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Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp.

Duke Charles Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp (German: Karl Friedrich, Herzog zu Holstein-Gottorp) (30 April 1700 – 18 June 1739) was the son of Frederick IV of Holstein-Gottorp and his wife, Hedvig Sophia, daughter of King Charles XI of Sweden. He became reigning duke in infancy, upon his father's death in 1702.

Duke Charles Frederick was under the regency of his mother, with whom he resided in Stockholm. Actual daily rule of the duchy was left to administrators.

Danish troops had ravaged the duke's lands during the Great Northern War and conquered its northern portions, including the ancestral seat of the dynasty of Holstein-Gottorp, Gottorp castle.

Upon the death in 1718 of his maternal uncle, Charles XII of Sweden, Duke Charles Frederick was presented as claimant to the throne. However, his aunt Ulrika Eleonora the Younger (1688-1741) managed to wrest the throne for herself. The duke then withdrew from Sweden, eventually settling in Russia. Afterward, the so-called Holsteiner Party in Sweden continued to advance Charles Frederick's claims. The party made preparations and awaited the childless Ulrika Eleonora's death, but Charles Frederick died before his aunt and left his claims to his infant son.

In 1720, Sweden and Denmark-Norway concluded the Treaty of Frederiksborg, in which Sweden pledged to cease its support of Holstein-Gottorp. Duke Charles Frederick opposed the treaty, made by a Swedish government which he regarded as rebellious against his own right to the Swedish succession; the treaty also made virtually impossible the regaining of the lost northern part of his duchy, its lands in Schleswig. (This was to be a motivation for his son Peter in 1762, upon his Russian accession, to start preparations for the use of Russian troops to reconquer the lost lands from Denmark.)

Duke Charles Frederick was married to Anna Petrovna, Tsesarevna of Russia and elder daughter of Tsar Peter I and his peasant wife, Marta Skavronskaya (who would later become Empress Catherine I of Russia).

Charles Frederick, then commander of the palace guard in St. Petersburg, attempted to secure his wife's succession to the Russian upon the death in 1727 of her mother, the Empress Catherine I of Russia. His attempt failed, but the son of Duke Charles Frederick and Duchess Anna Petrovna, Charles Peter Ulrich (who succeeded as Duke of Holstein-Gottorp in 1739), eventually became Russian tsar in 1762, as Peter III.

Before a member of the family of Holstein-Gottorp was to sit on either the Swedish or the Russian throne, Duke Charles Frederick died in 1739 in the Saxon village of Rolfshagen.

Ancestors

Charles Frederick's ancestors in three generations
Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp Father:
Frederick IV, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
Paternal Grandfather:
Christian Albert, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Marie Elisabeth of Saxony
Paternal Grandmother:
Frederikke Amalie of Denmark
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Frederick III of Denmark
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Mother:
Hedvig Sophia of Sweden
Maternal Grandfather:
Charles XI of Sweden
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Charles X Gustav of Sweden
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp
Maternal Grandmother:
Ulrike Eleonora of Denmark
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Frederick III of Denmark
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Preceded by
Frederick IV
Duke of Schleswig
1702-1713
Succeeded by
Frederick V
Duke of Holstein
1702-1739
Succeeded by
Charles Peter Ulrich
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