison of Laptop Computers 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.io.com [Source type: General]

^ See "CPU Saturation of Host" below.
  • VMware Communities: CPU Performance Analysis and Monitoring 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC communities.vmware.com [Source type: Reference]

^ See "CPU Saturation of VM" below.
  • VMware Communities: CPU Performance Analysis and Monitoring 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC communities.vmware.com [Source type: Reference]

.Clock signal frequencies ranging from 100 kHz to 4 MHz were very common at this time, limited largely by the speed of the switching devices they were built with.^ Clock speeds on the Athlon range from 750 MHz to the current 1.2GHz.

^ They range in speed from 108kHz to 1.7GHz.
  • CPU History - The CPU Museum - CPU History for Intel CPU, AMD Processors, Cyrix Microprocessors, Microcontollers and more. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cpushack.net [Source type: General]

^ Maximum clock frequency at introduction was very limited sampling.
  • Chapter Four CPU Architecture 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Discrete transistor and Integrated Circuit CPUs

CPU, core memory, and external bus interface of a DEC PDP-8/I. made of medium-scale integrated circuits
.The design complexity of CPUs increased as various technologies facilitated building smaller and more reliable electronic devices.^ The design complexity of CPUs increased as various technologies facilitated building smaller and more reliable electronic devices.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A: A CPU is a delicate and fragile electronic device.
  • Smart Computing Article - Central Processing Units 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.smartcomputing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Marvell PXA168 CPU was announced in January of this year and aims to provide “entry-level laptop” capabilities to consumer electronic devices.
  • Next Gen iPhone to Sport “Entry-Level-Laptop” Class CPU? | The iPhone Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.theiphoneblog.com [Source type: General]

.The first such improvement came with the advent of the transistor.^ The first such improvement came with the advent of the transistor.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

.Transistorized CPUs during the 1950s and 1960s no longer had to be built out of bulky, unreliable, and fragile switching elements like vacuum tubes and electrical relays.^ Transistorized CPUs during the 1950s and 1960s no longer had to be built out of bulky, unreliable, and fragile switching elements like vacuum tubes and electrical relays.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Later, devices such as vacuum tubes and electrical relays replaced the mechanical switches.
  • What is CPU - Define CPU - Central Processing Unit, The Computer Brain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.wdpi.com [Source type: Reference]

^ During the 1950s and the 1960s, transistors became the standard for CPU architecture.
  • Central Processing Unit - LIS 488-03 Spring 2009 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC gslis.simmons.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With this improvement more complex and reliable CPUs were built onto one or several printed circuit boards containing discrete (individual) components.^ On large machines, CPUs require one or more printed circuit boards .

^ With this improvement more complex and reliable CPUs were built onto one or several printed circuit boards containing discrete (individual) components.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Previous generations of CPUs were implemented as discrete components and numerous small integrated circuits (ICs) on one or more circuit boards.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

.During this period, a method of manufacturing many transistors in a compact space gained popularity.^ Perhaps it was not that expensive, but it cannot be denied that Americans paid many billions of dollars *more* for *fewer* cars purchased during that period.
  • CPSR - document_view 12 October 2009 10:49 UTC www.cpsr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of the designs pioneered by Cray during the late 1970s and 1980s concentrated on TLP as their primary method of enabling enormous (for the time) computing capability.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

The integrated circuit (IC) allowed a large number of transistors to be manufactured on a single semiconductor-based die, or "chip." At first only very basic non-specialized digital circuits such as NOR gates were miniaturized into ICs. .CPUs based upon these "building block" ICs are generally referred to as "small-scale integration" (SSI) devices.^ CPUs based upon these "building block" ICs are generally referred to as "small-scale integration" (SSI) devices.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are a classification of logic chips that include basic building blocks of complex integrated circuits (see Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI) and FPGAs).

^ Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have increased the presence of these digital devices in modern life far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machines.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

.SSI ICs, such as the ones used in the Apollo guidance computer, usually contained transistor counts numbering in multiples of ten.^ SSI ICs, such as the ones used in the Apollo guidance computer, usually contained transistor counts numbering in multiples of ten.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Control Unit It contains an electronic circuit that uses electrical signals to direct the entire computer system to carry out, or execute, stored program instructions.
  • Processing Devices 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Graphics processors have managed to soak up more transistors mainly due to their highly scalable architecture; because rendering performance increases linearly with the number of graphics pipelines, graphics processors used as many transistors as feasible to build multiple pipelines.
  • GPGPU: General Purpose Computing on Graphics Processing Units - Graphics Cards - Build - Features - Atomic MPC 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.atomicmpc.com.au [Source type: General]
  • GPGPU: General Purpose Computing on Graphics Processing Units - Graphics Cards - Build - Features - Atomic MPC 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.atomicmpc.com.au [Source type: General]

.To build an entire CPU out of SSI ICs required thousands of individual chips, but still consumed much less space and power than earlier discrete transistor designs.^ Transistor based CPU s were faster, consumed less power, and failed far less often.
  • What is CPU - Define CPU - Central Processing Unit, The Computer Brain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.wdpi.com [Source type: Reference]

^ To build an entire CPU out of SSI ICs required thousands of individual chips, but still consumed much less space and power than earlier discrete transistor designs.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Still, CPU s required many integrated circuit chips.
  • What is CPU - Define CPU - Central Processing Unit, The Computer Brain 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.wdpi.com [Source type: Reference]

.As microelectronic technology advanced, an increasing number of transistors were placed on ICs, thus decreasing the quantity of individual ICs needed for a complete CPU. MSI and LSI (medium- and large-scale integration) ICs increased transistor counts to hundreds, and then thousands.^ As microelectronic technology advanced, an increasing number of transistors were placed on ICs, thus decreasing the quantity of individual ICs needed for a complete CPU. MSI and LSI (medium- and large-scale integration) ICs increased transistor counts to hundreds, then thousands.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ As the aforementioned Moore's law continues to hold true, concerns have arisen about the limits of integrated circuit transistor technology.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ To build an entire CPU out of SSI ICs required thousands of individual chips, but still consumed much less space and power than earlier discrete transistor designs.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

.In 1964 IBM introduced its System/360 computer architecture which was used in a series of computers that could run the same programs with different speed and performance.^ Run the command rpm to use the program.
  • http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-9-Manual/glossary/index.html 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.redhat.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A program or service running on a UNIX or UNIX-compatible computer system.
  • http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-9-Manual/glossary/index.html 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.redhat.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Useful notes on computer architecture .

.This was significant at a time when most electronic computers were incompatible with one another, even those made by the same manufacturer.^ A[J[ATCYRs[^B At the time, even if the same manufacturer, size compatibility of different computers do not have been the norm.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Even more important is that reading data from memory is many many times faster than reading that same data off the hard drive.

^ Computers spend a lot of time in loops, repeating the same sequence of instructions, so this can greatly improve performance.
  • Computer Terminology - Processors 20 September 2009 11:38 UTC www.la.unm.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To facilitate this improvement, IBM utilized the concept of a microprogram (often called "microcode"), which still sees widespread usage in modern CPUs [4].^ Now on CPU usage and disk utilization.

^ Modern CPU's are what are called 'integrated chips'.
  • Central Processing Unit (CPU) 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.inetdaemon.com [Source type: General]
  • Central Processing Units (CPU) Results Product Details 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.zibb.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This broad definition can easily be applied to many early computers that existed long before the term \"CPU\" ever came into widespread usage.
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

.The System/360 architecture was so popular that it dominated the mainframe computer market for decades and left a legacy that is still continued by similar modern computers like the IBM zSeries.^ VXe/360A\N pRs[^ sxzB System / 360 is a great success, for decades the general-purpose computers continued to dominate the market.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ IBM System 36 Mini Computer.
  • DAN'S ANTIQUE COMPUTER COLLECTION 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.futurebots.com [Source type: General]

^ All you know that it is a Pentium class computer and you would like to know whether the given CPU/system (and not OS) is 32-bit or 64-bit capable?
  • CPU | Organizing Linux Information! 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.koolwal.net [Source type: General]

.In the same year (1964), Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) introduced another influential computer aimed at the scientific and research markets, the PDP-8.^ Digital Equipment Corporation (November 1975).
  • Central Processing Unit (CPU) Modules Results Product Details 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.zibb.com [Source type: Reference]
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Digital PDP/8m DEC 12 bit mini computer with 4k core memory, 1970 era, Works Great.
  • DAN'S ANTIQUE COMPUTER COLLECTION 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.futurebots.com [Source type: General]

^ NA DEC Au PDP-8 ve^ ~jRs[^ Aw[XB The same in 1964, DEC also, "PDP-8" has had an impact on future generations a minicomputer, the field of science and research in the field for the release.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

.DEC would later introduce the extremely popular PDP-11 line that originally was built with SSI ICs but was eventually implemented with LSI components once these became practical.^ They were subsequently replaced by circuit boards containing large numbers of discrete (i.e., separate) transistors and other electronic components, and these, in turn, were later replaced by circuit boards containing large numbers of integrated circuits (ICs).
  • CPU - Central Processing Unit - PLATINUM - Knowledge Base and Glossary 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC platinumlit.wik.is [Source type: Reference]

^ These extensions became popular overnight, putting the last nail in the Pentium Pro's coffin.
  • Chapter Four CPU Architecture 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ CPUs based upon these "building block" ICs are generally referred to as "small-scale integration" (SSI) devices.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

.In stark contrast with its SSI and MSI predecessors, the first LSI implementation of the PDP-11 contained a CPU composed of only four LSI integrated circuits [5].^ As microelectronic technology advanced, an increasing number of transistors were placed on ICs, thus decreasing the quantity of individual ICs needed for a complete CPU. MSI and LSI (medium- and large-scale integration) ICs increased transistor counts to hundreds, then thousands.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In the second step, isolated pixels were rejected by retaining only those pixels that were members of clusters containing a minimum number of adjacent activated pixels (typically four).
  • Central Processing of Rectal Pain: A Functional MR Imaging Study -- Baciu et al. 20 (10): 1920 -- American Journal of Neuroradiology 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ajnr.org [Source type: Academic]

^ OCPUA}CNvZbT WH iICjAVO`bvCPUB CPU earlier from a single piece of the board have been implemented, while a small microprocessor that in the integrated circuit (IC), organized in a single-chip CPU Often this is achieved.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

.Transistor-based computers had several distinct advantages over their predecessors.^ Transistor-based computers had several distinct advantages over their predecessors.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ WX^gRs[^AOrm_B The computer-based transistor, in comparison with the previous several distinct advantages.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ WX^gCPUAVvHv]TA SIMD xNgvZ@ oB CPU-based transistor, designed a new twist on the rise and can afford to, SIMD or vector computing with the advent of what is called.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

.Aside from facilitating increased reliability and lower power consumption, transistors also allowed CPUs to operate at much higher speeds because of the short switching time of a transistor in comparison to a tube or relay.^ Power consumption - - Future CPU designs .
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ MdAgWX^XCb`IZkACPUB Improve reliability and lower power consumption, of course, the switching transistor switches from time to be shortened dramatically, CPU was faster.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Aside from facilitating increased reliability and lower power consumption, transistors also allowed CPUs to operate at much higher speeds because of the short switching time of a transistor in comparison to a tube or relay.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

.Thanks to both the increased reliability as well as the dramatically increased speed of the switching elements (which were almost exclusively transistors by this time), CPU clock rates in the tens of megahertz were obtained during this period.^ Increased clocks refresh rate.
  • CPU-Z - Info-Tool f�r Prozessor & Mainboard 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.cpu-z.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thanks to both the increased reliability as well as the dramatically increased speed of the switching elements (which were almost exclusively transistors by this time), CPU clock rates in the tens of megahertz were obtained during this period.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The clock speed is expressed in megahertzes ( MHz ).

.Additionally while discrete transistor and IC CPUs were in heavy usage, new high-performance designs like SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) vector processors began to appear.^ Performance issues Unexpected CPU usage .

^ Additionally, while discrete transistor and IC CPUs were in heavy usage, new high-performance designs like SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) vector processors began to appear.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The high-performance RX CPU architecture .
  • Renesas Technology - New CPU 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.renesas.com [Source type: General]
  • Renesas Technology - New CPU 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.renesas.com [Source type: General]

These early experimental designs later gave rise to the era of specialized supercomputers like those made by Cray Inc.

Microprocessors

The integrated circuit from an Intel 8742.
Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor in a ceramic PGA package.
.The introduction of the microprocessor in the 1970s significantly affected the design and implementation of CPUs.^ The introduction of the microprocessor in the 1970s significantly affected the design and implementation of CPUs.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed dramatically since the earliest examples, but their fundamental operation has remained much the same.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Since the introduction of the first microprocessor (the Intel 4004) in 1970 and the first widely used microprocessor (the Intel 8080) in 1974, this class of CPUs has almost completely overtaken all other central processing unit implementation methods.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

.Since the introduction of the first commercially available microprocessor (the Intel 4004) in 1970 and the first widely used microprocessor (the Intel 8080) in 1974, this class of CPUs has almost completely overtaken all other central processing unit implementation methods.^ The central processing unit (CPU) is considered to be "the computer" .
  • Introduction to Computers 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.hitmill.com [Source type: Reference]

^ All the other parameters are used by default.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | CUDASW++: optimizing Smith-Waterman sequence database searches for CUDA-enabled graphics processing units 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Your CPU (central processing unit) is the core of your system.
  • CPU Coolers, Heatsinks, and Fans at SVC.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.svc.com [Source type: General]

.Mainframe and minicomputer manufacturers of the time launched proprietary IC development programs to upgrade their older computer architectures, and eventually produced instruction set compatible microprocessors that were backward-compatible with their older hardware and software.^ Mainframe and minicomputer manufacturers of the time launched proprietary IC development programs to upgrade their older computer architectures, and eventually produced instruction set compatible microprocessors that were backward-compatible with their older hardware and software.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ CISC is a computer architecture that has large sets of instructions.

^ Dual-mode VLIW architecture providing a software-controlled varying mix of instruction-level and task-level parallelism .
  • Extensible central processing unit - Google Patent Search 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

.Combined with the advent and eventual vast success of the now ubiquitous personal computer, the term "CPU" is now applied almost exclusively to microprocessors.^ The personal computer revolution - - The microprocessor .
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Combined with the advent and eventual vast success of the now ubiquitous personal computer , the term "CPU" is now applied almost exclusively to microprocessors.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Though there were many computers using many different processors previous to this I call the 80286 processor the advent of home computers as these where the processors that made computers available for the average person.

.Previous generations of CPUs were implemented as discrete components and numerous small integrated circuits (ICs) on one or more circuit boards.^ On large machines, CPUs require one or more printed circuit boards .
  • CPU - Webopedia.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC systems.webopedia.com [Source type: General]
  • CPU - Webopedia.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC systems.webopedia.com [Source type: General]
  • What is CPU? - A Word Definition From the Webopedia Computer Dictionary 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.webopedia.com [Source type: General]
  • What is CPU? - A Word Definition From the Webopedia Computer Dictionary 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.webopedia.com [Source type: General]
  • CPU definition - Small Business Computing Online Dictionary of IT Terms: Powered by Webopedia 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC sbc.webopedia.com [Source type: General]

^ Previous generations of CPUs were implemented as discrete components and numerous small integrated circuits (ICs) on one or more circuit boards.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A microchip is an example of an integrated circuit, or IC. .
  • What is the definition of central processing unit? 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

.Microprocessors, on the other hand, are CPUs manufactured on a very small number of ICs; usually just one.^ Microprocessors, on the other hand, are CPUs manufactured on a very small number of ICs; usually just one.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A CPU that is manufactured as a single integrated circuit is usually known as a microprocessor.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ With aftermarket heat sinks, one has a separate tube of lubricant that goes on top of the CPU to seal the connection with the sink, but on this heat sink the sealer is applied to the base of the heat sink, which is very convenient.
  • Amazon Zone - AMD HDZ965FBGIBOX Phenom II X4 965 3.4GHZ Central Processing Unit (Black) 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.fireworkszone.com [Source type: General]

.The overall smaller CPU size as a result of being implemented on a single die means faster switching time because of physical factors like decreased gate parasitic capacitance.^ The overall smaller CPU size as a result of being implemented on a single die means faster switching time because of physical factors like decreased gate parasitic capacitance.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ And because it's going from 65nm to 45nm, you will most likely need to perform a BIOS update as well, but both of them are Socket P processors, so it will physically fit.
  • cpu upgrade advice - Neowin Forums 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.neowin.net [Source type: General]

^ CPUs Come in Different Sizes Depending on which end of the field you are in, a CPU can mean the processor, memory and everything inside the cabinet, or just the microprocessor itself.
  • Programmable Logic DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pldesignline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • RF DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.rfdesignline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • DSP DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.dspdesignline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Wireless Net DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.wirelessnetdesignline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Industrial Control DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.industrialcontroldesignline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Mobile Handset DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mobilehandsetdesignline.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Audio DesignLine : Design Resource for Automotive Engineering 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.audiodesignline.com [Source type: General]
  • EETimes Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.eetimes.com [Source type: News]

.This has allowed synchronous microprocessors to have clock rates ranging from tens of megahertz to several gigahertz.^ This has allowed synchronous microprocessors to have clock rates ranging from tens of megahertz to several gigahertz.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Thanks to both the increased reliability as well as the dramatically increased speed of the switching elements (which were almost exclusively transistors by this time), CPU clock rates in the tens of megahertz were obtained during this period.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Each central processing unit has an internal clock that produces pulses at a fixed rate to synchronize all computer operations.
  • How The Computer Works: The CPU and Memory 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC homepage.cs.uri.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • How The Computer Works: The CPU and Memory 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC homepage.cs.uri.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Additionally, as the ability to construct exceedingly small transistors on an IC has increased, the complexity and number of transistors in a single CPU has increased dramatically.^ Additionally, as the ability to construct exceedingly small transistors on an IC has increased, the complexity and number of transistors in a single CPU has increased dramatically.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The IC has allowed increasingly complex CPUs to be designed and manufactured in very small spaces (on the order of millimeters).
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As microelectronic technology advanced, an increasing number of transistors were placed on ICs, thus decreasing the quantity of individual ICs needed for a complete CPU. MSI and LSI (medium- and large-scale integration) ICs increased transistor counts to hundreds, then thousands.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

.This widely observed trend is described by Moore's law, which has proven to be a fairly accurate predictor of the growth of CPU (and other IC) complexity to date.^ X [A@ ACPUiICjEWmfB This trend is Moore's Law is called, CPU (IC) to increase the speed of integration has been modeled accurately.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This widely observed trend is described by Moore's law , which has proven to be a fairly accurate predictor of the growth of CPU (and other IC) complexity to date.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The IC has allowed increasingly complex CPUs to be designed and manufactured in very small spaces (on the order of millimeters).
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

.While the complexity, size, construction, and general form of CPUs have changed drastically over the past sixty years, it is notable that the basic design and function has not changed much at all.^ While the complexity, size, construction, and general form of CPUs have changed drastically over the past sixty years, it is notable that the basic design and function has not changed much at all.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed dramatically since the earliest examples, but their fundamental operation has remained much the same.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ VAT) maintains the basic design of the older 530 model, but changes have been made to the keyboard, as well as to the base specification.
  • Cpu Computer - Shop Smarter.com 12 October 2009 10:49 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

.Almost all common CPUs today can be very accurately described as von Neumann stored-program machines.^ Almost all common CPUs today can be very accurately described as von Neumann stored-program machines.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Prior to the advent of machines that resemble today's CPUs, computers such as the ENIAC had to be physically rewired in order to perform different tasks.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The idea of a stored-program computer was already present during ENIAC's design, but was initially omitted so the machine could be finished sooner.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

.As the aforementioned Moore's law continues to hold true, concerns have arisen about the limits of integrated circuit transistor technology.^ G[A@AgWX^WZpEOB I mentioned earlier that Moore's Law is still in line with reality, the limitations of transistors that integrated technology is coming is concerned.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As the aforementioned Moore's law continues to hold true, concerns have arisen about the limits of integrated circuit transistor technology.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This standardization trend generally began in the era of discrete transistor mainframes and minicomputers and has rapidly accelerated with the popularization of the integrated circuit (IC).
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

.Extreme miniaturization of electronic gates is causing the effects of phenomena like electromigration and subthreshold leakage to become much more significant.^ Extreme miniaturization of electronic gates is causing the effects of phenomena like electromigration and subthreshold leakage to become much more significant.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

^ HkA GNg}CO[V l[N B Electronic circuits and so reduce the electromigration and subthreshold leakage of such behavior is for the greater effect.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Cresdo.com - Online shopping for phones, electronics, computers, and much more!
  • CPU | Cresdo.com - Online shopping for phones, electronics, computers, and much more! 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.cresdo.com [Source type: General]

.These newer concerns are among the many factors causing researchers to investigate new methods of computing such as the quantum computer, as well as to expand the usage of parallelism and other methods that extend the usefulness of the classical von Neumann model.^ VOA qRs[^ VZpA @pmC}^ZpB These concerns are new to the researchers the quantum computer to explore new technologies and parallelism in the use of techniques such as von Neumann and further research to speed with technology.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This largely depends on other factors, such as the size of the computer case.
  • CPU Cooling - System Component Background Information 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pugetsystems.com [Source type: General]

^ These newer concerns are among the many factors causing researchers to investigate new methods of computing such as the quantum computer, as well as to expand the usage of parallelism and other methods that extend the usefulness of the classical von Neumann model.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

Operation

.The fundamental operation of most CPUs, regardless of the physical form they take, is to execute a sequence of stored instructions called a program.^ Then, a sequence of machine instructions - a program.
  • The Central Processing Unit (CPU) 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.engr.udayton.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ A sequence of opcodes, executed sequentially, is called a computer program .
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ How does the CPU and its controller execute a sequence of instructions?
  • The Central Processing Unit (CPU) 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.engr.udayton.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The program is represented by a series of numbers that are kept in some kind of computer memory.^ Ol i[B Some sort of program as a sequence of numbers in memory are stored.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The program is represented by a series of numbers that are stored in some kind of memory .
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Significantly, the programs written for EDVAC were stored in high-speed computer memory rather than specified by the physical wiring of the computer.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

.There are four steps that nearly all CPUs use in their operation: fetch, decode, execute, and writeback.^ There are four steps that many CPUs use in interacting with this data: fetch , decode , execute , and writeback .
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ After the fetch and decode steps, the execute step is performed.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Fb` fR[h A s XebvsB Fetch and decode the following, steps will be executed.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

.The first step, fetch, involves retrieving an instruction (which is represented by a number or sequence of numbers) from program memory.^ Ol i[B Some sort of program as a sequence of numbers in memory are stored.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Then, a sequence of machine instructions - a program.
  • The Central Processing Unit (CPU) 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.engr.udayton.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The first step, fetch , involves retrieving an instruction from memory.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.The location in program memory is determined by a program counter (PC), which stores a number that identifies the current position in the program.^ Ol i[B Some sort of program as a sequence of numbers in memory are stored.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This program adds the numbers stored in two memory locations.
  • Untitled Document 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC courses.cs.vt.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ PC, program counter The PC points to memory location that holds the next instruction to be executed; .
  • The Central Processing Unit (CPU) 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.engr.udayton.edu [Source type: Reference]

.In other words, the program counter keeps track of the CPU's place in the current program.^ In other words, the program counter keeps track of the CPU's place in the current program.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Other programs, such as word processors and World Wide Web browsers, are dependent upon the operating system.
  • COMPUTER ENVIRONMENT - CPU 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.computerschool.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The place in a computer where information is held in storage for the CPU. Storage can be built into the CPU in the form of RAM, or it can be remote from the CPU in the form of hard disks, tapes, or other storage media.
  • What is the definition of central processing unit? 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

.After an instruction is fetched, the PC is incremented by the length of the instruction word in terms of memory units.^ After an instruction is fetched, the program counter is incremented by the length of the instruction word in terms of memory units.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Fetch the instruction byte from memory.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ After executing the instruction, the control unit increments the instruction pointer and fetches the next instruction from memory for execution, and so on.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

[6] .Often the instruction to be fetched must be retrieved from relatively slow memory, causing the CPU to stall while waiting for the instruction to be returned.^ Often the instruction to be fetched must be retrieved from relatively slow memory, causing the CPU to stall while waiting for the instruction to be returned.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The first step, fetch , involves retrieving an instruction from memory.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The instruction that the CPU fetches from memory is used to determine what the CPU is to do.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.This issue is largely addressed in modern processors by caches and pipeline architectures (see below).^ This is a large oversimplification for modern superscalar processors.
  • CPU@Everything2.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The prior art has tried to minimize the use of memory devices in modern processor architecture designs by making the microinstruction or instruction cache extremely small, and by using large, complex instructions, e.g., very long instruction word (VLIW) or complex instruction set computer (CISC) approaches.
  • Computer processor architecture selectively using finite-state-machine for control code execution - Patent Application 20070271440 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ P-States are processor performance states (see file "performance" below), T-States are throttling states (see file "throttling" below).
  • Linux/ACPI - Documentation: The /proc/acpi/processor Subdirectory 20 September 2009 11:38 UTC acpi.sourceforge.net [Source type: Reference]

.The instruction that the CPU fetches from memory is used to determine what the CPU is to do.^ The instruction that the CPU fetches from memory is used to determine what the CPU is to do.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Fetch the instruction byte from memory.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This design minimizes the transfer of data between memory and CPU (all ALU operations are done only on data in CPU registers) and calls for simple instructions that can execute very quickly.
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.In the decode step, the instruction is broken up into parts that have significance to other portions of the CPU. The way in which the numerical instruction value is interpreted is defined by the CPU's instruction set architecture (ISA).^ R[h ACPU`B Decode the CPU instruction into a meaningful form.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This small set of commands is the CPU's instruction set.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In the decode step, the instruction is broken up into parts that different portions of the CPU can interpret.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

[7] .Often, one group of numbers in the instruction, called the opcode, indicates which operation to perform.^ Often, one group of bits in the instruction, called the opcode , indicates which operation to perform.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This design minimizes the transfer of data between memory and CPU (all ALU operations are done only on data in CPU registers) and calls for simple instructions that can execute very quickly.
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It selects and retrieves instructions from the main memory in proper sequence and interprets them so as to activate the other functional elements of the system at the appropriate moment to perform their respective operations.
  • central processing unit (CPU) (computer) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The remaining parts of the number usually provide information required for that instruction, such as operands for an addition operation.^ The remaining parts of the number usually provide information required for that instruction, such as operands for an addition operation.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The other sort of ILP is to have multiple execution units in the CPU—duplicate arithmetic circuits, in particular, as well as specialized circuits for graphics instructions or for floating-point calculations (arithmetic operations involving noninteger numbers, such as 3.27).
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ While performance numbers remain largely the same, the 965's lower TDP results in lower power draw during normal operation.
  • AMD Launches 125W Phenom II X4 965 CPU - HotHardware 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC hothardware.com [Source type: General]

.Such operands may be given as a constant value (called an immediate value), or as a place to locate a value: a register or a memory address, as determined by some addressing mode.^ Fetch the source value from memory (if a memory operand) and the destination register value (if applicable).
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ These may be in CPU registers or in memory locations.
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Such operands may be given as a constant value (called an immediate value), or as a reference to the value's location: a register or a memory address .
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.In older designs the portions of the CPU responsible for instruction decoding were unchangeable hardware devices.^ In older designs the portions of the CPU responsible for instruction decoding were fixed hardware devices.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Control Unit : this component is responsible for directing the flow of instructions and data within the CPU. The Control Unit is actually built of many other selection circuits such as decoders and multiplexors.
  • Untitled Document 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC courses.cs.vt.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This design minimizes the transfer of data between memory and CPU (all ALU operations are done only on data in CPU registers) and calls for simple instructions that can execute very quickly.
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.However, in more abstract and complicated CPUs and ISAs, a microprogram is often used to assist in translating instructions into various configuration signals for the CPU. This microprogram is sometimes rewritable so that it can be modified to change the way the CPU decodes instructions even after it has been manufactured.^ However, in more abstract and complicated CPUs and ISAs, a microprogram is often used to assist in translating instructions into various configuration signals for the CPU. This microprogram is sometimes rewritable so that it can be modified to change the way the CPU decodes instructions even after it has been manufactured.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ R[h ACPU`B Decode the CPU instruction into a meaningful form.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Note, by the way, that the number of stages in an instruction pipeline varies among CPUs.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.After the fetch and decode steps, the execute step is performed.^ After the fetch and decode steps, the execute step is performed.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Fb` fR[h A s XebvsB Fetch and decode the following, steps will be executed.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This means that at each clock cycle another instruction is fetched, decoded, executed and wrote back just like the pipelined operation of a manufacturing assembly line.

.During this step, various portions of the CPU are connected so they can perform the desired operation.^ During this step, various portions of the CPU are connected so they can perform the desired operation.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The A9 can operate at its peak performance while consuming under 250mw per CPU when selected from typical silicon.
  • CPU on I4U News 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.i4u.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition to the environment variable CPUPROFILE , which determines where profiles are written, there are several environment variables which control the performance of the CPU profile.

.If, for instance, an addition operation was requested, an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) will be connected to a set of inputs and a set of outputs.^ The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) , which performs arithmetic and logical operations.
  • CPU definition - Small Business Computing Online Dictionary of IT Terms: Powered by Webopedia 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC sbc.webopedia.com [Source type: General]

^ If, for instance, an addition operation was requested, an arithmetic logic unit ( ALU ) will be connected to a set of inputs and a set of outputs.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The output of the ALU is connected directly to the in-bus.
  • 4.Processing Unit Design 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

.The inputs provide the numbers to be added, and the outputs will contain the final sum.^ The inputs provide the numbers to be added, and the outputs will contain the final sum.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The number of inputs and outputs cannot be expanded.
  • What is the definition of central processing unit? 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ CPUs provide the fundamental digital computer trait of programmability, and are one of the necessary components found in computers of any era, along with primary storage and input/output facilities.
  • Central Processing Unit - ECDL.web 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.ecdlweb.org [Source type: Reference]

.The ALU contains the circuitry to perform simple arithmetic and logical operations on the inputs (like addition and bitwise operations).^ The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) , which performs arithmetic and logical operations.
  • CPU definition - Small Business Computing Online Dictionary of IT Terms: Powered by Webopedia 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC sbc.webopedia.com [Source type: General]

^ If, for instance, an addition operation was requested, an arithmetic logic unit ( ALU ) will be connected to a set of inputs and a set of outputs.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The arithmetic/logic unit contains circuitry that performs data manipulation.
  • CPU - Central Processing Unit - PLATINUM - Knowledge Base and Glossary 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC platinumlit.wik.is [Source type: Reference]

.If the addition operation produces a result too large for the CPU to handle, an arithmetic overflow flag in a flags register may also be set.^ If the flag was set, copy the result of the addition above back to the EIP register.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Update the flags register with the result of the addition operation.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ If the addition operation produces a result too large for the CPU to handle, an arithmetic overflow flag in a flags register may also be set (see the discussion of integer range below).
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.The final step, writeback, simply "writes back" the results of the execute step to some form of memory.^ It sends the results of the operation back to memory again.

^ The final step, writeback , simply "writes back" the results of the execute step to some form of memory.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Welcome back to Maximum FPS! Last month I spent a long time discussing the issues involved with writing to vertex buffers in AGP memory.
  • Computer Processor Performance Comparision Business Technology Optimization Software 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.developers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Very often the results are written to some internal CPU register for quick access by subsequent instructions.^ Very often the results are written to some internal CPU register for quick access by subsequent instructions.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This design minimizes the transfer of data between memory and CPU (all ALU operations are done only on data in CPU registers) and calls for simple instructions that can execute very quickly.
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The basic operation of the CPU is the “ fetch-decode-execute” cycle: Fetch the instruction from the address held in the program counter, and store it in a register.
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.In other cases results may be written to slower, but cheaper and larger, main memory.^ In other cases results may be written to slower, but cheaper and larger, main memory .
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It selects and retrieves instructions from the main memory in proper sequence and interprets them so as to activate the other functional elements of the system at the appropriate moment to perform their respective operations.
  • central processing unit (CPU) (computer) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Another difficulty with doing certain operations concurrently is that one operation may depend on the other's result.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Some types of instructions manipulate the program counter rather than directly produce result data.^ Some types of instructions manipulate the program counter rather than directly produce result data.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ OJE^B Some of the operations of the program counter to the instruction.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Significantly, the programs written for EDVAC were stored in high-speed computer memory rather than specified by the physical wiring of the computer.
  • CPU, Apple Components at Mac Computers 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mac-computers.com [Source type: Academic]

.These are generally called "jumps" and facilitate behavior like loops, conditional program execution (through the use of a conditional jump), and functions in programs.^ Both of these instructions are conditional jump instructions.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ These are generally called "jumps" and facilitate behavior like loops , conditional program execution (through the use of a conditional jump), and functions in programs.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Generally, computers programs are executed serially and hardware descriptions are primarily parallel and near instantaneous, (disregarding sequential circuits for the moment).
  • Your First CPU - Chapter 1 - Basic CPU 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.colinmackenzie.net [Source type: General]

[8] .Many instructions will also change the state of digits in a "flags" register.^ AtOWX^B Also, many changes in order to register a flag.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Many instructions will also change the state of digits in a "flags" register.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, one type of "compare" instruction considers two values and sets a number in the flags register according to which one is greater.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.These flags can be used to influence how a program behaves, since they often indicate the outcome of various operations.^ These flags can be used to influence how a program behaves, since they often indicate the outcome of various operations.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These are the settings we used: Since it is more meaningful to show throughput than time taken (which depends on the length of the source) we display the results thus: .

^ PCI bus slots have a 64-bit data bus and since Pentium processors use 64 bits of data at a time (per clock cycle), they are definitely the bus of choice for Pentium computers.
  • Dave's Guide to Buying a Home Computer 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.css.msu.edu [Source type: General]

.For example, one type of "compare" instruction considers two values and sets a number in the flags register according to which one is greater.^ For example, consider the 80x86 ADD instruction.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Instruction set modifier register .
  • Extensible central processing unit - Google Patent Search 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.google.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This instruction is placed in two registers: one for the operator and one for the operand.
  • Central Processing Unit, 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.il.pw.edu.pl [Source type: Reference]

.This flag could then be used by a later jump instruction to determine program flow.^ This flag could then be used by a later jump instruction to determine program flow.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Clearly, you should avoid the use of instructions which interrupt the sequential execution of a program.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In order to permit the computer to make logical decisions and change the flow of instructions, it is possible for a particular instruction to change the program counter register.
  • Central Processing Unit, 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.il.pw.edu.pl [Source type: Reference]

.After the execution of the instruction and writeback of the resulting data, the entire process repeats, with the next instruction cycle normally fetching the next-in-sequence instruction because of the incremented value in the program counter.^ During the fetch cycle the next instruction to be processed is retrieved from the main ale and memory.
  • Central Processing Unit, 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.il.pw.edu.pl [Source type: Reference]

^ After a successful instruction fetch, the PC is updated to point to the next instruction to be executed.
  • 4.Processing Unit Design 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

^ As long as there are instructions to execute, the next instruction is fetched from main memory.
  • 4.Processing Unit Design 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

.If the completed instruction was a jump, the program counter will be modified to contain the address of the instruction that was jumped to, and program execution continues normally.^ The program counter holds the address of the next instruction to be executed.
  • Central Processing Unit, 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.il.pw.edu.pl [Source type: Reference]

^ If the completed instruction was a jump, the program counter will be modified to contain the address of the instruction that was jumped to, and program execution continues normally.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It may continue executing while the second instruction waits for the first to complete.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.In more complex CPUs than the one described here, multiple instructions can be fetched, decoded, and executed simultaneously.^ This architecture also allows more than one CPU to share the bus.

^ A computer can simultaneously test for more than one condition.
  • How The Computer Works: The CPU and Memory 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC homepage.cs.uri.edu [Source type: Reference]
  • How The Computer Works: The CPU and Memory 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC homepage.cs.uri.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Not that an instance will have more than one lgwr....
  • Ask Tom "cpu count question" 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC asktom.oracle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This section describes what is generally referred to as the "Classic RISC pipeline," which in fact is quite common among the simple CPUs used in many electronic devices (often called microcontroller).^ Also note that MANY spacecraft use many CPUs.
  • CPU History - Computers and CPUs in Space 12 October 2009 10:49 UTC www.cpushack.net [Source type: Reference]

^ This section describes a simplified form of what is generally referred to as the " Classic RISC pipeline ," which in fact is quite common among the simple CPUs used in many electronic devices (often called microcontrollers ).
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A: A CPU is a delicate and fragile electronic device.
  • Smart Computing Article - Central Processing Units 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.smartcomputing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It largely ignores the important role of CPU cache, and therefore the access stage of the pipeline.^ It is however important to utilize the texture cache, if the range limitation of texture reference allows, so as to achieve maximum performance on coalesced access patterns.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | CUDASW++: optimizing Smith-Waterman sequence database searches for CUDA-enabled graphics processing units 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Alas, the pipelined 80x86 CPUs are constantly accessing memory since they fetch an opcode byte on every clock cycle.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The boundaries shift, however, and CPU chips now also contain some high-speed cache memory where data and instructions are temporarily stored for fast access.
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

Design and implementation

Integer range

.The way a CPU represents numbers is a design choice that affects the most basic ways in which the device functions.^ Can the number of visitors affect CPU usage?
  • Shared Hosting CPU Protection Is Here!!! « mattheaton.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mattheaton.com [Source type: General]

^ The way a CPU represents numbers is a design choice that affects the most basic ways in which the device functions.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Because modern cpus in general have more cores, run at a lower frequency, and most of our hosting software is designed to run in this type of environment it has become VERY apparent that we needed to update the way we calculated “cpu usage”.
  • “CPU Quota Exceeded” – Not anymore… « mattheaton.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mattheaton.com [Source type: General]

.Some early digital computers used an electrical model of the common decimal (base ten) numeral system to represent numbers internally.^ Some early digital computers used an electrical model of the common decimal (base ten) numeral system to represent numbers internally.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The number system we are all most familiar with is decimal or base 10.
  • Central Processing Unit, 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.il.pw.edu.pl [Source type: Reference]

^ This is not the number ten in decimal, but the number two in binary.
  • Central Processing Unit, 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.il.pw.edu.pl [Source type: Reference]

.A few other computers have used more exotic numeral systems like ternary (base three).^ A few other computers have used more exotic numeral systems like ternary (base three).
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It's used to communicate between the motherboard and other components in a computer system.
  • COMPUTER ENVIRONMENT - CPU 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.computerschool.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also enables computers to process twice the number of instructions per clock cycle, which can dramatically speed up numeric calculations and other tasks.
  • Apple (United Kingdom) - Mac OS X Snow Leopard - New technologies in Snow Leopard 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.apple.com [Source type: General]

.Nearly all modern CPUs represent numbers in binary form, with each digit being represented by some two-valued physical quantity such as a "high" or "low" voltage.^ Add\B In each of the two-digit decimal value of two (1 and 0), so only a dime, high voltage and low voltage that it can represent.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This is not the number ten in decimal, but the number two in binary.
  • Central Processing Unit, 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.il.pw.edu.pl [Source type: Reference]

^ Nearly all modern CPUs represent numbers in binary form, with each digit being represented by some two-valued physical quantity such as a "high" or "low" voltage .
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

[9]
MOS 6502 microprocessor in a dual in-line package, an extremely popular 8-bit design.
.Related to number representation is the size and precision of numbers that a CPU can represent.^ Related to number representation is the size and precision of numbers that a CPU can represent.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ As I’m using degree of parallelism relate number of CPU. And my database on HP-UNIX , Oracle 9.2.
  • Ask Tom "Parallel Processing" 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC asktom.oracle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spec Number: SL9SE CPU Speed: 2.16GHz PCG: Bus Speed: 667MHz Bus/Core Ratio: 13 L2 Cache Size: 4MB L2 Cache Speed: 2.16 GHz .
  • China CPU, CPU Catalog, China CPU Manufacturers 12 October 2009 10:49 UTC www.made-in-china.com [Source type: Academic]

.In the case of a binary CPU, a bit refers to one significant place in the numbers a CPU deals with.^ In the case of a binary CPU, a bit refers to one significant place in the numbers a CPU deals with.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This continues until a record without a RUN bit set has been reached or the number or records that can be processed at the oversampling cycle rate within one system cycle has been reached.
  • JP Patent 2007215203 - DATA PROCESSING METHOD AND DATA PROCESSING UNIT, DYNAMIC RECONFIGURATION METHOD OF CONFIGURABLE ELEMENT, SYSTEM AND PROCESS 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The amount of data that the processor can handle is called the word size and refers to the number of bits of information that can be processed at a time.
  • Dave's Guide to Buying a Home Computer 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.css.msu.edu [Source type: General]

.The number of bits (or numeral places) a CPU uses to represent numbers is often called "word size", "bit width", "data path width", or "integer precision" when dealing with strictly integer numbers (as opposed to floating point).^ Recall that word size is the number of bits contained in each memory location.
  • Central Processing Unit, 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.il.pw.edu.pl [Source type: Reference]

^ The data path is called the data bus.
  • Central Processing Unit, 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.il.pw.edu.pl [Source type: Reference]

^ Related to number representation is the size and precision of numbers that a CPU can represent.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.This number differs between architectures, and often within different parts of the very same CPU. For example, an 8-bit CPU deals with a range of numbers that can be represented by eight binary digits (each digit having two possible values), that is, 28 or 256 discrete numbers.^ Bit is short for "binary digit."
  • What is the definition of central processing unit? 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This is not the number ten in decimal, but the number two in binary.
  • Central Processing Unit, 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.il.pw.edu.pl [Source type: Reference]

^ A8rbgCPUA8i\A2 8 256l\B For example, the number of 8-bit CPU to handle the range of an 8-digit range and two representable in decimal, the value of two types of 8 or expressible 256.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

.In effect, integer size sets a hardware limit on the range of integers the software run by the CPU can utilize.^ In effect, integer size sets a hardware limit on the range of integers the software run by the CPU can utilize.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Launching CPU Director will also re-enable the KEXT and Startup Item, allowing your now corrected cache settings to again take effect at boot time.

^ (Besides Hardware chang) I am using Sun Solaris for running my 10gR1 RAC, both node has 2 (pysical and logical) CPUs.
  • Ask Tom "cpu count question" 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC asktom.oracle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
.Integer range can also affect the number of locations in memory the CPU can address (locate).^ The CPU can also store information in memory by specifying the information to be stored and the address of the location where it is to be stored.
  • COMPUTER ENVIRONMENT - CPU 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.computerschool.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Integer range can also affect the number of locations in memory the CPU can address (locate).
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ It provides the ability to allocate and control major system resources such as CPU , virtual memory, and number of processes.

.For example, if a binary CPU uses 32 bits to represent a memory address, and each memory address represents one octet (8 bits), the maximum quantity of memory that CPU can address is 232 octets, or 4 GiB.^ For example, if a binary CPU uses 32 bits to represent a memory address, and each memory address represents one octet (8 bits), the maximum quantity of memory that CPU can address is 2 32 octets, or 4 GiB .
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ B ) of storage can be addressed by a 32 bit processor.
  • The System Unit: Processing & Memory 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.deltacollege.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, CPU affinity (on 32-bit machines) is represented by a 32-bit bitmask.

.This is a very simple view of CPU address space, and many designs use more complex addressing methods like paging in order to locate more memory than their integer range would allow with a flat address space.^ We will use a simple model, but the concepts are the same for more complex computers.
  • Central Processing Unit, 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.il.pw.edu.pl [Source type: Reference]

^ This architecture also allows more than one CPU to share the bus.

^ Adding Wiki Pages Allow more than two ...
  • CPU - Central Processing Unit - PLATINUM - Knowledge Base and Glossary 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC platinumlit.wik.is [Source type: Reference]

.Higher levels of integer range require more structures to deal with the additional digits, and therefore more complexity, size, power usage, and general expense.^ Higher levels of integer range require more structures to deal with the additional digits, and therefore more complexity, size, power usage, and generally expense.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Therefore, as clock rate increases, so does heat dissipation, causing the CPU to require more effective cooling solutions.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Since increasing the voltage of processors greatly increases chances in overclocking, and increasing voltage creates more heat, therefore cooling the processor creates higher chances for overclocking.
  • How to Overclock - Overclocking Tutorial 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.compunamics.com [Source type: General]

.It is not at all uncommon, therefore, to see 4- or 8-bit microcontrollers used in modern applications, even though CPUs with much higher range (such as 16, 32, 64, even 128-bit) are available.^ It is not at all uncommon, therefore, to see 4- or 8-bit microcontrollers used in modern applications, even though CPUs with much higher range (such as 16, 32, 64, even 128-bit) are available.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Therefore, the 32-bit computer is faster than the 16-bit computer.

^ All of these are 64-bit capable.

.The simpler microcontrollers are usually cheaper, use less power, and therefore dissipate less heat, all of which can be major design considerations for electronic devices.^ The simpler microcontrollers are usually cheaper, use less power, and therefore dissipate less heat, all of which can be major design considerations for electronic devices.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Just like all electronic components, CPU produces heat while it is running.
  • Maximum CPU Temperature | Hardware Secrets 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, as clock rate increases, so does heat dissipation, causing the CPU to require more effective cooling solutions.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.However, in higher-end applications, the benefits afforded by the extra range (most often the additional address space) are more significant and often affect design choices.^ However, in higher-end applications, the benefits afforded by the extra range (most often the additional address space) are more significant and often affect design choices.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ However, other applications could be successful, provided those applications feature significant parallelism.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | High-throughput sequence alignment using Graphics Processing Units 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, they take up more space on your desk.
  • PC Basics 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.swfpcug.org [Source type: General]

.To gain some of the advantages afforded by both lower and higher bit lengths, many CPUs are designed with different bit widths for different portions of the device.^ To gain some of the advantages afforded by both lower and higher bit lengths, many CPUs are designed with different bit widths for different portions of the device.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Two notable examples of this are the ARM compliant AMULET and the MIPS R3000 compatible MiniMIPS. Rather than totally removing the clock signal, some CPU designs allow certain portions of the device to be asynchronous, such as using asynchronous ALUs in conjunction with superscalar pipelining to achieve some arithmetic performance gains.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Scientists also continue to search for new designs that allow CPUs to run at the same or at a lower clock rate as older CPUs, but which get more instructions completed per clock cycle.
  • CPU (Central Processing Unit) - Mobile terms glossary - GSMArena.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.gsmarena.com [Source type: General]

.For example, the IBM System/370 used a CPU that was primarily 32 bit, but it used 128-bit precision inside its floating point units to facilitate greater accuracy and range in floating point numbers [4].^ For example, CPU affinity (on 32-bit machines) is represented by a 32-bit bitmask.

^ The unit can be configured as an integer unit of a floating-point unit.
  • JP Patent 2007215203 - DATA PROCESSING METHOD AND DATA PROCESSING UNIT, DYNAMIC RECONFIGURATION METHOD OF CONFIGURABLE ELEMENT, SYSTEM AND PROCESS 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I am not sure how to do it for number of cpus greater than 32.?

.Many later CPU designs use similar mixed bit width, especially when the processor is meant for general-purpose usage where a reasonable balance of integer and floating point capability is required.^ Many later CPU designs use similar mixed bit width, especially when the processor is meant for general-purpose usage where a reasonable balance of integer and floating point capability is required.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The unit can be configured as an integer unit of a floating-point unit.
  • JP Patent 2007215203 - DATA PROCESSING METHOD AND DATA PROCESSING UNIT, DYNAMIC RECONFIGURATION METHOD OF CONFIGURABLE ELEMENT, SYSTEM AND PROCESS 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Most CPUs still have 32-bit operation, but the use of 64-bit chips is growing rapidly as their prices continue to come down.
  • CPU - Central Processing Unit - PLATINUM - Knowledge Base and Glossary 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC platinumlit.wik.is [Source type: Reference]

Clock rate

.Most CPUs, and indeed most sequential logic devices, are synchronous in nature.^ Most processors, and indeed most sequential logic devices, operate synchronously .
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ CPUi _ HjB Most of the CPU (most of it in a more sequential logic circuits) is synchronous.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ CPUpvORs[^ vO ARs[^A[LeN`{B Such a program by using the computer's CPU to operate sequential program method, and said, and the most basic principles of the computer.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

[11] .That is, they are designed and operate on assumptions about a synchronization signal.^ While it is not altogether clear whether totally asynchronous designs can perform at a comparable or better level than their synchronous counterparts, it is evident that they do at least excel in simpler math operations.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ ACPUMvB In other words, CPU according to the synchronization signal is designed to operate.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Each computer in a redundant set operates in synchronized steps and cross-checks results of processing about 440 times per second.

.This signal, known as a clock signal, usually takes the form of a periodic square wave.^ This signal, known as a clock signal , usually takes the form of a periodic square wave .
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ MuNbNMvmA `g `B This signal "clock signal" is known as the constant cycle square waves tend to be shaped.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ They noticed that at certain times the forms would take longer to get updated on their screens and their usual short-running queries would return in a longer time period.
  • CPU monitoring and tuning 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By calculating the maximum time that electrical signals can move in various branches of a CPU's many circuits, the designers can select an appropriate period for the clock signal.^ By calculating the maximum time that electrical signals can propagate throughout various branches of a processor's many circuits, designers can select an appropriate period for the clock signal.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Many users have a problem selecting a third-party CPU cooler.
  • " + Title + " 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.techarp.com [Source type: General]

^ Also, even online (where you CPU doesnt have to calculate all of the AI), many people can barly play 8 player games smooth in the beta.
  • CPU or Video Limitation? | Gas Powered Garage 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC garage.gaspowered.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This period must be longer than the amount of time it takes for a signal to move, or propagate, in the worst-case scenario.^ This period must be longer than the amount of time it takes for a signal to move, or propagate, in the worst-case scenario.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ LS 284 -- Application for Meal Period of Less than Thirty Minutes A meal period of less than 30 minutes but not less than 20 minutes will be permitted only in special or unusual cases after investigation and issuance of a special permit.
  • New York State Department of Labor - Central Processing Unit 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.labor.state.ny.us [Source type: Reference]

^ They noticed that at certain times the forms would take longer to get updated on their screens and their usual short-running queries would return in a longer time period.
  • CPU monitoring and tuning 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In setting the clock period to a value well above the worst-case propagation delay, it is possible to design the entire CPU and the way it moves data around the "edges" of the rising and falling clock signal.^ Is the "copyleft" applicable in the case of a CPU design?
  • The F-CPU Project 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC f-cpu.tux.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In setting the clock period to a value well above the worst-case propagation delay, it is possible to design the entire CPU and the way it moves data around the "edges" of the rising and falling clock signal.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This design minimizes the transfer of data between memory and CPU (all ALU operations are done only on data in CPU registers) and calls for simple instructions that can execute very quickly.
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.This has the advantage of simplifying the CPU significantly, both from a design perspective and a component-count perspective.^ This has the advantage of simplifying the CPU significantly, both from a design perspective and a component-count perspective.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The WISC Technologies CPU/16 was designed by this author as a very simple (in terms of TTL component count) stack machine with a good mixture of flexibility and speed.
  • Stack Computers: 4.2 ARCHITECTURE OF THE WISC CPU/16 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.ece.cmu.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ CPUvZpvVA 1970N o }CNvZbT B CPU design and implementation of recent technological innovation has changed significantly in the 1970s appeared in the middle of the microprocessor.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

.However, it also carries the disadvantage that the entire CPU must wait on its slowest elements, even though some portions of it are much faster.^ However, it also carries the disadvantage that the entire CPU must wait on its slowest elements, even though some portions of it are much faster.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In games, the CPU can handle things like physics and AI (artificial intelligence), and certain older games actually run some graphics on the CPU. Generally, however, the GPU is much more efficient (that is, faster) at handling most of the high-end effects that the gamer sees on the screen.
  • Intel: Use our CPU (not their GPU) for games | Nanotech - The Circuits Blog - CNET News 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC news.cnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This ensures CPU compatibility for VMotion even though the underlying hardware might be different from host to host.
  • VMware KB: EVC and CPU Compatibility FAQ 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC kb.vmware.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This limitation has largely been compensated for by various methods of increasing CPU parallelism.^ This limitation has largely been compensated for by various methods of increasing CPU parallelism (see below).
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ I have noticed a very large increase in overall speed on my server due to the new CPU protection!
  • Shared Hosting CPU Protection Is Here!!! « mattheaton.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mattheaton.com [Source type: General]

^ While using very different means, all of these techniques accomplish the same goal: increasing the number of threads that the CPU(s) can run in parallel.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

(see below)
.However, architectural improvements alone do not solve all of the drawbacks of globally synchronous CPUs.^ Architectural improvements alone do not solve all of the drawbacks of globally synchronous CPUs, however.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ CvCCPUSB Synchronous pipeline of the CPU alone can solve all the problems.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ NbNgAGCPUASHB Higher clock frequency and CPU more complicated when you try to work, to synchronize all of the circuit has been difficult.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

.For example, a clock signal is subject to the delays of any other electrical signal.^ ANbNMdCMxeB For example, the clock signal to the other effects of the electrical signal will be delayed.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, a clock signal is subject to the delays of any other electrical signal.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ By calculating the maximum time that electrical signals can propagate throughout various branches of a processor's many circuits, designers can select an appropriate period for the clock signal.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.Higher clock rates in increasingly complex CPUs make it more difficult to keep the clock signal in phase (synchronized) throughout the entire unit.^ Higher clock rates in increasingly complex CPUs make it more difficult to keep the clock signal in phase (synchronized) throughout the entire unit.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ No further CPU capacity is then available for the new peak rate, which is actually higher than the previous.
  • Tuning CPU Resources 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cs.umbc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore, as clock rate increases, so does heat dissipation, causing the CPU to require more effective cooling solutions.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.This has led many modern CPUs to require multiple identical clock signals to be provided in order to avoid delaying a single signal significantly enough to cause the CPU to malfunction.^ This has led many modern CPUs to require multiple identical clock signals to be provided in order to avoid delaying a single signal significantly enough to cause the CPU to malfunction.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Although most personal computers have a single CPU, some high performance computers have multiple CPUs in order to further increase processing throughput (i.e., the amount of data that can be processed per unit of time).
  • CPU - Central Processing Unit - PLATINUM - Knowledge Base and Glossary 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC platinumlit.wik.is [Source type: Reference]

^ Most CPUs in modern computers are microprocessors, and microprocessors are also used in many everyday items, from automobiles and household appliances to cellular phones and children's toys.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.Another major issue as clock rates increase dramatically is the amount of heat that is dissipated by the CPU. The constantly changing clock causes many components to switch regardless of whether they are being used at that time.^ Therefore, as clock rate increases, so does heat dissipation, causing the CPU to require more effective cooling solutions.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Another major issue as clock rates increase dramatically is the amount of heat that is dissipated by the CPU. The constantly changing clock causes many components to switch regardless of whether they are being used at that time.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Increased clocks refresh rate.
  • CPU-Z - Info-Tool f�r Prozessor & Mainboard 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.cpu-z.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In general, a component that is switching uses more energy than an element in a static state.^ In general, a component that is switching uses more energy than an element in a static state.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ CPU defaults settings now use P-states rather than FID/VID pairs.
  • Latest News. CPU Rightmark 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cpu.rightmark.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dedicated datapaths may also be used between components that transfer data between them- selves more frequently.
  • 4.Processing Unit Design 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

.Therefore, as clock rate increases, so does heat dissipation, causing the CPU to require more effective cooling solutions.^ Therefore, as clock rate increases, so does heat dissipation, causing the CPU to require more effective cooling solutions.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Increased clocks refresh rate.
  • CPU-Z - Info-Tool f�r Prozessor & Mainboard 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.cpu-z.de [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ANbNgMACPUpKvB Therefore, the clock frequency will be higher and a lot of heat, CPU more efficiently and it needs to be cooled.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

.One method of dealing with the switching of unneeded components is called clock gating, which involves turning off the clock signal to unneeded components (effectively disabling them).^ One method of dealing with the switching of unneeded components is called clock gating , which involves turning off the clock signal to unneeded components (effectively disabling them).
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ XCb`@ NbNQ[g @B No part of the switch in the switch as a way to deal with the clock gate is called a method.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In FIG. 8, an AND gate 309 turns "on" to provide an error signal 105-3 and to communicate the occurrence of the error to the address calculating unit AU 28.
  • Central processing unit for executing instructions of variable length having end information for operand specifiers - Patent 4530050 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.However, this is often regarded as difficult to implement and therefore does not see common usage outside of very low-power designs.^ However, this is often regarded as difficult to implement and therefore does not see common usage outside of very low-power designs.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ With time, however, more power modes were introduced and enhancements were made to each mode so the CPU could consume less power when it is one of these low-power modes.
  • Everything You Need to Know About the CPU C-States Power Saving Modes | Hardware Secrets 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: General]

^ Designs and manufactures several types of low power microcontrollers among their many other semiconductor products.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.One notable late CPU design that uses clock gating is that of the IBM PowerPC-based Xbox 360.^ (See boolean logic ) ↑ One notable late CPU design that uses clock gating is that of the IBM PowerPC -based Xbox 360 .
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Progressively, these early designs were refined and remade into some of the common, modern SIMD specifications, which are usually associated with one ISA. Some notable modern examples are Intel's SSE and the PowerPC-related AltiVec (also known as VMX).
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Late designs in several processor families exhibit CMP, including the x86-64 Opteron and Athlon 64 X2 , the SPARC UltraSPARC T1 , IBM POWER4 and POWER5 , as well as several video game console CPUs like the Xbox 360 's triple-core PowerPC design.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.It utilizes extensive clock gating in order to reduce the power requirements of the aforementioned videogame console it is used in.^ It utilizes extensive clock gating in order to reduce the power requirements of the aforementioned videogame console it is used in.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ (See boolean logic ) ↑ One notable late CPU design that uses clock gating is that of the IBM PowerPC -based Xbox 360 .
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This has led many modern CPUs to require multiple identical clock signals to be provided in order to avoid delaying a single signal significantly enough to cause the CPU to malfunction.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.[12] Another method of addressing some of the problems with a global clock signal is the removal of the clock signal altogether.^ Another method of addressing some of the problems with a global clock signal is the removal of the clock signal altogether.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ After investigation, we discovered the problem: A developer for another component had installed a signal handler to catch the SIGSEGV signal in the code during the test process.
  • CPU monitoring and tuning 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While somewhat uncommon, entire CPUs have been built without utilizing a global clock signal.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.While removing the global clock signal makes the design process considerably more complex in many ways, asynchronous (or clockless) designs carry marked advantages in power consumption and heat dissipation in comparison with similar synchronous designs.^ Power consumption - - Future CPU designs .
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ NbNMAvNbNijvdM_B No clock signal, the design will be very difficult without the clock (or asynchronous) design in terms of power consumption and heat have a big advantage.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ While removing the global clock signal makes the design process considerably more complex in many ways, asynchronous (or clockless) designs carry marked advantages in power consumption and heat dissipation in comparison with similar synchronous designs.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.While somewhat uncommon, entire asynchronous CPUs have been built without utilizing a global clock signal.^ While somewhat uncommon, entire CPUs have been built without utilizing a global clock signal.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ CMxCPUMoHlNbNM g B The speed of electrical signals in the signal path from the CPU to consider the length of the clock signal's frequency to be determined.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Modes C1 to C3 work by basically cutting clock signals used inside the CPU, while modes C4 to C6 work by reducing the CPU voltage.
  • Everything You Need to Know About the CPU C-States Power Saving Modes | Hardware Secrets 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: General]

.Two notable examples of this are the ARM compliant AMULET and the MIPS R3000 compatible MiniMIPS. Rather than totally removing the clock signal, some CPU designs allow certain portions of the device to be asynchronous, such as using asynchronous ALUs in conjunction with superscalar pipelining to achieve some arithmetic performance gains.^ A ARMA[LeN` AMULET MIPS R3000 MiniMIPS B For example, ARM architecture compatible AMULET and the MIPS R3000 is compatible MiniMIPS. NbNSAICPUvB KUSURU clock instead of a full, partial and asynchronous to the presence of a CPU design.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ A ALU gX[p[XJ[pCvC\Z\vB For example, asynchronous ALU using super scalar configuration of the pipeline to raise the performance and design.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Two notable examples of this are the ARM compliant AMULET and the MIPS R3000 compatible MiniMIPS. Rather than totally removing the clock signal, some CPU designs allow certain portions of the device to be asynchronous, such as using asynchronous ALUs in conjunction with superscalar pipelining to achieve some arithmetic performance gains.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.While it is not altogether clear whether totally asynchronous designs can perform at a comparable or better level than their synchronous counterparts, it is evident that they do at least excel in simpler math operations.^ While it is not altogether clear whether totally asynchronous designs can perform at a comparable or better level than their synchronous counterparts, it is evident that they do at least excel in simpler math operations.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ SACPUr\APlZB When the whole of the asynchronous and synchronous operation in comparison with the CPU to improve performance whether or not it is not clear, at least in math is simple to be effective.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ And it\'s that 64-bit ability of Prescott-2M that\'s its main selling point, rather than any performance to be gained by the double-sized L2 cache, compared to Prescott-1M. I m...
  • HEXUS.net - Definitive Technology News and Reviews 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.hexus.net [Source type: General]

.This, combined with their excellent power consumption and heat dissipation properties, makes them very suitable for embedded computers [13].^ This, combined with their excellent power consumption and heat dissipation properties, makes them very suitable for embedded computers (Garside et al.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This problem occurs only on computers with processors that support multiple power-consumption states.
  • High CPU Usage 12 October 2009 10:49 UTC kadaitcha.cx [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A copper base is used for maximum heat absorption,  three embedded copper heatpipes ensure fast heat transfer and 45 aluminum fins contribute to better heat dissipation.
  • CPU Coolers Roundup June 2008 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.cdrinfo.com [Source type: General]

Parallelism

Model of a subscalar CPU. Notice that it takes fifteen cycles to complete three instructions.
.The description of the basic operation of a CPU offered in the previous section describes the simplest form that a CPU can take.^ The description of the basic operation of a CPU offered in the previous section describes the simplest form that a CPU can take.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ A{ICPUB However, the CPU, but basically what it is doing here is the same as described in the flow.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The basic operation of the CPU is the “ fetch-decode-execute” cycle: Fetch the instruction from the address held in the program counter, and store it in a register.
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.This type of CPU, usually referred to as subscalar, operates on and executes one instruction on one or two pieces of data at a time.^ This means that the CPU executes one instruction at a time that operates on a single piece of data 12 .
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This instruction is placed in two registers: one for the operator and one for the operand.
  • Central Processing Unit, 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.il.pw.edu.pl [Source type: Reference]

^ This type of CPU, usually referred to as subscalar , operates on and executes one instruction on one or two pieces of data at a time.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.This process gives rise to an inherent inefficiency in subscalar CPUs.^ This process gives rise to an inherent inefficiency in subscalar CPUs.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This requires that the instruction pipeline is filled as often as possible and gives rise to the need in superscalar architectures for significant amounts of CPU cache .
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.Since only one instruction is executed at a time, the entire CPU must wait for that instruction to complete before proceeding to the next instruction.^ In this approach, the instructions themselves are still serialized (one instruction completes before the next instruction begins execution).
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ CPU time, therefore elapsed time - CPU time = wait time.
  • Tuning CPU Resources 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cs.umbc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is, the CPU must execute one stage before proceeding to the next.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.As a result the subscalar CPU gets "hung up" on instructions which take more than one clock cycle to complete execution.^ "A fast CPU is more than just clock speed" .
  • What is the fastest CPU on the market today? 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Not that an instance will have more than one lgwr....
  • Ask Tom "cpu count question" 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC asktom.oracle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And that is it - one cycle of the data path operation; but note that it takes more than one of these cycles to execute a macro-instruction.
  • The Central Processing Unit (CPU) 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.engr.udayton.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Even adding a second execution unit (see below) does not improve performance much; rather than one pathway being hung up, now two pathways are hung up and the number of unused transistors is increased.^ Even adding a second execution unit (see below) does not improve performance much; rather than one pathway being hung up, now two pathways are hung up and the number of unused transistors is increased.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ See the second formula in Listing 2 below.
  • CPU monitoring and tuning 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately, the second load instruction now executes in three clock cycles rather than one.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.This design, wherein the CPU's execution resources can operate on only one instruction at a time, can only possibly reach scalar performance (one instruction per clock).^ Only one NSP is powered at a time.

^ Units within the CPU perform math and logic operations and translate and execute instructions.
  • http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-9-Manual/glossary/index.html 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.redhat.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This design, wherein the CPU's execution resources can operate on only one instruction at a time, can only possibly reach scalar performance (one instruction per clock).
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.However, the performance is nearly always subscalar (less than one instruction per cycle).^ However, the performance is nearly always subscalar (less than one instruction per cycle).
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ With time, however, more power modes were introduced and enhancements were made to each mode so the CPU could consume less power when it is one of these low-power modes.
  • Everything You Need to Know About the CPU C-States Power Saving Modes | Hardware Secrets 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: General]

^ The original Intel Pentium (P5) had two superscalar ALUs which could accept one instruction per clock each, but its FPU could not accept one instruction per clock.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.Attempts to achieve scalar and better performance have resulted in a variety of design methodologies that cause the CPU to behave less linearly and more in parallel.^ Attempts to achieve scalar and better performance have resulted in a variety of design methodologies that cause the CPU to behave less linearly and more in parallel.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Which approach is better for CPU design?
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ With time, however, more power modes were introduced and enhancements were made to each mode so the CPU could consume less power when it is one of these low-power modes.
  • Everything You Need to Know About the CPU C-States Power Saving Modes | Hardware Secrets 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hardwaresecrets.com [Source type: General]

.When referring to parallelism in CPUs, two terms are generally used to classify these design techniques.^ When referring to parallelism in CPUs, two terms are generally used to classify these design techniques.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ CPUv Q Details of the CPU design reference .
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Actually, microengines generally don't support the use of wait states, so this means that the microengine will have to run at the same speed as the microcode ROM. This effectively limits the speed at which the microengine, and therefore the CPU, can run.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Instruction level parallelism (ILP) seeks to increase the rate at which instructions are executed within a CPU (that is, to increase the utilization of on-die execution resources), and thread level parallelism (TLP) purposes to increase the number of threads (effectively individual programs) that a CPU can execute simultaneously.^ Effectively, this allows the CPU to execute some number of instructions in parallel.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Instruction level parallelism (ILP) seeks to increase the rate at which instructions are executed within a CPU (that is, to increase the utilization of on-die execution resources), and thread level parallelism (TLP) purposes to increase the number of threads (effectively individual programs) that a CPU can execute simultaneously.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For our purposes, fine-grained parallelism means that we are executing adjacent program instructions in parallel.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Each methodology differs both in the ways in which they are implemented, as well as the relative effectiveness they afford in increasing the CPU's performance for an application.^ Each methodology differs both in the ways in which they are implemented, as well as the relative effectiveness they afford in increasing the CPU's performance for an application.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Data movement within the CPU can be performed in several different ways.
  • 4.Processing Unit Design 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

^ There's no doubt that the market is very strong and while most CPU coolers are priced low, there is a higher demand for less noise and increased performance.
  • Battle of the CPU Coolers 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.cdrinfo.com [Source type: General]

[14]

Instruction level parallelism

Basic five-stage pipeline. In the best case scenario, this pipeline can sustain a completion rate of one instruction per cycle.
.One of the simplest methods used to accomplish increased parallelism is to begin the first steps of instruction fetching and decoding before the prior instruction finishes executing.^ The fetched instruction is loaded in the IR for execution.
  • 4.Processing Unit Design 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The first step, fetch , involves retrieving an instruction from memory.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ After the fetch and decode steps, the execute step is performed.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.This is the simplest form of a technique known as instruction pipelining, and is utilized in almost all modern general-purpose CPUs.^ The machine has 4 cpus for all intents and purposes.
  • Ask Tom "cpu count question" 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC asktom.oracle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In general, the access width of all of the functional units noted above is one fullword (32 bits) as is the access width of the main memory bus 12 and the CPU bus 10.

^ R[h ACPU`B Decode the CPU instruction into a meaningful form.
  • CPU - Lullar Data 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC data.lullar.com [Source type: Reference]

.Pipelining allows more than one instruction to be executed at any given time by breaking down the execution pathway into discrete stages.^ Not that an instance will have more than one lgwr....
  • Ask Tom "cpu count question" 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC asktom.oracle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pipelining allows more than one instruction to be executed at any given time by breaking down the execution pathway into discrete stages.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If you have an n-stage pipeline, you will usually have n instructions executing concurrently.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.This separation can be compared to an assembly line, in which an instruction is made more complete at each stage until it exits the execution pipeline and is retired.^ This separation can be compared to an assembly line, in which an instruction is made more complete at each stage until it exits the execution pipeline and is retired.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If you have an n-stage pipeline, you will usually have n instructions executing concurrently.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The second instruction must delay until the first instruction completes execution.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Pipelining does, however, introduce the possibility for a situation where the result of the previous operation is needed to complete the next operation; a condition often termed data dependency conflict.^ Another difficulty with doing certain operations concurrently is that one operation may depend on the other's result.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Also, superscalar execution must determine whether an arithmetic operation depends on the result of another operation, since they cannot be executed simultaneously.
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is possible, but unlikely, that an application running in a virtual machine would benefit from these features, and that the application performance would be lower as the result of using an EVC mode that does not include the features.
  • VMware KB: EVC and CPU Compatibility FAQ 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC kb.vmware.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To cope with this, additional care must be taken to check for these sorts of conditions and delay a portion of the instruction pipeline if this occurs.^ To cope with this, additional care must be taken to check for these sorts of conditions and delay a portion of the instruction pipeline if this occurs.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If the condition code bits indicate that a branch must be taken, the next microinstruction is specified in the address bits of the cur- rent microinstruction.
  • 4.Processing Unit Design 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

^ This Hyper Pipelined Technology takes this very thing into account (its called latency) and has a special cache that checks the instructions in the pipeline to make sure everything is in order.
  • Dave's Guide to Buying a Home Computer 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.css.msu.edu [Source type: General]

.Naturally, accomplishing this requires additional circuitry, so pipelined processors are more complex than subscalar ones (though not very significantly so).^ Naturally, accomplishing this requires additional circuitry, so pipelined processors are more complex than subscalar ones (though not very significantly so).
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Not that an instance will have more than one lgwr....
  • Ask Tom "cpu count question" 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC asktom.oracle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And that is it - one cycle of the data path operation; but note that it takes more than one of these cycles to execute a macro-instruction.
  • The Central Processing Unit (CPU) 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.engr.udayton.edu [Source type: Reference]

.A pipelined processor can become very nearly scalar, inhibited only by pipeline stalls (an instruction spending more than one clock cycle in a stage).^ Not that an instance will have more than one lgwr....
  • Ask Tom "cpu count question" 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC asktom.oracle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once the CPU fills the pipeline, it completes one instruction on each cycle.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ All you need to do is add more stages to the pipeline, and you can still effectively process each instruction in one clock cycle.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

Simple superscalar pipeline. By fetching and dispatching two instructions at a time, a maximum of two instructions per cycle can be completed.
.Further improvement upon the idea of instruction pipelining led to the development of a method that decreases the idle time of CPU components even further.^ Further improvement upon the idea of instruction pipelining led to the development of a method that decreases the idle time of CPU components even further.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This type of CPU, usually referred to as subscalar , operates on and executes one instruction on one or two pieces of data at a time.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Furthermore, since the instruction decoder is idle while the CPU is executing the MOV instruction, we can actually decode the next instruction while the current instruction is executing, thereby shaving yet another cycle off the execution of the next instruction.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Designs that are said to be superscalar include a long instruction pipeline and multiple identical execution units.^ With this “ superscalar” design, several instructions can execute at once.
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Designs that are said to be superscalar include a long instruction pipeline and multiple identical execution units.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This separation can be compared to an assembly line, in which an instruction is made more complete at each stage until it exits the execution pipeline and is retired.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.[15] In a superscalar pipeline, multiple instructions are read and passed to a dispatcher, which decides whether or not the instructions can be executed in parallel (simultaneously).^ Superscalar operation attempts to schedule, in hardware, the execution of multiple instructions simultaneously.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In a superscalar pipeline, multiple instructions are read and passed to a dispatcher, which decides whether or not the instructions can be executed in parallel (simultaneously).
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This separation can be compared to an assembly line, in which an instruction is made more complete at each stage until it exits the execution pipeline and is retired.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.If so they are dispatched to available execution units, resulting in the ability for several instructions to be executed simultaneously.^ If so they are dispatched to available execution units, resulting in the ability for several instructions to be executed simultaneously.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This means that the prefetch queue can be pulling instruction opcodes from the instruction cache while the execution unit is writing data to the data cache.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The difference with the multi-processor SISD machines mentioned above lies in the fact that the instructions and data are related because they represent different parts of the same task to be executed.
  • CPU Design HOW-TO 12 October 2009 10:49 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.In general, the more instructions a superscalar CPU is able to dispatch simultaneously to waiting execution units, the more instructions will be completed in a given cycle.^ If so they are dispatched to available execution units, resulting in the ability for several instructions to be executed simultaneously.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The execution cycle is repeated as long as there are more instructions to execute.
  • 4.Processing Unit Design 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

^ CPU instruction cycle and the control unit will be covered in Sections 5.4 and 5.5, respectively.
  • 4.Processing Unit Design 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

.Most of the difficulty in the design of a superscalar CPU architecture lies in creating an effective dispatcher.^ Most of the difficulty in the design of a superscalar CPU architecture lies in creating an effective dispatcher.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This is evidenced by the proliferation of dual and multi core CMP designs and notably, Intel's newer designs resembling its less superscalar P6 architecture.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ So Intel went back to their CAD 3 tools and began work on their next CPU. This new CPU featured a superscalar design with vastly improved floating point performance.
  • Chapter Four CPU Architecture 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The dispatcher needs to be able to quickly and correctly determine whether instructions can be executed in parallel, as well as dispatch them in such a way as to keep as many execution units busy as possible.^ The dispatcher needs to be able to quickly and correctly determine whether instructions can be executed in parallel, as well as dispatch them in such a way as to keep as many execution units busy as possible.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The other sort of ILP is to have multiple execution units in the CPU—duplicate arithmetic circuits, in particular, as well as specialized circuits for graphics instructions or for floating-point calculations (arithmetic operations involving noninteger numbers, such as 3.27).
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This design minimizes the transfer of data between memory and CPU (all ALU operations are done only on data in CPU registers) and calls for simple instructions that can execute very quickly.
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.This requires that the instruction pipeline is filled as often as possible and gives rise to the need in superscalar architectures for significant amounts of CPU cache.^ Once the CPU fills the pipeline, it completes one instruction on each cycle.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This requires that the instruction pipeline is filled as often as possible and gives rise to the need in superscalar architectures for significant amounts of CPU cache .
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Intel's successor to the Pentium architecture, P6 , added superscalar capabilities to its floating point features, and therefore afforded a significant increase in floating point instruction performance.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.It also makes hazard-avoiding techniques like branch prediction, speculative execution, and out-of-order execution crucial to maintaining high levels of performance.^ It also makes hazard -avoiding techniques like branch prediction , speculative execution , and out-of-order execution crucial to maintaining high levels of performance.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Although you might think that this extra effort is not worth it (why not make it the programmer's or compiler's responsibility to schedule the instructions) there are some situations where out of order execution will improve performance that static scheduling could not handle.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Pipelining, superscalar operation, out of order execution, and VLIW design are techniques CPU designers use in order to execute several operations in parallel.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.By attempting to predict which branch (or path) a conditional instruction will take, the CPU can minimize the number of times that the entire pipeline must wait until a conditional instruction is completed.^ Once the CPU fills the pipeline, it completes one instruction on each cycle.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Note, by the way, that the number of stages in an instruction pipeline varies among CPUs.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The second instruction must delay until the first instruction completes execution.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Speculative execution often provides modest performance increases by executing portions of code that may or may not be needed after a conditional operation completes.^ Speculative execution often provides modest performance increases by executing portions of code that may or may not be needed after a conditional operation completes.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ If Oracle were to execute the simple SELECT * FROM SOME_TABLE in parallel, it would provide this algorithm no apparent increase in speed whatsoever.
  • Ask Tom "Parallel Processing" 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC asktom.oracle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both problems may increase the average execution time of the instructions in the pipeline.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Out-of-order execution somewhat rearranges the order in which instructions are executed to reduce delays due to data dependencies.^ Out-of-order execution somewhat rearranges the order in which instructions are executed to reduce delays due to data dependencies.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This design minimizes the transfer of data between memory and CPU (all ALU operations are done only on data in CPU registers) and calls for simple instructions that can execute very quickly.
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This means that the CPU executes one instruction at a time that operates on a single piece of data 12 .
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Also in case of Single Instructions Multiple Data - a case when a lot of data from the same type has to be processed, modern processors can disable parts of the pipeline so that when a single instruction is executed many times, the CPU skips the fetch and decode phases and thus greatly increasing performance on certain occasions, especially in highly monotonous program engines such as video creation software and photo processing.^ This means that the CPU executes one instruction at a time that operates on a single piece of data 12 .
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ There are four steps that many CPUs use in interacting with this data: fetch , decode , execute , and writeback .
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Both problems may increase the average execution time of the instructions in the pipeline.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.In the case where a portion of the CPU is superscalar and part is not, the part which is not suffers a performance penalty due to scheduling stalls.^ In the case where a portion of the CPU is superscalar and part is not, the part which is not suffers a performance penalty due to scheduling stalls.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For a CPU-bound system, you can improve the system performance by manipulating thread and process priorities of a specific process or tuning the scheduler algorithm to set a different system-wide scheduling policy.
  • CPU monitoring and tuning 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the decode step, the instruction is broken up into parts that different portions of the CPU can interpret.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.The original Intel Pentium (P5) had two superscalar ALUs which could accept one instruction per clock each, but its FPU could not accept one instruction per clock.^ The original Intel Pentium (P5) had two superscalar ALUs which could accept one instruction per clock each, but its FPU could not accept one instruction per clock.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Scientists also continue to search for new designs that allow CPUs to run at the same or at a lower clock rate as older CPUs, but which get more instructions completed per clock cycle.
  • CPU (Central Processing Unit) - Mobile terms glossary - GSMArena.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.gsmarena.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, one type of "compare" instruction considers two values and sets a number in the flags register according to which one is greater.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.Thus the P5 was integer superscalar but not floating point superscalar.^ Thus the P5 was integer superscalar but not floating point superscalar.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The unit can be configured as an integer unit of a floating-point unit.
  • JP Patent 2007215203 - DATA PROCESSING METHOD AND DATA PROCESSING UNIT, DYNAMIC RECONFIGURATION METHOD OF CONFIGURABLE ELEMENT, SYSTEM AND PROCESS 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, there's Integer Math speed (see the SPECint2006 benchmark at www.spec.org), Integer Math Rate (throughput - SPECint_rate2006), Floating Point Math speed (SPECfp2006), and Floating Point Math Rate (SPECfp_rate2006).
  • What is the fastest CPU on the market today? 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.Intel's successor to the Pentium architecture, P6, added superscalar capabilities to its floating point features, and therefore afforded a significant increase in floating point instruction performance.^ Intel's successor to the Pentium architecture, P6 , added superscalar capabilities to its floating point features, and therefore afforded a significant increase in floating point instruction performance.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This is evidenced by the proliferation of dual and multi core CMP designs and notably, Intel's newer designs resembling its less superscalar P6 architecture.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This requires that the instruction pipeline is filled as often as possible and gives rise to the need in superscalar architectures for significant amounts of CPU cache .
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.Both simple pipelining and superscalar design increase a CPU's ILP by allowing a single processor to complete execution of instructions at rates surpassing one instruction per cycle (IPC).^ Both problems may increase the average execution time of the instructions in the pipeline.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Effectively, this allows the CPU to execute some number of instructions in parallel.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ With just a few exceptions, we'll see that pipelining allows us to execute one instruction per clock cycle.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

[16] .Most modern CPU designs are at least somewhat superscalar, and nearly all general purpose CPUs designed in the last decade are superscalar.^ Most modern CPU designs are at least somewhat superscalar, and nearly all general purpose CPUs designed in the last decade are superscalar.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This design minimizes the transfer of data between memory and CPU (all ALU operations are done only on data in CPU registers) and calls for simple instructions that can execute very quickly.
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Because modern cpus in general have more cores, run at a lower frequency, and most of our hosting software is designed to run in this type of environment it has become VERY apparent that we needed to update the way we calculated “cpu usage”.
  • “CPU Quota Exceeded” – Not anymore… « mattheaton.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mattheaton.com [Source type: General]

.In later years some of the emphasis in designing high-ILP computers has been moved out of the CPU's hardware and into its software interface, or ISA. The strategy of the very long instruction word (VLIW) causes some ILP to become implied directly by the software, reducing the amount of work the CPU must perform to boost ILP and thereby reducing the design's complexity.^ In some respects, this is similar to CISC computing since a single VLIW "instruction" can do some very complex things.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ However, Intel and HP have extended on the RISC design by using another technology: Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) computing.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ I have not been able to work out what is causing the regular cycles of increased CPU activity.

Thread level parallelism

.Another strategy of achieving performance is to execute multiple programs or threads in parallel.^ Another strategy commonly used to increase the parallelism of CPUs is to include the ability to run multiple threads (programs) at the same time.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Therefore, multiprocessor systems are really only effective in a system that execute multiple programs concurrently (i.e., a multitasking system) 14 .
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Attempts to achieve scalar and better performance have resulted in a variety of design methodologies that cause the CPU to behave less linearly and more in parallel.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

This area of research is known as parallel computing. In Flynn's taxonomy, this strategy is known as Multiple Instructions-Multiple Data or MIMD.
.One technology used for this purpose was multiprocessing (MP).^ Multiprocessing, on the other hand, doesn't help a program one bit unless that program was specifically written to use multiprocessor (or runs under an O/S specfically written to support multiprocessing).
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The initial flavor of this technology is known as symmetric multiprocessing (SMP), where a small number of CPUs share a coherent view of their memory system.^ Shared memory systems .
  • CPU Design HOW-TO 12 October 2009 10:49 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Small utility that prevents your system from freezing because of CPU usage [ read more > ] .
  • Download CPU Tweak - page 1 - sorted by last update descending - Softpedia 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.softpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shared memory systems have multiple CPUs all of which share the same address space.
  • CPU Design HOW-TO 12 October 2009 10:49 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.In this scheme, each CPU has additional hardware to maintain a constantly up-to-date view of memory.^ When the CPU isn't accessing memory, the BIU can fetch additional instruction opcodes for the prefetch queue.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ In addition, CPUSpy can measure your current CPU speed in MHz, Windows Up-Time, IP address, Window Version and memory status, etc.
  • BenchmarkHQ - Benchmark Tools - CPU 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.benchmarkhq.ru [Source type: General]

^ We have now described the components that make up the CPU and primary memory.
  • Central Processing Unit, 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.il.pw.edu.pl [Source type: Reference]

.By avoiding stale views of memory, the CPUs can cooperate on the same program and programs can migrate from one CPU to another.^ While one instruction is being executed, another can obtain its operands, a third can be decoded, and a fourth can be fetched from memory.
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This means that the knowledge of where data is stored is of no concern to the user as there is only one memory accessed by all CPUs on an equal basis.
  • CPU Design HOW-TO 12 October 2009 10:49 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In general, the access width of all of the functional units noted above is one fullword (32 bits) as is the access width of the main memory bus 12 and the CPU bus 10.

.To increase the number of cooperating CPUs beyond a handful, schemes such as non-uniform memory access (NUMA) and directory-based coherence protocols were introduced in the 1990s.^ Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have increased their presence far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machines.
  • CPU (Central Processing Unit) - Mobile terms glossary - GSMArena.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.gsmarena.com [Source type: General]

^ This means that the knowledge of where data is stored is of no concern to the user as there is only one memory accessed by all CPUs on an equal basis.
  • CPU Design HOW-TO 12 October 2009 10:49 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Note that during the execution of the MOV instruction the CPU is not accessing memory on every clock cycle.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.SMP systems are limited to a small number of CPUs while NUMA systems have been built with thousands of processors.^ Added support for multi-processor (SMP/HT) systems (for both monitoring and FID/VID management features).
  • Latest News. CPU Rightmark 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cpu.rightmark.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It also has the built-in CPU Museum, where you can learn some information about a number of processors, starting with i386DX!!!
  • BenchmarkHQ - Benchmark Tools - CPU 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.benchmarkhq.ru [Source type: General]

^ Automatic setting of Renderer threads count to the number of logical processors present in the system.
  • Latest News. CPU Rightmark 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cpu.rightmark.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Initially, multiprocessing was built using multiple discrete CPUs and boards to implement the interconnect between the processors.^ Keep in mind that CPU designers construct these processors using logic gates to execute these instructions.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Prior to this point, commerical computer systems used multiple semiconductor devices to implement the CPU. .
  • Chapter Four CPU Architecture 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also assumed that they were making the processors easier to program because programmers (or compilers) could write a single instruction instead of using multiple instructions.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.When the processors and their interconnect are all implemented on a single silicon chip, the technology is known as a multi-core microprocessor.^ A processor that is manufactured as a single integrated circuit is usually known as a microprocessor .
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ With the available technology, it is possible to store a billion bits on single chip the size of a fingernail.
  • Central Processing Unit, 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.il.pw.edu.pl [Source type: Reference]

^ Similar 1.Socket LGA775 for Intel Core 2 Duo Pentium D Processor 2.FSB 1333/1066/800/533 MHz 3.Support Hyper-Threading Technology...
  • cpu - cpu products manufacturers on alibaba.com 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

.It was later recognized that finer-grain parallelism existed with a single program.^ For our purposes, fine-grained parallelism means that we are executing adjacent program instructions in parallel.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.A single program might have several threads (or functions) that could be executed separately or in parallel.^ Pipelining, superscalar operation, out of order execution, and VLIW design are techniques CPU designers use in order to execute several operations in parallel.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ They also assumed that they were making the processors easier to program because programmers (or compilers) could write a single instruction instead of using multiple instructions.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The remainder of the chip can then be used to speed CPU operations by providing circuits that let several instructions execute simultaneously, or in parallel.
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Some of earliest examples of this technology implemented input/output processing such as direct memory access as a separate thread from the computation thread.^ Memory-mapped Input-output .
  • The Central Processing Unit (CPU) 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.engr.udayton.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The upgraded GPCs consist of a central processor unit and an input/output processor in one avionics box instead of the two separate CPU and IOP avionics boxes of the old GPCs .

^ Input data for a GPGPU application must be copied to the GPU's memory along with a pre-allocated output buffer prior to invoking the GPU-based kernel.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | High-throughput sequence alignment using Graphics Processing Units 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

.A more general approach to this technology was introduced in the 1970s when systems were designed to run multiple computation threads in parallel.^ Reactive systems - - Operating system design approaches .
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Operating system design approaches - Networking .
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Additional Reading - Computer design and technology .
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.This technology is known as multi-threading (MT).^ Improved Renderer multi-threading (SMP/Hyper-Threading) support, fixed Solver module performance issues when running on a CPU with Hyper-Therading technology with multiple rendering threads.
  • Latest News. CPU Rightmark 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cpu.rightmark.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The AIX 5L Support for Micro-Partitioning and Simultaneous Multi-threading white paper describes the simultaneous multi-threading and optionally, Micro-Partitioning new technologies and the AIX 5L support for them.
  • CPU monitoring and tuning 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This approach is considered more cost-effective than multiprocessing, as only a small number of components within a CPU is replicated in order to support MT as opposed to the entire CPU in the case of MP. In MT, the execution units and the memory system including the caches are shared among multiple threads.^ Shared memory systems .
  • CPU Design HOW-TO 12 October 2009 10:49 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Shared memory systems have multiple CPUs all of which share the same address space.
  • CPU Design HOW-TO 12 October 2009 10:49 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Effectively, this allows the CPU to execute some number of instructions in parallel.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The downside of MT is that the hardware support for multithreading is more visible to software than that of MP and thus supervisor software like operating systems have to undergo larger changes to support MT. One type of MT that was implemented is known as block multithreading, where one thread is executed until it is stalled waiting for data to return from external memory.^ Modern types of operating systems - - - Multiuser systems .
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Not that an instance will have more than one lgwr....
  • Ask Tom "cpu count question" 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC asktom.oracle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The display function of the OPS software is a block of displays associated with one OPS or more.

.In this scheme, the CPU would then quickly switch to another thread which is ready to run, the switch often done in one CPU clock cycle, such as the UltraSPARC Technology.^ This continues until a record without a RUN bit set has been reached or the number or records that can be processed at the oversampling cycle rate within one system cycle has been reached.
  • JP Patent 2007215203 - DATA PROCESSING METHOD AND DATA PROCESSING UNIT, DYNAMIC RECONFIGURATION METHOD OF CONFIGURABLE ELEMENT, SYSTEM AND PROCESS 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Note that during the execution of the MOV instruction the CPU is not accessing memory on every clock cycle.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Two hardware threads can run on one physical processor at the same time.
  • CPU monitoring and tuning 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another type of MT is known as simultaneous multithreading, where instructions of multiple threads are executed in parallel within one CPU clock cycle.^ Effectively, this allows the CPU to execute some number of instructions in parallel.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Once the CPU fills the pipeline, it completes one instruction on each cycle.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The sequence of steps that the CPU executes while processing an instruction is called the instruction cycle.
  • Central Processing Unit, 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.il.pw.edu.pl [Source type: Reference]

.For several decades from the 1970s to early 2000s, the focus in designing high performance general purpose CPUs was largely on achieving high ILP through technologies such as pipelining, caches, superscalar execution, out-of-order execution, etc.^ Pipelining, superscalar operation, out of order execution, and VLIW design are techniques CPU designers use in order to execute several operations in parallel.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ For several years during the late 1990s and early 2000s, the focus in designing high performance general purpose CPUs was largely on highly superscalar IPC designs, such as the Intel Pentium 4 .
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ With this “ superscalar” design, several instructions can execute at once.
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.This trend culminated in large, power-hungry CPUs such as the Intel Pentium 4.^ [Dual CPU] Intel Pentium 4 2.80GHz .
  • PassMark Software - CPU Benchmarks - List of Benchmarked CPUs 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.cpubenchmark.net [Source type: Academic]

^ [Dual CPU] Intel Pentium 4 2.60GHz .
  • PassMark Software - CPU Benchmarks - List of Benchmarked CPUs 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.cpubenchmark.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Reviews The Intel CPU powers your computing platform, delivering extra performance for cutting-edge applications and an...
  • Cpu Computer - Shop Smarter.com 12 October 2009 10:49 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

.By the early 2000s, CPU designers were thwarted from achieving higher performance from ILP techniques due to the growing disparity between CPU operating frequencies and main memory operating frequencies as well as escalating CPU power dissipation owing to more esoteric ILP techniques.^ Because modern cpus in general have more cores, run at a lower frequency, and most of our hosting software is designed to run in this type of environment it has become VERY apparent that we needed to update the way we calculated “cpu usage”.
  • “CPU Quota Exceeded” – Not anymore… « mattheaton.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mattheaton.com [Source type: General]

^ CPU cache A memory bank between the main memory and the CPU, which lets the computer read data and execute instructions faster.
  • http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-9-Manual/glossary/index.html 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.redhat.com [Source type: Reference]

^ As noted earlier, memory was very expensive when Intel first designed the 8086 CPU. At that time, computer systems with a megabyte of memory usually cost megabucks.
  • Chapter Four CPU Architecture 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.CPU designers then borrowed ideas from commercial computing markets such as transaction processing, where the aggregate performance of multiple programs, also known as throughput computing, was more important than the performance of a single thread or program.^ CPU usage may be more than expected or the computer may stop ...

^ SMT is a good choice when overall throughput is more important than the throughput of an individual thread.
  • CPU monitoring and tuning 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Future CPU designs - - - Quantum computing .
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.This reversal of emphasis is evidenced by the proliferation of dual and multiple core CMP (chip-level multiprocessing) designs and notably, Intel's newer designs resembling its less superscalar P6 architecture.^ This is evidenced by the proliferation of dual and multi core CMP designs and notably, Intel's newer designs resembling its less superscalar P6 architecture.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Intel Xeon 5160 3.0GHz 1333MHz 2x2MB Socket 771 Dual-Core CPU Part # XEON-5160-R Condition: Refurbished Warranty: 30 Days .
  • Wholesale CPU, CPU Distributor, CPU Wholesaler, CPU Dealer, Computer Processor Supplier 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.evertek.com [Source type: General]

^ So Intel went back to their CAD 3 tools and began work on their next CPU. This new CPU featured a superscalar design with vastly improved floating point performance.
  • Chapter Four CPU Architecture 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Late designs in several processor families exhibit CMP, including the x86-64 Opteron and Athlon 64 X2, the SPARC UltraSPARC T1, IBM POWER4 and POWER5, as well as several video game console CPUs like the Xbox 360's triple-core PowerPC design, and the PS3's 7-core Cell microprocessor.^ AMD Athlon 64 X2 Dual Core 4000+ .
  • PassMark Software - CPU Benchmarks - List of Benchmarked CPUs 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.cpubenchmark.net [Source type: Academic]

^ AMD Athlon 64 X2 Dual-Core TK-57 .
  • PassMark Software - CPU Benchmarks - List of Benchmarked CPUs 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.cpubenchmark.net [Source type: Academic]

^ AMD Athlon 64 X2 Dual-Core TK-55 .
  • PassMark Software - CPU Benchmarks - List of Benchmarked CPUs 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.cpubenchmark.net [Source type: Academic]

Data parallelism

.A less common but increasingly important paradigm of CPUs (and indeed, computing in general) deals with data parallelism.^ A less common but increasingly important paradigm of CPUs (and indeed, computing in general) deals with vectors.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ These signals control the flow of data within the CPU and between the CPU and external units such as memory and I/O. Control buses generally carry signals between the control unit and other computer components in a clock-driven manner.
  • 4.Processing Unit Design 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Two common parallel models are the so-called SIMD ( Single Instruction, Multiple Data ) and MIMD ( Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data ) models.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The processors discussed earlier are all referred to as some type of scalar device.^ The processors discussed earlier are all referred to as some type of scalar device.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ PCs Glossary impact printer A type of computer printer that uses an ink ribbon and some device to physically bang the ribbon on the paper.
  • How to Choose a Computer Processor - For Dummies 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.dummies.com [Source type: General]

^ Some techniques for speeding up processors are discussed in the this article.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

[17] .As the name implies, vector processors deal with multiple pieces of data in the context of one instruction.^ The first one is the processor, the one that processes the data.
  • Enterprise Java Community: Scalability with GigaSpaces' Processing Units and Spring 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.theserverside.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The name given to a file to distinguish one piece of data from others.
  • http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-9-Manual/glossary/index.html 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.redhat.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This contrasts with scalar processors, which deal with one piece of data for every instruction.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.This contrasts with scalar processors, which deal with one piece of data for every instruction.^ The first one is the processor, the one that processes the data.
  • Enterprise Java Community: Scalability with GigaSpaces' Processing Units and Spring 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.theserverside.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This contrasts with scalar processors, which deal with one piece of data for every instruction.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ As the name implies, vector processors deal with multiple pieces of data in the context of one instruction.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.Using Flynn's taxonomy, these two schemes of dealing with data are generally referred to as SISD (single instruction, single data) and SIMD (single instruction, multiple data), respectively.^ Two common parallel models are the so-called SIMD ( Single Instruction, Multiple Data ) and MIMD ( Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data ) models.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Typical CPUs use what is known as the SISD model: Single Instruction, Single Data .
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ These two schemes of dealing with data are generally referred to as SISD (single instruction, single data) and SIMD (single instruction, multiple data), respectively.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.The great utility in creating CPUs that deal with vectors of data lies in optimizing tasks that tend to require the same operation (for example, a sum or a dot product) to be performed on a large set of data.^ The great utility in creating CPUs that deal with vectors of data lies in optimizing tasks that tend to require the same operation (for example, a sum or a dot product ) to be performed on a large set of data.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ For VMotion purposes, compatible CPUs means that source and target CPUs must have the same manufacturer (AMD or Intel) and be members of the same basic processor family (for example, Pentium 4 or Core), and have a common set of features implemented.
  • VMware KB: VMotion CPU Compatibility - Migrations Prevented Due to CPU Mismatch - How to Override Masks 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC kb.vmware.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For example, in stage four of Figure 4.5 the CPU fetches the source and destination operands in the same step.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.Some classic examples of these types of tasks are multimedia applications (images, video, and sound), as well as many types of scientific and engineering tasks.^ Some classic examples of these types of tasks are multimedia applications (images, video, and sound), as well as many types of scientific and engineering tasks.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ There are speed improvements for Internet applications that use streaming media (sound and video), 3D graphics enhancements for games and design applications, image processing including digital photography, digital video and content creation, speech recognition, engineering and scientific applications, and multitasking applications.
  • Dave's Guide to Buying a Home Computer 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.css.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ About Myricom : Myrinet clusters are used for computationally demanding scientific and engineering applications, and for data-intensive web and database applications.
  • CPU Design HOW-TO 12 October 2009 10:49 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Whereas a scalar CPU must complete the entire process of fetching, decoding, and executing each instruction and value in a set of data, a vector CPU can perform a single operation on a comparatively large set of data with one instruction.^ This means that the CPU executes one instruction at a time that operates on a single piece of data 12 .
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This small set of commands is the CPU's instruction set.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ The fetched instruction is loaded in the IR for execution.
  • 4.Processing Unit Design 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

.Of course, this is only possible when the application tends to require many steps which apply one operation to a large set of data.^ Of course, this is only possible when the application tends to require many steps which apply one operation to a large set of data.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This design minimizes the transfer of data between memory and CPU (all ALU operations are done only on data in CPU registers) and calls for simple instructions that can execute very quickly.
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The great utility in creating CPUs that deal with vectors of data lies in optimizing tasks that tend to require the same operation (for example, a sum or a dot product ) to be performed on a large set of data.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.Most early vector CPUs, such as the Cray-1, were associated almost exclusively with scientific research and cryptography applications.^ Most early vector CPUs, such as the Cray-1 , were associated almost exclusively with scientific research and cryptography applications.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ SilverLite : Silverlight: A few thoughts on minimizing CPU usage The first two suggestions will have the most drastic improvement on the performance of your Silverlight application, and can affect CPU usage , framerate, and application ...

.However, as multimedia has largely shifted to digital media, the need for some form of SIMD in general-purpose CPUs has become significant.^ However, as multimedia has largely shifted to digital media, the need for some form of SIMD in general-purpose CPUs has become significant.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ However, this trend seems to be reversing somewhat now as major general-purpose CPU designers switch back to less deeply pipelined high-TLP designs.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Most modern CPU designs are at least somewhat superscalar, and nearly all general purpose CPUs designed in the last decade are superscalar.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.Shortly after floating point execution units started to become commonplace to include in general-purpose processors, specifications for and implementations of SIMD execution units also began to appear for general-purpose CPUs.^ Shortly after floating point execution units started to become commonplace to include in general-purpose processors, specifications for and implementations of SIMD execution units also began to appear for general-purpose CPUs.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The unit can be configured as an integer unit of a floating-point unit.
  • JP Patent 2007215203 - DATA PROCESSING METHOD AND DATA PROCESSING UNIT, DYNAMIC RECONFIGURATION METHOD OF CONFIGURABLE ELEMENT, SYSTEM AND PROCESS 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.wikipatents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For VMotion purposes, compatible CPUs means that source and target CPUs must have the same manufacturer (AMD or Intel) and be members of the same basic processor family (for example, Pentium 4 or Core), and have a common set of features implemented.
  • VMware KB: VMotion CPU Compatibility - Migrations Prevented Due to CPU Mismatch - How to Override Masks 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC kb.vmware.com [Source type: Reference]

.Some of these early SIMD specifications like HP's Multimedia Acceleration eXtensions (MAX) and Intel's MMX were integer-only.^ Some of these early SIMD specifications like Intel's MMX were integer-only.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Progressively, these early designs were refined and remade into some of the common, modern SIMD specifications, which are usually associated with one ISA. Some notable modern examples are Intel's SSE and the PowerPC-related AltiVec (also known as VMX).
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ However, as multimedia has largely shifted to digital media, the need for some form of SIMD in general-purpose CPUs has become significant.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

.This proved to be a significant impediment for some software developers, since many of the applications that benefit from SIMD primarily deal with floating point numbers.^ This proved to be a significant impediment for some software developers, since many of the applications that benefit from SIMD primarily deal with floating point numbers.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ However, as multimedia has largely shifted to digital media, the need for some form of SIMD in general-purpose CPUs has become significant.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In addition to the operating system and the business software applications, there are many other categories of software that you may or may not want to use on your computer.
  • Dave's Guide to Buying a Home Computer 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.css.msu.edu [Source type: General]

.Progressively, these early designs were refined and remade into some of the common, modern SIMD specifications, which are usually associated with one ISA. Some notable modern examples are Intel's SSE and the PowerPC-related AltiVec (also known as VMX).^ Progressively, these early designs were refined and remade into some of the common, modern SIMD specifications, which are usually associated with one ISA. Some notable modern examples are Intel's SSE and the PowerPC-related AltiVec (also known as VMX).
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Some of these early SIMD specifications like Intel's MMX were integer-only.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ This is evidenced by the proliferation of dual and multi core CMP designs and notably, Intel's newer designs resembling its less superscalar P6 architecture.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

[18]

Performance

.The performance or speed of a processor depends on e.g.^ Gigahertz Defined The speed of a computer depends on the amount of data its processor can manipulate in a given period of time and the processor's clock speed .
  • Dave's Guide to Buying a Home Computer 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.css.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ The clock speed of a CPU (the GHz) has nothing to do with relative performance of the processor...
  • What is the fastest CPU on the market today? 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Before we go into detail on how the cache affects processor performance, lets see how a cache speeds up a web browser.
  • Dave's Guide to Buying a Home Computer 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.css.msu.edu [Source type: General]

the clock rate and the .Instructions Per Clock (IPC), which together are the factors for the Instructions Per Second (IPS) that the CPU can perform.^ The original Intel Pentium (P5) had two superscalar ALUs which could accept one instruction per clock each, but its FPU could not accept one instruction per clock.
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Note that during the execution of the MOV instruction the CPU is not accessing memory on every clock cycle.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ All threads' CPU charge is decayed based on a predefined factor of once per second, as follows: .
  • CPU monitoring and tuning 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] .Many reported IPS values have represented "peak" execution rates on artificial instruction sequences with few branches, whereas realistic workloads consist of a mix of instructions and applications, some of which take longer to execute than others.^ This is the reason the complex instructions take longer to execute.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Is it possible to execute instructions faster than this?
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ This means that certain instruction sequences can execute very quickly while others won't.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

.The performance of the memory hierarchy also greatly affects processor performance, an issue barely considered in MIPS calculations.^ After a calculation is performed, the resulting (newly calculated) number may be retained in a register, or written back to the computer's memory (again, depending on the particular CPU at hand).
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Before we go into detail on how the cache affects processor performance, lets see how a cache speeds up a web browser.
  • Dave's Guide to Buying a Home Computer 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.css.msu.edu [Source type: General]

^ Another factor that affects performance is the “word” size—the number of bits that are fetched at once from memory and on which CPU instructions operate.
  • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Because of these problems, various standardized tests such as SPECint have been developed to attempt to measure the real effective performance in commonly used applications.^ The problem is, these designers lost track of what they were trying to do, or to use the old cliche, they couldn't see the forest for the trees.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ After investigation, we discovered the problem: A developer for another component had installed a signal handler to catch the SIGSEGV signal in the code during the test process.
  • CPU monitoring and tuning 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We plan to discuss the problems and possibilities of this controversial revolution and to discuss strategies for using it to raise everyone's standard of living.
  • CPSR - document_view 12 October 2009 10:49 UTC www.cpsr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Processing performance of computers is increased by using multi-core processors, which essentially is plugging two or more individual processors (called cores in this sense) into one integrated circuit.^ A dedicated partition is one that uses dedicated processors.
  • CPU monitoring and tuning 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All mobile phones run on the so-called embedded chipsets, which are designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions, often with real-time computing constraints.
  • CPU (Central Processing Unit) - Mobile terms glossary - GSMArena.com 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.gsmarena.com [Source type: General]

^ A peripheral that uses light receptors for reading printed material and digitally transferring the information as image objects into a computer system for processing.
  • http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-9-Manual/glossary/index.html 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.redhat.com [Source type: Reference]

[20] .Ideally, a dual core processor would be nearly twice as powerful as a single core processor.^ The performance of NCBI-BLAST is benchmarked on a Linux workstation with an Intel Xeon 3.0 GHz dual-core processor.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | CUDASW++: optimizing Smith-Waterman sequence database searches for CUDA-enabled graphics processing units 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

^ From: Goodgearguide Posted: Dec-18-2006 The Core 2 Duo family of dual core processors was introduced in July 2006 to supersede the aging Pentium 4 and Pentium D models.
  • Cpu Computer - Shop Smarter.com 12 October 2009 10:49 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ From: Pcauthority Posted: Jul-06-2007 In its day, it held the speed crown, but today??s dual-core CPUs leave it trailing for power, efficiency and value.
  • Cpu Computer - Shop Smarter.com 12 October 2009 10:49 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

.In practice, however, the performance gain is far less, only about fifty percent[20], due to, e.g.^ The AIX 5L Practical Performance Tools and Tuning Guide Redbook a comprehensive guide about the performance monitoring and tuning tools that are provided with AIX 5L Version 5.3.
  • CPU monitoring and tuning 9 February 2010 13:20 UTC www.ibm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, there's only so much to be gained from this approach.
  • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ However, the performance is nearly always subscalar (less than one instruction per cycle).
  • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

imperfect software algorithms and implementation.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Weik, Martin H. (1961). A Third Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital Computing Systems. Ballistic Research Laboratories. http://ed-thelen.org/comp-hist/BRL61.html. 
  2. ^ von Neumann, John (1945). First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC. Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania. http://www.virtualtravelog.net/entries/2003-08-TheFirstDraft.pdf. 
  3. ^ While EDVAC was designed a few years before ENIAC was built, ENIAC was actually retrofitted to execute stored programs in 1948, somewhat before EDVAC was completed. Therefore, ENIAC became a stored-program computer before EDVAC was completed, even though stored-program capabilities were originally omitted from ENIAC's design due to cost and schedule concerns.
  4. ^ a b Amdahl, G. M., Blaauw, G. A., & Brooks, F. P. Jr. (1964). Architecture of the IBM System/360. IBM Research. http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/rd/441/amdahl.pdf. 
  5. ^ Digital Equipment Corporation (November 1975). "LSI-11 Module Descriptions". LSI-11, PDP-11/03 user's manual (2nd edition ed.). Maynard, Massachusetts: Digital Equipment Corporation. pp. 4–3. http://www.classiccmp.org/bitsavers/pdf/dec/pdp11/1103/EK-LSI11-TM-002.pdf. 
  6. ^ Since the program counter counts memory addresses and not instructions, it is incremented by the number of memory units that the instruction word contains. In the case of simple fixed-length instruction word ISAs, this is always the same number. For example, a fixed-length 32-bit instruction word ISA that uses 8-bit memory words would always increment the PC by 4 (except in the case of jumps). ISAs that use variable length instruction words,increment the PC by the number of memory words corresponding to the last instruction's length.
  7. ^ Because the instruction set architecture of a CPU is fundamental to its interface and usage, it is often used as a classification of the "type" of CPU. For example, a "PowerPC CPU" uses some variant of the PowerPC ISA. A system can execute a different ISA by running an emulator.
  8. ^ Some early computers like the Harvard Mark I did not support any kind of "jump" instruction, effectively limiting the complexity of the programs they could run. It is largely for this reason that these computers are often not considered to contain a CPU proper, despite their close similarity as stored program computers.
  9. ^ The physical concept of voltage is an analog one by its nature, practically having an infinite range of possible values. For the purpose of physical representation of binary numbers, set ranges of voltages are defined as one or zero. These ranges are usually influenced by the circuit designs and operational parameters of the switching elements used to create the CPU, such as a transistor's threshold level.
  10. ^ While a CPU's integer size sets a limit on integer ranges, this can (and often is) overcome using a combination of software and hardware techniques. By using additional memory, software can represent integers many magnitudes larger than the CPU can. Sometimes the CPU's ISA will even facilitate operations on integers larger than it can natively represent by providing instructions to make large integer arithmetic relatively quick. While this method of dealing with large integers is somewhat slower than utilizing a CPU with higher integer size, it is a reasonable trade-off in cases where natively supporting the full integer range needed would be cost-prohibitive. See Arbitrary-precision arithmetic for more details on purely software-supported arbitrary-sized integers.
  11. ^ In fact, all synchronous CPUs use a combination of sequential logic and combinatorial logic. (See boolean logic)
  12. ^ Brown, Jeffery (2005). "Application-customized CPU design". IBM developerWorks. http://www-128.ibm.com/developerworks/power/library/pa-fpfxbox/?ca=dgr-lnxw07XBoxDesign. Retrieved 2005-12-17. 
  13. ^ Garside, J. D., Furber, S. B., & Chung, S-H (1999). AMULET3 Revealed. University of Manchester Computer Science Department. http://www.cs.manchester.ac.uk/apt/publications/papers/async99_A3.php. 
  14. ^ Neither ILP nor TLP is inherently superior over the other; they are simply different means by which to increase CPU parallelism. As such, they both have advantages and disadvantages, which are often determined by the type of software that the processor is intended to run. High-TLP CPUs are often used in applications that lend themselves well to being split up into numerous smaller applications, so-called "embarrassingly parallel problems." Frequently, a computational problem that can be solved quickly with high TLP design strategies like SMP take significantly more time on high ILP devices like superscalar CPUs, and vice versa.
  15. ^ Huynh, Jack (2003). "The AMD Athlon XP Processor with 512KB L2 Cache". University of Illinois - Urbana-Champaign. pp. 6–11. http://courses.ece.uiuc.edu/ece512/Papers/Athlon.pdf. Retrieved 2007-10-06. 
  16. ^ Best-case scenario (or peak) IPC rates in very superscalar architectures are difficult to maintain since it is impossible to keep the instruction pipeline filled all the time. Therefore, in highly superscalar CPUs, average sustained IPC is often discussed rather than peak IPC.
  17. ^ Earlier the term scalar was used to compare the IPC (instructions per cycle) count afforded by various ILP methods. Here the term is used in the strictly mathematical sense to contrast with vectors. See scalar (mathematics) and Vector (geometric).
  18. ^ Although SSE/SSE2/SSE3 have superseded MMX in Intel's general purpose CPUs, later IA-32 designs still support MMX. This is usually accomplished by providing most of the MMX functionality with the same hardware that supports the much more expansive SSE instruction sets.
  19. ^ "CPU Frequency". CPU World Glossary. CPU World. 25 March 2008. http://www.cpu-world.com/Glossary/C/CPU_Frequency.html. Retrieved 1 January 2010. 
  20. ^ a b "What is (a) multi-core processor?". Data Center Definitions. SearchDataCenter.com. 27 March 2007. http://searchdatacenter.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid80_gci1015740,00.html. Retrieved 1 January 2010. 

References

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  • Hennessy, John A.; Goldberg, David (1996).^ Hennessy, John A.; Goldberg, David (1996).
    • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

    .Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach.^ Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach .
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    ^ J. Hennessy and D. Patterson, Computer Architecture: A Quantitative Approach, Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, CA, 2003.
    • 4.Processing Unit Design 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

    Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. .ISBN 1-55860-329-8. 
  • a Gary D. Knott (1974) A proposal for certain process management and intercommunication primitives ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review.^ The process of loading a computer's operating system.
    • http://www.redhat.com/docs/manuals/linux/RHL-9-Manual/glossary/index.html 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.redhat.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Fail-operational performance means that, after one failure in a system, redundancy management allows the vehicle to continue on its mission.

    ^ Applications software in the BFS has different major functions, GN&C and systems management; but all of its applications software resides in main memory at one time, and the BFS can process software in both major functions simultaneously.

    Volume 8 , Issue 4 (October 1974). pp. 7 - .44
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    • Central processing unit - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Reference]

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    (2005). .MIPS32 Architecture For Programmers Volume II: The MIPS32 Instruction Set.^ Computer Arithmetic 2.Instruction Set Architecture & D… 1.Assembly Language View all presentations from this user More info about this document .
    • 4.Processing Unit Design 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Academic]

    ^ We now examine the instruction set , by which Level 2 programmers can program the machine; if in doubt, we call these macro instructions.
    • The Central Processing Unit (CPU) 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.engr.udayton.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ In the preceding discussion of the standard System/370 instruction set, emphasis was placed on the functional units which are visible to the programmer.

    MIPS Technologies, Inc.. .http://www.mips.com/content/Documentation/MIPSDocumentation/ProcessorArchitecture/doclibrary. 
  • a Smotherman, Mark (2005).^ TrackBack URL for this entry: http://www.typepad.com/services/trackback/6a00d83451b44369e200d8345a822d69e2 .
    • Creating Passionate Users: BrainDeath by Micromanagement: The Zombie Function 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC headrush.typepad.com [Source type: General]

    ^ (The latest version of this document is at http://www.milkywaygalaxy.freeservers.com .
    • CPU Design HOW-TO 12 October 2009 10:49 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ SPARC Organisation http://www.sparc.org SPARC International http://www.sparc.com MIPS RISC CPUs http://www.mips.com Silicon Graphics MIPS Architecture CPUs http://www.sgi.com/processors IDT MIPS Architecture CPUs http://www.idt.com IBM Power PC (motorola) http://www.motorola.com/SPS/PowerPC/index.html Motorola embedded processors.
    • CPU Design HOW-TO 12 October 2009 10:49 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

    "History of Multithreading". .http://www.cs.clemson.edu/~mark/multithreading.html.^ Sources: http://www.cpubenchmark.net/common_cpus.html .
    • What is the fastest CPU on the market today? 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC askville.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Green P [ http://www.phrap.org/phredphrap/swat.html ] webcite .
    • BioMed Central | Full text | CUDASW++: optimizing Smith-Waterman sequence database searches for CUDA-enabled graphics processing units 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ If you are interested, see Introduction to Home Computing (http://www.css.msu.edu/webclass.html).
    • Dave's Guide to Buying a Home Computer 16 September 2009 21:54 UTC www.css.msu.edu [Source type: General]

    Retrieved 2005-12-19
    . 

External links

This audio file was created from a revision dated 2006-06-13, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)
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Microprocessor designers
.
  • Advanced Micro Devices - Advanced Micro Devices, a designer of primarily x86-compatible personal computer CPUs.
  • ARM Ltd - ARM Ltd, one of the few CPU designers that profits solely by licensing their designs rather than manufacturing them.^ Future CPU designs - - - Quantum computing .
    • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ One advanced trick a CPU can employ is to create a bank of registers for each of the general purpose registers on the CPU. That is, rather than having a single EAX register, the CPU could support an array of EAX registers; let's call these registers EAX[0], EAX[1], EAX[2], etc.
    • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

    ^ CPU defaults settings now use P-states rather than FID/VID pairs.
    • Latest News. CPU Rightmark 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cpu.rightmark.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .ARM architecture microprocessors are among the most popular in the world for embedded applications.
  • Freescale Semiconductor (formerly of Motorola) - Freescale Semiconductor, designer of several embedded and SoC PowerPC based processors.
  • IBM Microelectronics - Microelectronics division of IBM, which is responsible for many POWER and PowerPC based designs, including many of the CPUs utilized in late video game consoles.
  • Intel Corp - Intel, a maker of several notable CPU lines, including IA-32 and IA-64.^ Power consumption - - Future CPU designs .
    • computer :: Central processing unit -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Most games are designed for GPU's not CPU stressing.
    • CPU/GPU bottlenecking issue seems like BS to me :) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.evga.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Most Popular CPU page .
    • CPU-World: From Intel 4004 CPUs to AMD K10 and Intel Core 2 CPU families 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cpu-world.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Also a producer of various peripheral chips for use with their CPUs.
  • Microchip Technology Inc. - Microchip, developers of the 8 and 16-bit short pipleine RISC and DSP microcontrollers.
  • MIPS Technologies - MIPS Technologies, developers of the MIPS architecture, a pioneer in RISC designs.
  • NEC Electronics - NEC Electronics, developers of the 78K0 8-bit Architecture, 78K0R 16-bit Architecture, and V850 32-bit Architecture.
  • Sun Microsystems - Sun Microsystems, developers of the SPARC architecture, a RISC design.
  • Texas Instruments - Texas Instruments semiconductor division.^ ELBRUS is now partnered (alliance) with Sun Microsystems of USA. Korean CPU from Samsung 64-bit CPU original from DEC Alpha http://www.samsungsemi.com Alpha-64bit CPU is at http://www.alpha-processor.com Now there is collaboration between Samsumg, Compaq of USA on Alpha CPU Intel IA 64 http://developer.intel.com/design/ia-64 Transmeta crusoe CPU and in near future Transmeta's 64-bit CPU http://www.transmeta.com Sun Ultra-sparc 64-bit CPU http://www.sun.com or http://www.sunmicrosystems.com HAL-Fujitsu (California) Super-Sparc 64-bit processor http://www.hal.com also compatible to Sun's sparc architecture.
    • CPU Design HOW-TO 12 October 2009 10:49 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Contains 8 32-bit general registers, 4 16-bit segment registers, and 2 status/control registers 'flags' and 'ip'.

    ^ However, Intel and HP have extended on the RISC design by using another technology: Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) computing.
    • 4.4 Basic CPU Design 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC webster.cs.ucr.edu [Source type: Reference]

    .Designs and manufactures several types of low-power microcontrollers among their many other semiconductor products.
  • Transmeta - Transmeta Corporation.^ The model is the product name a manufacturer designates to a particular size and feature set for a laptop.

    ^ IBM Stretch Computer MANUFACTURER International Business Machines Corporation Photo by the International Business Machines Corporation APPLICATIONS Engineering development, scientific research, real time processing and control, logistics, procurement and supply, production scheduling and control, and other areas of application.
    • BRL Report 1961 10 February 2010 13:013 UTC ed-thelen.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ I haven’t determined what the “limited” really means, but Samsung has fewer global service locations than many other computer manufacturers.

    Creators of low-power x86 compatibles like Crusoe and Efficeon.
  • VIA Technologies - Taiwanese maker of low-power x86-compatible CPUs.
Further reading

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