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Chakra (derived from the Sanskrit cakraṃ चक्रं ([ˈtʃəkrə̃]), pronounced [ˈtʃəkrə] in Hindi; Pali: ॰हक्क chakka, Chinese: 轮, Tibetan: འཁོར་ལོ་; khorlo) is a Sanskrit word that translates as "wheel" or "turning".[1]

Chakra is a concept referring to wheel-like vortices which, according to traditional Indian medicine, are believed to exist in the surface of the etheric double of man.[2] The Chakras are said to be "force centres" or whorls of energy permeating, from a point on the physical body, the layers of the subtle bodies in an ever-increasing fan-shaped formation (the fans make the shape of a love heart). Rotating vortices of subtle matter, they are considered the focal points for the reception and transmission of energies.[3] Seven major chakras or energy centres (also understood as wheels of light) are generally believed to exist, located within the subtle body.

It is typical for chakras to be depicted in either of two ways:

  • Flower-like
  • Wheel-like

In the former, a specific number of petals are shown around the perimeter of a circle. In the latter, a certain number of spokes divide the circle into segments that make the chakra resemble a wheel or chakra. Each chakra possesses a specific number of segments or petals.

Much of the original information on chakras comes from the Upanishads, which are difficult to date because they are believed to have been passed down orally for approximately a thousand years before being written down for the first time between 1200–900 BCE.

Contents

Definitions

Sapta Chakra, from a Yoga manuscipt in Braj Bhasa lanaguage with 118 pages. 1899.

Paramhans Swami Maheshwarananda describes chakra as [4] :

powerhouse in the way it generates and stores energy, with the energy from cosmos pulled in more strongly at these points. The main nadis, Ida, Pingala and Shushumna (sympathetic, parasympathetic, and central nervous system) run along the spinal column in a curved path and cross one another several times. At the points of intersection they form strong energy centres known as chakras. In the human body there are three types of energy centres. The lower or animal chakras are located in the region between the toes and the pelvic region indicating our evolutionary origins in the animal kingdom. The human chakras lie along the spinal column. Finally, the higher or divine Chakras are found between the top of the spine and the crown of the head.

Anodea Judith (1996: p. 5) provides a modern interpretation of the chakras:

A chakra is believed to be a center of activity that receives, assimilates, and expresses life force energy. The word chakra literally translates as wheel or disk and refers to a spinning sphere of bioenergetic activity emanating from the major nerve ganglia branching forward from the spinal column. Generally, six of these wheels are described, stacked in a column of energy that spans from the base of the spine to the middle of the forehead. And the seventh which is beyond the physical region. It is the six major chakras that correlate with basic states of consciousness...

Susan Shumsky (2003, p. 24) states a similar idea:

Each chakra in your spinal column is believed to influence or even govern bodily functions near its region of the spine. Because autopsies do not reveal chakras, most people think they are a fancy of fertile imagination. Yet their existence is well documented in the traditions of the far east...

Chakras, as described above, are energy centres along the spine located at major branchings of the human nervous system, beginning at the base of the spinal column and moving upward to the top of the skull. Chakras are considered to be a point or nexus of biophysical energy or prana of the human body. Shumsky states that "prana is the basic component of your subtle body, your energy field, and the entire chakra system...the key to life and source of energy in the universe."[5]

The following seven primary chakras are commonly described:

  1. Muladhara (Sanskrit: मूलाधार, Mūlādhāra) Base or Root Chakra (last bone in spinal cord *coccyx*)
  2. Swadhisthana (Sanskrit: स्वाधिष्ठान, Svādhiṣṭhāna) Sacral Chakra (ovaries/prostate)
  3. Manipura (Sanskrit: मणिपूर, Maṇipūra) Solar Plexus Chakra (navel area)
  4. Anahata (Sanskrit: अनाहत, Anāhata) Heart Chakra (heart area)
  5. Vishuddha (Sanskrit: विशुद्ध, Viśuddha) Throat Chakra (throat and neck area)
  6. Ajna (Sanskrit: आज्ञा, Ājñā) Brow or Third Eye Chakra (pineal gland or third eye)
  7. Sahasrara (Sanskrit: सहस्रार, Sahasrāra) Crown Chakra (Top of the head; 'Soft spot' of a newborn)

Chakras in the head from lowest to highest are: golata, talu/talana/lalana, ajna, talata/lalata, manas, soma, sahasrara (and sri inside it.)

Etymology

Bhattacharyya's review of Tantric history says that the word chakra is used to mean several different things in the Sanskrit sources:[6]

  1. "Circle", used in a variety of senses, symbolizing endless rotation of shakti.
  2. A circle of people. In rituals there are different cakra-sādhanā in which adherents assemble and perform rites. According to the Niruttaratantra, chakras in the sense of assemblies are of 5 types.
  3. The term chakra also is used to denote yantras or mystic diagrams, variously known as trikoṇa-cakra, aṣṭakoṇa-cakra, etc.
  4. Different "nerve plexus within the body".

In Buddhist literature the Sanskrit term cakra (Pali cakka) is used in a different sense of "circle", referring to a Buddhist conception of the 4 circles or states of existence in which gods or men may find themselves.[7]

Models

The study of the Chakras is central to many different therapies and disciplines. Subtle energy is explored through practices such as aromatherapy, mantras, Reiki, hands-on healing, flower essences, radionics, sound therapy, colour/light therapy, and crystal/gem therapy, to name a few. Acupuncture, shiatsu, tai chi and chi kung focus on balancing the energetic meridians that are an integral part of the chakra system, according to Vajrayana and Tantric Shakta theories. Several models will be explored in the following sub-headings.

Hindu

Thousand Petalled Crown Chakra, Two Petalled Brow Chakra, Sixteen Petalled Throat Chakra (Nepal, 17th Century)

In Hinduism, the concept of chakras is part of a complex of ideas related to esoteric anatomy. These ideas occur most often in the class of texts that are called Āgamas or Tantras. This is a large body of scripture, most of which is rejected by the traditionalists.

There are many variations on these concepts in the Sanskrit source texts. In earlier texts there are various systems of chakras and nadis, with varying connections between them. Various traditional sources list 5, 6, 7, 8 or even 12 chakras. Over time, one system of 6 or 7 chakras along the body's axis became the dominant model, adopted by most schools of yoga. This particular system may have originated in about the 11th century AD, and rapidly became widely popular.[8] It is in this model where Kundalini is said to "rise" upward, piercing the various centres until reaching the crown of the head, resulting in union with the Divine.

nabhi

The term "nabhi" first appeared in the Atarva Veda, a sacred text of hinduism, and was used to describe how all the nadies of body are binded here. and it is termed as nabhi chakra here , and apart from this mooladhar chakra this word is also first time described in atharvaveda [the veda from where Ayurveda is originated] in upnishad the description of chakras are in more details , in brahmopnishad the nabhi chakra is described as the abode of agni and surya [sun] in yograj upnishad there is description of nine chakras which are as under brahma ,svadhisthan,nabhi, hridhya ,kanth ,taluka ,bhroo, brahma randha, vyom chakra in yoga choodamaniupnishad there is description of shad chakra , in patanjali yoga darshan vibhutipaad there is description of shad chakra , and when illustrating it in first sutra description of 12chakra is found

in sharda tilkam shad chakra is described in shiva and shakti form similarly in goraksh nsamhita and kaula tantrik grantha chakra had been described and method to awaken kundalini [serpant power] is given

Tantric

The chakras are described in the tantric texts the Sat-Cakra-Nirupana, and the Padaka-Pancaka,[9] in which they are described as emanations of consciousness from Brahman, an energy emanating from the spiritual which gradually turns concrete, creating these distinct levels of chakras, and which eventually finds its rest in the Muladhara chakra. They are therefore part of an emanationist theory, like that of the kabbalah in the west, lataif-e-sitta in Sufism or neo-platonism. The energy that was unleashed in creation, called the Kundalini, lies coiled and sleeping at the base of the spine. It is the purpose of the tantric or kundalini forms of yoga to arouse this energy, and cause it to rise back up through the increasingly subtle chakras, until union with God is achieved in the Sahasrara chakra at the crown of the head.

Vajrayana and Tantric Buddhist

According to contemporary Buddhist teacher Tarthang Tulku, the heart chakra is very important for the feeling of existential fulfilment.[citation needed]

A result of energetic imbalance between chakras is an almost continuous feeling of dissatisfaction. When the heart chakra is agitated, people lose touch with feelings and sensations, and that breeds the sense of dissatisfaction. That leads to looking outside for fulfilment.

When people live in their heads, feelings are secondary, they are interpretations of mental images that are fed back to the individual. When awareness is focused on memories of past experiences and mental verbalisations, the energy flow to the head chakra increases and the energy flow to the heart chakra lessens. Without nurturing feelings of the heart a subtle form of anxiety arises which results in the self reaching out for experience.

When the throat chakra settles and energy is distributed evenly between the head and the heart chakras, one is able to truly contact one's senses and touch real feelings.[10]

Chögyal Namkai Norbu Rinpoche teaches a version of the Six Lokas sadhana which works with the chakra system.[citation needed]

The kye-rim (Tibetan) and dzog-rim (Tibetan) stages work with the 'chakra' (Tibetan: khorlo).[citation needed]

Bön

Chakras, as pranic centres of the body, according to the Himalayan Bönpo tradition, influence the quality of experience, because movement of prana can not be separated from experience. Each of six major chakras are linked to experiential qualities of one of the six realms of existence.[11]

A modern teacher, Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche uses a computer analogy: main chakras are like hard drives. Each hard drive has many files. One of the files is always open in each of the chakras, no matter how "closed" that particular chakra may be. What is displayed by the file shapes experience.

The tsa lung practices such as those embodied in Trul Khor lineages open channels so lung (Lung is a Tibetan term cognate with prana or qi) may move without obstruction. Yoga opens chakras and evokes positive qualities associated with a particular chakra. In the hard drive analogy, the screen is cleared and a file is called up that contains positive, supportive qualities. A seed syllable (Sanskrit bija) is used both as a password that evokes the positive quality and the armour that sustains the quality.[11]

Tantric practice eventually transforms all experience into bliss. The practice liberates from negative conditioning and leads to control over perception and cognition.[11]

Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche teaches a version of the Six Lokas sadhana which works with the chakra system.

Qigong

Qigong also relies on a similar model of the human body as an energy system, except that it involves the circulation of qi (ki, chi) energy.[12][13]

In the circuit of qi, called the Microcosmic orbit, energy also comes back down the front torso channel (equivalent to the nadis of Hatha yoga), and enters the dan tian: when it returns to the heart (and cycles down and reascends to the head) further meditation/contemplation or union with Dao. In Macrocosmic orbit the qi is also guided through the main channels in the limbs.[14]

The concept of meridians and qi are superficially reminiscent of that of the chakras and the prana respectively, and it was sometimes suggested that they were inspired by the Indian concepts. However, the Chinese model includes 12 meridians and at least 365 acupuncture points distributed on various organs rather than just 6 chakras all located alongside the spine.

In Japan, the word qi is written ki, and is related to the practice of Reiki.

Western complementary and alternative medicine

In the Western hemisphere, a concept similar to that of prana can be traced back as far as the 18th century's Franz Anton Mesmer that used 'animal magnetism' to cure disease. However, the concept of chakras was only introduced in 1927 by the clergyman and theosophical author Charles Webster Leadbeater in his book 'The Chakras'. Due to the similarities between the Chinese and Indian philosophies, the notion of chakras was quickly amalgamated to Chinese practices such as acupuncture and belief in ki. The confluence of these two divergent healing traditions and the common practitioners' own inventiveness have lead to an ever-changing and expanding array of concepts in the Western world. According to medical intuitive and author, Caroline Myss, who described chakras, in her work, Anatomy of the Spirit (1996), "Every thought and experience you've ever had in your life gets filtered through these chakra databases. Each event is recorded into your cells..", in effect your biography becomes your biology [15].

Contemporary Models

ChakraDiag.jpg

The chakras are described as being aligned in an ascending column from the base of the spine to the top of the head. In New Age practices, each chakra is often associated with a certain colour. In various traditions chakras are associated with multiple physiological functions, an aspect of consciousness, a classical element, and other distinguishing characteristics. They are visualized as lotuses/flowers with a different number of petals in every chakra.

The chakras are thought to vitalise the physical body and to be associated with interactions of a physical, emotional and mental nature. They are considered loci of life energy or prana, also called shakti, qi (Chinese; ki in Japanese), koach-ha-guf[16] (Hebrew), bios (Greek) & aether (Greek, English), which is thought to flow among them along pathways called nadis. The function of the chakras is to spin and draw in this energy to keep the spiritual, mental, emotional and physical health of the body in balance.

The New Age movement has led to an increased interest in the West regarding chakras. These ideas first appear in the writings of theosophical authors like C. W. Leadbeater, who wrote a book on the Chakras. Many of Leadbeater's views that directed his understanding of chakras were influenced by previous theosophist authors and in particular Johann Georg Gichtel, a disciple of Jakob Böhme, and his book Theosophia Practica (1696) in which Gitchtel directly refer to inner force centres, a concept reminiscent of that of chakras.[17]

The seven principal chakras are said by some to reflect how the unified consciousness of humanity (the immortal human being or the soul), is divided to manage different aspects of earthly life (body/instinct/vital energy/deeper emotions/communication/having an overview of life/contact to God). The chakras are placed at differing levels of spiritual subtlety, with Sahasrara at the top being concerned with pure consciousness, and Muladhara at the bottom being concerned with matter, which is seen simply as crudified consciousness.

Western derivative models and interpretations

It is the shakta theory of 7 main chakras that become most popular in the Western hemisphere, largely through the translation of two Indian texts, the Sat-Cakra-Nirupana, and the Padaka-Pancaka, by Sir John Woodroffe, alias Arthur Avalon, in a book titled The Serpent Power.[18] This book is extremely detailed and complex, and later the ideas were developed into what is predominant Western view of the Chakras by the Theosophists, and largely the controversial (in theosophical circles) C. W. Leadbeater in his book The Chakras, which are in large part his own meditations and insights on the matter.

Rudolf Steiner (one-time Theosophist, and founder of Anthroposophy) says much about the Chakras that is unusual, especially that the chakra system is dynamic and evolving and is very different for modern people than it was in ancient times, and will in turn be radically different in future times. In contrast to the traditional eastern teachings, Steiner describes a sequence of development from the top down rather than the bottom up. This is the so called 'Christos Path' which has not always been available to humanity. He also seems to ignore the Thousand Petalled at the crown of the head and mentions cryptically an Eight Petalled chakra located between the Ten Petalled and the Six Petalled. In his book How to Know Higher Worlds Steiner gives clear instructions on how to develop the chakras safely into maturity. These are more like life disciplines than exercises and can take considerable time. He warns that while quicker methods exist, they can be dangerous to one's health, character, or sanity.[citation needed]

New Age writers, such as Anodea Judith in her book Wheels of Life, have written about the chakras in great detail, including the reasons for their appearance and functions.

Another unique interpretation of the seven chakras is presented by writer and artist Zachary Selig. In the book Kundalini Awakening, a Gentle Guide to Chakra Activation and Spiritual Growth, he presents a unique codex titled "Relaxatia", a solar Kundalini paradigm that is a codex of the human chakra system and the solar light spectrum, designed to activate Kundalini through his colour-coded chakra paintings.[19]

Additionally, some chakra system models describe one or more Transpersonal chakras above the crown chakra, and an Earth star chakra below the feet. There are also held to be many minor chakras, for example between the major chakras. Chakras are also used in neurolinguistic programming to connect NLP logical levels, with spiritual goals on the crown, intellectual on the forehead and so on.[20]

Unique interpretation of the chakras system model is presented in the form of Sacred geometry or spiritual symbols of ancient India and Egypt. It’s Ankh model of chakras system.[21]

Some elements are made from metals: aluminum, copper, brass, iron, zinc, and cupronickel. Elements in the shape of spheres are established from color glass, stone, ceramics, amber, turquoise, corals and different crystal: amethyst, azurite and nephrite.

Ankh model of chakras system Ankh model of chakras system (step2)

Such known elements as ida, pingala, sushumna and chakras are presented in model (step 1). Additionally elements are established on the model (step 2), in the form of a layer of spheres from amber, corals, turquoise, quartz, color glass, pearls, ceramics, onyx, malachite, nephrite, amethyst, and azurite.

Endocrine system

The primary importance and level of existence of chakras is posited to be in the psyche. However, there are those who believe that chakras have a physical manifestation as well.[22] The author Philip Gardiner, for instance, has described the chakras as metaphysical counterparts to the endocrine glands [23], while Anodea Judith noted a marked similarity between the positions of the two and the roles described for each.[24] Stephen Sturgess also links the lower six chakras to specific nerve plexuses along the spinal cord as well as glands.[25] C.W. Leadbeater associated the Anja chakra with the pineal gland[26], which is a part of the endocrine system.

The Spectrum of Light

A recent development in Western practices dating back to the 1940s is to associate each one of the seven chakras to a given colour and a corresponding crystal. For example, the chakra in the forehead is associated with the colour purple, so to cure a headache you would apply a purple stone to the forehead. This idea has proven highly popular and has been integrated by all but a few practitioners.

Mercier introduces the relation of colour energy to the science of the light spectrum;

"As humans, we exist within the 49th Octave of Vibration of the electromagnetic light spectrum. Below this range are barely visible radiant heat, then invisible infrared, television and radiowaves, sound and brain waves; above it is barely visible ultraviolet, then the invisible frequencies of chemicals and perfumes, followed by x-rays, gamma rays, radium rays and unknown cosmic rays[27]

Understanding existence and physical form as an interpretation of light energy through the physical eyes will open up greater potential to explore the energetic boundaries of color, form and light that are perceived as immediate reality. Indian Yogic teachings assign to the seven major chakras specific qualities, such as color of influence (from the 7 rays of spectrum light), elements (such as earth, air, water & ether), body sense (such as touch, taste, and smell), and relation to an endocrine gland.[28]

The seven major chakras

Tantric chakras

Sahasrara
Ajna
Vishuddha
Anahata
Manipura
Swadhisthana
Muladhara


Bindu

Sahasrara: The Crown Chakra

Chakra07.gif
Sahasrara is generally considered to be the chakra of pure consciousness. Its role may be envisioned somewhat similarly to that of the pituitary gland, which secretes emanuel hormones to communicate to the rest of the endocrine system and also connects to the central nervous system via the hypothalamus. The thalamus is thought to have a key role in the physical basis of consciousness. Symbolized by a lotus with one thousand petals, it is located at the crown of the head. Sahasrara is represented by the colour violet and it involves such issues as inner wisdom and the death of the body. Sahasrara's inner aspect deals with the release of karma, physical action with meditation, mental action with universal consciousness and unity, and emotional action with "beingness".[29]

Ajna: The Brow Chakra

Chakra06.gif
Ajna (along with Bindu, is also known as the third eye chakra) is linked to the pineal gland which may inform a model of its envisioning. The pineal gland is a light sensitive gland that produces the hormone melatonin which regulates sleep and waking up. Ajna is symbolised by a lotus with two petals, and corresponds to the colour white, indigo or deep blue. Ajna's key issues involve balancing the higher & lower selves and trusting inner guidance. Ajna's inner aspect relates to the access of intuition. Mentally, Ajna deals with visual consciousness. Emotionally, Ajna deals with clarity on an intuitive level.[30]

(Note: some opine that the pineal and pituitary glands should be exchanged in their relationship to the Crown and Brow chakras, based on the description in Arthur Avalon's book on kundalini called Serpent Power or empirical research.)

Vishuddha: The Throat Chakra

Chakra05.gif
Vishuddha (also Vishuddhi) may be understood as relating to communication and growth through expression. This chakra is paralleled to the thyroid, a gland that is also in the throat and which produces thyroid hormone, responsible for growth and maturation. Symbolised by a lotus with sixteen petals. Vishudda is characterized by the colour light or pale blue, or turquoise. It governs such issues as self-expression and communication, as discussed above. Physically, Vishuddha governs communication, emotionally it governs independence, mentally it governs fluent thought, and spiritually, it governs a sense of security.[31]

Anahata: The Heart Chakra

Chakra04.gif
Anahata, or Anahata-puri, or padma-sundara is related to the thymus, located in the chest. The thymus is an element of the immune system as well as being part of the endocrine system. It is the site of maturation of the T cells responsible for fending off disease and may be adversely affected by stress. Anahata is symbolised by a lotus flower with twelve petals. (See also heartmind). Anahata is related to the colours green or pink. Key issues involving Anahata involve complex emotions, compassion, tenderness, unconditional love, equilibrium, rejection and well-being. Physically Anahata governs circulation, emotionally it governs unconditional love for the self and others, mentally it governs passion, and spiritually it governs devotion.[32]

Manipura: The Solar Plexus Chakra

Chakra03.gif
Manipura or manipuraka is related to the metabolic and digestive systems. Manipura is believed to correspond to Islets of Langerhans,[33] which are groups of cells in the pancreas, as well as the outer adrenal glands and the adrenal cortex. These play a valuable role in digestion, the conversion of food matter into energy for the body. Symbolised by a lotus with ten petals. The colour that corresponds to Manipura is yellow. Key issues governed by Manipura are issues of personal power, fear, anxiety, opinion-formation, introversion, and transition from simple or base emotions to complex. Physically, Manipura governs digestion, mentally it governs personal power, emotionally it governs expansiveness, and spiritually, all matters of growth.[34]

Svadhisthana: The Sacral Chakra

Chakra02.gif
Swadhisthana, Svadisthana or adhishthana is located in the sacrum (hence the name) and is considered to correspond to the testes or the ovaries that produce the various sex hormones involved in the reproductive cycle. Svadisthana is also considered to be related to, more generally, the genitourinary system and the adrenals. The Sacral Chakra is symbolized by a lotus with six petals, and corresponds to the colour orange. The key issues involving Svadisthana are relationships, violence, addictions, basic emotional needs, and pleasure. Physically, Svadisthana governs reproduction, mentally it governs creativity, emotionally it governs joy, and spiritually it governs enthusiasm.[35]

Muladhara: The Base Chakra

Chakra01.gif
Muladhara or root chakra is related to instinct, security, survival and also to basic human potentiality. This centre is located in the region between the genitals and the anus. Although no endocrine organ is placed here, it is said to relate to the gonads and the adrenal medulla, responsible for the fight-or-flight response when survival is under threat. There is a muscle located in this region that controls ejaculation in the sexual act of the human male. A parallel is charted between the sperm cell and the ovum where the genetic code lies coiled and the kundalini. Muladhara is symbolized by a lotus with four petals and the colour red. Key issues involve sexuality, lust and obsession. Physically, Muladhara governs sexuality, mentally it governs stability, emotionally it governs sensuality, and spiritually it governs a sense of security.[36]

Woodroffe also describes 7 head chakras (including Ajna and Sahasrara) in his other Indian text sources. Lowest to highest they are: Talu/Talana/Lalana, Ajna, Manas, Soma, Brahmarandra, Sri (inside Sahasrara), Sahasrara.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Paramhans Swami Maheshwarananda, The hidden power in humans, Ibera Verlag, page 54. ISBN 3-85052-197-4
  2. ^ Charles Webster Leadbeater. The Chakras. pp. 1. 
  3. ^ John Cross, Robert Charman. Healing with the Chakra Energy System. pp. 17–18. 
  4. ^ Paramhans Swami Maheshwarananda, The hidden power in humans, Ibera Verlag, page 54, ISBN 3-85052-197-4
  5. ^ Exploring Chakras, Susan G. Shumsky, The Career Press Inc., 2003, p.37.
  6. ^ Bhattacharyya, N. N., History of the Tantric Religion. Second Revised Edition. (Manohar: New Delhi, 1999) pp. 385-86. ISBN 81-7304-025-7
  7. ^ Edgerton, Franklin. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary. Volume II. p. 221. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers: Delhi, 1953. Reprint edition, Delhi, 2004, ISBN 81-208-0999-8. E.g., catvāri devamanuṣyāṇāṃ cakrāṇi.
  8. ^ Flood, op. cit., p. 99.
  9. ^ Woodroffe, The Serpent Power, pp.317ff.
  10. ^ Tarthang Tulku. Tibetan Relaxation. The illustrated guide to Kum Nye massage and movement - A yoga from the Tibetan tradition. Dunkan Baird Publishers, London, 2007, ISBN 978-1-84483-404-4, pp. 31, 33
  11. ^ a b c Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche, Healing with Form, Energy, and Light. Ithaca, New York: Snow Lion Publications, 2002. ISBN 1559391766, pp. 84
  12. ^ Lu K'uan Yü, Taoist Yoga - Alchemy and Immortality, Rider and Company, London, 1970
  13. ^ Mantak and Maneewan Chia Awaken Healing Light of the Tao (Healing Tao Books, 1993), ch.5
  14. ^ Mantak and Maneewan Chia Awaken Healing Light of the Tao (Healing Tao Books, 1993), ch.13
  15. ^ Chakras Caroline Myss website.
  16. ^ Helena Blavatsky (1892). Theosophical Glossary. Krotona.
  17. ^ C. W. Leadbeater, Gichtel and Theosophia Practica, Chakra, Adyar, 1927
  18. ^ Woodroffe, The Serpent Power, Dover Publications, pp.317ff
  19. ^ Selby, Jon and Selig, Zachary. (1992) Kundalini Awakening, a Gentle Guide to Chakra Activation and Spiritual Growth, New York: Random House, ISBN 978-0-553-35330-3 (0-553-35330-6)
  20. ^ WEL-Systems: New Paradigm for NLP
  21. ^ Шатилов К. К. «Лечебные пирамиды. От Атлантиды до наших дней.» С-т Петербург. Изд-во «Вектор» 2008 г. ISBN 978-5-9684-0918-8
  22. ^ Saraswati, MD (1953 - 2001). Kundalini Yoga. Tehri-Garhwal, India: Divine Life Society, foldout chart. ISBN 81-7052-052-5
  23. ^ The Shining Ones, Philip Gardiner and Gary Osborn, Watkins Publishing, 2006 edition, p44-45, ISBN 1-84293-150-4
  24. ^ Wheels of Life, Anodea Judith
  25. ^ The Yoga Book, Stephen Sturgess, Element, 1997, p19-21, ISBN 1-85230-972-5
  26. ^ The Chakras, CW Leadbeater
  27. ^ The Chakra Bible, Patricia Mercier, Octopus Publishing Group Ltd., 2007, p. 12.
  28. ^ The Chakra Bible, Patricia Mercier, Octopus Publishing Group Ltd., 2007, p. 28
  29. ^ The Chakra Bible, Patricia Mercier, Octopus Publishing Group Ltd., 2007, p. 302
  30. ^ The Chakra Bible, Patricia Mercier, Octopus Publishing Group Ltd., 2007, p. 267
  31. ^ The Chakra Bible, Patricia Mercier, Octopus Publishing Group Ltd., 2007, p. 233
  32. ^ The Chakra Bible, Patricia Mercier, Octopus Publishing Group Ltd., 2007, p. 199
  33. ^ The Chakra Bible, Patricia Mercier, Octopus Publishing Group Ltd., 2007, p. 168
  34. ^ The Chakra Bible, Patricia Mercier, Octopus Publishing Group Ltd., 2007, p. 167
  35. ^ The Chakra Bible, Patricia Mercier, Octopus Publishing Group Ltd., 2007, p. 127
  36. ^ The Chakra Bible, Patricia Mercier, Octopus Publishing Group Ltd., 2007, p. 91

References

  • BelindaGrace (2007). You are Clairvoyant - Developing the secret skill we all have. Rockpool Publishing. http://www.rockpoolpublishing.com.au/books.php?name=you-are-clairvoyant. 
  • Apte, Vaman Shivram (1965). The Practical Sanskrit Dictionary (fourth revised & enlarged ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0567-4. 
  • Bhattacharyya, N. N. (1999). History of the Tantric Religion (Second Revised ed.). New Delhi: Manohar. pp. 174. ISBN 81-7304-025-7. 
  • Bucknell, Roderick; Stuart-Fox, Martin (1986). The Twilight Language: Explorations in Buddhist Meditation and Symbolism. London: Curzon Press. ISBN 0-312-82540-4. 
  • Edgerton, Franklin (2004) [1953]. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Grammar and Dictionary (Reprint ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0999-8.  (Two volumes)
  • Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43878-0. 
  • Chia, Mantak; Chia, Maneewan (1993). Awaken Healing Light of the Tao. Healing Tao Books. 
  • Monier-Williams, Monier. A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. 
  • Prabhananda, S. (2000). Studies on the Tantras (Second reprint ed.). Calcutta: The Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture. ISBN 81-85843-36-8. 
  • Rinpoche, Tenzin Wangyal (2002). Healing with Form, Energy, and Light. Ithaca, New York: Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1559391766. 
  • Saraswati, MD, Swami Sivananda (1953 - 2001). Kundalini Yoga. Tehri-Garhwal, India: Divine Life Society. foldout chart. ISBN 81-7052-052-5. 
  • Tulku, Tarthang (2007). Tibetan Relaxation. The illustrated guide to Kum Nye massage and movement - A yoga from the Tibetan tradition. London: Dunkan Baird Publishers. ISBN 978-1-84483-404-4. 
  • Woodroffe, John (1919 - 1964). The Serpent Power. Madras, India: Ganesh & Co.. ISBN 0-486-23058-9. 

Further reading

Traditional secondary sources and commentary

  • Banerji, S. C. Tantra in Bengal. Second Revised and Enlarged Edition. (Manohar: Delhi, 1992) ISBN 81-85425-63-9
  • Saraswati, Swami Sivananda, MD (1953 - 2001). Kundalini Yoga. Tehri-Garhwal, India: Divine Life Society. ISBN 81-7052-052-5. 
  • Shyam Sundar Goswami, Layayoga: The Definitive Guide to the Chakras and Kundalini, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980.

Western and interpretive literature

External links








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