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Autonomous City of Ceuta
Ciudad Autónoma de Ceuta
—  Autonomous City  —
Flag of Ceuta
Flag
Coat-of-arms of Ceuta
Coat of arms
Map of Ceuta
Coordinates: 35°53′N 5°19′W / 35.883°N 5.317°W / 35.883; -5.317Coordinates: 35°53′N 5°19′W / 35.883°N 5.317°W / 35.883; -5.317
Capital Ceuta
Government
 - President Juan Jesús Vivas Lara (PP)
Area (0.0056 of Spain; Ranked)
 - Total 19.5 km2 (7.5 sq mi)
Population (2006)
 - Total 78,320
 - Density 4,016.4/km2 (10,402.5/sq mi)
ISO 3166-2 ES-CE
Parliament Cortes Generales
Congress seats 1
Senate seats 2
Website Ciudad Autónoma de Ceuta

Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain located on the North African side of the Strait of Gibraltar, on the Mediterranean, which separates it from the Spanish mainland. The area of Ceuta is approximately 19 square kilometres (7.3 sq mi).

Ceuta is dominated by a hill called Monte Hacho, on which there is a fort used by the Spanish army. Monte Hacho is one of the possible locations for the southern of the Pillars of Hercules of Greek legend, the other possibility being Jebel Musa.

The city, together with the other autonomous city of Melilla and a number of Mediterranean islands, is claimed by Morocco.

Contents

History

Moat of the Royal Wall of Ceuta.
A beach in Ceuta

Ceuta's strategic location has made it the crucial waypoint of the trade and military ventures of many cultures — beginning with the Carthaginians in the 5th century BC, who called the city Abyla. It was not until the Romans took control in about A.D. 42 that the port city (then named Septem) assumed an almost exclusive military purpose. Approximately 400 years later, the Vandals ousted the Romans from control. Later it would fall to the Visigoths of Hispania and the Byzantines.[1]

In 710, as Muslim armies approached the city, its governor Julian, count of Ceuta, (also described as "king of the Ghomara") changed sides and urged them to invade the Iberian Peninsula. Under the leadership of Berber general Tariq ibn Ziyad, Ceuta was used as a prime staging ground for an assault on Visigothic Hispania soon after.

After Julian's death the Arabs took direct control of the city; this was resented by the surrounding indigenous Berber tribes, who destroyed it in a Kharijite rebellion led by Maysara al-Haqir in 740. It lay in waste until refounded in the 9th century by Majakas, chief of the Majkasa Berber tribe, who started the short-lived dynasty of the Banu Isam. Under his great-grandson they briefly paid allegiance to the Idrisids. The dynasty finally ended when he abdicated in favour of the Umayyad Caliph of Cordoba Abd ar-Rahman III in 931, so the city returned to the Hispanic Andalusian rule like Melilla in 927 and Tanger in 951.

Chaos ensued with the fall of the Umayyad caliphate in 1031, but eventually Ceuta, together with the rest of Muslim Spain, was taken over by the Almoravids in 1084. The Almoravids were succeeded by the Almohads who conquered Ceuta in 1147 ruling it, apart from Ibn Hud's rebellion of 1232, until the Hafsids of Tunisia took it in 1242. The Hafsids' influence in the west rapidly waned, and the city expelled them in 1249. After this, it went through a period of political instability during which the city was disputed between the Kingdom of Fez and the Kingdom of Granada. In 1387, Ceuta was conquered for the last time by the Kingdom of Fez, with Aragonese help.

The City of Ceuta

In 1415, during the Battle of Ceuta, the city was captured by the Portuguese during the reign of John I of Portugal. After the King of Spain seized the Portuguese throne in 1580, the majority of the population of Ceuta became of Spanish origin. Thus Ceuta became the only city of the Portuguese Empire that sided with Spain when Portugal regained its independence in 1640 and war broke out between the two countries.

The formal allegiance of Ceuta to Spain was recognized by the Treaty of Lisbon by which, on January 1, 1668, King Afonso VI of Portugal formally ceded Ceuta to Carlos II of Spain. However, the originally Portuguese flag and coat of arms of Ceuta remained unchanged and the modern-day Ceuta flag features the configuration of the Portuguese shield. The flag's background is also the same as that of the flag of Lisbon.

When Spain recognized the independence of Spanish Morocco in 1956, Ceuta and the other plazas de soberanía remained under Spanish rule as they were considered integral parts of the Spanish state. Culturally, modern Ceuta is considered part of the Spanish region of Andalusia. Indeed, it was attached to the province of Cádiz until 1925 — the Spanish coast being only 20 km away. It is a cosmopolitan city, with a large ethnic Berber Muslim minority as well as Sephardic Jewish and Hindu[2] minorities.

On November 5, 2007, King Juan Carlos I visited the city, sparking great enthusiasm from the local population and protests from the Moroccan government.[3] It was the first time a Spanish head of state had visited Ceuta in 80 years.

Administration

Map of Ceuta (Perejil islet is just off the coast, to the left of the image)

Ceuta is known officially in Spanish as Ciudad Autónoma de Ceuta (lit., Autonomous City of Ceuta), with a rank between a standard Spanish city and an autonomous community.

Ceuta is part of the territory of the European Union. The city was a free port before Spain joined the European Union in 1986. Now it has a low-tax system within the European Monetary System. As of 2006, its population was 75,861.

Ceuta does not have an airport. There is, however, a regular helicopter service from Ceuta Heliport linking it to Málaga Airport. All other access to and from Ceuta is by ferry or land.

Political status

A sign welcoming visitors to Ceuta, showing the flags of Ceuta, Spain and the European Union.

Since 1995, Ceuta is, along with Melilla, one of the two autonomous cities of Spain.[4]

The government of Morocco has repeatedly called for Spain to transfer the sovereignty of Ceuta and Melilla, along with uninhabited islets such as the islands of Alhuceima, Velez and the Perejil islet Isla Perejil, drawing comparisons with Spain's territorial claim to Gibraltar. In both cases, the national governments and local populations of the disputed territories reject these claims by a large majority. The Spanish position states that both Ceuta and Melilla are integral parts of the Spanish state, and have been since the 15th century, centuries before than Morocco's independence from Spain in 1956, whereas Gibraltar, being a British Overseas Territory, is not and never has been part of the United Kingdom.[5] Morocco denies these claims and maintains that the Spanish presence in Ceuta and the other presidios on its coast is a remnant of the colonial past which should be ended. However, the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories do not consider those Spanish territories to be colonies, whereas it does declare Gibraltar as a non-decolonized territory.

Ceuta is subdivided into 63 barriadas (neighborhoods), such as Barriada de Berizu, Barriada de P. Alfonso, Barriada del Sarchal, and El Hacho.[6][7][8]

Climate

Weather data for Ceuta
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 14
(57)
15
(59)
16
(61)
17
(63)
19
(66)
22
(72)
25
(77)
25
(77)
23
(73)
20
(68)
17
(63)
15
(59)
19
(66)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13
(55)
13
(55)
15
(59)
15
(59)
17
(63)
21
(70)
23
(73)
23
(73)
22
(72)
19
(66)
16
(61)
14
(57)
18
(64)
Average low °C (°F) 12
(54)
12
(54)
13
(55)
13
(55)
16
(61)
18
(64)
21
(70)
21
(70)
20
(68)
17
(63)
15
(59)
13
(55)
16
(61)
Avg. precipitation days 7 7 4 5 3 1 0 0 1 6 7 8 49
Source: Weatherbase[9]

Ecclesiastical history

The Catholic Diocese of Ceuta existed from 1417 to 1879. It was a suffragan of the Patriarchate of Lisbon until 1675, with the end of the Iberian Union, when Ceuta choose to remain linked to the king of Spain. Since then it was a suffragan of the archbishopric of Seville.[10] The Diocese of Tanger was suppressed and incorporated to that of Ceuta in 1570.[11]

In 1851, upon the signature of the concordat between the Holy See and Spain, the diocese of Ceuta was agreed to be suppressed, being combined into the diocese of Cádiz y Ceuta[12] (up to then diocese of Cádiz y Algeciras), whose bishop usually was the apostolic administrator of Ceuta. The agreement, however, was not implemented until 1879. However, the agreement was not implemented until 1879.

Economy

Ceuta City
Location of Ceuta, showing the distance to Spain and Gibraltar.

The official currency of Ceuta is the euro. It is part of a special low tax zone in Spain.[13]

Ceuta is one of two Spanish port cities on the northern shore of Africa, along with Melilla. They are historically military strongholds, free ports, oil ports, and also fishing and smuggling centers.[14] Today the economy of the city depends heavily on its port (now in expansion) and its industrial and retail centres.[15] Ceuta Heliport is now used to connect the city to mainland Spain by air.

Along with Melilla, Ceuta is the main link to and from the plazas de soberanía, especially the Islas Chafarinas, occupied by Spain during the 19th century.

Transport

The city receives high numbers of ferries each day, most from Spain. Occasionally, cruise ships stop by. Most all dock within a easy walk of downtown shops and restaurants.

Ceuta is a tiny city and the best way to travel may be by bicycle or on foot. There are taxis available. There is a bus service with modern and spacious buses running around the city with stops at the border with Morocco [16].

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Ceuta is twinned with:

Churches

  • Parroquia De Santa Maria De Los Remedios
  • Comunidad Israelita De Ceuta
  • Parroquia De San Francisco
  • Santa Iglesia Catedral
  • Parroquia Santa Maria De Africa — Casa Parroquial
  • Vicaria General Del Obispado De Ceuta
  • Parroquia Santa Teresa De Jesus De Ceuta

Schools

  • Centro de Educación Infantil y Primaria Andrés Manjón
  • Centro de Educación Infantil y Primaria Lope De Vega
  • Centro de Educación Infantil Globitos
  • Instituto de Educación Secundaria Puertas del Campo
  • Colegio Sta. María Micaela
  • Instituto de Educación Secundaria Almina
  • Centro de Educación Infantil y Primaria Maestro José Acosta
  • Colegio Severo Ochoa
  • Centro de Educación Infantil y Primaria Santiago Ramón y Cajal

See also

References

  1. ^ See Hispania#Byzantine reconquest.
  2. ^ "Resistir en el monte del Renegado · ELPAÍS.com". Elpais.com. 2009-03-22. http://www.elpais.com/articulo/espana/Resistir/monte/Renegado/elpepuesp/20090322elpepinac_9/Tes. Retrieved 2009-06-17.  
  3. ^ "Ceuta y Melilla son España, dice Juan Carlos I; Sebta y Melilia son nuestras, responde Mohamed VI". Blogs.periodistadigital.com. 1999-02-22. http://blogs.periodistadigital.com/infordeus.php/2007/11/06/p125486. Retrieved 2009-06-17.  
  4. ^ "Ley Orgánica 1/1995, de 13 de marzo, Estatuto de Autonomía de Ceuta". Noticias.juridicas.com. http://noticias.juridicas.com/base_datos/Admin/lo1-1995.html. Retrieved 2009-06-17.  
  5. ^ "A rocky relationship | World news | guardian.co.uk". Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/jun/12/worlddispatch.gibraltar. Retrieved 2009-06-17.  
  6. ^ "elpueblodeceuta.es". elpueblodeceuta.es. http://www.elpueblodeceuta.es/200708/20070819/200708195101.html. Retrieved 2009-06-17.  
  7. ^ http://www.planetware.com/i/map/MAR/ceuta-map.jpg
  8. ^ "Códigos postales de Ceuta en Ceuta". Codigo-postal.info. http://codigo-postal.info/ceuta/ceuta?page=7. Retrieved 2009-06-17.  
  9. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Ceuta". http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weatherall.php3?s=2306&refer=&units=metric.  
  10. ^ Catholic Hierarchy page
  11. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Tingis
  12. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Cadiz
  13. ^ "Economic Data of Ceuta, de ceutna digital". Ceuta.es. http://www.ceuta.es/servlet/ContentServer?idioma=es_es&mD=true&pagename=CeutaTur%2FInformacionViajero%2FInformacionViajeroDetalle&cid=1113994915129&mC=true&idP=1111055969345&idA=1113994915129. Retrieved 2009-06-17.  
  14. ^ "pp. 6–7, IBRU, Boundary and Territory Briefing. Ceuta and the Spanish Sovereign Territories: Spanish and Moroccan". Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=xuBgaSzsYVgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=ceuta+economy&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0#PPA7,M1. Retrieved 2009-06-17.  
  15. ^ "Economic Data of Ceunta, de ceutna digital". Ceuta.es. http://www.ceuta.es/servlet/ContentServer?idioma=es_es&mD=true&pagename=CeutaTur%2FInformacionViajero%2FInformacionViajeroDetalle&cid=1113994915129&mC=true&idP=1111055969345&idA=1113994915129. Retrieved 2009-06-17.  
  16. ^ http://wikitravel.org/en/Ceuta#Get_around

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Ceuta [1] is one of two Spanish exclaves in North Africa. The territory has had several rulers before the Portuguese in 1415 took control of this city east of Tangier. Since 1580 it is under Spanish administration but holds status of an autonomous city. The city is located on the African continent.

This exclave was in the spotlight in 2005 together with Melilla because hundreds of people were trying to climb over the border fence. Ceuta being part of Spain and therefore a safe haven for Africans made it a prime target for migrants. Today the border is heavily protected by the Guardia Civil. The European Union invested a lot of money to make illegal immigration more difficult.

Taxis awaiting new arrivals at the port
Taxis awaiting new arrivals at the port

Ceuta is easily accessible from Algeciras (Cádiz) by ferry. High speed ferry services run between Ceuta and mainland Spain every half hour as of summer 2007. Cruise ships occasionally visit, and usually dock within a few blocks of the easily-walked downtown area.

From land Ceuta is only accessible from Morocco. If arriving by bus, you may have to take a bus to a nearby town and then a taxi to the border. For example, coming from the south, the closest an intercity bus will take you is to Fnideq, Morocco.

The increased border security may result in minor waiting time. This could be longer if you travel in summer when the main holiday season in Spain and France starts and lots of families return to their homes in Morocco. Note that there seems to be separate lines for Moroccans and foreigners at many border crossings, ports, and security checks. If you find yourself stuck in an extremely slow moving line and do not look Moroccan, try getting noticed by an officer. You may find yourself ushered past the line and processed very quickly.

You will need a passport to cross the border with Morocco in either direction and official ID to book passage between Ceuta and mainland Spain. Rules for immigration are the same as for Spain.

There is just an heliport where Heli sur Este [2] operates to daily connections between Ceuta and Malaga.

Get around

Ceuta is a tiny city. Best way is by bike or on foot. The area near the waterfront and shopping area is nicely landscaped and attractive considering the heavy traffic supported.

There are taxis available. Make sure they use the meter or negotiate a price before you get in. There is a decent bus service with modern and spacious buses running around the city with stops at the border with Morocco. Look for a bus marked "Frontera".

See

The area hosts a few churches, and fortifications for those interested in Euro-African history and governmental relations. The downtown area and waterfront is remarkably clean and attractive with safe walking, and offers many stores and cafes serving the shoppers noted earlier.

Do

There is a semi interesting fort in town with some views. There is also a lighthouse to see. Other than that are lovely beaches and desert areas to explore.

Buy

Ceuta is a free port, this means there are few or no taxes on goods. You will see that the economy of this city focus on people transiting to/from Morocco and one-day shopping tourists. Offerings range from sidewalk hawkers and kiosks to fine jewelers and an El Corte Ingles department store.

Eat

Offerings downtown range from sidewalk cafes and a "Mc Auto" McDonalds to a few fine restaurants.

Drink

Ceuta is a great city to go out. There are several pubs and clubs and a great tapas route.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

CEUTA (Arabic Sebta), a Spanish military and convict station and seaport on the north coast of Morocco, in 35° 54' N., 5° 18' W. Pop. about 13,000. It is situated on a promontory connected with the mainland by a narrow isthmus. This promontory marks the south-eastern end of the straits of Gibraltar, which between Ceuta and Gibraltar have a width of 14 m. The promontory terminates in a bold headland, the Montagne des Singes, with seven distinct peaks. Of these the highest is the Monte del Hacko, the ancient Abyla, one of the "Pillars of Hercules," which faces Gibraltar and rises 636 ft. above the sea. On the westernmost point - Almina, 476 ft. high - is a lighthouse with a light visible for 23 m. Ceuta consists of two quarters, the old town, covering the low ground of the isthmus, and the modern town, built on the hills forming the north and west faces of the peninsula. Between the old and new quarters and on the north side of the isthmus lies the port. The public buildings in the town, thoroughly Spanish in its character, are not striking: they include the cathedral (formerly a mosque), the governor's palace, the town hall, barracks, and the convict prison in the old convent of San Francisco. Ceuta has been fortified seaward, the works being furnished with modern artillery intended to command the entrance to the Mediterranean. Landward are three lines of defence, the inner line stretching completely across the isthmus. These fortifications, which date from the time of the Portuguese occupation, have been partly modernized. The citadel, El Hacho, built on the neck of the isthmus, dates from the 15th century. The garrison consists of between 3000 and 4000 men, inclusive of a disciplinary corps of military convicts. Of the rest of the population about 2000 are civilian convicts; and there are colonies of Jews, negroes and Moors, the last including descendants of Moors transferred to Ceuta from Oran when Spain abandoned that city in 1796., Ceuta occupies in part the site of a Carthaginian colony, which was succeeded by a Roman colony said to have been called Ad Septem Fratres and also Exilissa or Lissa Civitas. From the Romans the town passed to the Vandals and afterwards to Byzantium, the emperor Justinian restoring its fortifications in 535. In 618 the town, then known as Septon, fell into the hands of the Visigoths. It was the last stronghold in North Africa which held out against the Arabs. At that date (A.D. 711) the governor of the town was the Count Julian who, in revenge for the betrayal of his daughter by King Roderick of Toledo, invited the Arabs to cross the straits under Tarik and conquer Spain for Islam. By the Arabs the town was called Cibta or Sebta, hence the Spanish form Ceuta. From the date of its occupation by the Arabs the town had a stormy history, being repeatedly captured by rival Berber and Spanish-Moorish dynasties. It became nevertheless an important commercial and industrial city, being noted for its brass ware, its trade in ivory, gold and slaves. It is said to have been the first place in the West where a paper manufactory was established. In 1415 the town was captured by the Portuguese under John I., among those taking part in the attack being Prince Henry "the Navigator" and two of his brothers, who were knighted on the day following in the mosque (hastily dedicated as a Christian church). Ceuta passed to Spain in 1580 on the subjugation of Portugal by Philip II., and was definitely assigned to the Spanish crown by the treaty of Lisbon in 1688. The town has been several times unsuccessfully besieged by the Moors - one siege, under Mulai Ismail, lasting twenty-six years (1694-1720). In 1810, with the consent of Spain, it was occupied by British troops under General Sir J. F. Fraser. The town was restored to Spain by the British at the close of the Napoleonic Wars. As the result of the war between Spain and Morocco in 1860 the area of Spanish territory around the town was increased. The military governor of the town also commands the troops in the other Spanish stations on the coast of Morocco. For civil purposes Ceuta is attached to the province of Cadiz. It is a free port, but does little trade. >> 0'1 ,r: -?-:w ry See de Prado, Recuerdos de Africa; historia de la plaza de Ceuta (Madrid, 1859-1860); Budgett Meakin, The Land of the Moors (London, 1901), chap. xix., where many works dealing with Spanish Morocco are cited.


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Proper noun

Singular
Ceuta

Plural
-

Ceuta

  1. A Spanish enclave at the edge of Morocco

Translations

See also

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of acetu
  • acute

Croatian

Proper noun

Ceuta f.

  1. Ceuta

Spanish

Proper noun

Ceuta

  1. Ceuta.

Simple English

Ciudad Autónoma de Ceuta
File:EscudoCeuta.gif
File:Locator map of
Area
 – Total
 
28 km²
Population
 – Total (2003)
 – Density

 76,152
 2719.71/km²
Name of inhabitants
 – English
 – Spanish

---
ceutí
Statute of Autonomy March 14, 1995
ISO 3166-2 ES-CE
Parliamentary
representation
 Congress seats
 Senate seats
1
2
President Juan Jesús Vivas Lara (PP)
Ciudad Autónoma de Ceuta

Ceuta is a city in North Africa, at the Strait of Gibraltar. The City area is about 20 square kilometers, and there are over 71,000 people living in the city. The city is surrounded by a border fence, which has been built to keep the Moroccans (and other Africans) from moving there unlawfully. Ceuta is part of Spain (and therefore the European Union). Until it became a self-governing city in 1994, it belonged to the Cadiz Province.

It was built by the Phoenicians at a strategic position.

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