The Full Wiki

Ceres (dwarf planet): Wikis

  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ceres  Ceres symbol.svg
Ceres optimized.jpg
Ceres as seen by Hubble Space Telescope (ACS). The contrast has been enhanced to reveal surface details.
Discovery[1]
Discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi
Discovery date 1 January 1801
Designations
MPC designation 1 Ceres
Pronunciation /ˈsɪəriːz/[2][3] or as Latin: Cerēs
Named after Ceres
Alternate name(s) A899 OF; 1943 XB
Minor planet
category
dwarf planet
main belt
Adjective Cererian, Cerian
Epoch June 18, 2009
(JD 2455000.5)
Aphelion 446,669,320 km (2.9858 AU)
Perihelion 380,995,855 km (2.5468 AU)
Semi-major axis 413,832,587 km (2.7663 AU)
Eccentricity 0.07934[4]
Orbital period 1680.5 days
4.60 years
Average orbital speed 17.882 km/s
Mean anomaly 27.448°
Inclination 10.585°[4] to Ecliptic
9.20° to Invariable plane[5]
Longitude of ascending node 80.399°[4]
Argument of perihelion 72.825°[4]
Physical characteristics
Equatorial radius 487.3 ± 1.8 km[6]
Polar radius 454.7 ± 1.6 km[6]
Mass 9.43 ± 0.07 × 1020 kg[7]
Mean density 2.077 ± 0.036 g/cm3[6]
Equatorial surface gravity 0.27 m/s2
0.028 g[8]
Escape velocity 0.51 km/s[8]
Sidereal rotation
period
0.3781 d
9.074170 h[9][10]
Axial tilt about 3°[6]
North pole right ascension 19 h 24 min
291°[6]
North pole declination 59°[6]
Albedo 0.090 ± 0.0033 (V-band geometric)[11]
Surface temp.
   Kelvin
min mean max
? ~167 K[16] 239 K[16]
Spectral type C[12]
Apparent magnitude 6.7[13] to 9.32[14]
Absolute magnitude (H) 3.36 ± 0.02[11]
Angular diameter 0.84"[15] to 0.33"[8]

Ceres, formally designated 1 Ceres, is the smallest identified dwarf planet in the Solar System and the only one in the asteroid belt. It was discovered on 1 January 1801, by Giuseppe Piazzi,[17] and for half a century it was classified as the eighth planet. It is named after Ceres, the Roman goddess of growing plants, the harvest, and motherly love.

With a diameter of about 950 km (590 mi), Ceres is by far the largest and most massive body in the asteroid belt, and contains almost a third (32%) of the belt's total mass.[18][19] Recent observations have revealed that it is spherical, unlike the irregular shapes of smaller bodies with lower gravity.[11] The surface of Ceres is probably a mixture of water ice, and various hydrated minerals such as carbonates and clays.[12] Ceres appears to be differentiated into a rocky core and ice mantle.[6] It may harbour an ocean of liquid water underneath its surface.[20][21]

From the Earth, Ceres' apparent magnitude ranges from 6.7 to 9.3, and hence at its brightest it is still too dim to be seen with the naked eye.[13] On 27 September 2007, NASA launched the Dawn space probe to explore Vesta (2011–2012) and Ceres (2015).[22]

Contents

Discovery

The idea that an undiscovered planet could exist between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter was first suggested by Johann Elert Bode in 1772.[17] His considerations were based on the Titius–Bode law, a now-abandoned theory which had been proposed by Johann Daniel Titius in 1766, observing that there was a regular pattern in the semi-major axes of the known planets marred only by the large gap between Mars and Jupiter.[17][23] The pattern predicted a semi-major axis near 2.8 AU for the missing planet's orbit.[23] William Herschel's discovery of Uranus in 1781[17] near the predicted distance for the next body beyond Saturn increased faith in the law of Titius and Bode, and in 1800, they sent requests to twenty-four experienced astronomers, asking that they combine their efforts and begin a methodical search for the proposed planet.[17][23] The group was headed by Franz Xaver von Zach, editor of the Monatliche Correspondenz. While they did not discover Ceres, they later found several large asteroids.[23]

Piazzi's Book "Della scoperta del nuovo pianeta Cerere Ferdinandea" outlining the discovery of Ceres

One of the astronomers selected for the search was Giuseppe Piazzi at the Academy of Palermo, Sicily. However, before receiving his invitation to join the group, Giuseppe Piazzi discovered Ceres on 1 January 1801.[24] He was searching for a star listed by Francis Wollaston as Mayer 87, because it was not in Mayer's zodiacal catalogue in the position given.[17] Instead of a star, Piazzi found a moving star-like object, which he first thought was a comet.[25] Piazzi observed Ceres a total of 24 times, the final time on 11 February 1801, when illness interrupted his observations. He announced his discovery on 24 January 1801 in letters to only two fellow astronomers, his compatriot Barnaba Oriani of Milan and Johann Bode of Berlin.[26] He reported it as a comet but "since its movement is so slow and rather uniform, it has occurred to me several times that it might be something better than a comet".[17] In April, Piazzi sent his complete observations to Oriani, Johann Elert Bode, and Jérôme Lalande in Paris. The information was published in the September 1801 issue of the Monatliche Correspondenz.[25]

Soon after this, Ceres' apparent position had changed (mostly due to the Earth's orbital motion). It then appeared too close to the Sun's glare, so other astronomers could not confirm the observations of Piazzi until the end of the year. However, after such a long time it was difficult to predict its exact position. To recover Ceres, Carl Friedrich Gauss, then 24 years old, developed an efficient method of orbit determination.[25] He set himself the task of determining a Keplerian motion from three complete observations (time, right ascension, declination). Mathematically, this means determining a conic section in space, given one focus (the sun) and the conic's intersection with three given lines (lines of sight from the earth, which is itself moving on an ellipse, to the planet) and given the time it takes the planet to traverse the arcs determined by these lines (from which the lengths of the arcs can be calculated by Kepler's Second Law). This problem leads to an equation of the eighth degree, of which one solution, the Earth's orbit, is known. The solution sought is then separated from the remaining six based on physical conditions. In this work Gauss used comprehensive approximation methods which he created for that purpose.[27] In only a few weeks, he predicted its path and sent his results to von Zach. On 31 December 1801, von Zach and Heinrich W. M. Olbers found Ceres near the predicted position and thus recovered it.[25]

The diameter of Ceres was estimated as 260 km by Herschel in 1802, and as 2,613 km by Johann Hieronymus Schröter in 1811.[28][29]

Name

Piazzi originally suggested the name Ceres Ferdinandea (Italian, Cerere Ferdinandea) for this body, after both the mythological figure Ceres (Roman goddess of plants) and King Ferdinand of Two Sicilies.[17][25] "Ferdinandea" was not acceptable to other nations of the world and was thus dropped. Ceres was also called Hera for a short time in Germany.[30] In Greece, it is called Δήμητρα (Demeter), after the goddess Ceres' Greek equivalent; in English usage, Demeter is the name of an asteroid (1108 Demeter). Due to its uncommon usage, there is no consensus as to the proper adjectival form of the name, although the nonce forms Cerian and Cerean[19] have been used in fiction. Etymologically, the form Cererean would be correct, derived from its Latin genitive, Cereris.[31] Ceres' astronomical symbol is a sickle, (Sickle variant symbol of Ceres), similar to Venus' symbol (Astronomical symbol of Venus) which is the female gender symbol and Venus' hand mirror.[25][32] The element cerium, discovered in 1803, was named after Ceres.[33] The element palladium, also discovered in 1803, was originally also named after Ceres, but the discoverer changed its name after cerium was named. Palladium was renamed for 2 Pallas, the asteroid discovered in 1802.[34]

Status

Ceres (bottom left), the Moon and the Earth, shown to scale.

The classification of Ceres has changed more than once and has been the subject of some disagreement. Johann Elert Bode believed Ceres to be the "missing planet" he had proposed to exist between Mars and Jupiter, at a distance of 419 million km (2.8 AU) from the Sun.[17] Ceres was assigned a planetary symbol, and remained listed as a planet in astronomy books and tables (along with 2 Pallas, 3 Juno and 4 Vesta) for about half a century until further asteroids were discovered.[17][25][35]

However, as other objects were discovered in the area it was realised that Ceres represented the first of a class of many similar bodies.[17] In 1802 Sir William Herschel coined the term asteroid ("star-like") for such bodies,[35] writing "they resemble small stars so much as hardly to be distinguished from them, even by very good telescopes".[36] As the first such body to be discovered, it was given the designation 1 Ceres under the modern system of asteroid numbering.[35]

The 2006 debate surrounding Pluto and what constitutes a 'planet' led to Ceres being considered for reclassification as a planet.[37][38] A proposal before the International Astronomical Union for the definition of a planet would have defined a planet as "a celestial body that (a) has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape, and (b) is in orbit around a star, and is neither a star nor a satellite of a planet".[39] Had this resolution been adopted, it would have made Ceres the fifth planet in order from the Sun.[40] However, it was not accepted, and in its place an alternate definition of "planet" came into effect as of 24 August 2006: A planet is "a celestial body that is in orbit around the sun, has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a ... nearly round shape, and has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit." By this definition, Ceres is not a planet because it shares its orbit with the thousands of other asteroids in the main belt and is now classified as a "dwarf planet" (along with Pluto, Makemake, Haumea and Eris). The issue of whether Ceres remains an asteroid was not addressed.[41] Dual classifications such as main-belt comets do exist, and being a dwarf planet does not preclude having other designations.[42]

Physical characteristics

Sizes of the first 10 minor planets discovered profiled against Earth's Moon. Ceres is far left.
Hubble Space Telescope images of Ceres, taken in 2003/4 with a resolution of about 30 km. The nature of the bright spot is uncertain.

Ceres is the largest object in the asteroid belt, which lies between Mars and Jupiter.[12] The Kuiper belt is known to contain larger objects, including Pluto, 50000 Quaoar, and 90482 Orcus, while more distant Eris, in the scattered disc, is the largest of all these bodies.[43]

The mass of Ceres has been determined by analysis of the influence it exerts on small asteroids. Results obtained by different authors are slightly different.[44] The average of the three most precise values as of 2008 is approximately 9.4 × 1020 kg.[7][44] With this mass Ceres comprises about a third of the estimated total 3.0 ± 0.2 × 1021 kg mass of the asteroids in the solar system,[45] together totalling about four percent of the mass of the Moon. Ceres' size and mass are sufficient to give it a nearly spherical shape.[6] That is, it is close to hydrostatic equilibrium. In contrast, other large asteroids such as 2 Pallas,[46] 3 Juno,[47] 4 Vesta[48] and in particular 10 Hygiea[49] are known to be quite irregular.

Internal structure

Peter Thomas of Cornell University has proposed that Ceres has a differentiated interior;[6] its oblateness appears too small for an undifferentiated body, which indicates that it consists of a rocky core overlain with an icy mantle.[6] This 100 km-thick mantle (23–28 percent of Ceres by mass; 50 percent by volume[50]) contains 200 million cubic kilometres of water, which is more than the amount of fresh water on the Earth.[51] This result is supported by the observations made by the Keck telescope in 2002 and by evolutionary modelling.[7][20] Also, some characteristics of its surface and history (such as its distance from the Sun, which weakened solar radiation enough to allow some fairly low-freezing-point components to be incorporated during its formation), point to the presence of volatile materials in the interior of Ceres.[7]

Alternatively, the shape and dimensions of Ceres may be explained by an interior that is porous and either partially differentiated or completely undifferentiated. The presence of a layer of rock on top of ice would be gravitationally unstable. If any of the rock deposits sank into a layer of differentiated ice, salt deposits would be formed. Such deposits have not been detected. Thus it is possible that Ceres does not contain a large ice shell, but was instead formed from low density asteroids with an aqueous component. The decay of radioactive isotopes may not have been sufficient to cause differentiation.[52]

Surface

The surface composition of Ceres is broadly similar to that of C-type asteroids.[12] However, some differences do exist. The ubiquitous features in the IR spectra of Ceres are that of hydrated materials, which indicates the presence of significant amounts of water in the interior of this body. Other possible surface constituents include iron-rich clays (cronstedtite) and carbonate minerals (dolomite and siderite), which are common minerals in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites.[12] The spectral features of carbonates and clay are usually absent in the spectra of other C-type asteroids.[12] Sometimes Ceres is classified as G-type asteroid.[53]

The surface of Ceres is relatively warm. The maximum temperature with the Sun overhead was estimated from measurements to be 235 K (about −38 °C) on 5 May 1991.[16] Taking into account the heliocentric distance at the time, this gives an estimated maximum of about 239 K at perihelion.

Diagram showing a possible internal structure of Ceres

Only a few features have been unambiguously detected on the surface of Ceres. High resolution ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope images taken in 1995 showed a dark spot on its surface which was nicknamed "Piazzi" in honour of the discoverer of Ceres.[53] This was thought to be a crater. Later near-infrared images with a higher resolution taken over a whole rotation with the Keck telescope using adaptive optics showed several bright and dark features moving with the dwarf planet's rotation.[7][54] Two dark features had circular shapes and are presumably craters; one of them was observed to have a bright central region, while another was identified as the "Piazzi" feature.[7][54] More recent visible light Hubble Space Telescope images of a full rotation taken in 2003 and 2004 showed 11 recognizable surface features, the nature of which are currently unknown.[11][55] One of these features corresponds to the "Piazzi" feature observed earlier.[11]

These last observations also determined that Ceres' north pole points in the direction of right ascension 19 h 24 min (291°), declination +59°, in the constellation Draco. This means that Ceres' axial tilt is very small—about 3°.[6][11]

Atmosphere

There are indications that Ceres may have a tenuous atmosphere and water frost on the surface.[56] Surface water ice is not stable at distances less than 5 AU from the Sun,[57] so it is expected to sublime if it is exposed directly to solar radiation. Water ice can migrate from the deep layers of Ceres to the surface, but will escape in a very short time. As a result, it is difficult to detect water vaporization. Water escaping from Ceres's polar regions was possibly observed in the early 1990s but this has not been unambiguously proven. It may be possible to detect escaping water from the surroundings of a fresh impact crater or from cracks in the sub-surface layers of Ceres.[7] Ultraviolet observations by IUE spacecraft detected statistically significant amounts of the hydroxide ion near the Cererean north pole, which is a product of water vapour dissociation by the solar ultraviolet radiation.[56]

Orbit

Orbit of Ceres

Ceres follows an orbit between Mars and Jupiter, within the main asteroid belt, with a period of 4.6 Earth years. The orbit is moderately inclined (i = 10.6° compared to 7° for Mercury and 17° for Pluto) and moderately eccentric (e = 0.08 compared to 0.09 for Mars).[4]

The diagram illustrates the orbits of Ceres (blue) and several planets (white and grey). The segments of orbits below the ecliptic are plotted in darker colours, and the orange plus sign is the Sun's location. The top left diagram is a polar view that shows the location of Ceres in the gap between Mars and Jupiter. The top right is a close-up demonstrating the locations of the perihelia (q) and aphelia (Q) of Ceres and Mars. The perihelion of Mars is on the opposite side of the Sun from those of Ceres and several of the large main belt asteroids, including 2 Pallas and 10 Hygiea. The bottom diagram is a side view showing the inclination of the orbit of Ceres compared to the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

In the past, Ceres had been considered to be a member of an asteroid family.[58] These groupings of asteroids share similar orbital elements, which may indicate a common origin through an asteroid collision some time in the past. Ceres, however, was found to have spectral properties different from other members of the family, and so this grouping is now called the Gefion family, named after the next-lowest-numbered family member, 1272 Gefion.[58] Ceres appears to be merely an interloper in its own family, coincidentally having similar orbital elements but not a common origin.[59] The rotational period of Ceres is 9 hours and 4 minutes.[9]

Transits of planets from Ceres

Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars can all appear to cross the Sun, or transit it, from a vantage on Ceres. The most common transits are those of Mercury, which usually happens every few years, most recently in 2006 and next in 2010. The corresponding dates are 1953 and 2051 for Venus, 1814 and 2081 for Earth, and 767 and 2684 for Mars.[60]

Origin and evolution

Ceres is likely a surviving protoplanet (planetary embryo), which formed 4.57 billion years ago in the asteroid belt.[61] While the majority of inner solar system protoplanets (including all lunar- to Mars-sized bodies) either merged with other protoplanets to form terrestrial planets or were ejected from the Solar System by Jupiter,[61] Ceres is believed to have survived relatively intact.[20] (Another possible protoplanet, Vesta, is smaller; it suffered a major impact after solidifying, losing ~1% of its mass.[48]) An alternative theory proposes that Ceres formed in the Kuiper Belt and later migrated to the asteroid belt.[62]

The geological evolution of Ceres was dependent on the heat sources available during and after its formation: friction from planetesimal accretion, and decay of various radionuclides (possibly including short-lived elements like 26Al). These are thought to have been sufficient to allow Ceres to differentiate into a rocky core and icy mantle soon after its formation.[11][20] This process may have caused resurfacing by water volcanism and tectonics, erasing older geological features.[20] Due to its small size, Ceres would have cooled early in its existence, causing all geological resurfacing processes to cease.[20][21] Any ice on the surface would have gradually sublimated, leaving behind various hydrated minerals like clays and carbonates.[12]

Today, Ceres appears to be a geologically inactive body, with a surface sculpted only by impacts.[11] The presence of significant amounts of water ice in its composition[6] raises the possibility that Ceres has or had a layer of liquid water in its interior.[20][21] This hypothetical layer is often called an ocean.[12] If such a layer of liquid water exists, it is believed to be located between the rocky core and ice mantle like that of the theorized ocean on Europa.[20] The existence of an ocean is more likely if ammonia or other antifreeze compounds are dissolved in the water.[20]

Observations

When Ceres has an opposition near the perihelion, it can reach a visual magnitude of +6.7.[13] This is generally regarded as too dim to be seen with the naked eye, but under exceptional viewing conditions a very sharp-sighted person may be able to see this dwarf planet. Ceres will be at its brightest (6.73) on December 18, 2012.[14] The only other asteroids that can reach a similarly bright magnitude are 4 Vesta, and, during rare oppositions near perihelion, 2 Pallas and 7 Iris.[63] At a conjunction Ceres has a magnitude of around +9.3, which corresponds to the faintest objects visible with 10×50 binoculars. It can thus be seen with binoculars whenever it is above the horizon of a fully dark sky.

Some notable observational milestones for Ceres include:

Exploration

Depiction of Dawn firing its ion thruster en route to Ceres

To date, no space probe has visited Ceres. Radio signals from spacecraft in orbit around and on the surface of Mars have been used to estimate the mass of Ceres from its perturbations on the motion of Mars.[45]

The unmanned Dawn Mission is currently en route to Ceres. Launched by NASA in 2007, the mission will explore the asteroid 4 Vesta in 2011 before arriving at Ceres in 2015.[22] The mission profile calls for the Dawn spacecraft to enter orbit around Ceres at an altitude of 5,900 km. The spacecraft will reduce its orbital distance to 1,300 km after five months of study, and then down to 700 km after another five months.[66] The spacecraft instrumentation includes a framing camera, a visual and infrared spectrometer, and a gamma-ray and neutron detector. These instruments will be used to examine the dwarf planet's shape and elemental composition.[22]

See also

References

  1. ^ Schmadel, Lutz (2003). Dictionary of minor planet names (fifth ed.). Germany: Springer. p. 15. ISBN 3-540-00238-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=KWrB1jPCa8AC&pg=PA15. Retrieved 2008-12-30. 
  2. ^ In US dictionary transcription, us dict: sēr′·ēz.
  3. ^ "Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1)". Random House, Inc.. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ceres. Retrieved 2007-09-26. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Yeomans, Donald K. (July 5, 2007). "1 Ceres". JPL Small-Body Database Browser. http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi?sstr=Ceres;orb=1. Retrieved 2009-04-10. —The listed values were rounded at the magnitude of uncertainty (1-sigma).
  5. ^ "The MeanPlane (Invariable plane) of the Solar System passing through the barycenter". 2009-04-03. http://home.comcast.net/~kpheider/MeanPlane.gif. Retrieved 2009-04-10.  (produced with Solex 10 written by Aldo Vitagliano; see also Invariable plane)
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Thomas, P. C.; Parker, J. Wm.; McFadden, L. A.; et al. (2005). "Differentiation of the asteroid Ceres as revealed by its shape". Nature 437 (7056): 224–226. doi:10.1038/nature03938. PMID 16148926. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Natur.437..224T. Retrieved 2007-12-09. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Carry, Benoit; et al. (November 2007). "Near-Infrared Mapping and Physical Properties of the Dwarf-Planet Ceres" (PDF). Astronomy & Astrophysics 478: 235–244. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078166. http://www2.keck.hawaii.edu/inst/people/conrad/nsfGrantRef/2007-arXiv-Benoit.Carry.pdf. 
  8. ^ a b c Calculated based on the known parameters
  9. ^ a b Williams, David R. (2004). Asteroid Fact Sheet. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/asteroidfact.html. 
  10. ^ Chamberlain, Matthew A.; Sykes, Mark V.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A. (2007). "Ceres lightcurve analysis – Period determination". Icarus 188: 451–456. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.11.025. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007Icar..188..451C. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Li, Jian-Yang; McFadden, Lucy A.; Parker, Joel Wm. (2006). Icar.182.143.pdf "Photometric analysis of 1 Ceres and surface mapping from HST observations" (PDF). Icarus 182: 143–160. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.12.012. http://www.astro.umd.edu/~jyli/publications/2006. Icar.182.143.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-08. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Rivkin, A. S.; Volquardsen, E. L.; Clark, B. E. (2006). "The surface composition of Ceres:Discovery of carbonates and iron-rich clays" (PDF). Icarus 185: 563–567. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.08.022. http://irtfweb.ifa.hawaii.edu/~elv/icarus185.563.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-08. 
  13. ^ a b c Menzel, Donald H.; and Pasachoff, Jay M. (1983). A Field Guide to the Stars and Planets (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. p. 391. ISBN 0395348358. 
  14. ^ a b APmag and AngSize generated with Horizons (Ephemeris: Observer Table: Quantities = 9,13,20,29)
  15. ^ Ceres Angular Size @ Feb 2009 Opposition: 974 km diam. / (1.58319 AU * 149 597 870 km) * 206265 = 0.84"
  16. ^ a b c Saint-Pé, O.; Combes, N.; Rigaut F. (1993). "Ceres surface properties by high-resolution imaging from Earth". Icarus 105: 271–281. doi:10.1006/icar.1993.1125. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Icar..105..271S. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Hoskin, Michael (1992-06-26). "Bodes' Law and the Discovery of Ceres". Observatorio Astronomico di Palermo "Giuseppe S. Vaiana". http://www.astropa.unipa.it/HISTORY/hoskin.html. Retrieved 2007-07-05. 
  18. ^ Pitjeva, E. V.; Precise determination of the motion of planets and some astronomical constants from modern observations, in Kurtz, D. W. (Ed.), Proceedings of IAU Colloquium No. 196: Transits of Venus: New Views of the Solar System and Galaxy, 2004
  19. ^ a b Moomaw, Bruce (2007-07-02). "Ceres As An Abode Of Life". spaceblooger.com. http://www.spaceblogger.com/reports/Ceres_As_An_Abode_Of_Life_999.html. Retrieved 2007-11-06. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i McCord, Thomas B. (2005). "Ceres: Evolution and current state". Journal of Geophysical Research 110: E05009. doi:10.1029/2004JE002244. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JGRE..11005009M. 
  21. ^ a b c Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; McCord, T. B.; and Davis, A. G. (2007). "Ceres: evolution and present state" (PDF). Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVIII: 2006–2007. http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2007/pdf/2006.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  22. ^ a b c Russel, C. T.; Capaccioni, F.; Coradini, A.; et al. (2006). "Dawn Discovery mission to Vesta and Ceres: Present status". Advances in Space Research 38: 2043–2048. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2004.12.041. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AdSpR..38.2043R. 
  23. ^ a b c d Hogg, Helen Sawyer (1948). "The Titius-Bode Law and the Discovery of Ceres". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada 242: 241–246. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1948JRASC..42..241S. 
  24. ^ Hoskin, Michael (1999). The Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy. Cambridge University press. p. 160–161. ISBN 0521576008. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g Forbes, Eric G. (1971). "Gauss and the Discovery of Ceres". Journal for the History of Astronomy 2: 195–199. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1971JHA.....2..195F. 
  26. ^ The First Asteroid by Clifford J. Cunningham, 2001
  27. ^ Klein, Felix; Hermann, Robert (1979). Development of mathematics in the 19th century. Math Sci Press. ISBN 9780915692286. 
  28. ^ Hilton, James L. "Asteroid Masses and Densities" (PDF). U.S. Naval Observatory. http://www.lpi.usra.edu/books/AsteroidsIII/pdf/3008.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-23. 
  29. ^ Hughes, D. W. (1994). "The Historical Unravelling of the Diameters of the First Four Asteroids". R.A.S. Quarterly Journal 35 (3): 331. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1994QJRAS..35..331H. (Page 335)
  30. ^ Foderà Serio, G.; Manara, A.; Sicoli, P. (2002). "Giuseppe Piazzi and the Discovery of Ceres". in W. F. Bottke Jr., A. Cellino, P. Paolicchi, and R. P. Binzel (PDF). Asteroids III. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press. pp. 17–24. http://www.lpi.usra.edu/books/AsteroidsIII/pdf/3027.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  31. ^ Simpson, D. P. (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary (5 ed.). London: Cassell Ltd. p. 883. ISBN 0-304-52257-0. 
  32. ^ Gould, B. A. (1852). "On the symbolic notation of the asteroids". Astronomical Journal 2 (34): 80. doi:10.1086/100212. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1852AJ......2...80G. Retrieved 2007-07-05. 
  33. ^ Staff. "Cerium: historical information". Adaptive Optics. http://www.webelements.com/cerium/history.html. Retrieved 2007-04-27. 
  34. ^ "Amalgamator Features 2003: 200 Years Ago". 2003-10-30. http://alchemy.chem.uwm.edu/amalgamator/features/feat2003/features.html#yag. Retrieved 2006-08-21. 
  35. ^ a b c Hilton, James L. (2001-09-17). "When Did the Asteroids Become Minor Planets?". http://aa.usno.navy.mil/faq/docs/minorplanets.php. Retrieved 2006-08-16. 
  36. ^ Herschel, William (May 6, 1802). "Observations on the two lately discovered celestial Bodies.". http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0261-0523%281802%2992%3C213%3AOOTTLD%3E2.0.CO%3B2-R. 
  37. ^ Battersby, Stephen (2006-08-16). "Planet debate: Proposed new definitions". New Scientist. http://space.newscientist.com/article/dn9762. Retrieved 2007-04-27. 
  38. ^ Connor, Steve (2006-08-16). "Solar system to welcome three new planets". NZ Herald. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/section/story.cfm?c_id=5&ObjectID=10396493. Retrieved 2007-04-27. 
  39. ^ Gingerich, Owen; et al. (2006-08-16). "The IAU draft definition of "Planet" and "Plutons"". IAU. http://www.iau.org/iau0601.424.0.html. Retrieved 2007-04-27. 
  40. ^ Staff Writers (2006-08-16). "The IAU Draft Definition Of Planets And Plutons". SpaceDaily. http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/The_IAU_Draft_Definition_Of_Planets_And_Plutons_999.html. Retrieved 2007-04-27. 
  41. ^ "Question and answers 2". IAU. http://www.iau.org/Q_A2.415.0.html. Retrieved 2008-01-31. —Q: What is Ceres? "Ceres is (or now we can say it was)" – but note it then talks about "other asteroids" crossing Ceres' path.
  42. ^ Spahr, T. B. (2006-09-07). "MPEC 2006-R19: EDITORIAL NOTICE". Minor Planet Center. http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/mpec/K06/K06R19.html. Retrieved 2008-01-31. "the numbering of "dwarf planets" does not preclude their having dual designations in possible separate catalogues of such bodies." 
  43. ^ Stansberry, J.; Grundy, W.; Brown, M.; et al. (2007-11-05) (subscription required). Physical Properties of Kuiper Belt and Centaur Objects: Constraints from Spitzer Space Telescope. http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0702538. Retrieved 2007-12-08. 
  44. ^ a b Kovacevic, A.; Kuzmanoski, M. (2007). "A New Determination of the Mass of (1) Ceres". Earth, Moon, and Planets 100: 117–123. doi:10.1007/s11038-006-9124-4. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EM&P..100..117K. Retrieved 2007-12-08. 
  45. ^ a b Pitjeva, E. V. (2005). "High-Precision Ephemerides of Planets—EPM and Determination of Some Astronomical Constants" (PDF). Solar System Research 39 (3): 176. doi:10.1007/s11208-005-0033-2. http://iau-comm4.jpl.nasa.gov/EPM2004.pdf. Retrieved 2007-12-09. 
  46. ^ Carry, B.; Kaasalainen, M.; Dumas, C.; et al. (2007). JournalClub-2007.08.14-BenoitCARRY.pdf "Asteroid 2 Pallas Physical Properties from Near-Infrared High-Angular Resolution Imagery" (PDF). ISO (ESO Planetary Group: Journal Club). http://www.sc.eso.org/santiago/science/PlanetaryGroup/journal_club/slides/ESO. JournalClub-2007.08.14-BenoitCARRY.pdf. Retrieved 2007-11-05. 
  47. ^ Kaasalainen, M.; Torppa, J.; Piironen, J. (2002). "Models of Twenty Asteroids from Photometric Data" (PDF). Icarus 159: 369–395. doi:10.1006/icar.2002.6907. http://www.rni.helsinki.fi/~mjk/IcarPIII.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  48. ^ a b Thomas, Peter C.; Binzel, Richard P.; Gaffey, Michael J.; et al. (1997). "Impact Excavation on Asteroid 4 Vesta: Hubble Space Telescope Results". Science 277: 1492–1495. doi:10.1126/science.277.5331.1492. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/277/5331/1492. Retrieved 2007-12-08. 
  49. ^ Barucci, M (2002). "10 Hygiea: ISO Infrared Observations". Icarus 156: 202. doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6775. 
  50. ^ 0.72–0.77 anhydrous rock by mass, per William B. McKinnon, 2008, "On The Possibility Of Large KBOs Being Injected Into The Outer Asteroid Belt". American Astronomical Society, DPS meeting #40, #38.03[1]
  51. ^ Carey, Bjorn (7 September 2005). "Largest Asteroid Might Contain More Fresh Water than Earth". SPACE.com. http://space.com/scienceastronomy/050907_ceres_planet.html. Retrieved 2006-08-16. 
  52. ^ Zolotov, M. Y. (December 2008). "Is Ceres Differentiated?". American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2008. Bibcode2008AGUFM.P51C1424Z. 
  53. ^ a b c Parker, J. W.; Stern, Alan S.; Thomas Peter C.; et al. (2002). "Analysis of the first disk-resolved images of Ceres from ultraviolet observations with the Hubble Space Telescope". The Astrophysical Journal 123: 549–557. doi:10.1086/338093. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AJ....123..549P. 
  54. ^ a b c Staff (2006-10-11). "Keck Adaptive Optics Images the Dwarf Planet Ceres". Adaptive Optics. http://www.adaptiveoptics.org/News_1006_2.html. Retrieved 2007-04-27. 
  55. ^ a b "Largest Asteroid May Be 'Mini Planet' with Water Ice". HubbleSite. 2005-09-07. http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/newsdesk/archive/releases/2005/27/. Retrieved 2006-08-16. 
  56. ^ a b A'Hearn, Michael F.; Feldman, Paul D. (1992). "Water vaporization on Ceres". Icarus 98: 54–60. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(92)90206-M. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992Icar...98...54A. Retrieved 2007-12-08. 
  57. ^ "Hubble Directly Observes Planet Orbiting Fomalhaut". Hubblesite. 2008-11-13. http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2008/39/full/. Retrieved 2009-07-02. 
  58. ^ a b Cellino, A.; et al.; "Spectroscopic Properties of Asteroid Families", in Asteroids III, pp. 633–643, University of Arizona Press (2002). (Table on page 636, in particular).
  59. ^ Kelley, M. S.; Gaffey, M. J. (1996). "A Genetic Study of the Ceres (Williams #67) Asteroid Family". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 28: 1097. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996BAAS...28R1097K. Retrieved 2007-04-27. 
  60. ^ "Solex". http://chemistry.unina.it/~alvitagl/solex/. Retrieved 2009-03-03 numbers generated by Solex. 
  61. ^ a b Petit, Jean-Marc; Morbidelli, Alessandro (2001). "The Primordial Excitation and Clearing of the Asteroid Belt" (PDF). Icarus 153: 338–347. doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6702. http://www.gps.caltech.edu/classes/ge133/reading/asteroids.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-25. 
  62. ^ About a 10% chance of the asteroid belt acquiring a Ceres-mass KBO. William B. McKinnon, 2008, "On The Possibility Of Large KBOs Being Injected Into The Outer Asteroid Belt". American Astronomical Society, DPS meeting #40, #38.03[2]
  63. ^ Martinez, Patrick, The Observer's Guide to Astronomy, page 298. Published 1994 by Cambridge University Press
  64. ^ Millis, L. R.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. Z.; et al. (1987). "The size, shape, density, and albedo of Ceres from its occultation of BD+8 deg 471". Icarus 72: 507–518. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(87)90048-0. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987Icar...72..507M. 
  65. ^ "Observations reveal curiosities on the surface of asteroid Ceres". http://www.swri.org/press/ceres.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-16. 
  66. ^ Rayman, Marc (2006-07-13). "Dawn: mission description". UCLA—IGPP Space Physics Center. http://www-ssc.igpp.ucla.edu/dawn/mission.html. Retrieved 2007-04-27. 

Ephemerides

External links








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message