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The Chankas were a Late Intermediate (c.a. 1400 C.E.) ethnic group in Peru. Enemies of the Incas, they were centered primarily in Andahuaylas, located in the modern day region of Apurímac. The Chankas were divided into three groups: the Hanan Chankas, or the Upper Chankas; Hurin Chankas, or the Lower Chankas; and the Villca, or Hancohuallos. The Hanan Chankas had their center at Andahuaylas, the Hurin Chankas at Uranmarca, and the Villca at Vilcas Huaman.

When describing the Chankas, there is a need to distinguish between two ethnic groups with well-marked characteristics: the Hanan Chankas (or later called "kingdom of Park that war with the Cusco Quechua"); and the Hurin Chankas who surrendered voluntarily to the Quechua Cusco which were not destroyed or subjected to forced land transfers (mitmakuna). The Hanan Chanka did not make major contributions despite villages and found remains of Wari pottery and their own rudimentary tools. This is an area that needs to be better studied.

The Hanan Chancas were an ethnic group that inhabited the region in the departments of Ayacucho, Huancavelica, Junin and part of Apurímac in Peru. They are said to have originated from Lake Choclococha and united the colonial "Choclopus" (or "chocorvos") and Urcococha both in the Huancavelica Department. Its initial territory was located between the rivers "Ancoyaco (current Mantaro), Pampas and Pachachaca, tax Apurímac. When expanded, made the area "Ancoyaco ayllukuna" with its headquarters in Paucar and the Uran Chancas of Andahuaylas based secondary. They developed an autonomous culture and had an option language of puquina. Its capital was Waman Karpa ("house of falcon"), shores of Laguna Anori, 35 km of Andahuaylas, on the banks of the river Pampas.

The initiator of the expansion of Chancas called Uscovilca, and his mummy was preserved with veneration in Waman Karpa until the time of the Incas.

Contents

Source

According to its founders several myths were Uscovilca (founder of Lurinchanca) and Ancovilca (founder of Hananmarca or Hanan Chanka).[1] The error incurred until now was that ethnicity was Hanan Chanka Uran Chanka confused with them and that they joined the Pacor Pocoras or in a non-existent entity calling it "confederation pocra-chances."

History

For some archaeologists, chanca society is a step backwards from the point of view urban, compared with culture Wari. Their settlement pattern was the most widespread of small villages (about 100 houses). Other scholars believe, however, that some have reached Chancas large populations. The burials are of two types: some in mausoleums, and other simply on the ground. There are also burials made in caves or rock shelters.

They were not rivals of the Incas because they submitted peacefully in the Quechua Cusco out for their "big brothers" the Park or Hanan Chanchan for visory and Rucanas erean brave people who clearly and warriors.

Were characterized as farmers. Were used and the feline deity painted the face and scream and carry on fighting to the Mummy on the shoulders of their grandparents. Chancas remained cohesive and managed to develop a major regional lordship lived its heyday during the thirteenth century.

The Chancas in combat

According to sources alleged that story about Inca Culture Chanca, the very Hanan Chancas when bloody fighting, when they were captured the enemy prisoner of war. We did cruel things to show the enemy that they should not meddle with them, they did things like scalp, or while still alive prisoners were uprooted skin, head hung so the blood is concentrated in the upper body and they did a few small cuts on the front of the toes, is where we began to tear the skin gradually, while the prisoner was screaming despavoridos. Another way to intimidate the enemy was making cups made from skulls where prisoners drank the blood of the enemy.

Apogee

The height of expansive Chancas occurred between the years 1200 and 1438. In the past year were submitted by the Sapa Inca Pachacútec after a tough battle with the city of Cusco ran the risk of being captured by the apurimeños. According to some traditions Incas, the Uran Chancas were conquered much earlier, around the year 1230, where the Sapa Inca Mayta able and military crossed the Apurimac River, formerly called Cápac Mayu ( "main river"), by a prodigious bridge hanging. The Inca Garcilaso de la Vega (1605) gives Cápac Yupanqui a similar feat one hundred years later. However, the most solidly researched states and subsequent submission defeat at the hands of the army commanded by the Inca Pachacútec

Cusco

It was in 1438 that the alleged leader Hanan Chance " Anccu Hualloc "mitifica so that the people or the ayllus Ancoyaco" (also called Anco Huayllu or Hancoallo) gathered 40,000 men from war and began the conquest of Cusco. Advanced victoriously to encircle the city. Viracocha Inca and the nobility of many people fled in the direction of Collasuyo and spread despair until a prince Cusi Yupanqui (later self Pachacutec) bravely led the resistance. While able to gather allies, offered peace to the besiegers, but they rejected the offer. A bloody battle was fought in Yawarpampa ("field of blood"), providentially won by Cusco by the timely arrival of friendly forces.

This difficult victory became a legend in the story which chronicles the Indian Joan de Santa Cruz Pachacuti Yampa Salcamaygua (1613) states that the battle would be lost if not miraculously brought to life the soldiers piedra pururaucas of stones dressed as soldiers to cheat Chancas.

As the victors, died Chancas Yawarpampa 22,000 in 8000 and Cusco.

The Hanan Chancas were persecuted until Antahualla (Apurímac). The leader of the defense of Cusco took up sovereign power and founded a new dynasty.

According to the victors, Reales de los Incas by Garcilaso de la Vega, the Inca was the elder fugitive Yawer Huácac and the prince who assumed the defense of Cuzco, his son Topa Hatun, named after Viracocha Inca.

According to Juan de Betanzos (1551), the Inca Wiracocha old fugitive was not just him but his successor (and brother of Cusi Yupanqui), Inca Urco, fled from its responsibility El Salvador is the prince Cusi Yupanqui, then called Pachacútec. This is the most accepted version, which coincides with the chronicle of Valboa Hair (1583) and the most refined chronologies.

Other features, including the Bernabé Cobo (1653). Otras crónicas, entre ellas la de Bernabé Cobo (1653) mention of a second attack occurred shortly after Chancas, also headed by Anccu Huayco against Pachacútec. The leader not only managed to escape prisoner: 8000 fighters met Challcumarca and Chance in Suramarca and the war resumed, this time to regain the lost territories. Being inferior in force, chose to escape to the Jungle "to a region of large ponds or lakes, along the course of the Urubamba River.

Organization

In any case, Chanka Andahuaylas were close relatives of the other tribes that inhabited the province of Ayacucho, and as a nation were strengthened after the decline of the expansion Wari. According to Sarmiento de Gamboa, the territory Chanca was divided into three biases, known as Hanan chanca (Parker, Ayllus of Ancoyaco). Chanka the nation was composed of tribes Ancoyaco, Andahuaylas, and rucanas visory. According to the geographic relations of India, is divided into three rucanas partialities Hanan rucana, hurin rucana and rucana Andamarca. For the anthropologist Victor Navarro del Aguila, rucana comes from rukak or lukak, ie shipper, mule, and gave tribute to this province in the time of the Inca empire was just as porters for real. Wearing a distinctive white and red on the head. The third of the province was Chancas of equipment, which was the ancient Aymara language. The visory were divided into three partialities Hanan equipment, hurin visory and Chalco.

Worshiped a snowy mountain called Carhuarazo, but were subject to Chancas held constant wars with them.

Economy

The economy of the Uran Chancas was based primarily on agriculture.

Various Andean cultivated plants, for various ecological zones, which amounted to the raising and grazing llamas, vicuna, alpacas, guanacos, in herds of appreciable size, which was administered from towns with special provisions for control and feed while providing wool and meat.

Ceramic

is generally flat surface with a rough and sometimes very red engobe diluido.

Decoration in relief, with application buttons or clay figurines, supplemented with incised or stamped circular.

The forms are very open dishes and jugs with narrow necks, which are sometimes very expensive paperback. The land was located where the Culture Chanka was a strategic place from where it dominated the territory and could easily develop defensive and that location is in relation to the water immediately, to maximize the resources offered by the earth, and that the presence of several ecological zones which allowed the variety of resources that could be in relation to crop Plant and animal husbandry.

Damian de la Bandera said: "All towns in between high and low in soil colder than hot, in high places and slopes caused by the rains, which had both ends of the cold earth, to shepherd domestic cattle, which have the hunt and wild, and hot, to seeds, as well.

The people are not over water and land under the site and many of them could not live more than ten Indians who live, for lack of water and earth.

(D. of the 1557 flag). Damián It tells us that these people had three major offices: - The Olleros or potters. - The silversmiths and metal workers.(D. de la bandera 1557).

and - These trades carpenters arrive endure until colonial times.

The Ruins

His most impressive is "Inca raqay" studied by Martha Anders, to the banks of the Mantaro north of Huanta of Uran Chancas highlights Sondor the strength of the Center of Metallurgical Curamba and Inti Huatana in Uranmarca, strategically located in the most beautiful parts of the province of Andahuaylas.y –

Also in every district there are a variety of remains which are the legacy of the Wari culture Pacor, Chanka and Inka.

However there is information about the history warrior and warlords, remnants archaeological identified as Chancas not allow an exact profile of the life and constumbres of this town.

Both Huamancarpa (near Andahuaylas), as Carahuasi and Rumihuasi (near Abancay), still require further investigation.

See also

Antahuaylla

References

  1. ^ quoted Purizaga Vega (1967). The Inca Empire and Pocras. 1967. pp. 34. ISBN. "Betanzoz speaks of Uscovilca, who for most of the chroniclers was the founder of the nation in its bias Chanca Hanan."  

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