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Sir Charles Drummond Ellis (b.Hampstead, 11 August 1895; died Cookham 10 January 1980) was a physicist and scientific administrator. His work on the magnetic spectrum of the beta-rays helped to develop a better understanding of nuclear structure.

Contents

Education and internment

Ellis was the son of Abraham Charles Ellis, a general manager of the Metropolitan Railway, and Isabelle Flockart Carswell. He won a scholarship to Harrow School where he excelled academically as well as at sport. In 1913 he become a cadet in the Royal Military Academy in preparation for a career in the Royal Engineers.

He was holidaying in Germany the following summer when World War I broke out. All British nationals were rounded up and sent to the Ruhleben P.O.W. Camp just outside Berlin. The camp had been a horse racecourse. During internment the detainees had a large degree of freedom. They had access to books, and Ellis made good use of his time to study. Another detainee in the camp was James Chadwick who was later to receive the Nobel Prize for his work on the discovery of the neutron. Chadwick inspired Ellis and together they erected a laboratory in one of the horse stables where they undertook scientific experiments on the photochemical process.

Career after the war

After the war Ellis decided to abandon a military career. He entered Trinity College, Cambridge where he studied natural sciences. After graduating in 1920 he became engaged in research work at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, where the director, Sir Ernest Rutherford, had now engaged Chadwick. While Rutherford and Chadwick worked on alpha radioactivity and alpha particles for nuclear disintegration experiments Ellis studied beta and gamma radiation. He became a leading authority on the subject, publishing many articles in scientific journals.

In 1921 Ellis had become a fellow of Trinity College and was appointed assistant lecturer in natural science. In 1925 he married Paula Warzcewska, the daughter of a wealthy Polish shipbuilder. Although there were no children Paula (known as Polly in England) had a daughter from a previous marriage. In 1929 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society.

In 1930 Rutherford, Chadwick and Ellis published together a classic monograph Radiations from Radioactive Substances.

Discovery of the neutrino

During the early 1930s Ellis worked with N.F.Mott on energy relations in beta decay. Mott said later that Ellis had “practically discovered the neutrino”. He worked with W.J.Henderson on the energy distribution of positrons in artificial radioactivity. In 1936, a year after Chadwick’s appointment to a professorship at Liverpool, Ellis was appointed to the Wheatstone chair of physics at King's College London in succession to Edward Appleton who had become professor of natural sciences at Cambridge. Ellis continued his research alongside his new teaching and administration commitments.

In 1940 Ellis became a member of MAUD who were investigating the possibility of using nuclear fission to develop new weapons. He became scientific adviser to the army council from 1943-1946, serving on several high-level committees. He was knighted in 1946 for his war service.

Later career

After World War II Ellis held several posts which were not related to nuclear weapons. He was director of the Finance Corporation for Industry, in charge of research and development for the National Coal Board. He was president of the British Coal Utilization Research Association from 1946-1955 and a member of the advisory council to the minister of fuel and power from 1947 to 1955. He became scientific adviser to the British American Tobacco Company (BAT) at a time when the association between smoking and various diseases was just starting to be suspected. He retired from the Gas Council in 1966 and from BAT in 1972.

During his final decade his health was poor. In 1980 he died in a nursing home in Cookham after a short illness.

References

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Simple English

Sir Charles Drummond Ellis (b.Hampstead, 11 August 1895; died Cookham 10 January 1980) was a physicist and scientific administrator. His work helped scientists to understand nuclear structure better.

Contents

Education and internment

Ellis's father was a general manager of the Metropolitan Railway in London. He went to Harrow School where he was very good at all subjects as well as sport. In 1913 he become a cadet in the Royal Military Academy. He wanted to join the Royal Engineers.

He was on holiday in Germany the next summer when World War I broke out. All British people who were in Germany were sent to the Ruhleben P.O.W. Camp just outside Berlin. The place where the detainees (prisoners of war) were held had been a horse racecourse. There were lots of stables, and in each stable there were 27 horse boxes which became the detainees' home during the war. The detainees were allowed to do lots of things to keep themselves busy. They could get books, and Ellis made good use of his time to study. Another detainee in the camp was the scientist James Chadwick. Chadwick taught Ellis a lot and together they made a laboratory in one of the horse stables where they made scientific experiments on the photochemical process.

Career after the war

After the war Ellis decided to study at Trinity College, Cambridge. After graduating in 1920 he did research work at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge. The director there was Sir Ernest Rutherford. Chadwick also worked there. In 1921 Ellis had become a fellow of Trinity College and was made assistant lecturer in natural science. In 1925 he married the daughter of a wealthy Polish shipbuilder. In 1929 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society.

In 1930 Rutherford, Chadwick and Ellis wrote a famous book together called Radiations from Radioactive Substances.

Discovery of the neutrino

During the early 1930s Ellis worked with N.F.Mott on energy relations in beta decay. He discovered the neutrino and worked with W.J.Henderson on the energy distribution of positrons in artificial radioactivity. He became professor at the University of London.

During World War II he worked on the possibility of using nuclear fission to develop new weapons. He became scientific adviser to the army council from 1943-1946. He was knighted in 1946 for his war service.

Later career

After World War II Ellis had other jobs which were not related to nuclear weapons. He gave scientific advice to the National Coal Board and to the British American Tobacco Company. This was at a time when people were just starting to realize that smoking might be bad for the health.

Ellis died in 1980 in a nursing home in Cookham after a short illness.

References


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