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The Lord Hardinge of Penshurst 
KG GCB GCSI GCMG GCIE GCVO ISO PC


In office
23 November 1910 – 4 April 1916
Monarch George V
Preceded by The Earl of Minto
Succeeded by The Lord Chelmsford

Born 20 June 1858 (1858-06-20)
Died 2 August 1944 (1944-08-03)
Penshurst, Kent
Nationality British
Alma mater Trinity College, Cambridge

The Right Honourable Sir Charles Hardinge, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst KG GCB GCSI GCMG GCIE GCVO ISO PC (20 June 1858 – 2 August 1944) was a British diplomat and statesman who served as Viceroy of India from 1910 to 1916.

Contents

Background and education

Hardinge was the second son of Charles Hardinge, 2nd Viscount Hardinge, and the grandson of Henry Hardinge, 1st Viscount Hardinge, a former Governor-General of India. He was educated at Harrow School[1] and Trinity College, Cambridge.[2]

Career

Hardinge entered the diplomatic service in 1880, was appointed first secretary at Tehran in 1896 and first secretary at Saint Petersburg in 1898 when he was promoted over the heads of seventeen of his seniors. After a brief stint as Assistant Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs he became Ambassador to Russia in 1904. In 1906 he was promoted to the position of Permanent Under-Secretary at the Foreign Office, and despite his own conservatism, worked closely with Liberal Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey. In 1907 he declined the post of Ambassador to the United States. In 1910 Hardinge was raised to the peerage as Baron Hardinge of Penshurst, in the County of Kent, and appointed by the Asquith government as Viceroy of India.

His tenure was a memorable one, seeing the visit of King George V and the Delhi Durbar of 1911, as well as the move of the capital from Calcutta to New Delhi in 1912. Although Hardinge was the target of assassination attempts by Indian nationalists, his tenure generally saw better relations between the British administration and the nationalists, thanks to the implementation of the Morley-Minto reforms of 1909, Hardinge's own admiration for Mohandas Gandhi, and criticism of the South African government's anti-Indian immigration policies.

Hardinge's efforts paid off in 1914 during the First World War. Due to improved colonial relationships, Britain was able to deploy nearly all of the British troops in India as well as many native Indian troops to areas outside of India. In particular the British Indian Army was able to play a significant role in the Mesopotamian campaign[3]

In 1916, Hardinge returned to his former post in England as Permanent Under-Secretary at the Foreign Office, serving with Arthur Balfour. In 1920 he became ambassador to France before his retirement in 1922.

Personal life

Lord Haringe of Penshurst died in Penshurst, Kent, on 2 August 1944, aged 86.

Styles

  • 1858-1880: Charles Hardinge
  • 1880-1895: The Honourable Charles Hardinge
  • 1895-1903: The Honourable Charles Hardinge, CB
  • 1903-29 March 1904: The Honourable Charles Hardinge, CB, CVO
  • 29 March-10 May 1904: The Honourable Sir Charles Hardinge, KCMG, CB, CVO
  • 10 May 1904-1 January 1905: The Honourable Sir Charles Hardinge, KCMG, KCVO, CB
  • 1 January-9 November 1905: The Right Honourable Sir Charles Hardinge, GCMG, KCVO, CB
  • 9 November 1905-1906: The Right Honourable Sir Charles Hardinge, GCMG, GCVO, CB
  • 1906-1910: The Right Honourable Sir Charles Hardinge, GCMG, GCVO, CB, ISO
  • 1910-1916: His Excellency The Right Honourable the Lord Hardinge of Penshurst, GCB, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, GCVO, ISO
  • 1916-1944: The Right Honourable the Lord Hardinge of Penshurst, KG, GCB, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, GCVO, ISO
Government offices
Preceded by
The Earl of Minto
Viceroy of India
1910–1916
Succeeded by
The Lord Chelmsford
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Charles Stewart Scott
British Ambassador to Russia
1904–1906
Succeeded by
Sir Arthur Nicolson
Preceded by
The Lord Sanderson
Permanent Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs
1906–1910
Succeeded by
Sir Arthur Nicolson
Preceded by
Sir Arthur Nicolson
Permanent Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs
1916–1920
Succeeded by
Eyre Crowe
Preceded by
The Earl of Derby
British Ambassador to France
1920–1922
Succeeded by
The Marquess of Crewe
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
New Creation
Baron Hardinge of Penshurst
1910–1944
Succeeded by
Alexander Hardinge

References

  1. ^ photo at http://www.harrowphotos.com and cf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Old_Harrovians
  2. ^ Hardinge, the Hon. Charles in Venn, J. & J. A., Alumni Cantabrigienses, Cambridge University Press, 10 vols, 1922–1958.
  3. ^ Lord Hardinge and the Mesopotamia Expedition and Inquiry, 1914-1917; Douglas Goold; The Historical Journal, Vol. 19, No. 4 (Dec., 1976), pp. 919-945
  • Briton C. Busch, Hardinge of Penshurst: a study of the old diplomacy, Hamden, Conn.: Published for the Conference on British Studies and Indiana University at South Bend by Archon Books, 1980.
  • Lord Hardinge of Penshurst, The Reminiscences of Lord Hardinge of Penshurst (London, 1947)
  • Zara S. Steiner, The Foreign Office and Foreign Policy 1898-1914 )Cambridge, 1969)
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