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Charles Dawson

Charles Dawson
Born July 11, 1864
Died August 10, 1916
Cause of death sepsis
Nationality British
Known for Piltdown Man

Charles Dawson (July 11, 1864 – August 10, 1916) was an amateur British archaeologist who is credited and blamed with discoveries that turned out to be imaginative frauds, including that of the Piltdown Man (Eoanthropus dawsoni), which he presented in 1912. Dawson was often present at finds in the archaeological digs, or was the finder himself.

Born the eldest of three sons, Dawson's family moved to Hastings, Sussex, when he was still very young. Charles initially studied as a lawyer following his father and pursued a hobby of collecting and studying fossils. He initially made a number of seemingly important fossil finds. Amongst these were teeth from a previously unknown species of mammal, later named Plagiaulax dawsoni in his honour, three new species of dinosaur, one later named Iguanodon dawsoni, and a new form of fossil plant, Salaginella dawsoni. The British Museum conferred upon him the title of Honorary Collector. For these important finds he was elected a fellow of the Geological Society and a few years later after another find, to the Society of Antiquaries of London in 1895. Dawson died prematurely from septicaemia 1916.

Contents

Alleged discoveries

In 1889 Dawson was a co-founder of the Hastings and St Leonards Museum Association, one of the first voluntary museum friends groups established in Britain. Dawson worked on a voluntary basis as a member of the Museum Committee, in charge of the acquisition of artefacts and documents. His interest in archaeology developed and he had an uncanny knack of making spectacular discoveries, The Sussex Daily News named him the "Wizard of Sussex" for his success.

In 1893 Dawson investigated a curious flint mine full of prehistoric, Roman and mediaeval artefacts at Lavant, near Chichester and probed in inner depths of two tunnels beneath Hastings Castle. In the same year he presented the British Museum with a Roman statuette from Beauport Park which was made, uniquely for the period, of cast iron. Other discoveries followed, including a strange form of hafted Neolithic stone axe and a well preserved ancient timber boat.

He studied ancient quarries, reanalysed the Bayeux Tapestry and in 1909 produced what was then the definitive study of Hastings Castle. He later found evidence for the final phases of Roman occupation in Britain at Pevensey Castle in Sussex. Investigating unusual elements of the natural world, Dawson found a toad petrified inside a flint nodule, discovered a large supply of natural gas at Heathfield in East Sussex, reported on a sea-serpent in the English Channel, observed a new species of human and found a strange goldfish / carp hybrid. It was even reported that he was experimenting with phosphorescent bullets as a deterrent to Zeppelin attacks on London.

In recognition of his many discoveries, Dawson was elected a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries London in 1895. At the age of 31, and without a university degree to his name, he was now Charles Dawson F.G.S., F.S.A. His most famous discovery was in 1912 with the discovery of the Piltdown Man which was billed as the "missing link" between humans and other great apes.

Criticism

Questions about the Piltdown find were raised from the beginning, first by Arthur Keith, but also by paleontologists and anatomists from the American Smithsonian and from Europe. Those disputing the find were attacked in very personal terms.<-- by whom? --> Challenges to Piltdown Man arose again in the 1920s, but were again dismissed. In 1949, further questions were raised about the Piltdown Man and its authenticity, which led to Piltdown proven conclusively a hoax in 1953. Since then a number of Dawson's other finds have also been proven to be fakes or planted.[1][2]

In 2003, Dr Miles Russell of Bournemouth University published the results of his investigation into Dawson's antiquarian collection and concluded that at least 38 specimens were clear fakes. Russell has noted that Dawson’s whole academic career appears to have been "one built upon deceit, sleight of hand, fraud and deception, the ultimate gain being international recognition". Piltdown Man certainly generated media interest like no other discovery before or since.

Charles Dawson never received a knighthood, though many others associated with the Piltdown ‘find’ did, and was never elected to the Royal Society, an apparent ambition of his. Following his death in 1916, the discoveries at Piltdown dried up, no further finds ever being made.

Notes

  1. ^ Unraveling Piltdown, by John Evangelist Walsh © 1996
  2. ^ The Neanderthal Enigma, by James Shreeve © 1995

References

  • Unraveling Piltdown by John Evangelist Walsh © 1996
  • Piltdown Man: the Secret Life of Charles Dawson by Miles Russell 2003 (ISBN 0752425722)

Sources

External links

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