Channel Islands National Park: Wikis

  
  
  

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Channel Islands National Park
IUCN Category II (National Park)
Location Santa Barbara County & Ventura County, California, USA
Nearest city Santa Barbara
Coordinates 34°0′30″N 119°25′0″W / 34.00833°N 119.416667°W / 34.00833; -119.416667Coordinates: 34°0′30″N 119°25′0″W / 34.00833°N 119.416667°W / 34.00833; -119.416667
Area 249,353.77 acres (100,910 ha)
70,518.62 acres (28,538 ha) federal
Established March 5, 1980
Visitors 375,256 (in 2006)
Governing body National Park Service
Map of Channel Islands

Channel Islands National Park is a United States national park[1] that consists of five of the eight Channel Islands off the coast of the U.S. state of California, in the Pacific Ocean. Although the islands are close to the shore of densely-populated Southern California, their isolation has left them relatively undeveloped. The islands within the park extend along the Southern California coast from Point Conception near Santa Barbara to San Pedro, a neighborhood of Los Angeles. Park headquarters and the Robert J. Lagomarsino Visitor Center are located in the city of Ventura.

Channel Islands National Park is home to a wide variety of significant natural and cultural resources. It was designated a U.S. National Monument on April 26, 1938, and a National Biosphere Reserve in 1976. It was promoted to a National Park on March 5, 1980.

Channel Islands National Park.

More than 2,000 species of plants and animals can be found within the park. However only three mammals are endemic to the islands, one of which is the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) which is known to carry the sin nombre hantavirus. Spotted Skunk and Channel Islands Fox also are endemic. The Island fence lizard[2] is also endemic to the Channel Islands.[3]Other animals in the park include Island Scrub Jay, harbor seal, sea lion, island fox, spotted skunk, island night lizard, barn owl, American kestrel, horned lark and meadowlark and California brown pelican. One hundred and forty-five of these species are unique to the islands and found nowhere else in the world. Marine life ranges from microscopic plankton to the endangered blue whale, the largest animal ever to live on earth. Archeological and cultural resources span a period of more than 10,000 years.

The park consists of 249,354 acres (100,910 ha), half of which are under the ocean, and include the islands of:

Contents

Visitation

Annual visitation to the park's mainland visitor center is 300,000. Visitation to the islands and waters is low, with about 30,000 visitors traveling to the islands, and another 60,000 who go only into park waters. Although most visitation occurs in the summer, migrating gray whales and spectacular wildflower displays attract visitors in the winter and spring. Autumn is an excellent time to travel to the park, as well as for diving, as the days are usually sunny, with minimal winds and clear ocean water. Camping is a popular activity on Santa Cruz Island, with visitors arriving at Pirate's Cove on the north shore and staying in the valley beyond. A new island visitor center opened at Scorpion Ranch on Santa Cruz Island on April 6th, 2009.

Gallery

Line notes

  1. ^ U.S. National Parks, 2001
  2. ^ W. Flaxington, 2005
  3. ^ C.M. Hogan, 2008

References

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

North America : United States of America : California : Central Coast : Channel Islands National Park
For other places with the same name, see Channel Islands (disambiguation).

Channel Islands National Park [1] is a United States National Park comprised of a series of islands that are located off the coast of Ventura County and Santa Barbara County in Southern California. Only five of the eight Channel Islands are part of the national park: Anacapa, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, San Miguel, and Santa Rosa

Understand

This isolated chain of islands just off the Southern California coast boasts pristine natural splendor. Half of the Channel Island National Park's 49,354 acres are underwater and the area is home to 2,000 species of plants and animals. Visitors to the Park can explore waters surrounding the islands for some of California's best sea-kayaking and diving, or trek through the interior of the park's more remote islands.

History

For over ten thousand years, the northern Channel Islands have hosted a diverse range of peoples and cultures. The large number and undisturbed condition of archeological sites on the islands are shedding light on coastal migration patterns of the earliest Americans and their subsistence in the marine environment. Human remains discovered in 1959 at Arlington Springs on Santa Rosa Island have been dated to more than 13,000 years of age, among the oldest dated human remains in North America.

New information about the Island Chumash, the native population that inhabited these islands for thousands of years, continues to fascinate historians and visitors alike. These native people relied on the sea for much of their sustenance and manufactured tools and trade items from shells and stones. The Chumash were able to travel between the islands and the mainland in plank canoes, called tomols, which were constructed out of redwood trees drifting down the coast.

In 1542, explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo reached San Miguel Island while voyaging along the American coast seeking new lands for conquest and development. For two hundred years, explorers and traders visited the islands where they hunted otters, seals, and sea lions for their pelts and oil, greatly increasing the exploitation of the marine resources and introducing diseases that decimated the native populations.

Claimed for Spain by the early explorers, the islands fell under Mexican rule in 1821. Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa were awarded as Mexican land grants with the intent of raising livestock. Initial ventures into sheep and cattle ranching began on these islands in the 1830s. With California statehood in 1850, the islands became part of the United States. Each of the five northern Channel Islands was developed for livestock ranching during some period of the 19th and 20th centuries. Taking advantage of the expansive fields and altering much of the natural environment, ranchers and vaqueros, or cowboys, built successful sheep and cattle ranches. Many historic ranch buildings remain on Santa Cruz and Santa Rosa islands today.

The U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force and Coast Guard all established posts on the northern Channel Islands during the 20th century. Light towers were constructed on Anacapa and Santa Barbara Islands in the 1910s, and a full light station was built on East Anacapa Island in 1932, run by the Coast Guard into the 1960s. Coastal defense build-up led to the establishment of an Army base in 1943 and an Air Force Base in 1950, both on Santa Rosa Island. The Navy managed San Miguel Island from 1948 until it transferred management to the National Park Service in 1967. The Navy also continues to maintain a small post on Santa Cruz Island.

Today National Park Service personnel and park visitors form the primary population of the five northern islands. Established as a National Monument in 1938, Anacapa and Santa Barbara islands were the first two islands under NPS management. In 1980 legislation creating Channel Islands National Park added the three remaining Northern Channel Islands.

Flora and fauna

A variety of organisms can be found on and around the Channel Islands, from top predators like bald eagles and sharks, to intertidal residents such as seastars and barnacles, to the tiniest parasites living on other animals and plants. Because of their isolation and remote nature, the Channel Islands support fewer native animal species than similar habitats on the mainland. Species that reached the islands were aerial, such as birds and bats, or rafted across the water on debris and other material. Over time some vertebrate species evolved into distinct subspecies on the islands. A total of 23 endemic terrestrial animals have been identified in the park, including 11 land birds, that are Channel Island subspecies or races.

The Santa Barbara Channel to the north serves as a major marine mammal migration corridor, particularly whales. Keep your eyes open in late winter and early spring.

Climate

Although the park is in sunny southern California there are distinct seasons, each with its own character and unique mood.

In addition, visitors also should be aware that ocean and weather conditions vary considerably from day-to-day and island-to-island. Although this makes planning your visit a little difficult, we must remember that this unpredictable and, at times, unforgiving weather is one of the main reasons that the islands have been afforded so much isolation and protection from the rapid changes seen on the mainland. It is, in part, what makes the Channel Islands such a unique and wonderful place.

In general, the islands have a Mediterranean climate year-round. Temperatures are relatively stable, with highs averaging in the mid-60s (°F) and lows in the low-50s.

However, visitors to the islands must be prepared for high winds, fog, rough seas, and sea spray at any time. Winds are often calm in the early morning and increase during the afternoon. High winds may occur regardless of the forecast, especially on the outer islands, Santa Rosa and San Miguel (30-knot winds are not unusual). Anacapa, eastern Santa Cruz, and Santa Barbara Islands have more moderate winds. Dense fog is common during the late spring and early summer months, but may occur at any time. Ocean water temperatures range from the lower 50s (°F) in the winter to the upper 60s in the fall.

  • Island Packers, 1691 Spinnaker Dr. Suite 105 B, Ventura, Tel: (805) 642-1393, E-mail: information@islandpackers, [2]. provides boat travel between Ventura and Channel Islands Harbors and all of the islands. Half-day to multi-day packages.
  • From Santa Barbara Harbor, Truth Aquatics, 301 West Cabrillo Blvd., Santa Barbara, Tel: (805) 962-1127, [3]. Boat transportation to all of the islands. One-day or multi-day trips available.
  • Air travel is offered by Channel Islands Aviation, 305 Durley Avenue, Camarillo, Tel: (805) 987-1301, [4], from Camarillo Airport to Santa Rosa Island. One-day or multi-day round-trip excursions are available.

Fees/Permits

There are no entrance fees to visit the park. However, a fee is charged for camping on the islands. The fee includes both the National Park Service fee that supports the operation of the campgrounds and a reservation fee by the company that manages the reservation system for the National Parks.

Get around

The islands are only accessible by park concessionaire boats and planes or private boat. Advanced planning is highly recommended. There is no transportation available on the islands. All areas must be accessed on foot or by private boat or kayak.

Public boat transportation is available year-round to all five islands by the park concessionaires, Island Packers [5] and Truth Aquatics [6]. In addition, Island Packers offers whale watching trips while Truth Aquatics also offers scuba diving trips.

Sleep

Camping

Camping reservations for National Park Service campgrounds on San Miguel, Santa Rosa, East Santa Cruz, Anacapa, and Santa Barbara Islands are available through Biospherics Inc. at (800) 365-2267. Campsites are generally located close to one another and if the campground is filled to capacity conditions may be crowded. No trash service is provided and all campers must pack out their own trash. Be prepared to carry your camping gear from the landing areas to the campgrounds.

  • Anacapa Island. The campground is on East Anacapa Island, 1/2 mile from the dock landing, up 154 stairs. There are 7 campsites with a campground capacity of 30 people.
  • Santa Barbara Island. The campground is 1/2 mile uphill from the dock landing. There are 8 campsites with a campground capacity of 30 people.
  • San Miguel Island. The campground is a 1 mile hike uphill from the beach landing and has windbreaks. There are 9 campsites with a total campground capacity of 30 people. Fewer than 200 people per year ever get the experience of camping on San Miguel Island.
  • Santa Rosa Island. The campground in Water Canyon is 1 1/2 mile miles across the flats from the pier landing, or 1/4 mile from the airstrip. There are 15 campsites with a 50 person campground capacity. The campground has windbreaks, running water (most people bring drinking water) and an invigorating shower.
  • Santa Cruz Island. The campground is in Scorpion Valley and has 40 sites and allows 4-6 people per site. The campsites are spread out along the valley floor 1/2 to 1 mile up the flats from the beach landing.

Backcountry

Camping on the beaches on Santa Rosa Island is available for experienced kayakers and boaters on a seasonal basis; a permit is necessary by calling (805) 658-5730.

Stay safe

Due to the weather variation which can occur in the Park, visitors to the islands should dress in layers, with short and long pants, fleece jacket or sweatshirt, windbreaker, hat, sunscreen, and waterproof outer clothing. In addition, visitors should wear sturdy hiking shoes with non-slip soles.

There are no supplies on the islands. Take water, food, and other necessities. Watch your step—ladders, railings, and stairs may be wet. Stay back from cliff edges; they may be crumbly or undercut—a fall could be fatal. Do not approach marine mammals, such as whales, seals, and seal lions. Check for ticks and watch out for poison oak and cactus. Deer mice on the islands may carry diseases, including deadly hantavirus. Avoid all contact with mice and other wild animals. Keep food in rodent-proof containers. In an emergency on the islands, contact a ranger or concession employee, or use a cell phone to dial 911. On the water, use a marine radio VHF channel 16.

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