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Chadhar is a Punjabi tribe of India and Pakistan. They are found among both Rajputs and Jats.

Contents

Pronunciation

Chadhar (Shahmukhi and Urdu: ﭽﺩﮪﮌ, Gurmukhi: ਚਧੜ) is commonly pronounced Chadhar but in some areas of the Punjab, like the cities of Jhang and other adjoining districts, it is pronounced as Chadhrar, while in the Majha, Doaba and Malwa areas it is pronounced as Chandhar.

Other transliterations include "Chadarh", "Chadharh", "Chandhar", "Chandarh", Chandar and Chander.

Origin

Chadhars claim descent from Chandarh, the son of Raja Ravilan of the lineage of king Pandu of the Mahabharata. They are Chandra Vanshis. It is widely believed that they are a branch of the Tomaras as it has been confirmed by the claim of the Chadhars of Jhang that they are the descendants of Raja Toor and that they migrated into the Punjab from Rajputana and also that their throne is Tahli Mangeeni.

In 1193 AD, when Mohammad Shahabuddin Ghauri invaded India, the clan moved from Rajasthan to the Punjab. Some went to Bahawalpur, where they were converted to Islam by Pir Shershah (Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari) of Uchch Sharif. From Bahawalpur, they migrated north, along the course of the rivers Ravi River and River Chenab. Over the possession of essential water resources, they clashed many times with Kharal, Harals and Sial tribes. Sial tribesmen did their the best but could not stop their march. The Chadhars were brave, strong in their relations and honest to their spouses. They settled new lands and built new towns along the left side of the River Chenab.

Monckton recorded that

the royal clan was called Khanna -Chadhar, a caste of Muhammadans converted from Hinduism. The Khanna is a Khatri section [1]

Geographical distribution

Chadhars occupy a large area of land on the left bank of the Chenab, in the Jhang District, starting from Khiwa (along the boundaries of the Sials) to the adjoining areas of Sayyids of Rajoea Sadaat. Their main village is Tahli Mangeeni which is said to be their throne or Takht.

The Chadhars are found in districts of Jhang, Faisalabad, Sargodha, Sahiwal, Sheikhupura, Gujrat, Gujranwala, Lahore, Khanewal, Multan, Bhakkar, Bahawalpur, Okara and also in some parts of Sindh. There is also a village named Chadhrar near Tank, NWFP.

Some of the Chadhars settled in the Firozpur District in Indian Punjab and founded their villages of Chandarh near Mudki. Others settled in Nakodar near Jalandhar. Most of the Chadhar Jats shifted from Ferozepur to Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Lahore. They founded many villages in the Doabs of the Chenab and the Ravi.

Prominent Chadhars

Chaudri Daswandi Khan Chadar was a legendary character from this clan who rose to fame and fortune despite heavy odds in an area (Tehsil Wazirabad) dominated by the Cheema and Chattha tribes. Having migrated from Jhang to Gakkhar he worked hard to become the biggest and wealthiest landlord of the area. Besides a large estate of 1800 acres, he left behind a stunning cash fortune of over 1 hundred thousand gold ashrafees(coins) when he died in 1895.

Bhai Gurmukh Singh was founder of the Singh Sabha Movement, he was a Chandarh Jat. He came from the village named Chandarh near Gujranwala.

Other prominent chadhars include:

  • Muhammad Najib,(hakeem wala village) Manager, Atomic Energy Commission, Islamabad
  • Sanawar Chadhar, who is a writer.
  • Ahmad khan Chadhar & Shahamad khan were two brothers of Chak No. 227 R/B Chadhar Faisalabad. They were Famous for races and won awards. Their names were carved out in the door of Dehli.

Welfare Organization of Chadhars

Under the patronage of a leading figure of the tribe, Chaudhry Ahmed Khan Chadhar of Sargodha, an effort of organizing the tribe was started in the year 1988. At a meeting held in Lahore more than a dozen prominent chadhars gathered and decided to launch Chadhar Welfare Association of Pakistan.

Mirza Sahiba

Chandarhs were the villains in the famous Punjabi romance story of Mirza Sahiban. It is said that Mirza Kharal, the hero of the story, was slain by Chadhars as Sahiban, the heroine was betrothed to Zahir Khan, the son of Jham Khan, a Chandarh Jatts. Because of this murder, there were many battles between Chandarh and Kharals.

Chadhar sub clans

According Chadhar genealogists, they are divided into several sub-clans, most of which are found in Jhang. These include:

  1. Aasi
  2. Wejhwe
  3. Wijhalke
  4. Warbhu
  5. Kulle(jat)
  6. Kaloke
  7. 'Jappa
  8. Lune
  9. Sajanke
  10. Nalere(Lalere)
  11. Kangar
  12. Rajoke
  13. Kamoke(jat)
  14. Harya
  15. Paroke
  16. Jatoke
  17. Deoke
  18. Moona
  19. Majoka
  20. Paajike(needs confrmation)
  21. chookhia
  22. Wallara (jat)

There are also villages in the names of these sub-tribes like Wijhalke and Kaloke and Chak Sajanke and Chak Loone and Mauza Wllara on the right and left banks of the Chenab in the Chiniot tehsil of the Jhang district respectively.

Well known villages of Chandarhs in other areas of Punjab are Chandarh, Rajeana, Dhaaban, Awan and Rampur.

Rajputs or Jats?

Jhang Chadhars claim that they are Rajputs, while Chadhras of some areas of Punjab claim to be Jats. According to the Census of 1881, 26404 Chandars recorded themselves as Jats and 177,746 recorded themselves as Rajputs.

According to the Gazetteer of Jhang District (1881 - 1884), Chandarhs are considered to be good farmers and rarely indulged in cattle rustling or theft unlike their neighbours, the Sials, Kharals and others.

See also

References

  1. ^ Denzil Ibbetson, Edward MacLagan, H.A. Rose "A Glossary of The Tribes & Casts of The Punjab & North-West Frontier Province", 1911 AD, Page 418, Vol III,
  • Respected Genealogists of Tribe (Respected Mirasis of Tribe)
  • Ibbeston, Denzil, Punjab Castes.
  • Gazeeteer of District Jhang (1881-1884), Sang-e- Meel Publication Lahore.
  • Gazeeteer of District Montgomary, Sang-e- Meel Publication Lahore.
  • Ghazali, Ahmed, Saandal Bar.
  • Duleh, H.S., Jattan da Itihas.
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