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Charles II
.Charles II in the robes of the Order of the Garter, c.^ People elected it not by order of Charles II .
  • Historical Discovery:Historical Discovery:Tudor Stuart England:Charles II 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.beavervalleysoftware.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The paintings in St.George's Hall consisted of a main oval ceiling of Charles II in Garter robes enthroned, and attended by various allegorical figures, with the 1st Earl of Shaftesbury among the forces of Evil dispersing Libels.
  • Details of Portrait of King Charles II (1630-85) by Antonio Verrio 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.historicalportraits.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The face is a remarkable likeness and he is dressed in robes of the Order of the Garter.

1675, as painted by Sir Peter Lely.
King of Scotland
Reign 30 January 1649 – 3 September 1651[1]
Coronation 1 January 1651
Predecessor Charles I
Successor The Covenanters
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (more...)
Reign 29 May 1660[2] – 6 February 1685
Coronation 23 April 1661
Predecessor Charles I (de jure)
Council of State (de facto)
Successor James VII & II
Spouse Catherine of Braganza
Issue
James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth
Charles FitzCharles, 1st Earl of Plymouth
Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Cleveland
Charlotte Lee, Countess of Lichfield
Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton
George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland
Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St Albans
Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond
House House of Stuart
Father Charles I of England
Mother Henrietta Maria of France
Born 29 May 1630(1630-05-29)
St. James's Palace, London England
Died 6 February 1685 (aged 54)
Whitehall Palace, London
Burial Westminster Abbey
Signature
.Charles II (29 May 1630 OS – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland.^ Luminarium Encyclopedia: King Charles II of England (1630-1685).
  • Luminarium Encyclopedia: King Charles II of England (1630-1685). 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.luminarium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ CHARLES II 29 May, 1630-6 February, 1685 m.
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Charles I. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The king: Charles was born in Scotland in 1600.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Charles II's father King Charles I was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War.^ Charles II is crowned king of Scots at Scone on 1 January 1651.

^ King Charles I was viewed by some as a martyr after his execution in 1649.
  • Royalty.nu - Royal History - Stuart Dynasty - King Charles I 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.royalty.nu [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles I defended his throne in a Civil War and was beheaded in 1649.
  • Early English Musick: English Middle Baroque 1625-1675, Charles I and Charles II 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.exlibris.org [Source type: Original source]

.The English Parliament did not proclaim Charles II as king, and instead passed a statute that made any such proclamation unlawful.^ Charles II crowned King of Scotlan...
  • The Literary Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.litencyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ King Charles II, 1660 to 1685 .
  • Hammered Coins of England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.castlecoins.com [Source type: Original source]

^ English King Charles II visits Netherlands.
  • HistoryMole Timeline: King Charles II (1630-1685) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

.England entered the period known to history as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth and the country was a de facto republic, led by Oliver Cromwell.^ The dominating personality of the time of the English "commonwealth" was Oliver Cromwell.
  • The Isle of Influence - England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The years of his reign are known in English history as the Restoration period.
  • Charles II (king of Great Britain and Ireland) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Leibnitiana 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.gwleibniz.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The new Commonwealth was ruled by Oliver Cromwell.
  • Royalty.nu - Royal History - Stuart Dynasty - King Charles I 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.royalty.nu [Source type: Original source]

.The Parliament of Scotland, however, proclaimed Charles II king on 5 February 1649 in Edinburgh.^ The king: Charles was born in Scotland in 1600.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles II crowned King of Scotlan...
  • The Literary Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.litencyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ King Charles II, 1660 to 1685 .
  • Hammered Coins of England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.castlecoins.com [Source type: Original source]

.He was crowned King of Scotland at Scone on 1 January 1651. Following his defeat by Cromwell at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, Charles fled to mainland Europe and spent the next nine years in exile in France, the United Provinces and the Spanish Netherlands.^ The following year, once again on 3rd September, a second battle was fought, at Worcester.

^ Charles II is crowned king of Scots at Scone on 1 January 1651.

^ After the execution of his father, Charles I , he fled to France, but in 1650 was invited to Scotland by the Covenanters and crowned king in 1651.
  • Charles II (England) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Charles II (England) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A political crisis following the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in Charles being invited to return and assume the throne in what became known as the Restoration.^ Charles II assumes the throne.
  • 1650-1700 - Icons of England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.icons.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Called by Charles after being restored .
  • Historical Discovery:Historical Discovery:Tudor Stuart England:Charles II 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.beavervalleysoftware.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A political crisis following the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in Charles being invited to return and assume the throne in what became known as the Restoration.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

Charles II arrived on English soil on 27 May 1660 and entered London on his 30th birthday, 29 May 1660. After 1660, all legal documents were dated as if Charles had succeeded his father in 1649. Charles was crowned King of England and Ireland at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1661.
.Charles's English parliament enacted anti-Puritan laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England.^ Puritans sought to reform the established Church of England.
  • Glorious Revolution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Along with the Clarendon Code (aimed at ending toleration of the Puritans), this marks an important stage in the re-establishment of the Church of England.
  • 1650-1700 - Icons of England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.icons.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles promised to abide by the laws of Parliament.
  • England, from Charles II to Isaac Newton 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: Original source]

.Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code even though he himself favoured a policy of religious tolerance.^ Was the religious policy of Charles honest or dishonest?
  • Heritage History — Putting the "Story" back into History 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.heritage-history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Along with the Clarendon Code (aimed at ending toleration of the Puritans), this marks an important stage in the re-establishment of the Church of England.
  • 1650-1700 - Icons of England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.icons.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No matter what Charles' intentions, he believed ardently in religious tolerance for both Catholics and Protestant minorities.
  • The Case of England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The major foreign policy issue of Charles's early reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War.^ Charles's second war with the Dutch came in 1672.
  • The Baldwin Project: The Story of England by Samuel B. Harding 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Heritage History — Putting the "Story" back into History 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.heritage-history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Second Anglo-Dutch War begins .
  • Time Line of Pirate History from No Quarter Given magazine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.noquartergiven.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was a consumate hater of the Dutch and fought in the first and second Anglo-Dutch wars.
  • The Life and Crimes of Oliver Cromwell 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1670, Charles entered into the secret treaty of Dover, an alliance with his first cousin King Louis XIV of France under the terms of which Louis agreed to aid Charles in the Third Anglo-Dutch War and pay Charles a pension, and Charles promised to convert to Roman Catholicism at an unspecified future date.^ After a visit in 1670 from his much loved youngest sister Henriette, or 'Minette', as Charles fondly called her, the King signed a secret treaty with his cousin Louis XIV of France.
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Charles II. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles agreed that England would join France in war against Holland and that he would publicly convert to Catholicism.
  • EH.Net Encyclopedia: The Glorious Revolution of 1688 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC eh.net [Source type: Original source]

^ By the terms of the treaty, Charles was to convert to Catholicism when the time was ripe in return for a lucrative French pension.
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Charles II. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament forced him to withdraw it.^ Charles did not dare to declare himself a Catholic, but he did issue a "Declaration of Indulgence."
  • The Baldwin Project: The Story of England by Samuel B. Harding 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Heritage History — Putting the "Story" back into History 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.heritage-history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles II tried to increase religious tolerance with his Declaration of Indulgence, but was forced to withdraw it.

^ Eventually Charles was forced to call parliament.

.In 1679, Titus Oates's revelations of a supposed "Popish Plot" sparked the Exclusion Crisis when it was revealed that Charles's brother and heir (James, Duke of York) was a Roman Catholic.^ The Catholic James, Duke of York, was Oates actual target, and the affair heralded the development of the Exclusion Crisis.
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Charles II. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles II was succeeded by his brother, James II .
  • Royalty.nu - Royal History - Charles II 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.royalty.nu [Source type: General]

^ Charles II’s brother James, Duke of York, a Catholic himself, was a victim of the act.

.This crisis saw the birth of the pro-exclusion Whig and anti-exclusion Tory parties.^ The Tories saw the Whigs as dangerous plotters.
  • England, from Charles II to Isaac Newton 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The period also saw the rise of the great political parties, Whig and Tory ; the advance of colonization and trade in India, America, and the East Indies; and the great progress of England as a sea power.
  • Charles II (England) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Charles II (England) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The crisis, which lasts for some years, prompts the emergence of organised political parties: Tories (who are pro Catholic James) and Whigs (who are anti).
  • 1650-1700 - Icons of England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.icons.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Charles sided with the Tories, and, following the discovery of the Rye House Plot to murder Charles and James in 1683, some Whig leaders were killed or forced into exile.^ Charles and the Tories prevailed against the Whigs.
  • England, from Charles II to Isaac Newton 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Oates, an Anglican priest, tells of a Jesuit plot to kill the King and establish Catholic James in his place.
  • 1650-1700 - Icons of England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.icons.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ September 1678 'Popish Plot' to murder Charles II is 'revealed' Disgraced clergyman Titus Oates claimed he had learned of a Catholic and French conspiracy to kill Charles II, replace him with his Catholic brother James, Duke of York, and transform England into a Catholic-absolutist state.

.Charles dissolved the English Parliament in 1681, and ruled alone until his death on 6 February 1685. He converted to Roman Catholicism on his deathbed.^ Charles was insulted and promptly dissolved Parliament.
  • England in the Age of the Reformation 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ So Charles simply dissolves Parliament and rules as absolute monarch.

^ In anger, Charles dissolved the Short Parliament.
  • Glorious Revolution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Charles was popularly known as the Merrie Monarch, in reference to both the liveliness and hedonism of his court and the general relief at the return to normality after over a decade of rule by Oliver Cromwell and the Puritans.^ Charles was popularly known as the Merrie Monarch, in reference to both the liveliness and hedonism of his court and the general relief at the return to normality after over a decade of rule by Oliver Cromwell and the Puritans.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He became known as the merry monarch.
  • England, from Charles II to Isaac Newton 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cromwell ruled as a victorious general.
  • Glorious Revolution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Charles's wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no children, but Charles acknowledged at least 12 illegitimate children by various mistresses.^ Charles has numerous children by his many mistresses.

^ He married Catherine of Braganza, but sired no legitimate children.

^ Charles's wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no children, but Charles acknowledged at least 12 illegitimate children by various mistresses.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Early life

Charles II as an infant
Charles II when Prince of Wales by William Dobson, circa 1642 or 1643.
Charles Stuart, the eldest surviving son of King Charles I of England and Scotland and Henrietta Maria of France, was born in St. James's Palace on 29 May 1630 (8 June 1630 NS). .He was baptised in the Chapel Royal on 27 June by the Anglican Bishop of London William Laud and brought up in the care of the Protestant Countess of Dorset, though his godparents included his mother's Catholic relations, Louis XIII of France and Marie de Medici.^ Mary had been brought up in the Catholic faith and she held resolutely to it.
  • England, A History of 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis XIII , Roi de France + 4 b.
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10139 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thepeerage.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This daughter was a Protestant, but her mother died a Catholic.
  • A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens: Ch. 34 - Charles the Secon 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

[3] .At birth, he automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay (along with several other associated titles); at or around his eighth birthday he was designated Prince of Wales, though he was never formally invested with the Honours of the Principality of Wales.^ Charles was created Duke of York, the traditional title of the monarch's second son but the death in 1612 of his popular and charismatic elder brother Henry, Prince of Wales, thrust Charles into the limelight as heir to the throne.
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Charles I. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ James was born on 19 June 1566 at Edinburgh Castle , and automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland, for he was the eldest son of the monarch and thus the heir-apparent.
  • James I of England - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ She became the mother of the Duke of Lenox, and she was feared and hated by the English more than any other of his mistresses.
  • KING CHARLES II. AND NELL GWY... 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC docs.google.com [Source type: Original source]

[4]
.During the 1640s, when Charles was still young, his father fought parliamentary and Puritan forces in the English Civil War.^ O. Civil War - More south, the more Parliamentary .
  • Historical Discovery:Historical Discovery:Tudor Stuart England:Charles I 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.beavervalleysoftware.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Reactions to the English Civil War (1982) .
  • English Dissenters: Puritans 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.exlibris.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1642 the first battle of the Great English Civil War was fought.
  • The Isle of Influence - England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

.Charles accompanied his father during the Battle of Edgehill and, at the age of fourteen, participated in the campaigns of 1645, when he was made titular commander of the English forces in the West Country.^ Commander of the Parliamentary forces during the English Civil War.
  • Heritage History — Putting the "Story" back into History 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.heritage-history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles's nephew, William III. of Orange, was now at the had of the Dutch government, with the title of Stadtholder; and the English Parliament soon forced King Charles to conclude a peace.
  • The Baldwin Project: The Story of England by Samuel B. Harding 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Heritage History — Putting the "Story" back into History 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.heritage-history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first engagement between Cavaliers and Roundheads takes place at Edgehill, in October 1642, when an army commanded by Charles I meets a parliamentary force under the third earl of Essex, son of Elizabeth's favourite .

[5] .By Spring 1646, his father was losing the war, and Charles left England due to fears for his safety, going first to the Isles of Scilly, then to Jersey, and finally to France, where his mother was already living in exile and his first cousin, eight-year-old Louis XIV, was king.^ Seven Year's War, between England and France .
  • Time Line of Pirate History from No Quarter Given magazine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.noquartergiven.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1670 Charles made a secret treaty with Louis XIV of France.

^ Forced into exile, he travelled first to Scilly and Jersey.

[6]
.In 1648, during the Second English Civil War, Charles moved to The Hague, where his sister Mary and his brother-in-law William II, Prince of Orange seemed more likely to provide substantial aid to the Royalist cause than the Queen's French relations.^ Charles II was succeeded by his brother, James II .
  • Royalty.nu - Royal History - Charles II 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.royalty.nu [Source type: General]

^ O. Civil War - More south, the more Parliamentary .
  • Historical Discovery:Historical Discovery:Tudor Stuart England:Charles I 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.beavervalleysoftware.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Reactions to the English Civil War (1982) .
  • English Dissenters: Puritans 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.exlibris.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .However, the royalist fleet that came under Charles's control was not used to any advantage, and did not reach Scotland in time to join up with the royalist Engagers army of the Duke of Hamilton, before it was defeated at the Battle of Preston.^ Charles did not think himself a King while an assembly of subjects could call for his accounts before paying his debts, and could insist on knowing which of his mistresses or boon companions had intercepted the money destined for the equipping and manning of the fleet.
  • T.B. Macaulay - History of England, Vol. I, Ch. II (part 3) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.strecorsoc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then Charles, thinking that peace would be made, laid up his fleet in the harbors of the river Thames, in order that he might save money to spend on his pleasures.
  • The Baldwin Project: The Story of England by Samuel B. Harding 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Heritage History — Putting the "Story" back into History 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.heritage-history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Stone allegedly originates from the Middle East and was subsequently brought to Scotland, arriving here around 850 AD. The Stone's history, however, stretches back to biblical times when Jacob is said to have used the Stone as a pillow.
  • History in Gargoyles 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: Original source]

[8]
.At The Hague, Charles had a brief affair with Lucy Walter, who later falsely claimed that they had secretly married.^ At one point bringing up her grandson, the young James Crofts, later Duke of Monmouth, the son of the future Charles II and Lucy Walter.
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Charles I. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ When the succession to the throne was raised, Charles II affirmed that he never married Lucy Walter and deprived the Duke of Monmouth of many of his posts.
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10503 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the affair was made use of by the 1st earl of Shaftesbury , who led a movement to exclude Charles's brother, the Catholic duke of York (later James II ), from succession to the throne, promoting instead the claim of Charles's illegitimate son the duke of Monmouth .
  • Charles II (England) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Charles II (England) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9] .Their son, James Crofts (afterwards Duke of Monmouth and Duke of Buccleuch), was to become the most prominent of Charles's many illegitimate sons in British political life.^ James, however, faced the Monmouth Rebellion, which was led by Charles II's illegitimate son, the Duke of Monmouth.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles I: a political life .
  • The Trial of Charles I (1649): Selected Links and Bibliography 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Duke of Monmouth (Charles II's illegitimate son) is beheaded for rebellion at the Tower of London.
  • 1650-1700 - Icons of England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.icons.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Charles I was captured in 1647. He escaped and was recaptured in 1648. Despite his son's diplomatic efforts to save him, Charles I was beheaded in 1649, and England became a republic.^ With the regicide of Charles I in January 1649, England became a republic.
  • English Dissenters: Puritans 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.exlibris.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles was beheaded on 30 January, 1649.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ King Charles I was beheaded in 1649.
  • Secrets of the Bank of England Revealed at Last!! 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: Original source]

.On 6 February, the Covenanter Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II as King of Great Britain in succession to his father, but refused to allow him to enter Scotland unless he accepted Presbyterianism throughout the British Isles.^ GREAT BRITAIN. Charles II, 1660-1685.
  • CoinArchives.com Search Results 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.coinarchives.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The king: Charles was born in Scotland in 1600.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles II crowned King of Scotlan...
  • The Literary Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.litencyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When negotiations stalled, Charles authorised General Montrose to land in the Orkneys with a small army to threaten the Scots with invasion, in the hope of forcing an agreement more to his liking.^ Charles was forced to make peace with the Scots.

^ Charles II was crowned by the Scots in return for accepting their Covenant (see 1638) but after another unsuccessful invasion beaten off by Cromwell, he is forced to flee.
  • 1650-1700 - Icons of England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.icons.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the Cavalier Parliament was overwhelmingly Royalist, Charles saw no reason to dissolve it and force another general election for seventeen years.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Montrose feared that Charles would accept a compromise, and so chose to invade mainland Scotland anyway.^ The compromise struck during the Restoration was that Charles II would control his succession, that he would control his judiciary, and that he would have the power to collect traditional taxes.
  • EH.Net Encyclopedia: The Glorious Revolution of 1688 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC eh.net [Source type: Original source]

^ By now Charles had been trying to force the Presbyterians of Scotland to accept bishops in conformity with the Church of England.
  • England, from Charles II to Isaac Newton 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fear that James would renew Charles's offensive alliance with France easily became a belief that such an alliance had been actually concluded ( Klopp , iii.
  • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

He was captured and executed. .Charles was reluctantly induced to make promises that he would abide by the terms of a treaty agreed between him and the Scots Parliament at Breda, and support the Solemn League and Covenant, which authorized Presbyterian church governance across Britain.^ Charles was forced to make peace with the Scots.

^ Most of parliament wanted to make the Church of England Presbyterian.

^ Scots agree to surrender Charles t...
  • The Literary Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.litencyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Upon his arrival in Scotland on 23 June 1650, Charles formally agreed to the Covenant; his abandonment of Episcopal church governance, although winning him support in Scotland, left him unpopular in England.^ The Government become unpopular in England .
  • T.B. Macaulay - History of England, Vol. I, Ch. II (part 2) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.strecorsoc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Like their colleagues in Scotland, with whom they form the Solemn League and Covenant of 1643, they aim to impose their own presbyterian system of church government on the country.

^ The Scottish army was routed by the English under Oliver Cromwell at Dunbar in September 1650, and in 1651 Charles’s invasion of England ended in defeat at Worcester.
  • Charles II (king of Great Britain and Ireland) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Charles himself soon came to despise the "villainy" and "hypocrisy" of the Covenanters.^ In attempt to regain the lost throne of the Stuarts, Charles sailed for Scotland to ally himself with the Covenanters against their mutual enemy, Oliver Cromwell .
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Charles II. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[10]
.On 3 September 1650, the Covenanters were defeated at the Battle of Dunbar by a much smaller force led by Oliver Cromwell.^ Cromwell fought a battle with the Scots in September of that year and defeated them.
  • The Life and Crimes of Oliver Cromwell 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On 3 September 1658, Oliver Cromwell died.

^ Their dour form of Presbyterianism was forced on him and the young Charles, with characteristic cynicism, found he had "to repent me that I was ever born," On 3 September 1650, the Covenanters were defeated at the Battle of Dunbar by a much smaller force led by Oliver Cromwell.
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Charles II. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The Scots forces were divided into royalist Engagers and Presbyterian Covenanters, who even fought each other.^ But Charles's action in triggering the renewal of war, by his secret agreement with the presbyterian Covenanters, has shifted Cromwell into the radical camp.

^ Those supporting the duke of York compare the other side to the Whiggamores, a Scottish Gaelic name for presbyterian rebels who marched on royalist Edinburgh during the civil war, in 1648.

^ One by one, others were imperceptibly assimilated into the labor force of Puritan New England.
  • Re: George Washington Grant, Dixmont, ME, 1855 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC genforum.genealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Disillusioned by the Covenanters, in October Charles attempted to escape from them and rode north to join with an Engager force, an event which became known as "the Start", but within two days the Presbyterians had caught up with and recovered him.^ Should Charles have stood up for him?
  • Historical Discovery:Historical Discovery:Tudor Stuart England:Charles I 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.beavervalleysoftware.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Embarrassed and in a snit, Charles ventured north to raise an army and declared war against Parliamentary forces at Nottingham in 1642.
  • A Tale of Two Bostons - iBoston 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.iboston.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Their dour form of Presbyterianism was forced on him and the young Charles, with characteristic cynicism, found he had "to repent me that I was ever born," On 3 September 1650, the Covenanters were defeated at the Battle of Dunbar by a much smaller force led by Oliver Cromwell.
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Charles II. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[11] .Nevertheless, the Scots remained Charles's best hope of restoration, and he was crowned King of Scotland at Scone on 1 January 1651. With Cromwell's forces threatening Charles's position in Scotland, it was decided to mount an attack on England.^ Charles II is crowned king of Scots at Scone on 1 January 1651.

^ The king: Charles was born in Scotland in 1600.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Undoing of Charles was the attack on Scots .
  • Historical Discovery:Historical Discovery:Tudor Stuart England:Charles I 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.beavervalleysoftware.com [Source type: Original source]

.With many of the Scots (including Argyll and other leading Covenanters) refusing to participate, and with few English royalists joining the force as it moved south into England, the invasion ended in defeat at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, following which Charles hid in the Royal Oak at Boscobel House.^ English defeat a Franco-Castilian army at the Battle of Navarrete   [ England ] .
  • eHistory.com: Middle Ages: Wars of the Roses: Timeline 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ September 1651 Oliver Cromwell defeats Charles II at the Battle of Worcester Following his coronation as king of the Scots, Charles II raised a Scottish army and invaded England.

^ English defeat Franco-Castilian fleet at the Battle of Margate   [ England ] .
  • eHistory.com: Middle Ages: Wars of the Roses: Timeline 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC ehistory.osu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Through six weeks of narrow escapes Charles managed to flee England in disguise, landing in Normandy on 16 October, despite a reward of £1,000 on his head, risk of death for anyone caught helping him and the difficulty in disguising Charles, who was unusually tall at over 6 feet (185 cm) high.^ For Charles's death scene he had to shave his head.

^ During Charles II's reign, the bubonic plague, or "Black Death," killed nearly 100,000 people living in and around London -- almost a third of those who did not flee.
  • Royalty.nu - Royal History - Charles II 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.royalty.nu [Source type: General]

^ He was the eldest surviving son of King Charles VI. When his father died in 1422, the French throne did not pass to Charles but to the infant King Henry VI of England, who was his nephew.

[12][13]
.Cromwell was appointed Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, effectively placing the British Isles under military rule.^ The Lord Protector of England, Ireland, and Scotland who couldn't protect himself .
  • The Life and Crimes of Oliver Cromwell 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector.
  • Dateline in England at Frommer's 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

^ Oliver Cromwell was appointed as the new Lord Protector, he was not elected.
  • English Dissenters: Fifth Monarchists or Fifth Monarchy Men 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC exlibris.org [Source type: Original source]

.Impoverished, Charles could not obtain sufficient support to mount a serious challenge to Cromwell's government.^ Richard Cromwell could not match the legitimacy of Charles II. Men of property were better served by a restored king than by the upstart son of a successful general.
  • Glorious Revolution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Spain was obviously not going to support the return of the Palatinate to Frederick, a serious insult to Charles' sister.
  • England in the Age of the Reformation 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For all practical purposes, Cromwell had made himself absolute monarch over England, an achievement that James I and Charles I could only dream of.
  • The Case of England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Despite the Stuart family connections through Henrietta Maria and the Princess of Orange, France and the Dutch Republic allied themselves with Cromwell's government from 1654, forcing Charles to turn for aid to Spain, which at that time ruled the Southern Netherlands.^ This time, the British allies with France.

^ Charles was the eldest surviving son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ France allies with the Dutch.

He attempted to raise an army, but failed for lack of finance.[14]

Restoration

Scottish and English Royalty
House of Stuart
England Arms 1603.svg
Charles II
Illegitimate sons included
   James Scott, Duke of Monmouth
   Charles FitzRoy, Duke of Cleveland
   Henry FitzRoy, Duke of Grafton
   George FitzRoy, Duke of Northumberland
   Charles Beauclerk, Duke of St Albans
   Charles Lennox, Duke of Richmond
.After the death of Cromwell in 1658, Charles's chances of regaining the Crown at first seemed slim as Cromwell was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son, Richard.^ September 1658 Oliver Cromwell dies and is succeeded by his son, Richard When Oliver Cromwell died, he was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son, Richard.

^ Cromwell, Oliver, Lord Protector, pp.

^ Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector.
  • Dateline in England at Frommer's 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

.However, the new Lord Protector, with no power base in either Parliament or the New Model Army, was forced to abdicate in 1659 and the Protectorate was abolished.^ Parliament passed the New Model Army in 1645 .
  • Historical Discovery:Historical Discovery:Tudor Stuart England:Charles I 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.beavervalleysoftware.com [Source type: Original source]

^ New Model Army was opposed to the Presbyterians in Parliament .
  • Historical Discovery:Historical Discovery:Tudor Stuart England:Charles I 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.beavervalleysoftware.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The New Model Army wasn't completely new.
  • England in the Age of the Reformation 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

.During the civil and military unrest which followed, George Monck, the Governor of Scotland, was concerned that the nation would descend into anarchy.^ During the civil and military unrest which followed, George Monck, the Governor of Scotland, was concerned that the nation would descend into anarchy and sought to restore the monarchy.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Decisive action, to resolve a lingering crisis, is eventually taken by Cromwell's commander-in-chief in Scotland - George Monck.

^ A few of the conspirators were concerned about fellow Catholics who would have been present at Parliament during the opening.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[15] .Monck and his army marched into the City of London and forced the Rump Parliament to re-admit members of the Long Parliament excluded in December 1648 during Pride's Purge.^ Charles I recaptured Army occupies London Pride's Purge Parliament endorses trial of the K...
  • The Literary Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.litencyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The army marches on London and forces the Rump out of power.

^ Long Parliament 1640-1648 .
  • English Dissenters: Puritans 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.exlibris.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Long Parliament dissolved itself and for the first time in almost 20 years, there was a general election.^ For the first time in almost twenty years, the members of Parliament faced a general election.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Long Parliament dissolves itself a...
  • The Literary Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.litencyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1945 Britain held its first general election in ten years.
  • England, A History of 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

[16] .The outgoing Parliament designed the electoral qualifications so as to ensure, as they thought, the return of a Presbyterian majority.^ A majority of the members of parliament are Presbyterians (after the royalist members have left London to join the king).

^ This would not be a return to the old policies of King Charles I. The Revolution and the Proctorate estaaaablished a major new relationship between the State, the Parliament and the Crown.
  • English Dissenters: Fifth Monarchists or Fifth Monarchy Men 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC exlibris.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile the king, in the Isle of Wight, has continued to negotiate a possible settlement with the presbyterian majority in parliament.

[17]
.The restrictions against royalist candidates and voters were widely ignored, and the elections resulted in a House of Commons which was fairly evenly divided on political grounds between Royalists and Parliamentarians and on religious grounds between Anglicans and Presbyterians.^ The Roundheads, or parliamentarians, eventually defeated the royalists after much of the country was laid waste in the resulting conflict between the two sides.
  • The Isle of Influence - England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The House of Commons, having been elected while the Presbyterians were dominant, by no means represented the general sense of the people.
  • T.B. Macaulay - History of England, Vol. I, Ch. II (part 1) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.strecorsoc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ New elections were held and the results were strongly royalist.
  • England in the Age of the Reformation 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

[17] .The new so-called Convention Parliament assembled on 25 April 1660, and soon afterwards received news of the Declaration of Breda, in which Charles agreed, amongst other things, to pardon many of his father's enemies.^ Meanwhile, in April 1660 Charles II issued a declaration from the Dutch town of Breda.

^ Charles called another Parliament – Long Parliament .
  • Historical Discovery:Historical Discovery:Tudor Stuart England:Charles I 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.beavervalleysoftware.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament agreed to the Declaration and Charles was crowned king in May 1660, ushering in the Restoration .
  • Charles II (England) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Charles II (England) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The English Parliament resolved to proclaim Charles king and invite him to return, which message reached Charles at Breda on 8 May 1660.[18] In Ireland, a convention had been called earlier in the year, and on 14 May it declared for Charles as King.^ Charles called another Parliament – Long Parliament .
  • Historical Discovery:Historical Discovery:Tudor Stuart England:Charles I 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.beavervalleysoftware.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament agreed to the Declaration and Charles was crowned king in May 1660, ushering in the Restoration .
  • Charles II (England) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Charles II (England) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ King Charles II, 1660 to 1685 .
  • Hammered Coins of England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.castlecoins.com [Source type: Original source]

[19]
.Charles set out for England, arriving in Dover on 25 May 1660 and reaching London on 29 May (which is considered the date of the Restoration, and was Charles's 30th birthday).^ Charles arrived in London to claim the throne on his 30th birthday, May 29, 1660.

^ Charles II arrived on English soil on 27 May 1660 and entered London on his 30th birthday, 29 May 1660.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles set out for England, arriving in Dover on 23 May 1660 and reaching London on 29 May.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although Charles and Parliament granted amnesty to Cromwell's supporters in the Act of Indemnity and Oblivion, this made specific provision for 50 people to be excluded.^ Although Charles granted amnesty to Cromwell's supporters in the Act of Indemnity and Oblivion , he went back on his pardon of the commissioners and officials involved in his father's trial and execution.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From the period when England was not ruled by King or Queen but by the will of the people represented by Parliament under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell.
  • Hammered Coins of England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.castlecoins.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From 1679 to 1681, Protestant nobles had Parliament pass acts excluding Charles II's Catholic brother James from succession to the throne.
  • EH.Net Encyclopedia: The Glorious Revolution of 1688 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC eh.net [Source type: Original source]

[20] .In the end nine of the regicides were executed:[21] they were hanged, drawn and quartered; others were given life imprisonment or simply excluded from office for life.^ Others were given life imprisonment.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After being found guilty, they were taken to Old Palace Yard in Westminster and St Paul's Yard, where they were to be hanged, drawn and quartered.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Venner was hanged, drawn and quartered outside of his own congregation doors.
  • English Dissenters: Fifth Monarchists or Fifth Monarchy Men 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC exlibris.org [Source type: Original source]

.The bodies of Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton and John Bradshaw were subjected to the indignity of posthumous decapitations.^ The body of Oliver Cromwell was also "executed".
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the revolutionary leaders, Oliver Cromwell, allowed the King's head to be sewn back on his body so the family could pay its respects.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In a letter dated 3rd June 1651 Cromwell profusely thanked John Bradshaw, the President of the Council, for sending the two doctors.
  • The Life and Crimes of Oliver Cromwell 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: Original source]

[22]
.Charles agreed to give up feudal dues which had been revived by his father; in return, the English Parliament granted him an annual income of £1,200,000 generated largely from customs and excise dues with which to run the government.^ James dreaded it, but the opening of Parliament went well for him, Parliament granting him generous revenue to run his government.
  • England, from Charles II to Isaac Newton 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the abortive negotiations were going on to establish a permanent Parliamentary income for James in exchange for the surrender of certain feudal rights, the annual stipend sought by the king was 200,000, a sum which, when added to other royal revenues, would have resulted in a total Crown income of between 300,000 and 400,000.
  • Roundheads, Whigs, and Decivilization: A Hoppean Analysis of Stuart England by Jason Jewell 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first stage of the war went badly for the English and when Parliament met to consider giving Charles money they made him withdraw his Declaration and agree on an Act that would exclude Roman Catholics from holding office.

.The grant, however, proved to be insufficient for most of Charles's reign.^ Charles the Bald, however, was not so fortunate throughout his reign.
  • Alfred and Vikings 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nadn.navy.mil [Source type: Original source]

^ However, most had been good Kings and the people were happy with their reign.
  • The Rebirth of England - Woodhouse Dynasty Part II - Paradox Interactive Forums 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Loyn says of him "The reign of the unhappy Ethelred proved one of the most disastrous in English history.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The aforesaid sum was only an indication of the maximum the King was allowed to withdraw from the Treasury each year; for the most part, the actual revenue was much lower, which led to mounting debts, and further attempts to raise money through poll taxes, land taxes and hearth taxes.^ Through her children feel the parting much, they admit the truth of the words of their dear mother often quoted, 'He doeth all things well.'
  • Doig Genealogy - Peter Doeg of Denmark and England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.doig.net [Source type: General]

^ MPs could refuse to raise money for the king unless he bowed to their demands.

^ Kings everywhere were strapped for cash, throughout the early modern era, and attempts to raise money formed the basis for many a conflict between ruler and subject.
  • England in the Age of the Reformation 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

.In the latter half of 1660, Charles's joy at the Restoration was tempered by the deaths of his youngest brother, Henry, and sister, Mary, of smallpox.^ He came to the throne on the death of his half brother.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Her half sister, Elizabeth I, ascended to the throne, although Elizabeth's cousin, Mary Tudor, daughter of Henry VIII by his first wife, was regarded by the Catholics as the only legitimate monarch as she was the product of the only (Catholic viewed) legal marriage of her father.
  • The Isle of Influence - England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Loretta 6 Smith (Patrick 5 , Mary Anne 4 Wilson, Charles Broughton 3 , Henry(2) 2 , William 1 ) was born June 21, 1917.
  • Descendants of Charles Broughton Wilson 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cyberus.ca [Source type: General]

.At around the same time, Anne Hyde, the daughter of the Lord Chancellor Edward Hyde, revealed that she was pregnant by Charles's brother, James, whom she had secretly married.^ In September 1660, James married Lady Anne Hyde, the daughter of Charles's then chief minister, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Anne, daughter of Sir Edward Hyde [see Hyde, Anne ].
  • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From 1679 to 1681, Protestant nobles had Parliament pass acts excluding Charles II's Catholic brother James from succession to the throne.
  • EH.Net Encyclopedia: The Glorious Revolution of 1688 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC eh.net [Source type: Original source]

.Edward Hyde, who had not known of either the marriage or the pregnancy, was created Earl of Clarendon and his position as Charles's favourite minister was strengthened.^ Clarendon, Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of, p.

^ Hyde, Edward, first Earl of Clarendon.
  • Early Modern Literary Studies Special Issue 15 (September, 2007) 5.1-26 Geoffrey Smith. "�Long, Dangerous and Expensive Journeys: The Grooms of the Bedchamber at Charles II�s Court in Exile" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.chass.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Early Life Prince of Wales at the time of the English civil war, Charles was sent (1645) to the W of England with his council, which included Edward Hyde (later 1st earl of Clarendon ) and Thomas Wriothesley, 4th earl of Southampton .
  • Charles II (England) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Charles II (England) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23]

Coronation

Charles in his Coronation robes.
.The Convention Parliament was dissolved in December 1660, and Charles's coronation took place at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1661. Charles was the last sovereign to make the traditional procession from the Tower of London to Westminster Abbey the day before the coronation.^ Charles was insulted and promptly dissolved Parliament.
  • England in the Age of the Reformation 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles' last Parliament .

^ In anger, Charles dissolved the Short Parliament.
  • Glorious Revolution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Original source]

[24] .Shortly after the coronation, the second English Parliament of the reign assembled.^ This Parliament, the second of James' reign, was known as the Addled Parliament because it failed to pass any legislation or impose any taxes.
  • James I of England - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One day after that set for Edward's coronation, Richard was able to pressure the assembled Lords and Commons in Parliament to petition him to assume the Kingship.
  • The History of England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.byfaith.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ On the day of the coronation, the Convention of the Estates of Scotland —which was much more divided than the English Parliament—finally declared that James was no longer King of Scotland.
  • William III of England at AllExperts 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Dubbed the Cavalier Parliament, it was overwhelmingly Royalist and Anglican.^ As the Cavalier Parliament was overwhelmingly Royalist, Charles saw no reason to dissolve it and force another general election for seventeen years.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The royalists ("Cavaliers") and the parliamentarians ("Roundheads") clashed repeatedly, with the Scots occasionally intervening on one side or the other, until 1648, at which point the Parliament had triumphed.
  • Roundheads, Whigs, and Decivilization: A Hoppean Analysis of Stuart England by Jason Jewell 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After conflicts over laws in Parliament which aimed to limit the power of the Anglican church, Charles withdrew all his supporters from Parliament, known as the Cavaliers.
  • The Isle of Influence - England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

.It sought to discourage non-conformity to the Church of England, and passed several acts to secure Anglican dominance.^ He attended a Church of England school, then at Cambridge studied Anglican theology to become a clergyman.
  • Charles Darwin - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Archbishop Laud sought to enforce high church Anglicanism on all of the kingdom of England.
  • Glorious Revolution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In November 1534, Parliament passed an act that stated that Henry VIII was now the Head of the Church of England, the Anglican Church.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Corporation Act 1661 required municipal officeholders to swear allegiance;[25] the Act of Uniformity 1662 made the use of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer compulsory; the Conventicle Act 1664 prohibited religious assemblies of more than five people, except under the auspices of the Church of England; and the Five Mile Act 1665 prohibited clergymen from coming within five miles (8 km) of a parish from which they had been banished.^ Book of Common Prayer prescribed f...
  • The Literary Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.litencyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally the Five Mile Act of 1665 forbade non-Anglican ministers to come within 5 miles of incorporated towns.

^ Many parish churches had maintained the standards under the Book of Common Prayer (1559) while other had not.
  • English Dissenters: Puritans 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.exlibris.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Conventicle and Five Mile Acts remained in effect for the remainder of Charles's reign.^ Finally the Five Mile Act of 1665 forbade non-Anglican ministers to come within 5 miles of incorporated towns.

^ Colonists landed on the western bank of the Ashley River, five miles from the sea, and named their settlement Charles Town in honor of Charles II, King of England.
  • HistoryMole Timeline: King Charles II (1630-1685) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

^ The British Five-Mile Act prevents 'Nonconformist' clergy from coming within five miles of their parish towns.
  • HistoryMole Timeline: King Charles II (1630-1685) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

.The Acts became known as the "Clarendon Code", after Lord Clarendon, even though he was not directly responsible for them and even spoke against the Five Mile Act.^ Though not allowed to be read to the house it was generally known there, and is preserved among the papers ( MSS. of the House of Lords , 1689–90, p.
  • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They passed a series of acts called the Clarendon code, a series of laws to persecute non-conformists (Protestants who did not belong to the Church of England).

^ The duke, though never on cordial terms with Clarendon, spoke in the House of Lords against his banishment ( Clarendon , Life iii.
  • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

[26]

Social change

.The English Restoration represented much change socially after the Interregnum.^ The times: The civil war permanently changed the nature of English politics, and with the restoration came the recognition of the power of the House of Commons and the dominance of common law over kingly prerogative.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The English Interregnum was the period of parliamentary and military rule after the English Civil War, between the execution of Charles I in 1649 and the restoration of Charles II in 1660.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

Puritanism lost its momentum. Restoration literature celebrated or reacted to the "Restoration Court." Theatres reopened after having been closed during the protectorship of Oliver Cromwell. Bawdy "Restoration Comedy" became a recognizable genre. In addition, women were allowed to perform on stage for the first time. .Libertines like John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, joined the restored court.^ George John SPENCER, 2nd Earl Spencer, m.
  • Archive:Prince William of England - WRG 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.whitneygen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ John EGERTON, 2nd Earl of Bridgewater, m.
  • Archive:Prince William of England - WRG 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.whitneygen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ John Evelyn was a Restoration writer, who was a court supporter and a friend of Charles II. He knew most of the influential people of his time.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

Of Charles II, Wilmot wrote:
God bless our good and gracious king,
Whose promise none relies on;
Who never said a foolish thing,
Nor ever did a wise one.
To which Charles is reputed to have replied:
"That is true; for my words are my own, but my actions are those of my ministers."[27]

Great Plague and Fire

.In 1665, Charles was faced with a great health crisis: the Great Plague of London.^ For, this was the year and the time of the Great Plague in London.
  • A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens: Ch. 34 - Charles the Secon 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then there's the great plague and the great fire of London."

^ March 1665 Great Plague of London begins .

.The death toll at one point reached a peak of 7,000 in the week of 17 September.^ The death toll at one point reached 7000 per week.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[28] .Charles, his family and court fled London in July to Salisbury; Parliament met in Oxford.^ Charles, his family and court fled from London in July 1665 to Oxford.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles responded by entering the Commons in a failed attempt to arrest five Members of Parliament, who had fled before his arrival.
  • The Trial of Charles I (1649): Selected Links and Bibliography 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In January 1649, the House of Commons without the assent of either the Sovereign or the House of Lords—passed an Act of Parliament creating a court for Charles's trial.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[29] .Various attempts at containing the disease by London public health officials all fell in vain and the disease continued to spread rapidly.^ Various attempts at containing the disease by London public health officials all fell in vain and the disease continued to spread rapidly.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ September 1666 Great Fire of London destroys two-thirds of the city The fire broke out in a baker's shop in Pudding Lane in the City of London and spread rapidly.

[30]
Adding to London's woes, but marking the end of the plague, was what later became known as the Great Fire of London, which started on 2 September 1666. The fire consumed about 13,200 houses and 87 churches, including St. Paul's Cathedral.[31] .Charles, and his brother James, joined and directed the fire-fighting effort.^ Charles and his brother James fight gallantly to contain it.

^ His Catholic brother, James, summoned a priest who received Charles into the Catholic Church.
  • England, from Charles II to Isaac Newton 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles II’s brother James, Duke of York, a Catholic himself, was a victim of the act.

.The public blamed Roman Catholic conspirators for the fire,[32] although it had actually started in a bakehouse in Pudding Lane.^ Great London Fire begins in Pudding Lane when 80% of London is destroyed, including St Paul's Church.
  • HistoryMole Timeline: King Charles II (1630-1685) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

^ To grant large indulgence to Roman Catholics, while repressing non-conforming Protestants, would have been a scandal in the face of the public.
  • Protestantism In England And Scotland Under James I. And Charles I. (1603-1649) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.edwardtbabinski.us [Source type: Original source]

^ September 1666 Great Fire of London destroys two-thirds of the city The fire broke out in a baker's shop in Pudding Lane in the City of London and spread rapidly.

[31]

Foreign and colonial policy

.Since 1640, Portugal had been fighting a war against Spain to restore its independence after a dynastic union of 60 years between the crowns of Spain and Portugal.^ Two brief military campaigns were mounted against the Scots in 1639 and 1640 which were general known as the Bishop's Wars (1639-40).
  • English Dissenters: Puritans 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.exlibris.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seven Year's War, between England and France .
  • Time Line of Pirate History from No Quarter Given magazine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.noquartergiven.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both sides armies were equal in number, and neither were inexperienced, the Leonese had spent years fighting against Castille and Portugal.
  • The Rebirth of England - Woodhouse Dynasty Part II - Paradox Interactive Forums 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

.Portugal had been helped by France, but in the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 Portugal was abandoned by its French ally.^ Treaty of Madrid ended the Anglo-French war 1635 - France declares war on Spain .
  • Time Line of Pirate History from No Quarter Given magazine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.noquartergiven.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ England signs a treaty of alliance with France against Germany and her allies.

^ Under the terms of a treaty with France (the "Auld Alliance") all Scottish citizens became French and vice versa.
  • SINCLAIR HISTORY AND GENEALOGY: Timeline of Scottish History 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC kingcrest.com [Source type: Original source]

.Upon Charles's restoration, Queen Luísa of Portugal, acting as regent, opened negotiations with England that resulted in an alliance.^ Conflicts with the Dutch caused Charles to form an alliance with France that supposed he would reintroduce Catholicism back to England "at an appropriate time."
  • A Tale of Two Bostons - iBoston 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.iboston.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When Charles I came to the throne, England had been pressured into war with Spain again, and the peace, when eventually negotiated, was roundly condemned.
  • Roundheads, Whigs, and Decivilization: A Hoppean Analysis of Stuart England by Jason Jewell 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

^ De Witt had not been without qualms at the thought of breaking with France for an alliance with the changeful fortunes of England, and he had been surprised at the readiness with which Charles fell in with his proposals during the negotiations for the treaty ; but he had, in fact, no choice in his search for support.

.On 23 June 1661, a marriage treaty was signed, and in May 1662, Charles married Catherine of Braganza in the parish of St Thomas à Becket, Portsmouth.^ Charles II signs the Treaty of Bre...
  • The Literary Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.litencyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles's wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no children, but Charles acknowledged at least 12 illegitimate children by various mistresses.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles was free to marry whomever he wished, and he married a Portuguese princess, Catherine of Gragnza, and Tangier and Bombay were transferred to British rule as a part of Catherine's dowry.
  • England, from Charles II to Isaac Newton 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: Original source]

[4] .Catherine's dowry brought the territories of Tangier and Bombay to British control.^ Charles was free to marry whomever he wished, and he married a Portuguese princess, Catherine of Gragnza, and Tangier and Bombay were transferred to British rule as a part of Catherine's dowry.
  • England, from Charles II to Isaac Newton 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1662 Charles married a Portuguese princess, Catherine of Braganza, who brought him the territories of Bombay and Tangier as dowry.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.The latter had a major lasting influence on the development of the British Empire in India.^ The British Empire suffered severe losses in territory and world influence in the years 1947-49.
  • England, A History of 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the war the British empire began to unravel, with India gaining independence in 1947, and continuing through the 1950s and 1960s as other colonies gained independence.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.During the same year, in an unpopular move, he sold Dunkirk, which (although a valuable strategic outpost) was a drain on Charles's limited finances,[33] to his first cousin King Louis XIV of France for about £375,000.[34].^ (King) CHARLES V (King of France) was born about 1337.

^ In 1670 Charles made a secret treaty with Louis XIV of France.

^ During the same year, however, he sold Dunkirk, a much more valuable strategic outpost to his cousin King Louis XIV of France of France for £40,000.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

Appreciative of the assistance given to him in gaining the throne, Charles awarded North American lands then known as Carolina—named after his father—to eight nobles (known as Lords Proprietors) in 1663.
A medal struck in 1667 by John Roettier to commemorate the Second Dutch War, showing Charles II's full titles around the edge
.Whereas the Navigation Acts of 1650, which hurt Dutch trade by giving English vessels a monopoly, started the First Dutch War (1652–1654), the Second Dutch War (1665–1667) was started by English attempts to muscle in on Dutch possessions in Africa and North America.^ Navigation Act gives Eng.
  • Time Line of Pirate History from No Quarter Given magazine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.noquartergiven.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Zulu war starts in South Africa.

^ Commonwealth Navigation Act 1652-54 - First Anglo-Dutch War .
  • Time Line of Pirate History from No Quarter Given magazine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.noquartergiven.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The conflict began well for the English, with the capture of New Amsterdam (renamed New York in honour of Charles's brother James, Duke of York) and a victory at the Battle of Lowestoft, but in 1667 the Dutch launched a surprise attack upon the English (the Raid on the Medway) when they sailed up the River Thames to where a major part of the English fleet was docked.^ New Amsterdam was founded by the Dutch in 1625.
  • The Life and Crimes of Oliver Cromwell 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Dutch fleet sailed up the Thames, and burned the ships of war which lay at Chatham.
  • T.B. Macaulay - History of England, Vol. I, Ch. II (part 2) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.strecorsoc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ New Amsterdam founded by Dutch .
  • Time Line of Pirate History from No Quarter Given magazine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.noquartergiven.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Almost all of the ships were sunk except for the flagship, the HMS Royal Charles, which was taken back to the Netherlands as a trophy.^ Charles II, 2-Reales (4), 1684 V, large flan, two dates, 1689 VR, two dates, 1690 VR, round flan, two dates, possibly a Royal strike, 1693 VR, all Potosi.
  • CoinArchives.com Search Results 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.coinarchives.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After which the Leonese retreated back to port defeated, the Leonese had two ships sunk and lost the Cartagonova the English.
  • The Rebirth of England - Woodhouse Dynasty Part II - Paradox Interactive Forums 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The bedchambermen were a disparate collection of men, almost all originally appointed by Charles I and then inherited by his son.
  • Early Modern Literary Studies Special Issue 15 (September, 2007) 5.1-26 Geoffrey Smith. "�Long, Dangerous and Expensive Journeys: The Grooms of the Bedchamber at Charles II�s Court in Exile" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.chass.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

[35] .The Second Dutch War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Breda (1667).^ On July 31, 1667, the Treaty of Breda was signed.

^ Second Anglo-Dutch War begins .
  • Time Line of Pirate History from No Quarter Given magazine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.noquartergiven.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The treaty of Utrecht is signed ending the War of the Spanish Succession.

.As a result of the Second Dutch War, Charles dismissed Lord Clarendon, whom he used as a scapegoat for the war.^ Second Anglo-Dutch War begins .
  • Time Line of Pirate History from No Quarter Given magazine 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.noquartergiven.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This provoked the Second Civil War (1648–49) and a second defeat for Charles, who was subsequently captured, tried, convicted, and executed for high treason.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ It provides a combination of personal revelation and eyewitness accounts of great events, such as the Great Plague of London, the Second Dutch War and the Great Fire of London.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

[36] .Clarendon fled to France when impeached for high treason (which carried the penalty of death).^ He sent the Attorney General to impeach Pym, Hollis, Hampden, and other members of the House of Commons of high treason at the bar of the House of Lords.
  • The History of England from the Accession of James II - Chapter 1 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Later in 1678, however, the chief minister was impeached by the House of Commons on the charge of high treason.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Power passed to five politicians known collectively by a whimsical acronym as the CabalClifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley (afterwards Earl of Shaftesbury) and Lauderdale.^ There then came into power a ministry called the Cabal Ministry, because it was composed of LORD CLIFFORD, the EARL OF ARLINGTON, the DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM (a great rascal, and the King's most powerful favourite), LORD ASHLEY, and the DUKE OF LAUDERDALE, C. A. B. A. L. As the French were making conquests in Flanders, the first Cabal proceeding was to make a treaty with the Dutch, for uniting with Spain to oppose the French.
  • A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens: Ch. 34 - Charles the Secon 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles II then fires his chief ministers and instead starts a council known as "The Cabal" consisting of Lord Clifford, Lord Arlington, the Duke of Buckingham, Lord Ashley, and Lord Lauderdale.

^ Clarendon was succeeded by the famous Cabal -Sir Thomas Clifford, Lord Arlington, the Duke of Buckingham, Lord Ashley, and the Earl of Lauderdale-the initials of whose names gave notoriety and permanence to a word already in common use.

.In fact, the Cabal rarely acted in consort, and the court was often divided between two factions led by Arlington and Buckingham, with Arlington the more successful.^ Consequently Buckingham was more inclined to the Dutch, and less to the French, than he had been two years before.

^ Bevan IV needed his soldiers fighting the more dangerous Leon and happily agreed with a truce between the two alliances.
  • The Rebirth of England - Woodhouse Dynasty Part II - Paradox Interactive Forums 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That assembly, which a few months before had been unanimous in calling for the reform of abuses, was now divided into two fierce and eager factions of nearly equal strength.
  • The History of England from the Accession of James II - Chapter 1 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

[37]
.In 1668, England allied itself with Sweden, and with its former enemy the Netherlands, in order to oppose Louis XIV in the War of Devolution.^ England and the Netherlands become official allies.

^ In 1668, England allied itself with Sweden, and with its former enemy the Netherlands, in order to oppose Louis XIV in the War of Devolution.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis XIV helped provoke more anti-Catholicism in England, by driving from France those Protestants called Huguenots.
  • England, from Charles II to Isaac Newton 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: Original source]

.Louis made peace with the Triple Alliance, but he continued to maintain his aggressive intentions towards the Netherlands.^ Louis was forced to make peace with the Triple Alliance, but he continued to maintain his aggressive intentions.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Triple Alliance had not been long completed, when he betrayed the secret article to Louis ; and within a few days of the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle he was offering Louis a reciprocal alliance on the closest terms.

^ In April, 1668, only three months after the signing of the Triple Alliance, Charles was already putting out feelers to Louis for an Anglo-French alliance.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1670, Charles, seeking to solve his financial troubles, agreed to the Treaty of Dover, under which Louis XIV would pay him £160,000 each year.^ In 1670 Charles made a secret treaty with Louis XIV of France.

^ In 1670, Charles, seeking to solve his financial troubles, agreed to the Treaty of Dover, under which Louis XIV would pay him £200,000 each year.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ New treaty of Charles with Louis .

.In exchange, Charles agreed to supply Louis with troops and to announce his conversion to Roman Catholicism "as soon as the welfare of his kingdom will permit".[38] Louis was to provide him with 6,000 troops to suppress those who opposed the conversion.^ The first stage of the war went badly for the English and when Parliament met to consider giving Charles money they made him withdraw his Declaration and agree on an Act that would exclude Roman Catholics from holding office.

^ Louis, though he had bargained for a dissolution, feared to arouse opposition at Court ; and Charles, who was so sure of his game that the first 100,000 had already been entered in his accounts, obtained his price without difficulty.

^ The "Abhorrers", those who opposed the Exclusion Bill, would develop into the Tory Party, whilst the "Petitioners", those who supported the Exclusion Bill, became the Whig Party.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Charles endeavoured to ensure that the Treaty—especially the conversion clause—remained secret.^ In 1670 Charles made a secret treaty with Louis XIV of France.

^ The treaty is well known for its Catholic clause in which Charles agreed to become a Catholic and to impose Catholicism on England with French military force if necessary.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The secret treaty of Dover showed the fears of the English people about Charles' foreign policy were valid.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

[39] It remains unclear if Charles ever seriously intended to convert.[19]
.Meanwhile, by a series of five charters, Charles granted the British East India Company the rights to autonomous territorial acquisitions, to mint money, to command fortresses and troops, to form alliances, to make war and peace, and to exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction over the acquired areas in India.^ Elizabeth establishes the East India Company.

^ Charles was forced to make peace with the Scots.

^ The Grand Alliance makes peace with France.

[40] .Earlier in 1668 he leased the islands of Bombay for a nominal sum of £10 paid in gold.^ Earlier in 1668 he leased the islands of Bombay for a paltry sum of ten pounds sterling paid in gold.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[41] .The Portuguese territories that Catherine brought with her as dowry had proved too expensive to maintain; Tangier was abandoned.^ Charles was free to marry whomever he wished, and he married a Portuguese princess, Catherine of Gragnza, and Tangier and Bombay were transferred to British rule as a part of Catherine's dowry.
  • England, from Charles II to Isaac Newton 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1662 Charles married a Portuguese princess, Catherine of Braganza, who brought him the territories of Bombay and Tangier as dowry.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[42]
.In 1670, Charles also granted a royal charter to establish the Hudson's Bay Company.^ Hudson Bay Company is founded.

^ Royal African Company is established to regulate the African slave trade Charles II granted the Royal African Company a monopoly on the rapidly expanding slave trade.

^ Charles now recalled Thomas Wentworth from Ireland, where he had been successful in establishing royal authority.
  • England in the Age of the Reformation 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

The company eventually became the oldest corporation in Canada. .It started out in the lucrative fur trade with the native peoples, but eventually governed and colonized about 7,770,000 square kilometres (3,000,000 square miles) of North America.^ The working people now began to turn their attention to the new trade unions and to the cooperative movement, started in 1844 by the Rochdale Pioneers.
  • England, A History of 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If Reresby could say this about the Declaration, it is not difficult to imagine what people who were less charitably inclined to the government might say about it.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fire started in a bakery in Pudding Lane and then quickly spread, destroying 80% of the city and leaving over 100,000 people homeless.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

[43]

Conflict with Parliament

.Although previously favourable to the Crown, the Cavalier Parliament was alienated by the king's wars and religious policies during the 1670s.^ But the aging king was reluctantly persuaded by his son and Parliament, for entirely different reasons, to declare war on Spain.
  • Glorious Revolution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles policies ultimately led to a Civil War in England which the king lost.
  • Glorious Revolution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But it was a violent age and although Charles was the last King to try to rule without Parliament he managed to remain quite popular."

.In 1672, Charles issued the Royal Declaration of Indulgence, in which he purported to suspend all penal laws against Roman Catholics and other religious dissenters.^ Meanwhile in 1672 Charles II issued the Royal Declaration of Indulgence suspending the laws against non-conformists.

^ In the Declaration of Indulgence in 1687, he suspended laws punishing Roman Catholics and other religious dissenters.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To make things easier for Catholics, Charles issued a Declaration of Indulgence in 1672.
  • England, A History of 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the same year, he openly supported Catholic France and started the Third Anglo-Dutch War.^ The third Dutch war started on March 17, 1672.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First Anglo-Boer War starts.

^ During the same year, however, he sold Dunkirk, a much more valuable strategic outpost to his cousin King Louis XIV of France of France for £40,000.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[44]
.The Cavalier Parliament opposed the Declaration of Indulgence on constitutional grounds (claiming that the King had no right to arbitrarily suspend laws) rather than on political ones.^ (Charles believed that as king he had the right to suspend laws).

^ And Parliament declared its recognition that the king of England ruled by Divine Right.
  • England, from Charles II to Isaac Newton 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament angrily declared that the king had no right to grant exemption from the law to non-conformists and Catholics.

.Charles withdrew the Declaration, and also agreed to the Test Act, which not only required public officials to receive the sacrament under the forms prescribed by the Church of England,[45] but also later forced them to denounce certain teachings of the Roman Catholic Church as "superstitious and idolatrous".[46] Clifford, who had converted to Catholicism, resigned rather than take the oath, and died shortly after.^ His Protestant enemies in the Parliament of England then passed the Test Act, which made all civil and military officials swear an oath against certain practices of the Roman Catholic Church and receive communion in the Church of England.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles was forced to agree to a humiliating truce.

^ The passing of the Test Act of 1673 compelled public office holders to take the sacrament of the Church of England.
  • The History of England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.byfaith.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.By 1674 England had gained nothing from the Anglo-Dutch War, and the Cavalier Parliament refused to provide further funds, forcing Charles to make peace.^ Charles was forced to make peace with the Scots.

^ Charles was forced to ask the Dutch for peace terms.

^ England and the Dutch go to war again.

.The power of the Cabal waned and that of Clifford's replacement, Lord Danby, grew.^ Charles II then fires his chief ministers and instead starts a council known as "The Cabal" consisting of Lord Clifford, Lord Arlington, the Duke of Buckingham, Lord Ashley, and Lord Lauderdale.

^ In July, 1673, Thomas Osbourne, the Earl of Danby, was chosen as the new Lord Treasurer to replace Clifford.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

Charles presented with the first pineapple grown in England (1675 painting by Hendrik Danckerts).
.Charles's wife Queen Catherine was unable to produce an heir; her four pregnancies had ended in miscarriages and stillbirths in 1662, February 1666, May 1668 and June 1669.[4] Charles's heir-presumptive was therefore his unpopular Roman Catholic brother, James, Duke of York.^ Charles's wife Queen Catherine was unable to produce an heir.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles II’s brother James, Duke of York, a Catholic himself, was a victim of the act.

^ James was now a Roman Catholic.
  • T.B. Macaulay - History of England, Vol. I, Ch. II (part 3) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.strecorsoc.org [Source type: Original source]

.Partly in order to assuage public fears that the royal family was too Catholic, Charles agreed that James's daughter, Mary, should marry the Protestant William of Orange.^ In 1677, James allowed his daughter, Mary, to marry the Protestant Prince of Orange, William III, who was also his nephew.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ James' daughter Mary .
  • England, from Charles II to Isaac Newton 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Project of marrying William of Orange to Princess Mary .

[47] .In 1678, Titus Oates, who had been alternately both Anglican and a former Jesuit priest, falsely warned of a "Popish Plot" to assassinate the king, even accusing the Queen of complicity.^ In 1678, Titus Oates, a former Anglican cleric, falsely warned of a "Popish Plot" to kill the king and replace him with James.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1678 two liars, Titus Oates and Israel Tonge claimed there was a 'Popish' (Catholic) plot to assassinate Charles II and replace him with his brother James who was openly Catholic.

^ September 1678 'Popish Plot' to murder Charles II is 'revealed' Disgraced clergyman Titus Oates claimed he had learned of a Catholic and French conspiracy to kill Charles II, replace him with his Catholic brother James, Duke of York, and transform England into a Catholic-absolutist state.

.Charles did not believe the allegations, but ordered his chief minister Lord Danby to investigate.^ He was Charles' chief minister from 1674-78.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles did not believe the story, but ordered his chief minister to investigate.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles II then fires his chief ministers and instead starts a council known as "The Cabal" consisting of Lord Clifford, Lord Arlington, the Duke of Buckingham, Lord Ashley, and Lord Lauderdale.

.While Lord Danby seems to have been sceptical about Oates's claims, the Cavalier Parliament took them seriously.^ The rebels had little over half of Commons and about a fifth of the House of Lords, so their claim to speak for the entire nation was already stretched thin.
  • England in the Age of the Reformation 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Rump Parliament also abolished the House of Lords and seems to have had in mind government by committee.
  • England in the Age of the Reformation 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A constitutional struggle took place that ended in the Parliament Act of 1911, which stripped the House of Lords of much of its power.
  • England, A History of 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

[48] .The people were seized with an anti-Catholic hysteria;[49] judges and juries across the land condemned the supposed conspirators; numerous innocent individuals were executed.^ The people were seized with an anti-Catholic hysteria; judges and juries across the land condemned the supposed conspirators; numerous innocent individuals were executed.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was the spectre of international Catholicism rather than the indigenous Catholic population that worried the English people and led to the rise of anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670's.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This paper will attempt to show there was a valid and rational basis behind the anti-Catholic fears expressed by the English people in the 1670's.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

[50]
.Later in 1678, Lord Danby was impeached by the House of Commons on the charge of high treason.^ He neglected the Commons in favor of the House of Lords.
  • England in the Age of the Reformation 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Later in 1678, however, the chief minister was impeached by the House of Commons on the charge of high treason.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The House of Commons sought to impeach Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Albans , who was implicated in the sale of such privileges during his service as Lord Chancellor , on charges of corruption.
  • James I of England - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although much of the nation had sought war with Catholic France, Charles had secretly negotiated with Louis XIV, trying to reach an agreement under which England would remain neutral in return for money.^ In 1670 Charles made a secret treaty with Louis XIV of France.

^ England goes to war with France.

^ France under Napoleon goes to war with England once more.

.Lord Danby had publicly professed that he was hostile to France, but had reservedly agreed to abide by Charles's wishes.^ Charles and Danby hoped by the marriage to consolidate their situation, and when Louis refused further payments, summoned Parliament for January, 1678, instead of, as had been agreed, in April.

^ Faced with these pressures from a hostile Parliament and with some prodding from Danby, Charles concluded a treaty with the Dutch on December 31, 1677.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To save Lord Danby from the impeachment trial in the House of Lords, Charles dissolved the Cavalier Parliament in January 1679.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Unfortunately for him, the House of Commons failed to view him as a reluctant participant in the scandal, instead believing that he was the author of the policy.^ There was yet one last expedient which, as the King flattered himself, might save him from the misery of facing another House of Commons.
  • The History of England from the Accession of James II - Chapter 1 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead, members of the House of Commons began to voice their opposition to the levying of tonnage and poundage without parliamentary consent.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The second was to have the House of Commons give him a regular and permanent income.

To save Lord Danby from the impeachment trial, Charles dissolved the Cavalier Parliament in January 1679.[51]
.The new English Parliament, which met in March of the same year, was quite hostile to Charles.^ The first stage of the war went badly for the English and when Parliament met to consider giving Charles money they made him withdraw his Declaration and agree on an Act that would exclude Roman Catholics from holding office.

^ A new Parliament, which met in March of the same year, was quite hostile to the king, and this led to the chief minister being forced to resign and being held prisoner in the Tower of London.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As the Cavalier Parliament was overwhelmingly Royalist, Charles saw no reason to dissolve it and force another general election for seventeen years.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Having lost the support of Parliament, Lord Danby resigned his post of Lord High Treasurer, but received a pardon from the king.^ All leaders, from the Lords of the Tuatha de Danu, the Ard Righ of the Sidhe and finally the Kings of Ireland were chosen by this treasure.
  • http://www.khaoshq.fsnet.co.uk/Changeling/Chimera.html 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.khaoshq.fsnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament had made them kings, and they needed its support to keep the throne.
  • England, A History of 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Bridgeman surrendered the Privy Seal ; Clifford, with a peerage, stepped into the high place of Lord Treasurer ; Ashley became Earl of Shaftesbury and Lord Chancellor ; Arlington was made an Earl, Lauderdale a Duke, and both received the Garter.

.In defiance of the royal will, the House of Commons declared that the dissolution of Parliament did not interrupt impeachment proceedings, and that the pardon was therefore invalid.^ While the House of Commons which had recalled the royal family was sitting, it was impossible to effect the re-establishment of the old ecclesiastical system.
  • T.B. Macaulay - History of England, Vol. I, Ch. II (part 1) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.strecorsoc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the first months of the Long Parliament, the indignation excited by many years of lawless oppression was so strong and general that the House of Commons acted as one man.
  • The History of England from the Accession of James II - Chapter 1 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Irish Parliament did not follow the example of the English Parliament and instead declared that James remained King.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.When the House of Lords attempted to impose the punishment of exile—which the Commons thought too mild—the impeachment became stalled between the two Houses.^ He neglected the Commons in favor of the House of Lords.
  • England in the Age of the Reformation 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The rebels had little over half of Commons and about a fifth of the House of Lords, so their claim to speak for the entire nation was already stretched thin.
  • England in the Age of the Reformation 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In January 1649, the House of Commons without the assent of either the Sovereign or the House of Lords—passed an Act of Parliament creating a court for Charles's trial.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.As he had been required to do so many times during his reign, Charles bowed to the wishes of his opponents, committing Lord Danby to the Tower of London.^ Parliament meets for a third time during Charles I reign.

^ During the reign of James I and Charles I the following areas became more central to the puritan view of English Society, and the need for change.
  • English Dissenters: Puritans 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.exlibris.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the reign of King Charles I (1625-49) the Crown instituted a number of reforms within the fabric of the Nation.
  • English Dissenters: Puritans 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.exlibris.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lord Danby would be held there for another five years.^ There he remained for five years.

^ Did not another lord of ours kill five bears?"-Last Speech and Dying Words of Thomas Pride.
  • T.B. Macaulay - History of England, Vol. I, Ch. II (part 1) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.strecorsoc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This work would again impact another Archbishop William Laud some thirty years later.
  • English Dissenters: Puritans 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.exlibris.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52]

Later years

.Another political storm which faced Charles was that of succession to the Throne.^ When the succession to the throne was raised, Charles II affirmed that he never married Lucy Walter and deprived the Duke of Monmouth of many of his posts.
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10503 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This long-awaited conquest is accompanied in short order by another one: Charles’s successful seduction of the beautiful and tantalizing Barbara Villiers.

^ The drama looks at the intrigue behind how Charles regained the throne, and at court gossip and politics of the time.

.The prospect of a Catholic monarch was vehemently opposed by Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury (previously Baron Ashley and a member of the Cabal, which had fallen apart in 1673), and his power base was strengthened when the House of Commons of 1679 introduced the Exclusion Bill, which sought to exclude the Duke of York from the line of succession.^ An Exclusion Bill, which sought to exclude James from the line of succession, was introduced.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Lord Ashley, of the Cabal, was now Lord Shaftesbury, and was strong against the succession of the Duke of York.
  • A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens: Ch. 34 - Charles the Secon 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was opposed to the prospect of a Catholic monarch.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some even sought to confer the Crown to the Protestant Duke of Monmouth, the eldest of Charles's illegitimate children.^ When the succession to the throne was raised, Charles II affirmed that he never married Lucy Walter and deprived the Duke of Monmouth of many of his posts.
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10503 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles's wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no children, but Charles acknowledged at least 12 illegitimate children by various mistresses.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The battle of Worcester in 1651 was the attempt by the eldest son of Charles I to reclaim the throne and to re-establish the rule of the Crown in England.
  • Re: George Washington Grant, Dixmont, ME, 1855 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC genforum.genealogy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Abhorrers—those who thought the Exclusion Bill was abhorrent—were named Tories (after a term for dispossessed Irish Catholic bandits), while the Petitioners—those who supported a petitioning campaign in favour of the Exclusion Bill—became called Whigs (after a term for rebellious Scottish Presbyterians).^ The "Abhorrers", those who opposed the Exclusion Bill, would develop into the Tory Party, whilst the "Petitioners", those who supported the Exclusion Bill, became the Whig Party.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Those who supported him were called "Tories" after Catholic outlaws in Ireland.
  • The History of England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.byfaith.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ He was a Whig supporter and favoured the exclusion of James from the throne.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

[53]
Half-Crown of Charles II, 1683. The inscription reads CAROLUS II DEI GRATIA (Charles II by the Grace of God).
.Fearing that the Exclusion Bill would be passed, and bolstered by some acquittals in the continuing Plot trials, which seemed to him to indicate a more favourable public mood towards Catholicism, Charles dissolved the English Parliament, for a second time that year, in the summer of 1679. Charles's hopes for a more moderate Parliament were not fulfilled, within a few months he had dissolved Parliament yet again, after it sought to pass the Exclusion Bill.^ In anger, Charles dissolved the Short Parliament.
  • Glorious Revolution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ James dissolves the Parliament after two months.

^ Parliament passes the Public Health Act.

.When a new Parliament assembled at Oxford in March 1681, Charles dissolved it for a fourth time after just a few days.^ Charles was insulted and promptly dissolved Parliament.
  • England in the Age of the Reformation 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles prevented its passage by dissolving Parliament.
  • England, A History of 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Once again he dissolved Parliament, in March 1629.
  • England in the Age of the Reformation 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

[54] .During the 1680s, however, popular support for the Exclusion Bill ebbed, and Charles experienced a nationwide surge of loyalty, for many of his subjects felt that Parliament had been too assertive.^ During the 1680s, however, popular support for the Exclusion Bill began to dissolve, and Charles experienced a nationwide surge of loyalty.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The "Abhorrers", those who opposed the Exclusion Bill, would develop into the Tory Party, whilst the "Petitioners", those who supported the Exclusion Bill, became the Whig Party.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the first months of the Long Parliament, the indignation excited by many years of lawless oppression was so strong and general that the House of Commons acted as one man.
  • The History of England from the Accession of James II - Chapter 1 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.electricscotland.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lord Shaftesbury was charged with treason and fled to Holland, where he died.^ Jane, her husband Lord Guilford Dudley, and her father, were imprisoned in the Tower of London on charges of high treason.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Government prohibited it, Shaftesbury felt that the game was up : he fled to Holland and died on January 21, 1683, embittered and broken.

^ From Perth they marched towards Aberdeen; the Lord Burley with his army fled at the first charge; and the pursuers entered the gates with the fugitives.
  • The History of England - Chapter II. (by John Lingard) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.authorama.com [Source type: Original source]

.For the remainder of his reign, Charles ruled as an absolute monarch.^ So Charles simply dissolves Parliament and rules as absolute monarch.

^ For the remainder of his reign, Charles ruled as an absolute monarch, without a Parliament.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Baudiness ruled in the court of Englad's Charles II, a 17th-century monarch with a small army of mistresses and illegitimate children.

[55]
.Charles's opposition to the Exclusion Bill angered some Protestants.^ During the 1680s, however, popular support for the Exclusion Bill began to dissolve, and Charles experienced a nationwide surge of loyalty.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Supplies were refused, and a Bill for a Protestant Association for the government of the country with Monmouth at its head was being prepared, when on January 10, 1681, Charles prorogued and then dissolved Parliament.

^ Fearing that the Exclusion Bill would be passed, Charles dissolved Parliament in December 1679.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Protestant conspirators formulated the Rye House Plot, a plan to murder the King and the Duke of York as they returned to London after horse races in Newmarket.^ The king was now much better, and it was agreed that Monmouth should be sent away from court and the Duke of York appointed high commissioner in Scotland.
  • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When they broke Rupert's lines and sent him racing away, they reined in their horses and awaited orders.
  • England in the Age of the Reformation 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Meeting on October 20, the Commons voted an address to the King, praying that the marriage should not be consummated, and that the Duke should not wed "any person but of the Protestant religion."

.A great fire, however, destroyed Charles's lodgings at Newmarket, which forced him to leave the races early thus, inadvertently, avoiding the planned attack.^ That Danby had always strongly disapproved of such negotiations, which were forced on him by Charles, mattered little.

^ It will chronicle Charles II's time on the throne, which coincided with the Great Plague and a fire that destroyed much of London, and his personal life.

^ File:Charles Darwin aged 51.jpg Darwin was forced into early publication of his theory of natural selection .
  • Charles Darwin - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

News of the failed plot was leaked.[56] .Protestant politicians such as Arthur Capell, 1st Earl of Essex, Algernon Sydney, Lord William Russell and the Duke of Monmouth were implicated in the plot.^ Lord Shaftesbury (who died soon after the King's failure against him), LORD WILLIAM RUSSELL, the Duke of Monmouth, LORD HOWARD, LORD JERSEY, ALGERNON SIDNEY, JOHN HAMPDEN (grandson of the great Hampden), and some others, used to hold a council together after the dissolution of the Parliament, arranging what it might be necessary to do, if the King carried his Popish plot to the utmost height.
  • A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens: Ch. 34 - Charles the Secon 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wellington, Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of, pp.

^ William is forced to appoint Lord Russell of the Whigs as his premier.

.Lord Essex slit his own throat while imprisoned in the Tower of London; Sydney and Russell were executed for high treason on very flimsy evidence; and the Duke of Monmouth went into exile at the court of William of Orange.^ Monmouth was executed at the Tower of London soon after.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jane, her husband Lord Guilford Dudley, and her father, were imprisoned in the Tower of London on charges of high treason.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Investigations into enclosures sometimes resulted in fines: those fines went toward rebuilding St Paul's Cathedral in London.
  • England in the Age of the Reformation 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Lord Danby and the surviving Catholic lords held in the Tower were released and the King's Catholic brother, James, acquired greater influence at court.^ King James may have enjoyed the pomp and circumstance of the English Court, and the support of the Church of England.
  • English Dissenters: Puritans 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.exlibris.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles negotiated with the French king through his sister, Henrietta, who lived at the French court and was married to Louis' brother.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, Elizabeth’s cousin Mary (daughter of Scottish King James V, and a Catholic) had become known as Mary Queen of Scots.
  • History of England - Lonely Planet Travel Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57] .Titus Oates was convicted and imprisoned for defamation.^ On May 7, Titus Oates was indicted for perjury, convicted on two counts, and sentenced to be flogged from Aldgate to Newgate, and from Newgate to Tyburn.

[58]
.Charles suffered a sudden apoplectic fit on the morning of 2 February 1685, and died at 11:45 a.m.^ Charles II died in February 1685 from complications following a stroke.

^ In 1685 Charles died suddenly.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ February 6, 1685: Charles II dies of a stroke.

four days later at .Whitehall Palace (at the age of 54).^ He died on 6 February 1685 at age 54 at Whitehall Palace, Whitehall, London, England , from a stroke.
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10139 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thepeerage.com [Source type: Academic]

^ She died on 24 December 1660 at age 29 at Whitehall Palace, Whitehall, London, England , from smallpox.
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10139 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thepeerage.com [Source type: Academic]

The symptoms of his final illness are similar to those of uraemia (a clinical syndrome due to kidney dysfunction).[59] On his deathbed Charles asked his brother, James, to look after his mistresses: "be well to Portsmouth, and let not poor Nelly starve",[60] and told his courtiers: "I am sorry, gentlemen, for being such a time a-dying."[61] On the last evening of his life he was received into the Roman Catholic Church, though the extent to which he was fully conscious or committed, and with whom the idea originated, is unclear.[62] .He was buried in Westminster Abbey "without any manner of pomp"[61] on 14 February[63] and was succeeded by his brother who became James II of England and Ireland and James VII of Scotland.^ He was buried on 14 February 1685 at Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England .
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10139 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thepeerage.com [Source type: Academic]

^ He was succeeded by his brother, who became James II in England and Ireland, and James VII in Scotland.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She was buried on 4 January 1680/81 at Westminster Abbey, Westminster, London, England .
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10503 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Posterity and legacy

A monument to Charles II at Lichfield Cathedral
.Charles left no legitimate heir.^ Charles II had no legitimate children and when he died his Catholic brother James was next in line for the throne.

^ This was of great importance because as Charles did not have a legitimate successor, his brother, James, was the heir to the throne.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, it was no wonder that the marriage encouraged the discussion of a divorce for the king so he could remarry and have a legitimate Protestant heir and thus keep James from the throne.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

.He did, however, have a dozen children by seven mistresses;[64] five of those children were borne by a single woman, the notorious Barbara Palmer, Countess of Castlemaine, for whom the Dukedom of Cleveland was created.^ She was created 1st Countess of Southampton [England] on 3 August 1670, with special remainder to her eldest son, Charles Palmer and then to her 'second' son, George Palmer.
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10503 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Barbara Villiers, the Countess of Castlemaine, his mistress in the 1660's, had became a Catholic in 1663.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A MRS. PALMER, whom the King made LADY CASTLEMAINE, and afterwards DUCHESS OF CLEVELAND, was one of the most powerful of the bad women about the Court, and had great influence with the King nearly all through his reign.
  • A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens: Ch. 34 - Charles the Secon 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

.His other mistresses included Catherine Pegge, Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth, Lucy Walter, Elizabeth Killigrew and Nell Gwyn.^ He and Louise Renée de Penancoët de Kérouaille , Duchess of Portsmouth were associated.
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10139 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thepeerage.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nell Gwyn, the darling of London audiences, did not cost the nation above 4000 a year in revenues; the other, a young Breton lady who had come to England in the suite of Henrietta of Orleans, Louise de Kroualle, soon Duchess of Portsmouth, drew an income of 40,000 besides gifts amounting to many times that sum.

^ The Charles II drama will provide plenty of uncomfortable parallels with today's royals, featuring the monarch's squabbling family and his glamorous mistresses, who included 17th century sex symbol Nell Gwynne and French spy Louise de Keroualle.

.Many of his children received dukedoms or earldoms; the present Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, Duke of Richmond and Gordon, Duke of Grafton and Duke of St Albans all descend from Charles in direct male line.^ Charles LENNOX, 4th Duke of Richmond, m.
  • Archive:Prince William of England - WRG 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.whitneygen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Charles GORDON-LENNOX, 5th Duke of Richmond, m.
  • Archive:Prince William of England - WRG 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.whitneygen.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Charles Fitzroy , 2nd Duke of Grafton + 3 b.
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10503 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65] The public resented paying taxes that were spent on maintaining Charles's mistresses and illegitimate children;[66] John Wilmot wrote of Charles:
Restless he rolls from whore to whore
A merry monarch, scandalous and poor.[67]
.Diana, Princess of Wales was descended from two of Charles's illegitimate sons, the Duke of Grafton and the Duke of Richmond.^ Charles Fitzroy , 2nd Duke of Grafton + 3 b.
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10503 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The king: William was the illegitimate son of the duke of Normandy (and Herleva) who seized the British throne by right of conquest.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ James, however, faced the Monmouth Rebellion, which was led by Charles II's illegitimate son, the Duke of Monmouth.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

Diana's son, Prince William of Wales, second in line to the British Throne, is likely to be the first monarch descended from Charles II.
.Charles's eldest son, the Duke of Monmouth, led a rebellion against James II, but was defeated at the battle of Sedgemoor on 6 July 1685, captured, and executed.^ James, however, faced the Monmouth Rebellion, which was led by Charles II's illegitimate son, the Duke of Monmouth.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ CHARLES II, 1660-1685 JAMES II, 1685-1688 .
  • Glorious Revolution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth declared himself King on 20 June 1685, but was defeated at the Battle of Sedgemoor.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.James II, however, was eventually dethroned in 1688 in the course of the Glorious Revolution.^ GLORIOUS REVOLUTION 1688 - 1689 .
  • Glorious Revolution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Glorious Revolution: 1688 - 1689 .
  • Glorious Revolution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Her Catholic father, James II and VII, was deemed by the English Parliament to have abdicated when he was forced to retreat to France during the Glorious Revolution of 1688/9; her brother-in-law and her sister then became joint monarchs as William III & II and Mary II, the only such case in British history.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

.James was the last Catholic monarch to rule Britain.^ James boldly announced that he would rule as an absolute monarch, responsible to God alone.
  • England, A History of 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Any possibility of toleration by Great Britain was removed at the Hampton Court conference in 1604 when King James I attacked both extreme Puritans and Catholics.
  • The 6 Wives Of Henry VIII--the Stuarts 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He was the last Roman Catholic monarch to reign over England, Scotland and Ireland.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Looking back on Charles's reign, Tories tended to view it as a time of benevolent monarchy whereas Whigs perceived it as a terrible despotism.^ During the reign of James I and Charles I the following areas became more central to the puritan view of English Society, and the need for change.
  • English Dissenters: Puritans 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.exlibris.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parliament meets for a third time during Charles I reign.

^ Since Charles needs money to pay the troops he calls back Parliament one more time.

.Today it is possible to assess Charles without the taint of partisanship, and he is seen as more of a lovable rogue—in the words of John Evelyn: "a prince of many virtues and many great imperfections, debonair, easy of access, not bloody or cruel".[68]—and is depicted extensively in literature and other media.^ They established their capital at Yorvik (today’s city of York , where many Viking remains can still be seen), then spread across central England.
  • History of England - Lonely Planet Travel Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ John Evelyn was a Restoration writer, who was a court supporter and a friend of Charles II. He knew most of the influential people of his time.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One day I went to the Botanic Garden, where many plants, well known for their great utility, might be seen growing.
  • The Voyage Of The Beagle - Chapter II by Charles Darwin 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.darwin-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

.Charles, a patron of the arts and sciences, helped found the Royal Society, a scientific group whose early members included Robert Hooke, Robert Boyle and Sir Isaac Newton, and the Royal Observatory, Greenwich.^ He had learned, during a life passed in travelling and negotiating, the art of accommodating his language and deportment to the society in which he found himself.
  • T.B. Macaulay - History of England, Vol. I, Ch. II (part 3) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.strecorsoc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He had expected to be buried in St Mary's churchyard at Downe, but, at the request of Darwin's colleagues, William Spottiswoode ( President of the Royal Society ) arranged for Darwin to be given a state funeral and buried in Westminster Abbey , close to John Herschel and Isaac Newton .
  • Charles Darwin - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Darwin's friends formed The X Club and helped to gain him the honour of the Royal Society 's Copley Medal in 1864.
  • Charles Darwin - Paleontology Wiki 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC paleontology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Charles was the personal patron of Sir Christopher Wren, the architect who helped rebuild London after the Great Fire in 1666. Wren also constructed the Royal Hospital Chelsea, which Charles founded as a home for retired soldiers in 1682. Theatre licenses granted by Charles were the first in England to permit women to play female roles on stage (they were previously played by boys).^ For the first time women appeared on the stage.
  • England, A History of 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ England's greatest architect, Sir Christopher Wren, rebuilt St. Paul's Cathedral, following London's Great Fire of 1666.  Science flourished along with the arts.
  • England, A History of 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What mattered was who got to London first, and here Charles blundered.
  • England in the Age of the Reformation 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: Original source]

[69]
.The anniversary of Charles's Restoration (which was also his birthday)—29 May—was recognized in England until the mid-nineteenth century as Oak Apple Day, after the Royal Oak in which Charles hid during his escape from the forces of Oliver Cromwell.^ Restored to the Throne, May 29, 1660.
  • Prints from Barnard's New Complete and Authentic History of England. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.philaprintshop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each anniversary of his May 29 , 1660 coronation was long called Oak-Apple Day , or Shick-shack Day.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | September 3| King Charles II oak-tree William Careless St Saint Simeon Stylites the YoungerChay Blyth Captain John Ridgway 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ In parts of England where oak-apples are known as shick-shacks, the day is also known as Shick-Shack Day.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | September 3| King Charles II oak-tree William Careless St Saint Simeon Stylites the YoungerChay Blyth Captain John Ridgway 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

Traditional celebrations involved the wearing of oak leaves but these have now died out.[70] The anniversary of the Restoration is also an official Collar Day.
.London's Soho Square, built in the late 1670s was originally called King Square in honour of Charles II, and a statue of him, erected in 1681, still stands in the square.^ Charles II crowned King of Scotlan...
  • The Literary Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.litencyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ King Charles II, 1660 to 1685 .
  • Hammered Coins of England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.castlecoins.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles II, King of England, pp.

[71] .A statue of Charles II in ancient Roman dress by Grinling Gibbons (1676), has stood since 1692 in the Figure Court of the Royal Hospital Chelsea.^ On Christmas day 1686 a large statue of James in Roman habit, by Grinling Gibbons, was erected in the court of Whitehall, facing the new catholic chapel, at the cost of the loyal Toby Rustat.
  • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ John Evelyn was a Restoration writer, who was a court supporter and a friend of Charles II. He knew most of the influential people of his time.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles had St James Park re-created and built Chelsea Hospital for old soldiers.
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10139 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thepeerage.com [Source type: Academic]

.He is also commemorated by a statue near the south portal of Lichfield Cathedral to honour his restoration of that cathedral following the English Civil War.^ Reactions to the English Civil War (1982) .
  • English Dissenters: Puritans 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.exlibris.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ English Civil Wars 1642-49 .
  • English Dissenters: Puritans 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.exlibris.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The English Civil War had not yet started, but both sides began to arm.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

(See pictures)

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Royal styles of
Charles II of England
England COA.svg
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Sire
Royal styles of
Charles II of Scotland
Royal coat of arms of Scotland.svg
Reference style His Grace
Spoken style Your Grace
Alternative style Sire

Titles and styles

  • 29 May 1630 – May 1638: The Duke of Cornwall
  • May 1638 – 30 January 1649: The Prince of Wales
  • 30 January 1649 – 6 February 1685: His Majesty The King
    • in Scotland: His Grace The King
Charles's full titles as Prince of Wales were Prince Charles, Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, Prince and Great Steward of Scotland, Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter
.The official style of Charles II was Charles the Second, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc.[72] (The claim to France was only nominal, and had been asserted by every English King since Edward III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled.^ II, Under Charles the Second (part 1) .
  • T.B. Macaulay - History of England, Vol. I, Ch. II (part 1) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.strecorsoc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It involved war not only in England but also in Scotland and Ireland.
  • Glorious Revolution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC faculty.ucc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The king: Charles was born in Scotland in 1600.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

)

Honours

Arms

.As Prince of Wales, Charles's arms were those of the kingdom (which he later inherited), differenced by a label argent of three points[73].^ However, when his elder brother died of typhoid in 1612, Charles became heir to the throne and was later made Prince of Wales.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ James's children included Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales (who died aged 18 in 1612), Elizabeth, Margaret Stuart (who died in infancy), Charles, and three more children who died in infancy (Robert, an unnamed son, and Sophia).
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At this time their allegiance was personally to the Prince of Wales, whom events in England would soon cause them to recognise as Charles ll.
  • Early Modern Literary Studies Special Issue 15 (September, 2007) 5.1-26 Geoffrey Smith. "�Long, Dangerous and Expensive Journeys: The Grooms of the Bedchamber at Charles II�s Court in Exile" 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.chass.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.His arms as monarch were: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland).^ Henri IV, Roi de France 1 .
  • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10139 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thepeerage.com [Source type: Academic]

^ James hopefully contemplated a descent upon Scotland or England in the spring ( Dangeau , iii.
  • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward married first Eleanor of Castile (16 children) and then Margaret, daughter of Philip III of France (three children).
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

Ancestry

Children

By Marguerite or Margaret de Carteret
.
  1. Letters claiming that she bore Charles a son named James de la Cloche in 1646 are dismissed by historians as forgeries.^ The correspondence between James and Marlborough was not broken off, and led to a letter from Anne to her father, which he did not receive till he was at La Hogue.
    • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The new King, Charles I (1600-1649) was the second son of James I and Queen Anne of Denmark.
    • English Dissenters: Puritans 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.exlibris.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [74]
By Lucy Walter (c.1630–1658)
.
  1. James Crofts, later Scott (1649–1685), created Duke of Monmouth (1663) in England and Duke of Buccleuch (1663) in Scotland.^ The king was now much better, and it was agreed that Monmouth should be sent away from court and the Duke of York appointed high commissioner in Scotland.
    • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ James's right of succession was now endangered by the pretensions of the Duke of Monmouth [see Scott, James, Duke of Monmouth ].
    • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    Ancestor of Sarah, Duchess of York. .Lucy Walter had a daughter, Mary Crofts, born after James, but Charles II was not the father.^ Mary II , 1662-1689-1694 (daughter of James II) .

    ^ JAMES II (1633–1701), king of England, Scotland, and Ireland, second son of Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria, was born at St. James's Palace 14 (not 15) Oct.
    • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ James was present at the administration of the last sacrament to Charles II by John Huddleston [q.
    • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    [4]
By Elizabeth Killigrew (1622–1680), daughter of Sir Robert Killigrew, married Francis Boyle, 1st Viscount Shannon in 1660
  1. Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria FitzRoy (1650–1684), married William Paston, 2nd Earl of Yarmouth
  1. Charles FitzCharles (1657–1680), known as "Don Carlo", created Earl of Plymouth (1675)
  2. Catherine FitzCharles (born 1658; she either died young or became a nun at Dunkirk)[75]
.
  1. Anne Palmer (Fitzroy) (1661–1722), Countess of Sussex, married Thomas Lennard, 1st Earl of Sussex.^ Proceedings were initiated by Parliament against Archbishop Laud and Thomas Wentworth (1593-1641), 1st Earl of Strafford.
    • English Dissenters: Puritans 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.exlibris.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    She may have been the daughter of Roger Palmer, but Charles accepted her.[76]
  2. .
  3. Charles Fitzroy (1662–1730) created Duke of Southampton (1675), became 2nd Duke of Cleveland (1709)
  4. Henry Fitzroy (1663–1690), created Earl of Euston (1672), Duke of Grafton (1675), also 7-greats-grandfather of Diana, Princess of Wales
  5. Charlotte Fitzroy (1664–1717).^ He was now, with the Duke of Gloucester and the Princess Elizabeth, placed under the guardianship of the Earl of Northumberland ( Life , i.
    • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The letter from the duke himself, discovered with the rest, and printed by order of the House of Commons, was dated 1675 ( State Papers of Charles II , pp.
    • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    .She married Edward Lee, 1st Earl of Lichfield.
  6. George Fitzroy (1665–1716), created Earl of Northumberland (1674), Duke of Northumberland (1678)
  7. Barbara (Benedicta) Fitzroy (1672–1737) – She was probably the child of John Churchill, later Duke of Marlborough, who was another of Cleveland's many lovers,[77] and was never acknowledged by Charles as his own daughter.^ His acknowledged illegitimate children were—by Arabella Churchill: (1) James Fitzjames, duke of Berwick, born 1670; (2) Henry Fitzjames, duke of Albemarle, ‘the Grand Prior,’ born 1673; (3) Henrietta, married to Sir Henry (afterwards Lord) Waldegrave, her father's ‘ambassador’ in France; and (4) another daughter, who died a nun; by Catharine Sedley (Lady Dorchester), a daughter known as Lady Catharine Darnley, married to Lord Anglesey, and after being divorced from him to Sheffield, duke of Buckinghamshire [q.
    • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He was now, with the Duke of Gloucester and the Princess Elizabeth, placed under the guardianship of the Earl of Northumberland ( Life , i.
    • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In his book, Marvell attacked the policies of the Earl of Danby, Charles' chief minister from 1674-78.
    • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

    [78]
By Nell Gwyn (1650–1687)
  1. Charles Beauclerk (1670–1726), created Duke of St Albans (1684)
  2. James, Lord Beauclerk (1671–1680)
By Louise Renée de Penancoet de Kérouaille (1649–1734), created Duchess of Portsmouth in her own right (1673)
.
  1. Charles Lennox (1672–1723), created Duke of Richmond (1675) in England and Duke of Lennox (1675) in Scotland.^ The letter from the duke himself, discovered with the rest, and printed by order of the House of Commons, was dated 1675 ( State Papers of Charles II , pp.
    • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Excerpt from the Diary of Edward Dering, 1672 in John Miller, Restoration England: The Reign of Charles II (London: Longman 1985) Document 29, p.85.
    • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

    Ancestor of Diana, Princess of Wales, Camilla, The Duchess of Cornwall, and Sarah, Duchess of York.
By Mary 'Moll' Davis, courtesan and actress of repute[79]
  1. Lady Mary Tudor (1673–1726), married Edward Radclyffe, 2nd Earl of Derwentwater; after Edward's death, she married Henry Graham, and upon his death she married James Rooke.
Other probable mistresses:
  1. Christabella Wyndham[80]
  2. Hortense Mancini, Duchess of Mazarin[81]
  3. Winifred Wells – one of the Queen's Maids of Honour[82]
  4. Jane Roberts – the daughter of a clergyman[82]
  5. Elizabeth Berkeley, née Bagot, Dowager Countess of Falmouth – the widow of Charles Berkeley, 1st Earl of Falmouth[82][83]
  6. Elizabeth Fitzgerald, Countess of Kildare[82]

Footnotes

  1. ^ From the death of his father to his defeat at the Battle of Worcester
  2. ^ The traditional date of the Restoration marking the first assembly of King and Parliament together since the abolition of the monarchy in 1649. The English Parliament recognised Charles as King of England by unanimous vote on the 2 May 1660, although royalists had recognised him as such since the death of his father on 30 January 1649. During Charles's reign all legal documents were dated as if his reign had begun from his father's execution in 1649.
  3. ^ Fraser, p.13 and Hutton, pp.1–4
  4. ^ a b c d Weir, Alison (1996). Britain's Royal Families: The Complete Genealogy, Revised edition. Random House. pp. 255–257. ISBN 0712674489. 
  5. ^ Fraser, p.32 and Hutton, pp.6–7
  6. ^ Fraser, pp.38–45 and Miller, Charles II p.6
  7. ^ Fraser, pp.55–56
  8. ^ Fraser, pp.57–60
  9. ^ Fraser, pp.65–66, 155, Hutton, p.26, and Miller, Charles II p.5
  10. ^ Fraser, p.97 and Hutton, p.53
  11. ^ Fraser, pp.96–97 and Hutton, pp.56–57
  12. ^ Fraser, pp.98–128 and Hutton, pp.53–69
  13. ^ One thousand pounds was a vast sum at the time, greater than an average workman's lifetime earnings (Fraser, p.117)
  14. ^ Hutton, pp.74–112
  15. ^ Fraser, pp.160–165
  16. ^ The diary of Samuel Pepys, 16 March 1660
  17. ^ a b Miller, Charles II pp.24–25
  18. ^ Hutton, p.131
  19. ^ a b Seaward, Paul (September 2004; online edn, May 2006), "Charles II (1630–1685)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press), doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/5144, http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/5144, retrieved 2007-09-07 
  20. ^ Fraser, p.190
  21. ^ "Charles II (r. 1660–1685)". The official web site of the British Monarchy. .http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensoftheUnitedKingdom/TheStuarts/CharlesII.aspx.^ Juliana, 1948- English / British Monarchs ( www.royal.gov.uk/ ) .

    Retrieved 2007-09-07
    .
     
  22. ^ Fraser, p.185
  23. ^ Fraser, pp.210–202, Hutton, pp.155–156 and Miller, Charles II pp.43–44
  24. ^ Keay, A. (2002). The Crown Jewels. The Historic Royal Palaces. ISBN 1 873993 20 X. 
  25. ^ Hutton, p.169
  26. ^ Hutton, p.229
  27. ^ A thorough discourse concerning this epigram and the king's response can be found from the 19th to 21st paragraph of the Forward of the "The Tryal of William Penn and William Mead" [1]
  28. ^ Fraser, p.238
  29. ^ Miller, Charles II p.120
  30. ^ Defoe, Daniel (1894). History of the Plague in England. New York: American Book Company. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/17221. 
  31. ^ a b Porter, Stephen (January 2007), "The great fire of London", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press), http://www.oxforddnb.com/public/themes/95/95647.html, retrieved 2007-10-12 
  32. ^ Fraser, pp.243–247 and Miller, Charles II pp.121–122
  33. ^ It cost the Treasury £321,000 per year (Hutton, p.184)
  34. ^ Miller, Charles II pp.93, 99
  35. ^ The ship's transom remains on display, now at the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam.
  36. ^ Hutton, pp.250–251
  37. ^ Hutton, p.254 and Miller, Charles II p.175–176
  38. ^ Fraser, p.275
  39. ^ Fraser, p.275–276 and Miller, Charles II p.180
  40. ^ "East India Company" (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, Volume 8, p.835
  41. ^ "Bombay: History of a City". The British Library Board. http://www.bl.uk/learning/histcitizen/trading/bombay/history.html. Retrieved 2007-05-18. 
  42. ^ Hutton, p.426
  43. ^ "Our History". Hudson's Bay Company. http://www.hbc.com/hbcheritage/history/. Retrieved 2007-10-12. 
  44. ^ Fraser, pp.305–308 and Hutton, pp.284–285
  45. ^ Raithby, John (ed.) (1819), "Charles II, 1672: An Act for preventing Dangers which may happen from Popish Recusants", Statutes of the Realm: volume 5: 1628-80: 782–785, http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=47451, retrieved 2007-10-08 
  46. ^ Raithby, John (ed.) (1819), "Charles II, 1678: (Stat. 2.) An Act for the more effectuall preserving the Kings Person and Government by disableing Papists from sitting in either House of Parlyament", Statutes of the Realm: volume 5: 1628-80: 894–896, http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=47482, retrieved 2007-10-08 
  47. ^ Fraser, pp.347–348 and Hutton, pp.345–346
  48. ^ Hutton, pp.359–362
  49. ^ Fraser, p.360
  50. ^ Fraser, p.375
  51. ^ Miller, Charles II pp.278, 301–304
  52. ^ Hutton, pp.367–374 and Miller, Charles II pp.306–309
  53. ^ Hutton, pp. 373, 377, 391 and Miller, Charles II pp.310–320
  54. ^ Hutton, pp.376–401 and Miller Charles II pp.314–345
  55. ^ Hutton, pp.430–441
  56. ^ Fraser, p.426
  57. ^ Hutton, pp.420–423 and Miller Charles II pp.366–368
  58. ^ Fraser, p.437
  59. ^ Fraser, p.450 and Hutton, p.443
  60. ^ Fraser, p.456
  61. ^ a b Bryant, Mark (2001). Private Lives. London: Cassell. ISBN 0304357588 p.73
  62. ^ Hutton, pp.443 and 456
  63. ^ Fraser, p.459
  64. ^ Fraser, p.411
  65. ^ Fraser, p.413
  66. ^ Hutton, p.338
  67. ^ Miller, Charles II p.95
  68. ^ Miller, Charles II pp.382–383
  69. ^ Hutton, p.185
  70. ^ Fraser, p.118
  71. ^ "Soho Square Area: Portland Estate: Soho Square Garden" in Survey of London vol. 33 and 34 (1966) St Anne Soho, pp. 51-53. Date accessed: 12 January 2008.
  72. ^ Guinness Book of Answers (1991), p. 708; Ashley, Mike (1998) The Mammoth Book of Kings and Queens, p. 654
  73. ^ Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family
  74. ^ Fraser, pp.43–44 and Hutton, p.25
  75. ^ Hutton, p.125
  76. ^ Cokayne, George E.; Revised and enlarged by Gibbs, Vicary; Edited by Doubleday, H. A., Warrand, D., and de Walden, Lord Howard (1926). "Appendix F. Bastards of Charles II". The Complete Peerage. London: The St. Catherine Press, Ltd. Volume VI, pp.706–708. 
  77. ^ Miller, Charles II pp.97, 123
  78. ^ Fraser, pp.65 and 286
  79. ^ Fraser, p.287
  80. ^ Fraser, p.37 and Miller, Charles II p.5
  81. ^ Fraser, pp.341–342, Hutton, p.336 and Miller, Charles II p.228
  82. ^ a b c d Fraser, p.285 and Hutton, p.262
  83. ^ Melville, Lewis (2005). The Windsor Beauties: Ladies of the Court of Charles II. Loving Healing Press. ISBN 1932690131. http://books.google.com/books?id=FCxRqOrMVQUC&pg=PA91&lpg=PA91&dq=charles+ii+bagot&source=web&ots=i_bOsL1O1k&sig=4KVdOCPbG-VBo5SMLDUXyaDlBdA#PPA96,M1. Retrieved 2007-12-18. 

References

  • "Charles II (r. 1660–1685)". The official web site of the British Monarchy. .http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensoftheUnitedKingdom/TheStuarts/CharlesII.aspx.^ Juliana, 1948- English / British Monarchs ( www.royal.gov.uk/ ) .

    Retrieved 2007-09-07
    .
     
  • Fraser, Antonia (1979). .King Charles II.^ The puritan and other dissident sects had reduced influence under the new government of King Charles II (1660-85) .
    • English Dissenters: Puritans 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.exlibris.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Restoration (1660) returned King Charles II back to his father's throne after a long vacation.
    • English Dissenters: Puritans 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.exlibris.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0297775715.
     
  • Hutton, Ronald (1989). .Charles II: King of England, Scotland, and Ireland.^ Restoration England: The Reign of Charles II. London: Longman, 1985.
    • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ JAMES II (1633–1701), king of England, Scotland, and Ireland, second son of Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria, was born at St. James's Palace 14 (not 15) Oct.
    • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Some curious information is contained in the Supplement to the loosely compiled Life of James II, late King of England (3rd ed.
    • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    Oxford (England): Clarendon Press. ISBN 0198229119.
     
  • Miller, John (1991). Charles II. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 0297812149. 
  • Seaward, Paul (September 2004; online edn, May 2006), "Charles II (1630–1685)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press), doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/5144, http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/5144, retrieved 2007-09-07 

Further reading

  • Abbott, Jacob (1849). .History of King Charles the Second of England. Available at Project Gutenberg, Retrieved on 2007-05-18
  • Hamilton, Anthony, Memoirs of the court of Charles II, P.F. Collier & Son, 1910. Memoirs of Philibert, comte de Gramont
  • Harris, Tim (2005).^ Henry III's son, Edward I, who ruled England from 1272 to 1307, wisely accepted the limitations on the king's authority.
    • England, A History of 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC history-world.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Charles negotiated with the French king through his sister, Henrietta, who lived at the French court and was married to Louis' brother.
    • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hutton, Treaty , pp.310-313, and Barry Coward, The Stuart Age: A History of England 1603-1714 Second Edition (London, Longman 1994), pp.306-307 and Miller, Charles , pp.161-163.
    • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Restoration: Charles II and his kingdoms, 1660–1685.^ Charles II , 1630-1660-1685 .

    ^ With the Restoration (1660) there was a general return of the musical life under Charles I. The Chapel Royal was reorganized under Cooke as a new major centre for liturgical music.
    • Early English Musick: English Middle Baroque 1625-1675, Charles I and Charles II 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.exlibris.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This resulted ultimately in a facilitated reconciliation with the Army under General Monck and the Charles II of Scotland in the Restoration (1660).
    • English Dissenters: Puritans 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC www.exlibris.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    London: Allen Lane. ISBN 0713991917. 
  • Jones, J. R. (1987). Charles II: Royal Politician. London. 
  • Keay, Anna (2008). The Magnificent Monarch: Charles II and the Ceremonies of Power. London: Hambledon Continuum. .ISBN 9781847252258. 
  • Kenyon, J. P. (1957), "Review Article: The Reign of Charles II", Cambridge Historical Journal XIII: 82–86 
  • Miller, John (1985).^ Restoration England: The Reign of Charles II. London: Longman, 1985.
    • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ John Evelyn was a Restoration writer, who was a court supporter and a friend of Charles II. He knew most of the influential people of his time.
    • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ James was present at the administration of the last sacrament to Charles II by John Huddleston [q.
    • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Restoration England: the reign of Charles II.^ Part ii., which reaches to the death of Charles II, and part iii., comprising the reign of James II, were, like part iv.
    • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The small but scandalous Secret History of the Reigns of Charles II and James II is dated 1690; the more elaborate and bolder Secret History of Whitehall, attributed to David Jones (fl.
    • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The general political tracts throwing light on the biography of James II are legion; many of them are among the State Tracts printed in the Reign of Charles II, published collectively in 1689, and in vol.
    • James II of England (DNB00) - Wikisource 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikisource.org [Source type: Original source]

    London: Longman. ISBN 0582353963. 

External links

Charles II of England
Born: 29 May 1630 Died: 6 February 1685
Regnal titles
Vacant
Succession interrupted
by the English Interregnum
Title last held by
Charles I
King of England
1660 – 1685
Succeeded by
James VII & II
King of Scotland
1649 – 1651
1660 – 1685
King of Ireland
1660 – 1685
British royalty
Preceded by
Elizabeth Stuart
Heir to the English, Scottish and Irish Thrones
as heir apparent
29 May 1630 – 30 January 1649
Succeeded by
James II of England
Vacant
Title last held by
Charles
Prince of Wales Vacant
Title next held by
James Francis Edward Stuart
Peerage of England
Vacant
Title last held by
Charles
Duke of Cornwall
1630 - 1649
Vacant
Title next held by
James Francis Edward Stuart
Peerage of Scotland
Vacant
Title last held by
Charles
Duke of Rothesay
1630 - 1649
Vacant
Title next held by
James Francis Edward Stuart
Political offices
Preceded by
The Duke of York
later became King James II
Lord High Admiral
1673
Succeeded by
Prince Rupert of the Rhine
Preceded by
The Earl of Nottingham
as First Lord of the Admiralty
Lord High Admiral
1684 – 1685
Succeeded by
King James II
Titles in pretence
Loss of title
— TITULAR —
King of England
King of Ireland

1649 – 1660
Reclaimed throne
Loss of title
— TITULAR —
King of Scotland
1651 – 1660
Reclaimed throne

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

I'm defintely the best king in England at the moment.
.King Charles II of England (29 May 16306 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland.^ Encyclopedia Charles II Charles II, 1630 – 85 , king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660–85), eldest surviving son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria.
  • http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/people/A0811428.html 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Luminarium Encyclopedia: King Charles II of England (1630-1685).
  • Luminarium Encyclopedia: King Charles II of England (1630-1685). 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.luminarium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ King Charles I's son had been crowned King Charles II of England, Scotland, Ireland and France in Scotland in 1651.

Contents

Sourced

.
  • Better than a play!^ Better than a play!
    • Charles II of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Better than a play."
    • Charles II of England - Simple English Wikiquote 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Charles II of England - Simple English Wikiquote 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC simple.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • On the House of Lords' debate on Lord Ross's Divorce Bill (1610).
    • Quoted by Arthur Bryant, King Charles II
  • He had been, he said, an unconscionable time dying; but he hoped that they would excuse it.^ Charles II belonged to the House of Stuart .
    • Charles II 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.ohwy.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Charles II crowned King of Scotlan...
    • The Literary Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.litencyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Speaking on the debates in the House of Lords about Lord Ross's Divorce Bill in 1670.
    • Charles II of England - Simple English Wikiquote 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Charles II of England - Simple English Wikiquote 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC simple.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Let not poor Nelly starve.^ Quoted by Thomas Babington Macaulay , A History of England , 1849, vol.i, ch.4, p.437 Let not poor Nelly starve.
    • Charles II of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800-1859) .
    • LibriVox » History of England (Volume 1, Chapter 2) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC librivox.org [Source type: General]

    ^ And he also said, in reference to Nell Gwyn, 'Do not let poor Nelly starve.'
    • A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens: Ch. 34 - Charles the Secon 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

    • On his deathbed, asking that his favourite mistress, Nell Gwynne, be looked after.
    • Quoted by Charles Burnet, History of My Own Time, vol.II, bk.iii, ch.17

Unsourced

.
  • I'm definitely the best king in England at the moment.^ Jump to: navigation , search I'm defintely the best king in England at the moment.
    • Charles II of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I'm definitely the best king in England at the moment.
    • Charles II of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Fronds, in his 'History of England,' has done his best to vindicate the character of this king, and to show that the popular conception of it is not justified by the facts ; but his view is not generally accepted.
    • GENUKI: Kings of England - H 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.genuki.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • After his commitment being questioned in the House of Commons
  • Don't worry Jamie — they'll not kill me to make you King.^ After his commitment being questioned in the House of Commons Don't worry Jamie — they'll not kill me to make you King.
    • Charles II of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A believer in the "Divine Right of Kings", Charles had scant regard for Parliament and in 1642 tried unsuccessfully to arrest five leading opponents in the House of Commons.
    • Kings and Queens of England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC lyberty.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It was then resolved by the Commons that the king should he tried as guilty of treason in making war on his parliament, and a special High Court of Justice was constituted for the occasion.
    • GENUKI: Kings of England - C 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.genuki.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • To his brother the Duke of York who expressed concern over his lax security.
  • Now, nephew to your work!^ To his brother the Duke of York who expressed concern over his lax security.
    • Charles II of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Now, nephew to your work!
    • Charles II of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ That moment came for the king on his deathbed, by which time his brother and heir, the Duke of York, had already openly professed his conversion.
    • United Kingdom: HISTORY OF ENGLAND AND GREAT BRITAIN: The later Stuarts: CHARLES II (1660-85): War and government. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.uv.es [Source type: Original source]

    .St George for England!^ May 2008 at St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England .
    • thePeerage.com - Person Page 10071 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thepeerage.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ St George for England!
    • Charles II of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He was buried in St. George's Chapel, Windsor, England.

    .
    • At the bedding ceremony of his nephew William of Orange and his niece the future Mary II.
  • I have tried him drunk and I have tried him sober and there is nothing in him.^ At the bedding ceremony of his nephew William of Orange and his niece the future Mary II. I have tried him drunk and I have tried him sober and there is nothing in him.
    • Charles II of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ One of his children was Mary, who had married William II of Orange.
    • Kings of England as they affected the American Colonies 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.bucklinsociety.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Protestant members of Parliament, thoroughly disgusted with James, invited Mary and her husband, William of Orange, to take the throne.

    .
    • On the husband of niece Anne, Prince George of Denmark.
  • Walk with me, hunt with my brother and do justice by my niece and you will not be fat.^ Anne afterwards married GEORGE, PRINCE OF DENMARK, brother to the King of that country.
    • A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens: Ch. 34 - Charles the Secon 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On the husband of niece Anne, Prince George of Denmark.
    • Charles II of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Walk with me, hunt with my brother and do justice by my niece and you will not be fat.
    • Charles II of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    • To George of Denmark, who was worried about his weight.
  • Whenever we hear something strange or remarkable, we must tell it to the marines, for with their great service on land and sea they will know whether or not 'tis true.

Quotations of others about Charles II

.
  • We have a pretty witty king,
    Whose word no man relies on;
    He never said a foolish thing,
    Nor ever did a wise one.^ It is said that the King was never seen to smile again.
    • GENUKI: Kings of England - H 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.genuki.org.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We have a pretty witty king, Whose word no man relies on; He never said a foolish thing, Nor ever did a wise one.
    • Charles II of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ No one said a word and many wept openly.
    • The Case of England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, as quoted in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine Vol.^ George John SPENCER, 2nd Earl Spencer, m.
      • Archive:Prince William of England - WRG 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.whitneygen.org [Source type: Academic]

      ^ John EGERTON, 2nd Earl of Bridgewater, m.
      • Archive:Prince William of England - WRG 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC wiki.whitneygen.org [Source type: Academic]

      ^ Speaking as a reply to John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester 's epitaph .
      • Charles II of England - Simple English Wikiquote 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
      • Charles II of England - Simple English Wikiquote 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC simple.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .XLIV (January - June 1857) p.^ XLIV (January - June 1857) p.
      • Charles II of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .592; It is said to that this was written on the door of Charles II's bedchamber, and that on seeing it, the king replied, "This is very true: for my words are my own, and my actions are my ministers'...."
  • If his Majesty is resolved to have my head, he may make a whistle of my arse if he pleases.^ Fast Headings Charles II King of England 1630-1685 .
    • Charles II King of England 1630-1685 [WorldCat Identities] 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC orlabs.oclc.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Charles II crowned King of Scotlan...
    • The Literary Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.litencyc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ King Charles II, 1660 to 1685 .
    • Hammered Coins of England 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.castlecoins.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Algernon Sydney, on being told that part of his sentence had been remitted — that he would merely be executed, but his estate would remain intact, quoted in Joe Miller's Jests (1739), p.^ Algernon Sydney , on being told that part of his sentence had been remitted — that he would merely be executed, but his estate would remain intact, quoted in Joe Miller's Jests (1739) , p.
      • Charles II of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ He told Israel Radio that there were no negotiations and he remains committed that there would be no talks with the PA if he is elected to office as long as the daily attacks continue.
      • BPR Mailing List Digest: 01/25/01 24 September 2009 22:42 UTC philologos.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Suddenly, landowners whose families had occupied their estates for several generations were being told that they were encroaching on the kings forests and were to be fined accordingly.
      • Roundheads, Whigs, and Decivilization: A Hoppean Analysis of Stuart England by Jason Jewell 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

      6

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Simple English

File:Charles II of
King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration.

Charles II, who is sometimes called the Merry Monarch (May 29, 1630February 6, 1685), was king of England, Wales, Ireland, and Scotland, from 1649 to 1685. His father was Charles I of England, who was executed after losing a war with Parliament.

Contents

Early life

Prince Charles was the King's eldest son. As a little boy, he was made Prince of Wales as a sign that he would one day be king. By the time he grew into a young man, his father was already at war with Parliament. Prince Charles did not take much part in the fighting. His mother, Henrietta Maria, was French, and she took her children to France when the war broke out, to keep them safe. Prince Charles was only eighteen when he heard that his father was dead. This made him King, and he started calling himself King Charles II straight away, but Parliament was still in control of Britain and would not let him take his throne.

The King's escape

In 1651, Charles II returned to Britain and fought Parliament at the Battle of Worcester. He was defeated, but he was not caught by the enemy because he hid in an oak tree. Later, he was forced to disguise himself as a servant. A young lady called Jane Lane helped him to escape, and he sailed to Holland where his supporters were. He kept his own royal court there until 1660.

The Restoration

While Charles was in Holland, Britain was being ruled by Oliver Cromwell, an ordinary man who had been chosen as leader of the country by Parliament. Cromwell was very strict and did not allow the people to enjoy themselves, so they soon grew tired of him. When Cromwell died in 1658, his son Richard was chosen to be the next leader. Richard Cromwell did not like being in power, and he agreed with most of the people that King Charles II should be asked to come back and rule Britain.

In 1660, Charles II was brought back to Britain and took his throne. Many of his enemies were punished for having executed his father and fought against him, but Richard Cromwell was allowed to go and live quietly away from London. Charles was popular and was called "The Merry Monarch" because he changed many of the laws that Cromwell had made and allowed people to enjoy themselves freely. He liked to go to the theatre, played cards and enjoyed sports such as horse racing. Some people thought that a king should be more serious and not spend so much time and money on pleasure.

There were also some people who did not like King Charles II because of his religious beliefs. He had been brought up by his mother, who was a Roman Catholic, and he still took part in Catholic services in private, even though most people in the country were Protestant. He married a princess from Portugal, Catherine of Braganza. They did not have any children, but Charles refused to divorce Catherine because he loved her and he did not agree with divorce. Before he was married, he had several girlfriends and lovers, and even after he was married he went on having lovers, who were called "mistresses". The most famous of these was an actress called Nell Gwyn. Several of Charles's lovers had babies, but none of these children were allowed to follow Charles as king, because they were "illegitimate", meaning that they had been born to parents who were not married to each other.

The most popular of Charles II's children was James Scott. Charles gave him the title Duke of Monmouth. James's mother had been Charles's girlfriend when he was living in Holland, and some people said that they had been secretly married. If this had been true, then James would have been allowed to be king when Charles died. There were many who wanted this to happen, because they did not like the thought of Charles's younger brother being the next king. This brother, who was also called James, was a Roman Catholic and was not popular.

Charles II died quite suddenly, and his son James, Duke of Monmouth, started a rebellion in the hope of becoming the next king. He was defeated by the royal army, which supported Charles's brother James. The Duke of Monmouth was executed by having his head chopped off, and Charles's brother became the next ruler, King James II of England.

Children

By Marguerite or Margaret de Carteret

  1. Letters claiming that she bore Charles a son named James de la Cloche in 1646 are dismissed by historians as forgeries.[1]

By Lucy Walter (c.1630–1658)

  1. James Crofts, later Scott (1649–1685), created Duke of Monmouth (1663) in England and Duke of Buccleuch (1663) in Scotland. Ancestor of Sarah, Duchess of York. Lucy Walter had a daughter, Mary Crofts, born after James, but Charles II was not the father.[2]

By Elizabeth Killigrew (1622–1680), daughter of Sir Robert Killigrew, married Francis Boyle, 1st Viscount Shannon in 1660

  1. Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria FitzRoy (1650–1684), married the 2nd Earl of Yarmouth

By Catherine Pegge

  1. Charles FitzCharles (1657–1680), known as "Don Carlo", created Earl of Plymouth (1675)
  2. Catherine FitzCharles (born 1658; she either died young or became a nun at Dunkirk)[3]

By Barbara Villiers Palmer (1641–1709), wife of Roger Palmer, 1st Earl of Castlemaine created Duchess of Cleveland in her own right

  1. Anne Palmer (Fitzroy) (1661–1722), Countess of Sussex, married Thomas Lennard, 1st Earl of Sussex. She may have been the daughter of Roger Palmer, but Charles accepted her anyway.[4]
  2. Charles Fitzroy (1662–1730) created Duke of Southampton (1675), became 2nd Duke of Cleveland (1709)
  3. Henry Fitzroy (1663–1690), created Earl of Euston (1672), Duke of Grafton (1675), also 7 Greats-Grandfather of Diana, Princess of Wales
  4. Charlotte Fitzroy (1664–1717). She married Edward Lee, 1st Earl of Lichfield.
  5. George Fitzroy (1665–1716), created Earl of Northumberland (1674), Duke of Northumberland (1678)
  6. Barbara (Benedicta) Fitzroy (1672–1737) – She was probably the child of John Churchill, later Duke of Marlborough, who was another of Cleveland's many lovers,[5] and was never acknowledged by Charles as his own daughter.[6]

By Nell Gwyn (1650–1687)

  1. Charles Beauclerk (1670–1726), created Duke of St Albans (1684)
  2. James, Lord Beauclerk (1671–1680)

By Louise Renée de Penancoet de Kérouaille (1649–1734), created Duchess of Portsmouth in her own right (1673)

  1. Charles Lennox (1672–1723), created Duke of Richmond (1675) in England and Duke of Lennox (1675) in Scotland. Ancestor of Diana, Princess of Wales, Camilla, The Duchess of Cornwall, and Sarah, Duchess of York.

By Mary 'Moll' Davis, courtesan and actress of repute[7]

  1. Lady Mary Tudor (1673–1726), married Edward Radclyffe, 2nd Earl of Derwentwater; after Edward's death, she married Henry Graham, and upon his death she married James Rooke.

Other probable mistresses:

  1. Christabella Wyndham[8]
  2. Hortense Mancini, Duchess of Mazarin[9]
  3. Winifred Wells – one of the Queen's Maids of Honour[10]
  4. Jane Roberts – the daughter of a clergyman[10]
  5. Elizabeth Berkeley, née Bagot, Dowager Countess of Falmouth – the widow of Charles Berkeley, 1st Earl of Falmouth[10][11]
  6. Elizabeth Fitzgerald, Countess of Kildare[10]

References

  1. Fraser, pp.43–44 and Hutton, p.25
  2. Cite error: Invalid tag; no text was provided for refs named weir
  3. Hutton, p.125
  4. Cokayne, George E.; Revised and enlarged by Gibbs, Vicary; Edited by Doubleday, H. A., Warrand, D., and de Walden, Lord Howard (1926). "Appendix F. Bastards of Charles II". The Complete Peerage. London: The St. Catherine Press, Ltd.. Volume VI, pp.706–708. 
  5. Miller, Charles II pp.97, 123
  6. Fraser, pp.65 and 286
  7. Fraser, p.287
  8. Fraser, p.37 and Miller, Charles II p.5
  9. Fraser, pp.341–342, Hutton, p.336 and Miller, Charles II p.228
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Fraser, p.285 and Hutton, p.262
  11. Melville, Lewis (2005). The Windsor Beauties: Ladies of the Court of Charles II. Loving Healing Press. ISBN 1932690131. http://books.google.com/books?id=FCxRqOrMVQUC&pg=PA91&lpg=PA91&dq=charles+ii+bagot&source=web&ots=i_bOsL1O1k&sig=4KVdOCPbG-VBo5SMLDUXyaDlBdA#PPA96,M1. Retrieved 2007-12-18. 
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