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View southeast from the top level of the Eiffel Tower, down the Champ de Mars, with the Tour Montparnasse (Montparnasse Tower) in the distance. The Ecole Militaire is one third down from the top of the picture.

The Champ de Mars (French pronunciation: [ʃɑ̃ də maʁs]) is a large public green-space in Paris, France, located in the 7th arrondissement, between the Eiffel Tower to the northwest and the École Militaire to the southeast. The park is named after the Campus Martius of Rome. Champ de Mars means "Field of Mars", after Mars the god of war. It was named for its original use of military drills. It was the site of Expositions Universelles in 1867, 1878 and 1889.

The nearest Métro stations are Champ de Mars - Tour Eiffel and École Militaire.

Champ de Mars Massacre (French Revolution)

During the French Revolution, the Champ de Mars was the setting of the Fête de la Fédération, on the 14 July 1790. It was also the setting of a massacre on 17 July 1791. On this day, the National Assembly issued a decree that King Louis XVI would remain as king under a Constitutional Monarchy. On this same day, leaders of the Republican Party in France rallied against this decision. Brissot, author of the Patriote Français, and president of the Comité des Recherches of Paris, drew up a petition demanding the removal of King Louis XVI. A large crowd gathered at the Champ de Mars to sign the petition. The Marquis de Lafayette and the National Guard, trying to preserve public order, marched on the crowd. They were successful in peacefully dispersing the crowd. However, later the same day, the crowd returned in greater numbers led by Danton and Camille Desmoulins. This larger crowd was more determined than the first, proving to be more of a threat. Lafayette again tried to disperse the crowd. In retaliation, the crowd threw stones towards the National Guard. After unsuccessful warning shots were fired, the National Guard opened fire on the crowd. Many of the crowd members were killed. This event is known as the Champ de Mars Massacre - Fusillade du Champ de Mars.

See also

Coordinates: 48°51′22″N 2°17′54″E / 48.85611°N 2.29833°E / 48.85611; 2.29833

References

History of the French Revolution from 1789 to 1814 by M. Mignet Pages 71-72


(Montparnasse Tower) in the distance. The Ecole Militaire is one third down from the top of the picture.]]

The Champ de Mars (French pronunciation: [ʃɑ̃ də maʁs]) is a large public greenspace in Paris, France, located in the seventh arrondissement, between the Eiffel Tower to the northwest and the École Militaire to the southeast. The park is named after the Campus Martius ("Mars Field") in Rome, a tribute to the Roman god of war. The name also alludes to the fact that the lawns here were formerly used as drilling and marching grounds by the French military.

The nearest Métro stations are La Motte-Picquet–Grenelle and École Militaire. Champ de Mars-Tour Eiffel, an RER suburban-commuter-railway station, is also nearby.

Contents

History

Originally, the Champ de Mars was part of a large flat open area called Grenelle, which was reserved for market gardening. Citizens would claim small plots and exploit them by growing fruits, vegetables, and flowers for the local market. However, the plain of Grenelle was not an especially fertile place for farming.

The construction, in 1765, of the École Militaire designed by Ange-Jacques Gabriel, was the first step toward the Champ de Mars in its present form. Grounds for military drills were originally planned for an area south of the school, the current location of the place de Fontenoy. The choice to build an esplanade to the north of the school led to the erection of the noble facade which today encloses the Champ de Mars. The planners leveled the ground, surrounded it with a large ditch and a long avenue of elms, and, as a final touch, the esplanade was enclosed by a fine grille-work fence.

The Isle of Swans, formerly a riverine islet at the location of the northeastern foot of the Eiffel Tower, was, for the sake of symmetry and pleasing perspectives, attached to the shore. (Note that the Isle of Swans discussed here should not be confused with the Isle of Swans that sits in the middle of the Seine downstream and around the next bend in the river, between the fifteenth and sixteenth arrondissements.)

Jacques Charles and the Robert brothers launched the world's first hydrogen-filled balloon from the Champ-de-Mars on August 27, 1783.[1]

This place witnessed the spectacle and pageantry of some of the most well-remembered festivals of the French Revolution. On July 14, 1790, the first "Federation Day" celebration (fête de la Fédération), now known as Bastille Day, was held on the Champ de Mars, exactly one year after the storming of the prison. The following year, on July 17, 1791, the massacre on the Champ de Mars took place. Jean Sylvain Bailly, the first mayor of Paris, became a victim of his own revolution and was guillotined there on 12 November 1793.

The Champ de Mars was also the site of the Festival of the Supreme Being on June 8, 1794. With a design by the painter Jacques-Louis David[2], a massive "Altar of the Nation" was built atop an artificial mountain and surmounted by a "Tree of Liberty".[3] The festival is regarded as the most successful of its type in the Revolution.[4]

The Champ de Mars was the site of Expositions Universelles in 1867, 1878, 1889, and 1900.

Visual history

References

See also

Coordinates: 48°51′22″N 2°17′54″E / 48.85611°N 2.29833°E / 48.85611; 2.29833








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