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Charles I
Portrait by Anthony van Dyck, 1636
King of England and Ireland (more...)
Reign 27 March 1625 – 30 January 1649 (&0000000000000023.00000023 years, &0000000000000309.000000309 days)
Coronation 2 February 1626
Predecessor James I
Successor Charles II (de jure)
Council of State (de facto)
King of Scots (more...)
Reign 27 March 1625 – 30 January 1649 (&0000000000000023.00000023 years, &0000000000000309.000000309 days)
Coronation 8 June 1633
Predecessor James VI
Successor Charles II
Consort Henrietta Maria of France
Issue
Charles II
Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange
James II & VII
Princess Elizabeth
Princess Anne
Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester
Henrietta, Duchess of Orléans
House House of Stuart
Father James VI of Scotland and I of England
Mother Anne of Denmark
Born 19 November 1600(1600-11-19)
Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline, Scotland
Died 30 January 1649 (aged 48)
Whitehall, England
Burial 7 February 1649
Windsor, England
.Saint Charles I, King and Martyr (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was the second son of James VI of Scots and I of England.^ King Charles I was beheaded in 1649.
  • Secrets of the Bank of England Revealed at Last!! 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, the King's death, by the reformed calendar, was on 30 January 1649.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles II is crowned king of Scots at Scone on 1 January 1651.

.He was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution.^ He was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ March 27, 1625 (aged 58) .

^ July 1567 - 27 March 1625 (Scotland) 24 March 1603 - 27 March 1625 (England and Ireland) .

[1] .Charles engaged in a struggle for power with the Parliament of England, attempting to obtain royal revenue whilst Parliament sought to curb his Royal prerogative which Charles believed was divinely ordained.^ Charles believed in the divine right of kings and in the authority of the Church of England.
  • Royal Genealogies Part 17 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC ftp.cac.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CHARLES I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

^ He famously engaged in a struggle for power with the Parliament of England.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An early attempt at peace occurred in 1396 when Charles' daughter, the not quite seven-year-old Isabella of Valois , married the 29-year-old Richard II of England .
  • Charles VI VALOIS King Of France 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC web.me.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many of his English subjects opposed his actions, in particular his interference in the English and Scottish Churches, and the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent grew to be seen as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch.^ There was widespread opposition to many of his actions, especially the levying of taxes without Parliament's consent.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After a struggle for about twenty years between royalists and republicans, the monarchy was restored, and the English people again became subjects of the head of the Scottish house of Stuart.
  • The Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut - 1660 The Regicides 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.colonialwarsct.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His desire to become an absolute monarch caused him to favour Catholicism for his subjects as most consistent with absolute monarchy, converting from a Protestant to a Catholic on his deathbed.
  • HistoryMole Timeline: King Charles II (1630-1685) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

[2]
.Religious conflicts permeated Charles' reign.^ Religious conflicts continued throughout Charles's reign.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This was to be the start of a series of major feuds among the princes of royal blood which would cause much chaos and conflict in France even beyond Charles's reign.
  • Charles VI VALOIS King Of France 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC web.me.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The English Civil War started as a conflict between Parliament and Charles over constitutional issues; it fired its way to its conclusion through the growing religious division in England.
  • The Case of England 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.wsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.His failure to successfully aid Protestant forces during the Thirty Years War, coupled with such actions as marrying a Catholic princess,[3][4] generated deep mistrust concerning the king's dogma.^ No king could marry a Catholic.

^ Involvement in the Thirty Years War continued, with a disastrous attempt against Cadiz in 1626, and another, equally disastrous attempt to help the Protestants of Rochelle in 1627, after which Charles made peace with both France (1629) and Spain (1630).
  • Charles I, 1600-1649, king of Great Britain and Ireland (1625-1649) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Prince lost a lot of ground over the wars with Princess Diana but he regained a great deal of respect in recent years.
  • New Statesman - In defence of Prince Charles 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.newstatesman.com [Source type: General]

.Charles further allied himself with controversial religious figures, such as the ecclesiastic Richard Montagu, and William Laud, whom Charles appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.^ The king's main adviser was William Laud , the Archbishop of Canterbury .

^ He appointed William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury in 1633.

^ When Charles appointed Laud Archbishop of Canterbury, he made efforts to suppress Puritanism.
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Charles I. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Many of Charles's subjects felt this brought the Church of England too close to the Catholic Church.^ Unless Charles became a Catholic Prince and restored England to Rome, he would have to face his fate alone.
  • EIPS - The Restoration of the Roman Catholic Hierarchy in England � The Years of Intrigue and Squirearchy Part 2 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.ianpaisley.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In it, Montagu argued that many Calvinist doctrines were no part of the Church of England's teaching This infuriated the puritans and in 1625 Montagu was attacked by the Commons led by John Pym.
  • 1625-29: Charles I - the first crisis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC history.wisc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Although Charles had promised Parliament in 1624 that there would be no advantages for recusants (people refusing to attend Church of England services), were he to marry a Roman Catholic bride, the French insisted on a commitment to remove all disabilities upon Roman Catholic subjects.
  • History of the Monarchy > The Stuarts > Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.royal.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Charles's later attempts to force religious reforms upon Scotland led to the Bishops' Wars, which weakened England's government and helped precipitate his downfall.^ Involvement in the Thirty Years War continued, with a disastrous attempt against Cadiz in 1626, and another, equally disastrous attempt to help the Protestants of Rochelle in 1627, after which Charles made peace with both France (1629) and Spain (1630).
  • Charles I, 1600-1649, king of Great Britain and Ireland (1625-1649) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.historyofwar.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Bishops' Wars, Charles I's campaigns against Scotland, 1638-1640 King Charles I twice mobilized England in an attempt to enforce religious uniformity in Scotland, and both times he failed.
  • fisselbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.aug.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Some time later, a leak to the press told of Charles's "desire to play a greater role in the Church of England," an apparent attempt to reinforce the prince's Anglican credentials.
  • Prince Charles of Arabia :: Middle East Quarterly 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.meforum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His last years were marked by the English Civil War, in which he fought the forces of the English and Scottish Parliaments, which challenged the king's attempts to overrule and negate Parliamentary authority, whilst simultaneously using his position as head of the English Church to pursue religious policies which generated the antipathy of reformed groups such as the Puritans.^ English King Charles I attempted to arrest five members of the English parliament.
  • HistoryMole Timeline: King Charles I (1625-1649) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

^ This attempt to force the king to call regular parliaments is unsuccessful.

^ In 1642 the first battle of the Great English Civil War was fought.
  • The Isle of Influence - England 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

.Charles was defeated in the First Civil War (1642–45), after which Parliament expected him to accept its demands for a constitutional monarchy.^ In 1642 the first battle of the Great English Civil War was fought.
  • The Isle of Influence - England 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The English Civil War (1642-1646) .
  • The Case of England 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.wsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles would not accept it and dissolved the Parliaments .
  • Historical Discovery:Historical Discovery:Tudor Stuart England:Charles II 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.beavervalleysoftware.com [Source type: Original source]

.He instead remained defiant by attempting to forge an alliance with Scotland and escaping to the Isle of Wight.^ Later he escaped to the Isle of Wight but was imprisoned there.

^ And when they accompanied the English commissioners to the isle of Wight, they secretly formed a treaty with the king, for arming Scotland in his favour.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.This provoked the Second Civil War (1648–49) and a second defeat for Charles, who was subsequently captured, tried, convicted, and executed for high treason.^ Second civil war.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Henry has them tried for treason and executed.

^ The war ended in defeat for Charles, who was subsequently tried, convicted and executed for high treason.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.The monarchy was then abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England, also referred to as the Cromwellian Interregnum, was declared.^ The Protectorate of England was abolished, and the Commonwealth of England established.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The English Parliament then declared England a "commonwealth" and abolished the monarchy.
  • The Isle of Influence - England 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the very day of the execution of the king, 30 January 1649, parliament declares England to be a 'commonwealth'.

Charles's son, Charles II, became king after the restoration of the monarchy in 1660.[2] In that same year, Charles I was canonized as "St. Charles Stuart" by the Church of England.[5]

Contents

Early life

.The second son of James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark, Charles was born in Dunfermline Palace, Fife, on 19 November 1600.[2][6] His paternal grandmother was Mary, Queen of Scots.^ Henry James son of James and Ann SHARLEY .

^ The king: Charles was born in Scotland in 1600.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Above: James 1, the only son of Mary Queen of Scots, was proclaimed King of Scotland as James VI in 1567, at the age of one.
  • The Isle of Influence - England 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

Charles was baptised on 23 December 1600 by the Bishop of Ross, in a ceremony held in Holyrood Abbey and was created Duke of Albany, Marquess of Ormond, Earl of Ross and Lord Ardmannoch.[7]
.Charles was a weak and sickly infant, and suffered from rickets at the age of one.^ As a child, Charles suffered from weak ankle joints (probably the result of rickets) which slowed his physical development.

^ He left only one son, Charles, then in the twenty-fifth year of his age; and one daughter, Elizabeth, married to the elector Palatine.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A crucial period then began in the life of Charles I which was to last some three years, one in which all his weaknesses were revealed.

.When Elizabeth I of England died in March 1603 and James VI of Scotland became King of England as James I, Charles was not considered strong enough to survive the journey to London due to his fragile health.^ He was a sickly child, and, when his father became king of England in March 1603, he was temporarily left behind in Scotland because of the risks of the journey.
  • Charles I (king of Great Britain and Ireland) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Leibnitiana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.gwleibniz.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He became king of England in 1625, on his father James' death.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The king: Charles was born in Scotland in 1600.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.While his parents and older siblings left for England in April and May that year, Charles remained in Scotland, with his father’s friend and the Lord President of the Court of Session, Alexander Seton, Lord Fyvie, appointed as his guardian.^ The colony moreover did not officially recognize the restoration of Charles II to the throne till that event had been known on New England for more than a year.
  • The Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut - 1660 The Regicides 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.colonialwarsct.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1824-25 Charles, aged 12, spent a dreary, humiliating year working at Warren's Blacking, a shoe polish factory, while his father was in debtors' prison.
  • Charles Dickens 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www25.uua.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cromwell, Fairfax, Hampden, & Pym may be considered as the original Causers of all the disturbances, Distresses, & Civil Wars in which England for many years was embroiled.
  • Jane Austen's History of England 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC penelope.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[7]
.By the spring of 1604, Charles was three and a half and was by then able to walk the length of the great hall at Dunfermline Palace unaided.^ April 1953 Article Three and a half years to go By Charles Dickens SEE ALSO: 1840 ; 1841-1845 ; Political participation PDF IMAGES .
  • Dickens, Charles (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Certainly, Charles was in the great battle with five hundred lances (say, three thousand men), and there he was made prisoner as he led the van.
  • Charles of Orleans 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles I Charles I was born at Dunfermline Palace on 19 November 1600.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was decided that he was now strong enough to make the journey to England to be reunited with his family, and on 13 July 1604 Charles left Dunfermline for England, where he was to spend most of the rest of his life.^ Charles attempted to make the Church of England and the nation conform to the most extreme High Church principles which restored some of the special judicial authority of the Bishops and Church Courts of the Middle Ages.

^ When his father inherited the English throne in 1603, Charles was left behind in Scotland, possibly because he was not considered strong enough for the journey.
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Charles I. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ He would spend most of his life within the confines of his rural home in Downe and in London, some 15 miles away.
  • Charles Darwin: Evolution of a Man and His Ideas > The Good News: July/August 2007 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.gnmagazine.org [Source type: Original source]

[8] .In England, Charles was placed under the charge of Alletta (Hogenhove) Carey, the Dutch-born wife of courtier Sir Robert Carey, who taught him how to walk and talk and insisted that he wear boots made of Spanish leather and brass to help strengthen his weak ankles.^ Charles was sent to England in August, 1604 and was placed in the care of Sir Robert and Lady Carey.
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Charles I. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Under Charles I those who disagreed with the Church of England were persecuted.

^ Charles I was born in Fife on 19 November 1600, the second son of James VI of Scotland (from 1603 also James I of England) and Anne of Denmark.
  • History of the Monarchy > The Stuarts > Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.royal.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]

When Charles was an adult, he was 5 feet 3 inches (162 cm) tall.
.
Charles as Duke of York and Albany, c.
^ George I HANOVER, King of England Frederick Augustus Maximilian William Charles Philip Christian Ernest Augustus, Duke of York Sophia Charlotte NOTES: Dau.
  • Royal Genealogies Part 17 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC ftp.cac.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles II gave large tracks of land from west of the Connecticut River to the east of Delaware Bay in North America to his brother James, the Duke of York.
  • HistoryMole Timeline: King Charles II (1630-1685) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

^ Prince Charles and his younger brother, James, Duke of York, remained with their father dur ng the early stages of the Civil War .
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Charles II. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

1611
.Charles was not as valued as his elder brother, Henry, Prince of Wales; Charles himself adored Henry and tried to emulate him.^ Charles was not as well-regarded as his elder brother, Henry.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles, Prince of Wales, succeeded him as Charles I .

^ Prince Charles of Wales -- main index .
  • Charles is on page 667 of Thayer's New Testament lexicon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.greaterthings.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1605, Charles was created Duke of York, which is customary in the case of the Sovereign's second son.^ Charles was created Duke of York, the traditional title of the monarch's second son but the death in 1612 of his popular and charismatic elder brother Henry, Prince of Wales, thrust Charles into the limelight as heir to the throne.
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Charles I. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ At one point bringing up her grandson, the young James Crofts, later Duke of Monmouth, the son of the future Charles II and Lucy Walter.
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Charles I. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ There were two possible candidates to become king when Charles died; James , his younger brother and James Scott , Duke of Monmouth, his eldest illegitimate son.

.However, when his elder brother died of typhoid at the age of 18 in 1612, two weeks before Charles's 12th birthday, Charles became heir apparent (and the eldest living son of the sovereign, thus automatically gaining several titles including Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay) and was subsequently created the Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester in November 1616. His sister Elizabeth married Frederick V, Elector Palatine in 1613 [9] and moved to Heidelberg.^ But Flaminio lived and had two sons.

^ In 1952 King George died and Prince Charles's mother became Queen Elizabeth II. Prince Charles was now the heir apparent to the throne.
  • USURPER TO THE THRONE OF ENGLAND 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles was created Duke of York, the traditional title of the monarch's second son but the death in 1612 of his popular and charismatic elder brother Henry, Prince of Wales, thrust Charles into the limelight as heir to the throne.
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Charles I. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Charles as Prince of Wales by Isaac Oliver, 1615.
.In 1617 the Catholic Ferdinand II was elected king of Bohemia.^ [Gustav Eriksson Vasa was elected king of Sweden in 1523 after leading a war of independence against King Christian II of Denmark and Norway.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Catholics and Protestants in Bohemia became entangled in a fight and the Protestants asked Frederick to be King of Bohemia.
  • James VI 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nwlink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1688, the English king James II issued a Declaration of Indulgence, allowing Dissenters and Catholics to worship freely.
  • The Isle of Influence - England 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

.The following year, the people of Bohemia rebelled against their monarch, choosing to crown Fredrick V of the Palatinate, and leader of the Protestant Union in his stead.^ Documentary on the formative years of Charles II following the start of the 4m BBC1 drama about the Merry Monarch.

^ In 1626 the crown jewels were pawned and the following year Charles made over most of the crown lands to pay off the royal debts.

^ James marries off his daughter to Fredrick the Elector Palatine who was a strong German Protestant.

.Fredrick's acceptance of the crown in November 1619 thus marked the beginning of turmoil which would develop into the Thirty Years' War.^ While Charles was thus falling into years, the order of things, of which he was the outcome and ornament, was growing old along with him.
  • Charles of Orleans 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The "Abhorrers", those who opposed the Exclusion Bill, would develop into the Tory Party, whilst the "Petitioners", those who supported the Exclusion Bill, became the Whig Party.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Later this year, on November 6, Messier's work was unfortunately interrupted by an awful accident, when he fell into the ice cellar about 25 feet deep.
  • Charles Messier (June 26, 1730 - April 12, 1817) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC seds.lpl.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This conflict made a great impression upon the English Parliament and public,[10] who quickly grew to see it as a polarised continental struggle between Catholic and Protestant.^ To grant large indulgence to Roman Catholics, while repressing non-conforming Protestants, would have been a scandal in the face of the public.
  • Protestantism In England And Scotland Under James I. And Charles I. (1603-1649) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.edwardtbabinski.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles Dickens would likely have made a good actor; in later life he lectured extensively and those who heard his lectures commented that he had a great stage presence.
  • Charles Dickens Online - Charles Dickens Biography, Information, Summaries and Works 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.dickenslit.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first Charles was beheaded and afterward styled a “saint"; yet the majority of the English people were against his arrogance, or else he would have won his great struggle against Parliament.
  • Famous Affinities of History - King Charles II. and Nell Gwyn (by Lyndon Orr) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.authorama.com [Source type: Original source]

.James, who was supportive of Fredrick, and had been seeking marriage between the new Prince of Wales and the Spanish Infanta, Maria Anna of Spain, since Prince Henry's death,[11] began to see the Spanish Match as a possible means of achieving peace in Europe.^ The new Tory government began to seek peace in the War of the Spanish Succession.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles Is alliance with France and his marriage to Henrietta Maria after rejecting the Spanish infanta, brought Urban and Charles together on the European stage.
  • EIPS - The Restoration of the Roman Catholic Hierarchy in England � The Years of Intrigue and Squirearchy Part 2 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.ianpaisley.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was allowed to see his two younger children who were in England, Princess Elizabeth, who the next year died of a broken heart, and his youngest son, Prince Henry.

.Unfortunately for James, this diplomatic negotiation with Spain proved generally unpopular, both with the public and James' court,[12] with 'Arminian' divines providing a unique source of support for the proposed union.^ James convoked the Hampton Court Conference (1604) at which he authorized a new translation of the Bible, generally called the King James Version.
  • Royal Genealogies Part 17 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC ftp.cac.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I became active in Artists Union committees and also took part in the work of the League against War and Fascism, and the organizations for support of the republican government of Spain.

^ Thus James Is signing of a peace treaty with Spain in 1604 was hugely unpopular, as was his attempt to marry his son to a Spanish princess in the 1620s.
  • Roundheads, Whigs, and Decivilization: A Hoppean Analysis of Stuart England by Jason Jewell 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

[13] .Parliament was actively hostile towards the Spanish throne, and thus, when called by James, hoped for a crusade under the leadership of the king [14] to rescue Protestants on the continent from tyrannical Hapsburg rule.^ James convoked the Hampton Court Conference (1604) at which he authorized a new translation of the Bible, generally called the King James Version.
  • Royal Genealogies Part 17 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC ftp.cac.psu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ James, seeing that he had no support, quickly fled to France and the protection of Louis XIV. With the king having hightailed it out of England, Parliament declared the throne vacant and declared William and Mary to be the sovereigns of England in 1689.
  • The Case of England 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.wsu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Disagreement with Parliament resumed when the speaker refused to put forward three resolutions hostile to the King and was forcibly held in his seat while a vote was passed.
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Charles I. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[15] .Attacks upon the monopolists by Parliament for the abuse of prices led to the scapegoating of Francis Bacon by George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham [16], leading to Bacon's impeachment before the Lords; the first of its kind which was not officially sanctioned by the King in the form of a Bill of attainder since 1459. The incident set an important precedent in terms of the apparent authority of Parliament to safeguard the nation's interests and its capacity to launch legal campaigns, as it later did against Buckingham, Archbishop Laud, the Earl of Strafford and Charles I. However, parliament and James came to blows when the issue of foreign policy was discussed, with James insisting that the Commons should be exclusively concerned with domestic affairs.^ It called for the imprisonment of Charles' chief ministers, the Earl of Strafford and the Archbishop Laud.
  • Historical Discovery:Historical Discovery:Reformation:Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.beavervalleysoftware.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was led by the king's favourite the Duke of Buckingham and it ended in failure.

^ Halifax, Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of .
  • Charles Montagu earl of Halifax Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Charles Montagu earl of Halifax 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The members of the Commons, meanwhile, protested that they had the privilege of free speech within the Commons' walls.^ However, the vast majority of members of House of Commons remained loyal Protestants .

^ The commons pretended not, as they affirmed, to any unusual powers or privileges: They aimed only at securing those which had been transmitted them from their ancestors: And their law they resolved to call a PETITION OF RIGHT; Petition of right.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However members of the Commons physically held the speaker down until they had passed three resolutions about Laud and religion.

[17] .In January 1622 James dissolved the Parliament.^ James dissolves the Parliament after two months.

^ However the Protectorate Parliament refused to accept the Instrument of Government so Cromwell dissolved it in January 1655.

^ Carr, too, meddled in the workings of Parliament and urged James to dissolve it when it could not come up with a workable plan to help with James' money problems.
  • James VI 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nwlink.com [Source type: Original source]

.Charles, and the Duke of Buckingham,[18] James' favourite and a man who had great influence over the prince, together travelled incognito to Spain in 1623 in an attempt to reach agreement on the long-pending Spanish Match.^ In attempt to form an alliance with Spain, Charles visited the Spanish court with his father's favourite Buckingham.
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Charles I. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1623, the Duke of Buckingham and Charles, the Prince of Wales, travelled to Madrid in an attempt to secure a marriage between the latter and the Infanta.

^ In later editions of the Curiosities, the first of the footnotes above is continued as follows: Charles seems, however, to have constantly consulted his favourite minister, the Duke of Buckingham, on the subject, though his letters express clearly his own determination.
  • Curiosities of Literature: The Secret History of Charles I. and his Queen Henrietta 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.spamula.net [Source type: Original source]

.The trip ended as an embarrassing failure however, as the Spanish demanded that Charles convert to Roman Catholicism and remain in Spain for a year after the wedding as hostage to ensure England's compliance with all the terms of the treaty.^ However, they were snubbed by the Spanish courtiers, who demanded that Charles convert to Roman Catholicism.

^ The army was now demanding that "Charles Stuart, that man of blood" should be brought to account for his crimes against the people, the King of England was put on trial for his life.
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Charles I. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Royals, however tacit their powers, have to comply with certain rules in this country, so sort it quickly Charles, because history tells us that there is always an alternative.
  • Charles' hopes of multi-faith coronation dashed by Church| News | This is London 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.thisislondon.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Charles was outraged, and upon their return in October, he and Buckingham demanded that King James declare war on Spain.^ England declares war on Spain 1625 - James I dies, succeeded by Charles I .
  • Time Line of Pirate History from No Quarter Given magazine 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.noquartergiven.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ James I ends the war with Spain .
  • Time Line of Pirate History from No Quarter Given magazine 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.noquartergiven.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1623, before succeeding to the throne, Charles, accompanied by the Duke of Buckingham, King James I's favourite, made an incognito visit to Spain in order to conclude a marriage treaty with the daughter of King Philip III. When the mission failed, largely because of Buckingham's arrogance and the Spanish court's insistence that Charles become a Roman Catholic, he joined Buckingham in pressing his father for war against Spain.
  • Leibnitiana 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.gwleibniz.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the encouragement of his Protestant advisers, James summoned Parliament so that he could request subsidies for a war.^ Carr, too, meddled in the workings of Parliament and urged James to dissolve it when it could not come up with a workable plan to help with James' money problems.
  • James VI 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nwlink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament protests the idea of James having a standing army at all and James had it recessed but not dissolved.

^ This war affected England because James I's son-in-law, the Protestant Elector of the Palatinate, had lost his lands to a victorious Catholic army.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

.James also requested that Parliament sanction the marriage between the Prince of Wales and Princess Henrietta Maria of France, whom Charles had met in Paris while en route to Spain.^ Connection between Charles II. and France .
  • T.B. Macaulay - History of England, Vol. I, Ch. II (part 3) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.strecorsoc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Prince Charles and Princess of Wales had a troubled relationship.
  • USURPER TO THE THRONE OF ENGLAND 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles was the eldest surviving son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was a good match since she was a sister of Louis XIII (their father, Henry IV, had died during her childhood).^ He had a claim on Henry Tudor's affections since his father had died in his service.
  • Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk and Princess Mary Tudor: Biography,Portrait, Primary Sources 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This was the custom of the time but since Brandon was not heir to an important title or great wealth, his case was decided more on sentiment - he had a claim on Henry Tudor 's affections since his father had died in his service.
  • Charles BRANDON (1� D. Suffolk) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

^ His elder brother Henry died in 1612 during the reign of their father, King James I 5 .
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.Although Parliament agreed to the marriage, the episode soured Charles' alliance with the Puritans.^ Charles I - marriage and parliament .
  • 1625-29: Charles I - the first crisis 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC history.wisc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Although he agreed with Parliament that he would not relax restrictions relating to recusants, he promised to do exactly that in a secret marriage treaty with Louis XIII. Charles and his wife had nine children, with three sons and three daughters surviving infancy.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles Is alliance with France and his marriage to Henrietta Maria after rejecting the Spanish infanta, brought Urban and Charles together on the European stage.
  • EIPS - The Restoration of the Roman Catholic Hierarchy in England � The Years of Intrigue and Squirearchy Part 2 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.ianpaisley.org [Source type: Original source]

.By 1624, James was growing senile, and as a result was finding it extremely difficult to control Parliament—the same problem would later haunt Charles during his reign.^ James lapsed into senility during the last year of his reign.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]
  • James I of England 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC pustakalaya.olenepal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament meets for a third time during Charles I reign.

^ Charles also accepted that he would share power with Parliament and would not rule as an 'absolute' monarch as his father had tried to do in the 1630s.

.By the time of James' death, February 1625,Charles and the Duke of Buckingham had already achieved de facto control of the kingdom.^ Death of James James died in 1625.
  • James VI 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nwlink.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1623, the Duke of Buckingham and Charles, the Prince of Wales, travelled to Madrid in an attempt to secure a marriage between the latter and the Infanta.

^ They also asked Charles to sack his chief minister, George Villiers , Duke of Buckingham, as they thought he was guilty of giving the king bad advice.

Scottish and English Royalty
House of Stuart
England Arms 1603.svg
Charles I
   Charles II
   James II & VII
   Henry, Duke of Gloucester
   Mary, Princess Royal
   Henriette Anne, Duchess of Orléans
   Elizabeth
.Both Charles and James were advocates of the divine right of kings, but whilst James' lofty ambitions were tempered by compromise and consensus with his subjects, Charles I was shy and diffident, but also self-righteous, stubborn, opinionated, determined and confrontational.^ Like his father Charles I was firm believer in the divine right of kings.

^ Furthermore James believed in the divine right of kings.

^ Back to Charles I - On to James II --> Back to Top Copyright © 2004 - 2005 www.englishmonarchs.co.uk All rights reserved ® .
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Charles II. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Charles believed he had no need to compromise or even explain his rules and that he was answerable only to God, famously stating: "Kings are not bound to give an account of their actions but to God alone".[19][20]

Oath of Allegiance

.Although the concept of the Oath of Allegiance was founded upon the principles of the Magna Carta, early modern usage of such an oath was instituted by James I and extensively broadened under the reign of Charles.^ Magna Carta - The charter of rights and privileges signed into law by King John in 1215 under duress of his barons.
  • The Governance of Real Property in EnglandFrom Henry I to the Second Reiteration of Magna Carta 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbm.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the modern era of diving, feigning injury and assorted chicanery, such action would be inconceivable but to Charles it was a question of honour.
  • The Definitive History of Leeds United - Players - John Charles Part 4 - The Italian Job 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.mightyleeds.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Commonwealth follows upon death of Charles I. (5) Restoration under Charles II. (6) William III. takes the throne of James II. (7) The House of Hanover succeeds.
  • Oracles of Nostradamus: England 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

The text of the Oath of Allegiance to Charles read as follows;
.I A. B. doe truely and sincercly acknowledge, professe, testifie and declare in my conscience before God and the world, That our Soveraigne Lord King CHARLES, is lawfull King of this Realme, and of all other His Majesties Dominions and Countreyes: And that the Pope neither of himselfe, nor by any Authority of the Church or Sea of Rome, or by an other meanes with any other, hath any power or Authority to depose the king, or to dispose of any of his Majesties Kingdomes or Dominions, or to Authorize any Forraigne Prince, to invade or annoy Him or His Countreyes, or to discharge any of his Subjects of their Allegiance and Obedience to His Majestie, or to give Licence or leave to any of them to beare Armes, raise Tumults, or to offer any violence or hurt to His Majesties Royall person, State or Government, or to any of His Majesties Subjects within His Majesties Dominions.^ She has refused all other titles offered.
  • USURPER TO THE THRONE OF ENGLAND 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles, Prince of Wales, succeeded him as Charles I .

^ 'What will he give to my friend the King of Norway?'
  • EasyFunSchool - A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens - Chapters 7-10 - EasyFunSchool - Free homeschool curriculum lesson plans, fun unit studies, pre school activities, homeschooling high school literature units, Christian homeschooling history unit study activities, Charlotte Mason style homeschool ideas, easy preschool curriculum ideas, craft projects, homeschool through high school curriculum, unit study recipes, literature based units, homemade gifts, math games, preschool reading activities, home education help, homeschooling lesson plans, science experiments, classical history, home ec projects, geography units, art project ideas, language arts activities, and more! 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.easyfunschool.com [Source type: Original source]

.Also I doe sweare from my heart, that, notwithstanding any Declaration or Sentence of Excommunication or Deprivation made or granted, or to be made or granted, by the Pope or his Successors, or by any Authority derived, or pretended to be derived from him or his Sea, against the said King, His Heires or Successors, or any Absolution of the said Subjects from their Obedience; I will bear faith and true allegiance to His Majestie, His Heires and Successors, and Him and Them will defend to the uttermost of my power, against all Conspiracies and Attempts whatoever, which shall be made against His or their Persons, their Crowne and Dignitie, by reason or colour of any such Sentence, or Declaration or otherwise, and will doe my best endevour to disclose and make known unto his Majesty, His Heires and Successors, all Treasons and Traitorous Conspiracies which I shall know or heare of to be against Him, or any of them.^ "We were absolutely thrilled to get him," said Harwood.

^ I guess we shall never know the full reasons for his loss of faith.
  • 10 Fun Facts About Charles Darwin – Neatorama 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.neatorama.com [Source type: General]

^ Make my heart like unto Yours."

.And l do further sweare, That I do from my heart abhor, detest and abjure as impious and Hereticall this damnable Doctrine and Position, That Princes which be Excommunicated or deprived by the Pope, may be Deposed or Murthered by their Subjects, or any other whatsoever.^ Small as the number of those persons on the Council, who are conversant with the three subjects named in the Act of Parliament, must usually be, it may be still further diminished.
  • Decline of Science in England by Charles Babbage - Full Text Free Book (Part 2/3) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But, I will not press this subject further on my reader's attention, lest he should think I am myself delivering the lecture.
  • Decline of Science in England by Charles Babbage - Full Text Free Book (Part 2/3) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fullbooks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though, to give a contentment to the other degrees, they have a suffrage in making laws, yet ever subject to the prince’s pleasure and negative will.—2.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.And I doe beleeve, and in conscience am resolved, that neither the Pope, nor any person whatsoever hath power to absolve me of this Oath, or any part thereof; which I acknowledge by good and full Authority to bee lawfully ministered unto me, and do renounce all Pardons and Dispensations to the contrary.^ And these are to require all officers, soldiers, and others, the good people of this nation of England, to be assisting unto you in this service.
  • Charles I Part B 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC home.freeuk.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Not content with the authority, which they had acquired by attacking these great ministers, they were resolved to render the most considerable bodies of the nation obnoxious to them.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Entire, where the whole power of ordering all state matters, both in peace and war, doth, by law and custom, appertain to the prince, as in the English kingdom; where the prince hath the power to make laws, league and war; to create magistrates; to pardon life; of appeal, &c.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.And all these things I doe plainely and sincerely acknowledge and sweare, according to these expresse words by me spoken, and according to the plaine and common sence and understanding of the same words, without any Equivocation, or mentall evasion or secret reservasion whatsoever.^ With all of these words .
  • Charles I (king of Great Britain and Ireland) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without these words .
  • Charles I (king of Great Britain and Ireland) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has turned out to be the same thing after all.
  • BBC NEWS | Have Your Say | Should Charles marry Camilla? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

And I doe make this Recognition and acknowledgement heartily, willingly, and truely, upon the true Faith of a Christian. So helpe me GOD.
[21]

Early reign

.On 11 May 1625, Charles was married by proxy to Henrietta Maria.^ In March 1625, Charles I became king and married Henrietta Maria soon afterward.
  • Charles I (king of Great Britain and Ireland) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles has been happily married to Susan Fallender since May 21, 1983 and they have two beautiful girls, Jenny and Madelyn.

^ Charles negotiated with the French king through his sister, Henrietta, who lived at the French court and was married to Louis' brother.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

.In his first Parliament, which he opened in May, many members were opposed to his marriage to Henrietta Maria, a Roman Catholic, fearing that Charles would lift restrictions on Roman Catholics and undermine the official establishment of Protestantism.^ At the beginning of his reign Charles I married a French Roman Catholic princess, Henrietta Maria.

^ His first Parliament, which he opened in May, was opposed to his marriage to Henrietta Maria, a Roman Catholic, because it feared that Charles would lift restrictions on Roman Catholics and undermine the official establishment of Protestantism.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Yikes!," as Charles would say, but I was determined to figure it out, so I decided that taking it in at the waist would be much easier (maybe 40" as opposed to 4,000!
  • Tributes to Charles Pierce 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bochynski.com [Source type: General]

.Although he stated to Parliament that he would not relax restrictions relating to recusants, he promised to do exactly that in a secret marriage treaty with Louis XIII of France.^ In 1670 Charles made a secret treaty with Louis XIV of France.

^ Although he agreed with Parliament that he would not relax restrictions relating to recusants, he promised to do exactly that in a secret marriage treaty with Louis XIII. Charles and his wife had nine children, with three sons and three daughters surviving infancy.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After a visit in 1670 from his much loved youngest sister Henriette, or 'Minette', as Charles fondly called her, the King signed a secret treaty with his cousin Louis XIV of France.
  • English Monarchs - Kings and Queens of England - Charles II. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.englishmonarchs.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Moreover, the price of marriage with the French princess was a promise of English aid for the French crown in the suppressing of the Protestant Huguenots at La Rochelle, thereby reversing England's long held position in the French Wars of Religion.^ Wars of Religion sparked by Huguenot massacre .
  • Time Line of Pirate History from No Quarter Given magazine 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.noquartergiven.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By their remonstrances, and promises, and protestations, they had engaged the crown in a war.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary's marriage to her cousin, Philip II of Spain, was interpreted by the French as an attempt to create an alliance against France, and war broke out - the French quickly captured the last English outpost on the continent, Calais.
  • The Isle of Influence - England 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

.The couple were married in person on 13 June 1625 in Canterbury and Charles himself was crowned on 2 February 1626 at Westminster Abbey, but without his wife at his side due to the controversy.^ Shirley Henderson has a tough role to pull off as Charles' wife, the Portuguese Catharine of Braganza, without collapsing into a simpering mess.

^ In 1726 Charles entered Christ Church, Oxford, as a Westminster student, matriculating on 13 June.
  • Dictionary of National Biography: Wesley, Charles (1707-1788) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.ccel.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Charles is on his first visit to India since a disastrous six-day trip in February 1992 with his then wife, the late Diana Princess of Wales.

.Charles and Henrietta had seven children, with three sons and three daughters surviving infancy.^ Had three sons and one daughter.
  • USURPER TO THE THRONE OF ENGLAND 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The oldest daughter of King Charles, Mary Henrietta, was actually married to William II, Prince of Orange.
  • The Life and Crimes of Oliver Cromwell 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His first wife, the Spanish Catherine of Aragon, daughter of the famous Spanish monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella, bore him six children, only one of whom, Mary, survived infancy.
  • The Isle of Influence - England 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.white-history.com [Source type: Original source]

[22]
Sir Anthony Van Dyck: Charles I painted in April 1634
.Distrust of Charles's religious policies increased with his support of a controversial ecclesiastic, Richard Montagu.^ Some of his subjects distrusted his religious policies and alleged despotism, leading a group of them to depose him in the Glorious Revolution.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles' religious and political policies aroused many suspicions, even among his supporters such as Reresby, specifically because of the perception of his lukewarm adherence to Protestantism.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most important emphasis in the paper will be on the discussion of the pro-French religious and political policies of Charles II's government in the late 1660's and during the 1670's.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the pamphlet Immediate Addresse unto God alone , Montagu had argued against the teachings of John Calvin, thereby bringing himself into disrepute amongst the Puritans.^ Two members of the house, Sir Dudley Digges and Sir John Elliott, who had been employed as managers of the impeachment against the duke, were thrown into prison.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jesus himself warned his disciples that there was more that he could say to them and that the Spirit of truth would lead them into truth ( John 16:12–13 ).
  • Church of England apologises to Charles Darwin 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC creation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Professor John William Draper delivered a long lecture about Darwin and social progress, then Samuel Wilberforce , the Bishop of Oxford, argued against Darwin.
  • Charles Darwin - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After a Puritan member of the House of Commons, John Pym, attacked Montagu's pamphlet during debate, Montagu requested the king's aid in another pamphlet entitled "Appello Caesarem"(1625), (a reference to an appeal against Jewish persecution made by Saint Paul the Apostle).^ The House of Commons, in turn, requested that the King abandon the alliance with Spain.

^ During debates in the house, it often happened, that a particular member, more ardent and zealous than the rest, would display the highest sentiments of liberty, which the commons contented themselves to hear with silence and seeming approbation; and the king, informed of these harangues, concluded the whole house to be infected with the same principles, and to be engaged in a combination, against his prerogative.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Two members of the house, Sir Dudley Digges and Sir John Elliott, who had been employed as managers of the impeachment against the duke, were thrown into prison.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[23] .Charles made the cleric one of his royal chaplains, increasing many Puritans' suspicions as to where Charles would lead the Church, fearing that his favouring of Arminianism was a clandestine attempt on Charles' part to aid the resurgence of Catholicism within the English Church.^ This effort was reasonably successful until Charles made a disastrous attempt in 1637 to impose the English Book of Common Prayer on the Church of Scotland, the members of which generally believed that the English prayer-book skirted too closely to Roman Catholicism.
  • Roundheads, Whigs, and Decivilization: A Hoppean Analysis of Stuart England by Jason Jewell 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On March 4th, 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Company was given its Charter by Charles I. Although it was a commercial company interested in cultivating trade in the new colony, the leading promoters of it were Puritans intent on creating a church free from outside interference.
  • A Tale of Two Bostons - iBoston 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.iboston.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Conflicts with the Dutch caused Charles to form an alliance with France that supposed he would reintroduce Catholicism back to England "at an appropriate time."
  • A Tale of Two Bostons - iBoston 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.iboston.org [Source type: Original source]

.Charles's primary concern during his early reign was foreign policy.^ We have a regulation of the market with regard to poultry and some other articles, very early in Charles I.’s reign; t and the prices are high.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So we have a situation here where James and Charles, by and large, preferred a peaceful foreign policy, but were pressured into war by their subjects.
  • Roundheads, Whigs, and Decivilization: A Hoppean Analysis of Stuart England by Jason Jewell 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It would continue until the last years of Anne's reign, and would dominate both foreign and domestic policy.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Thirty Years' War, originally confined to Bohemia, was spiralling into a wider European war.^ Plunged England into fruitless '100 Years War', his son, The Black Prince, was most renowned warrior in Europe.
  • The Kings and Queens of England from 1066 - The Royal Windsor Web Site by Thamesweb 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.thamesweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Henry then crossed over into France resuming the Hundred Years War and won critical victories.

^ James son in law starts the Thirty Years War with Spain and the Holy Roman Empire on one side and Germany on the other.

.In 1620 Frederick V was defeated at the Battle of White Mountain and by 1622, despite the aid of English volunteers, had lost his hereditary lands in the Palatinate to the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II.^ The English won most of the battles, captured most of the cities and lost all of the war.
  • England - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The question became important as The King of Spain, Charles II, was an invalid with no prospect of having children, and had amongst his closest relatives Louis XIV, the King of France, and Leopold I, the Holy Roman Emperor.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With the death of Maximillion the Holy Roman Emperor, three candidates emerge.

[24] .Having agreed to help his brother-in-law regain the Palatinate, Charles declared war on Spain, which under the Catholic King Philip IV had sent forces to help occupy the Palatinate.^ Embarrassed and in a snit, Charles ventured north to raise an army and declared war against Parliamentary forces at Nottingham in 1642.
  • A Tale of Two Bostons - iBoston 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.iboston.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He accompanied the King during the campaigns of the Civil War, and sat in the parliament at Oxford, but on the 4th of March 1645 he was sent by Charles I to the west, accompanied by Hyde and others who formed his council.
  • Luminarium Encyclopedia: King Charles II of England (1630-1685). 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.luminarium.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1623, before succeeding to the throne, Charles, accompanied by the Duke of Buckingham , King James I’s favourite, made an incognito visit to Spain in order to conclude a marriage treaty with the daughter of King Philip III. When the mission failed, largely because of Buckingham’s arrogance and the Spanish court’s insistence that Charles become a Roman Catholic, he joined Buckingham in pressing his father for war against Spain.
  • Charles I (king of Great Britain and Ireland) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25]
.Parliament preferred an inexpensive naval attack on Spanish colonies in the New World, hoping that the capture of the Spanish treasure fleets could finance the war.^ The Dutch also planted a colony in the New World .
  • The Life and Crimes of Oliver Cromwell 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Orteig lived in New York, but could see the world shrinking in size with the advent of aviation, and was eager to see the first successful nonstop crossing of the Atlantic.
  • Wings of Valor - Charles Lindberg, an American Hero 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.homeofheroes.com [Source type: General]

^ Raleigh became ill and his second in command attacked the Spanish who had a colony there, even though they had been instructed by James not to attack the Spanish.
  • James VI 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nwlink.com [Source type: Original source]

.Charles, however, preferred more aggressive (and more expensive) action on the Continent.^ However, the general view now is that Charles I was more responsible for the state of affairs in 1640 than his predecessor.

.Parliament only voted to grant a subsidy of £140,000; an insufficient sum for Charles.^ In 1673, Parliament voted Charles the money he needed to pursue war against the Dutch, but on condition that he reinstate the laws against Dissenters and Catholics, laws that excluded dissenters and Catholics.
  • England, from Charles II to Isaac Newton 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A subsidy in James Is reign was expected to bring in around 80,000, and even when Parliament was feeling well disposed towards the king, the grant of more than one of these in any given year was unthinkable, even in wartime.
  • Roundheads, Whigs, and Decivilization: A Hoppean Analysis of Stuart England by Jason Jewell 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result, Parliament voted against a supply to continue the war and Charles was forced to sign the Treaty of Westminster on February 9, 1674.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

.Moreover, the House of Commons limited its authorisation for royal collection of tonnage and poundage (two varieties of customs duties) to a period of one year, although previous sovereigns since 1414 had been granted the right for life.^ Thus antagonism soon arose between the new king and the Commons, and Parliament refused to vote him the right to levy tonnage and poundage ( customs duties ) except on conditions that increased its powers, though this right had been granted to previous monarchs for life.
  • Charles I (king of Great Britain and Ireland) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the exception of customs duties, relatively little was collected in the way of taxes, even if we count James feudal sources of revenue as taxation.
  • Roundheads, Whigs, and Decivilization: A Hoppean Analysis of Stuart England by Jason Jewell 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Within a year, the missionaries had reverted to their harsh previous way of life, yet they preferred this and did not want to return to England.
  • Charles Darwin - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC locke.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.January 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] In this manner, Parliament could keep a check on expenditures by forcing Charles to seek the renewal of the grant each year.^ Eventually Charles was forced to call parliament.

^ In 1673, Parliament voted Charles the money he needed to pursue war against the Dutch, but on condition that he reinstate the laws against Dissenters and Catholics, laws that excluded dissenters and Catholics.
  • England, from Charles II to Isaac Newton 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ivor_Cornish 11 January 2010 - 10:48am @Zen9 This could possibly have been the case:- 'England could have enforced uniformity and exterminated anyone who opposed that.
  • To be a party of the Union, the Conservatives must also be a party for England | openDemocracy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

.Charles's allies in the House of Lords, led by the Duke of Buckingham, refused to pass the bill.^ This bill quickly passed the lower house.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1623, the Duke of Buckingham and Charles, the Prince of Wales, travelled to Madrid in an attempt to secure a marriage between the latter and the Infanta.

^ It was led by the king's favourite the Duke of Buckingham and it ended in failure.

.Although no Parliamentary authority for the levy of tonnage and poundage was obtained, Charles continued to collect the duties anyway.^ Charles had raised money from towns to pay for a navy, had had continued to collect tonnage and poundage illegally, he had imposed medieval methods to get money such as fines upon gentry who refused to fight for him.

^ Instead, members of the House of Commons began to voice their opposition to the levying of tonnage and poundage without parliamentary consent.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But the great article, on which the house of commons broke with the king, and which finally created in Charles a disgust to all parliaments, was their claim with regard to tonnage and poundage.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The war with Spain went badly, largely due to Buckingham's incompetent leadership.^ Real power passed to Charles and to the Duke of Buckingham, although James kept enough power to ensure that a new war with Spain did not occur while he was King.

^ Real power passed to his son, Charles, and to the Duke of Buckingham, although James kept enough power to ensure that a new war with Spain did not occur while he was King.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the war with Spain was going so badly the Commons were critical of Charles.

.Despite Parliament's protests, however, Charles refused to dismiss him, dismissing Parliament instead.^ And Charles found, that, instead of acquiring friends by the honours and offices which he should bestow, he should only arm his enemies with more power to hurt him.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However the Protectorate Parliament refused to accept the Instrument of Government so Cromwell dissolved it in January 1655.

^ Some say he died broken-hearted, when the last Parliament convened by him in January, 1658, refused to acknowledge his House of Peers.
  • Oracles of Nostradamus: England 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

.He then provoked further unrest by trying to raise money for the war through a "forced loan" -- a tax levied without Parliamentary consent.^ Charles had various ways of raising money without parliament's consent.

^ Charles angrily dissolved parliament and raised money by levying forced loans.

^ Charles I, faced with Parliamentary intransigence and unwilling creditors in his early years, resorted to a notorious expedient that has gone down in history as the "Forced Loan," a strong-armed tactic which raised over 230,000 from 1626 to 1628.
  • Roundheads, Whigs, and Decivilization: A Hoppean Analysis of Stuart England by Jason Jewell 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although partially successful in collecting the tax, Charles let the money dribble away in yet another military fiasco led by Buckingham in the defence of La Rochelle.^ By the time Charles’s third Parliament met (March 1628), Buckingham’s expedition to aid the French Protestants at La Rochelle had been decisively repelled and the King’s government was throughly discredited.
  • Charles I (king of Great Britain and Ireland) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A lull followed, during which both Royalists and Parliamentarians enlisted troops and collected arms, although Charles had not completely given up hopes of peace.
  • Charles I (king of Great Britain and Ireland) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A writ issued in 1634 ordered the collection of ship money in peacetime, although laws passed when Edward I and Edward III were on the thron said it should not be collected in peacetime.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Summoned again in 1628, Parliament adopted a Petition of Right on 26 May, calling upon the king to acknowledge that he could not levy taxes without Parliament's consent, impose martial law on civilians, imprison them without due process, or quarter troops in their homes.^ Furthermore the king could not suspend laws or levy loans or taxes without parliament's consent.

^ A Dissolution Act stated that parliament could not be dissolved without its consent.

^ This time MPs drew up the Petition of Right, which forbade the levying of taxes without parliament's consent.

[26] .Charles assented to the petition, though he continued to claim the right to collect customs duties without authorisation from Parliament.^ Thus antagonism soon arose between the new king and the Commons, and Parliament refused to vote him the right to levy tonnage and poundage ( customs duties ) except on conditions that increased its powers, though this right had been granted to previous monarchs for life.
  • Charles I (king of Great Britain and Ireland) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the exception of customs duties, relatively little was collected in the way of taxes, even if we count James feudal sources of revenue as taxation.
  • Roundheads, Whigs, and Decivilization: A Hoppean Analysis of Stuart England by Jason Jewell 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In May 1641, he assented to an even more far-reaching Act, which provided that Parliament could not be dissolved without its own consent.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Despite Charles' agreement to suppress La Rochelle as a condition of marrying Henrietta Maria, Charles reneged upon his earlier promise and instead launched a poorly conceived and executed defense of the fortress under the leadership of Buckingham in 1628 - thereby driving a wedge between the English and French Crowns that was not surmounted for the duration of the 30 Years' War.^ Charles and Sarah were married in Boston a year earlier in 1870.
  • William & Elizabeth Cullen of Lincolnshire, England 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC members.bex.net [Source type: General]

^ At the beginning of his reign Charles I married a French Roman Catholic princess, Henrietta Maria.

^ The naval war, which was under English leadership, got off to a poor start.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

.Buckingham's failure to protect the Huguenots - indeed, his very presence spurred Louis XIII's attack on the fortress - furthered Parliament's detestation of the Duke and the king's close proximity to this 'eminence grise'. On 12 June 1628, the House of Commons launched a direct protestation, stating, 'We protest before your Majesty and the whole world that until this great person be removed from intermeddling with the great affairs of state, we are out of hope of any good success; and we do fear that any money we shall or can give will, through his misemployment, be turned rather to the hurt and prejudice of your kingdom.'^ The House of Commons, in turn, requested that the King abandon the alliance with Spain.

^ It was led by the king's favourite the Duke of Buckingham and it ended in failure.

^ Parliament then recessed until January 12 to consider the king's offer.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

.On 23 August 1628, Buckingham was assassinated.^ During that interval in 1628, Buckingham was assassinated and the country went wild with celebration.
  • Historical Discovery:Historical Discovery:Reformation:Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.beavervalleysoftware.com [Source type: Original source]

.The public rejoicing at his death accentuated the gulf between the court and the nation, and between the crown and the Commons.^ Public Enemy to the good people of this Nation, shall be put to death, by the severing his head from his body'.
  • The Trial of Charles I (1649): Selected Links and Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For all which treasons and crimes this Court doth adjudge that he, the said Charles Stuart, as a tyrant, traitor, murderer, and public enemy to the good people of this nation, shall be put to death by the severing of his head from his body.
  • The Trial of Charles I (1649): Selected Links and Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Court will proceed to sentence of condemnation - the condemnation will be for a Tyrant, Traitor, and Murderer and a public enemy to the Commonwealth of England And - This condemnation shall extend to death.

.Although the death of Buckingham effectively ended the war with Spain and eliminated his leadership as an issue, it did not end the conflicts between Charles and Parliament over taxation and religious matters.^ Conflict with Parliament and death .
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1623, the Duke of Buckingham and Charles, the Prince of Wales, travelled to Madrid in an attempt to secure a marriage between the latter and the Infanta.

^ In 1673, Parliament voted Charles the money he needed to pursue war against the Dutch, but on condition that he reinstate the laws against Dissenters and Catholics, laws that excluded dissenters and Catholics.
  • England, from Charles II to Isaac Newton 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: Original source]

[27]

Personal rule

Charles I, King of England, from Three Angles, the Triple Portrait by Anthony van Dyck.
.In January 1629, Charles opened the second session of the Parliament, which had been prorogued in June 1628, with a moderate speech on the tonnage and poundage issue.^ After this speech, he prorogued the parliament, till the 22d of January.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In January 1629, Charles opened the second session of the Parliament which had been prorogued in June 1628.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In January 1649, Parliament, now a Rump purged of its moderate elements and under the influence of the charismatic general Oliver Cromwell, took its most radical step yet by executing Charles and abolishing the monarchy and House of Lords.
  • Roundheads, Whigs, and Decivilization: A Hoppean Analysis of Stuart England by Jason Jewell 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.lewrockwell.com [Source type: Original source]

.Members of the House of Commons began to voice their opposition in light of the Rolle case, in which the autonomous MP had had his goods confiscated for failing to pay tonnage and poundage.^ Instead, members of the House of Commons began to voice their opposition to the levying of tonnage and poundage without parliamentary consent.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This has been the case with the house of commons in England .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles responded by entering the Commons in a failed attempt to arrest five Members of Parliament, who had fled before his arrival.
  • The Trial of Charles I (1649): Selected Links and Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Many MPs viewed the confiscation as a breach of the Petition of Right,[28] arguing that the petition's freedom-from-arrest privilege extended to goods.^ By the standards of today, many fundamental rights were breached or ignored in the way King Charles' trial was conducted.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ This time MPs drew up the Petition of Right, which forbade the levying of taxes without parliament's consent.

^ Freedom of Tenement - The right of enjoying all the privileges of holding real property even though the property is owned by another.
  • The Governance of Real Property in EnglandFrom Henry I to the Second Reiteration of Magna Carta 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbm.com [Source type: Original source]

.When Charles ordered a parliamentary adjournment in March, members held the Speaker, Sir John Finch, down in his chair whilst resolutions against Catholicism, Arminianism and poundage and tonnage were read out.^ When he requested a parliamentary adjournment in March, members held the Speaker down in his chair whilst three resolutions against Charles were read aloud.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Embarrassed and in a snit, Charles ventured north to raise an army and declared war against Parliamentary forces at Nottingham in 1642.
  • A Tale of Two Bostons - iBoston 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.iboston.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Two members of the house, Sir Dudley Digges and Sir John Elliott, who had been employed as managers of the impeachment against the duke, were thrown into prison.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The lattermost resolution declared that anyone who paid tonnage or poundage not authorised by Parliament would "be reputed a betrayer of the liberties of England, and an enemy to the same", and, although the resolution was not formally passed, many members declared their approval.^ The last of these resolutions declared that anyone who paid tonnage or poundage not authorised by Parliament would "be reputed a betrayer of the liberties of England, and an enemy to the same".
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Those, who levied tonnage and poundage, were branded with the same epithet.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Though the resolution was not formally passed, many members declared their approval.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Nevertheless, the provocation was too much for Charles, who dissolved parliament the same day.^ And a few days after the parliament was dissolved.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles responded by entering the Commons in a failed attempt to arrest five Members of Parliament, who had fled before his arrival.
  • The Trial of Charles I (1649): Selected Links and Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As the Cavalier Parliament was overwhelmingly Royalist, Charles saw no reason to dissolve it and force another general election for seventeen years.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[29] .Moreover, eight parliamentary leaders, including Eliot, were imprisoned on the foot of the matter, thereby turning these men into martyrs, and giving popular cause to a protest that had hitherto been losing its bearings.^ With their help, they raised eight thousand men; returned to Edinburgh, and drove the assassins into England.
  • A Child's History of England, by Charles Dickens (chapter31) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC ebooks.adelaide.edu.au [Source type: Original source]

^ From my passion for shooting and for hunting, and, when this failed, for riding across country, I got into a sporting set, including some dissipated low-minded young men.
  • Books: The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These pope-burning pageants are interesting because of the insight they offer into the psychology of late seventeenth century popular politics.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

.Immediately following the proroguing of Parliament, Charles made peace with France and Spain.^ Immediately, he made peace with France and Spain.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Further details include his disagreements with Parliament over dealings with France, Spain , Ireland , Catholicism, the Scots and funding for all of these.
  • The Trial of Charles I (1649): Selected Links and Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Almost immediately after James I's death, Charles I became embroiled in disputes with Parliament.

.The following eleven years, during which Charles ruled without a Parliament, are referred to as the Personal Rule or the Eleven Years' Tyranny.^ This period was called the eleven years tyranny.

^ Once again Charles dismissed parliament and for the last 4 years of his reign ruled without it.

^ Meanwhile for 11 years Charles ruled without parliament.

.(Ruling without Parliament, though an exceptional exercise of the royal prerogative, was supported by precedent.^ The king, at that time, enjoyed, at least exercised, the prerogative of employing any man, even without his consent, in any branch of public service.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Constitutionally, Charles is important because he was the last British king to attempt to rule absolutely without Parliament.

^ But it was a violent age and although Charles was the last King to try to rule without Parliament he managed to remain quite popular."

.By the middle of the 17th century, opinion shifted, and many held the Personal Rule to be an illegitimate exercise of arbitrary, absolute power.^ Although Charles offered to repeal ship money, the House of Commons demanded the discussion of various abuses of power during the period of Charles's personal rule.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was a supporter of the Divine Right of Kings, and many in England feared that he was attempting to gain absolute power.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Baudiness ruled in the court of Englad's Charles II, a 17th-century monarch with a small army of mistresses and illegitimate children.

)

Economic problems

.The reigns of Elizabeth I and James I had generated a large fiscal deficit for the kingdom.^ William Shakespeare continued to write under James I as he had in the reign of Elizabeth.

^ James I, as King James VI of Scotland, had succeeded Queen Elizabeth I upon her death without heirs of the body in 1603 after she had reigned for forty-four years.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.Notwithstanding the failure of Buckingham in the short lived campaigns against both Spain and France, there was in reality little economic capacity for Charles to wage wars overseas.^ He soon found himself at war with both Spain and France.

^ I became active in Artists Union committees and also took part in the work of the League against War and Fascism, and the organizations for support of the republican government of Spain.

^ Embarrassed and in a snit, Charles ventured north to raise an army and declared war against Parliamentary forces at Nottingham in 1642.
  • A Tale of Two Bostons - iBoston 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.iboston.org [Source type: Original source]

.England was still the least taxed country in Europe, with no official excise and no regular direct taxation.^ England is the only country in Europe still fighting against France.

^ An attempt to raise taxes by the royal authority would have at once produced a rebellion; and Lewis, who had now to maintain a contest against half Europe, was in no condition to furnish the means of coercing the people of England.
  • T.B. Macaulay - History of England, Vol. I, Ch. II (part 3) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.strecorsoc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Margaret and Charles Best did a lot of travelling in 1971 and 1972, when they were invited to Brazil, to England and to many countries in Europe, and to Israel.

[30] .Now, despite peace, without the consent of Parliament Charles' capacity to acquire funds in order to maintain his treasury was theoretically hamstrung, legally at least.^ Charles had various ways of raising money without parliament's consent.

^ In the meantime Charles still had to get funds to maintain his treasury.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In May 1641, he assented to an even more far-reaching Act, which provided that Parliament could not be dissolved without its own consent.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.To raise revenue without reconvening Parliament, Charles first resurrected an all-but-forgotten law called the "Distraint of Knighthood," promulgated in 1279, which required anyone who earned £40 or more each year to present himself at the King's coronation to join the royal army as a knight.^ The king himself joined the army, and he summoned all the peers of England to attend him.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles had various ways of raising money without parliament's consent.

^ Coronation procession of King Charles II. .
  • The Life and Crimes of Oliver Cromwell 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: Original source]

[31] Relying on this old statute, Charles fined all individuals who had failed to attend his coronation in 1626.
.Later, Charles reintroduced obsolete feudal taxes such as purveyance, wardship, and forest laws.^ He reintroduced the feudal tax known as ship money, which was even more unpopular.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[32] .Chief among these taxes was one known as ship money,[32] which proved even more unpopular, and lucrative, than poundage and tonnage before it.^ In more ways than one I imagine.
  • Libelblogger Charles Johnson of Little Green Footballs digs deeper, adding new lies to his original ones - Jihad Watch 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He reintroduced the feudal tax known as ship money, which was even more unpopular.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ More than one woman has mentioned that a Cavalier resting on her lap or in the crook of her arm is almost as peaceful as holding a (human) sleeping infant.
  • Cavalier King Charles Spaniels 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under statutes of Edward I and Edward III, collection of ship money had been authorized only during wars, and only on coastal regions.^ Although Charles offered to repeal ship money, the House of Commons demanded the discussion of various abuses of power during the period of Charles's personal rule.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the war he had shot down an incredible total of 125 German aircraft and was credited with 75 official victories, second only to Germany's Red Baron .
  • Wings of Valor - Charles Lindberg, an American Hero 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.homeofheroes.com [Source type: General]

^ He was, in fact, a legitimate heir, claiming descent from Edward III. He pursued English interests in France during this time of the Hundred Year's War.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Charles, however, argued that there was no legal bar to collecting the tax during peacetime and throughout the whole of the kingdom.^ There was no scandal, however.
  • Charles Brandon, duke of Suffolk and Princess Mary Tudor: Biography,Portrait, Primary Sources 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.englishhistory.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Charles BRANDON (1� D. Suffolk) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.tudorplace.com.ar [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles felt bad, but kept saying, no I don't think there could have been a child in the audience...not possible, really?
  • Tributes to Charles Pierce 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bochynski.com [Source type: General]

^ It is remarkable, that, notwithstanding this institution, to which there was no parallel in England, the royal authority was always deemed much lower in Scotland than in the former kingdom.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although the first writ levying ship money, issued in 1634, did not provoke much immediate opposition, the second and third writs, issued in 1635 and 1636 aroused serious dissent as Charles' intention became clear.^ However in 1635 Charles began levying ship money in inland areas.

^ In 1634 the king began levying ship money.

^ In 1673, Parliament voted Charles the money he needed to pursue war against the Dutch, but on condition that he reinstate the laws against Dissenters and Catholics, laws that excluded dissenters and Catholics.
  • England, from Charles II to Isaac Newton 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many attempted to resist payment, but the royal courts declared that the tax was within the King's prerogative.^ At first they designated, respectively, members of the country party who petitioned Charles II to summon a parliament in 1680, and adherents of the court party who abhorred what they viewed as an attempt to encroach on the royal prerogative.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The King adhered to law, convention and the ancient royal prerogatives.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ It is pretended by historians favourable to the royal cause, a and is even asserted by the king himself in a declaration, b that a most disingenuous or rather criminal practice prevailed, in conducting many of these addresses.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

The collection was a major concern to the ruling class.
.The king also derived money through the granting of monopolies, despite a statute forbidding such action (The Monopolies Act, 1624), which, though inefficient, raised an estimated £100,000 a year in the late 1630s in royal revenue.^ Out of respect for her we are ready to extend to her a favour which we do not grant to others, and to declare that her jointure shall be of such value to her as if there had not been any change in our moneys.

^ MPs could refuse to raise money for the king unless he bowed to their demands.

^ A commission had likewise been granted, and some money remitted, in order to raise a thousand German horse, and transport them into England.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[33]

Religious conflicts

.Throughout Charles' reign, the issue of how far the English Reformation should progress was constantly brought to the forefront of political debate.^ This stamp with the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel and the English and American Cocker Spaniels, was issued in 1990.
  • Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Stamps 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.animalstamps.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Religious conflicts continued throughout Charles's reign.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles knew to how little purpose he should urge these reasons against the present fury of the commons.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Arminian theology contained an emphasis on clerical authority and the individual's capacity to reject salvation, and was consequently viewed as heretical and a potential vehicle for the reintroduction of Roman Catholicism by its opponents. .Charles' sympathy to the teachings of Arminianism, and specifically his wish to move the Church of England away from Calvinism in a more traditional and sacramental direction,[34] consistently affirmed Puritans' suspicions concerning the perceived irreligious tendencies of the crown.^ It was therefore determined that Charles should still call himself a Protestant, and should still, at high festivals, receive the sacrament according to the ritual of the Church of England.
  • T.B. Macaulay - History of England, Vol. I, Ch. II (part 3) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.strecorsoc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles will be head of the Church of England, a church that was created to allow a king to divorce and remarry, yet all of a sudden that's frowned upon?!
  • BBC NEWS | Have Your Say | Should Charles marry Camilla? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ It was perhaps a self-serving move as well, for the Nevilles were the richest family in England and real rivals to the crown; if John perished there, why, so much the better!
  • Honor of Lancaster: A Magna Mundi England AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

.A long history of rightful opposition to tyrants who oppressed Protestants had developed since the beginning of the Protestant Reformation, most notably during the French Wars of Religion (articulated in the Vindiciae contra tyrannos), and more recently in the Second Defenestration of Prague and eruption of the Thirty Years' War.^ It was the beginning of a friendship that lasted for more than thirty years.
  • Tributes to Charles Pierce 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bochynski.com [Source type: General]

^ The French war begins.

^ Plunged England into fruitless '100 Years War', his son, The Black Prince, was most renowned warrior in Europe.
  • The Kings and Queens of England from 1066 - The Royal Windsor Web Site by Thamesweb 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.thamesweb.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such cultural identifications resonated with Charles' subjects.^ When Charles becomes King it'll be different, but for now he's a subject of the Queen just like the rest of us, and as such is just as entitled to get involved in politics or anything else he likes.
  • I wish Charles would stay out of it | George Monbiot | Environment | guardian.co.uk 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Although Charles was, in fact, quite hostile to Catholicism (particularly due to the divided loyalty of Catholics between their prince and the Papacy) these allegations would haunt Charles due to the continued exacerbating actions of both king and council, particularly in the form of Archbishop William Laud.^ Alongside the Catholic-Protestant rift, the divide between king and parliament continued to smoulder.
  • History of England - Lonely Planet Travel Information 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1623, the Duke of Buckingham and Charles, the Prince of Wales, travelled to Madrid in an attempt to secure a marriage between the latter and the Infanta.

^ Charles took the unusual step of summoning the magnum concilium , the ancient council of all the Peers of the Realm, who were considered the King's hereditary counsellors.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.William Laud was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury in 1633,[35][36] and began a series of unpopular reforms such as attempting to ensure religious uniformity by dismissing non-conformist clergymen, and closing Puritan organisations.^ In 1633 Laud was made Archbishop of Canterbury.

^ Their marriage will then be blessed by Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams, in a separate service.

^ Possessed of this wealth, he soon persuaded the Archbishop of Canterbury to crown him, and became William the Second, King of England.
  • EasyFunSchool - A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens - Chapters 7-10 - EasyFunSchool - Free homeschool curriculum lesson plans, fun unit studies, pre school activities, homeschooling high school literature units, Christian homeschooling history unit study activities, Charlotte Mason style homeschool ideas, easy preschool curriculum ideas, craft projects, homeschool through high school curriculum, unit study recipes, literature based units, homemade gifts, math games, preschool reading activities, home education help, homeschooling lesson plans, science experiments, classical history, home ec projects, geography units, art project ideas, language arts activities, and more! 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.easyfunschool.com [Source type: Original source]

.His policy was opposed to Calvinist theology, and he insisted that the Church of England's liturgy be celebrated using the form prescribed in the Book of Common Prayer.^ A Church of England minister could perform the service on his own, but until 1897, all other forms of church marriage required the presence of a civil registrar.

^ Throughout England, many refused these loans; some were even active in encouraging their neighbours to insist upon their common rights and privileges.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In Wales rebels rebelled against he Prayer Book and were crushed, and in Norfolk rebels rebelled against the enclosure of common fields but were also defeated.

.To punish those who refused to accept his reforms, Laud used the two most feared and most arbitrary courts in the land, the Court of High Commission and the Court of Star Chamber.^ High commission and star-chamber abolished.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ship money, fines in destraint of knighthood and forced loans were declared unlawful, and the hated Courts of Star Chamber and High Commission were abolished.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was accused of having been deeply concerned in the sale of Charles the First to the English Parliament, and was therefore, in the estimation of good Cavaliers, a traitor, if possible, of a worse description than those who had sate in the High Court of Justice.
  • T.B. Macaulay - History of England, Vol. I, Ch. II (part 3) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.strecorsoc.org [Source type: Original source]

.The former could compel individuals to provide self-incriminating testimony, whilst the latter, essentially an extension of the Privy Council, could inflict any punishment whatsoever (including torture), with the sole exception of death.^ In any former reign he would probably have been called before the Privy Council and committed to the Tower.
  • T.B. Macaulay - History of England, Vol. I, Ch. II (part 3) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.strecorsoc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But death was the lightest punishment, inflicted by those rebels: All the tortures which wanton cruelty could devise, all the lingering pains of body, the anguish of mind, the agonies of despair, could not satiate revenge excited without injury, and cruelty derived from no cause.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

William Laud shared Charles's views on Calvinism
.The first years of the Personal Rule were marked by peace in England, due in part to tighter central control.^ During his 25-year rule, England experienced virulent anti- Catholicism, and yet Charles himself secretly converted on his deathbed.

^ I endeavoured to treat him with due respect and love, according to our rule, "If it be possible, as much as lieth in you, live peaceably with all men."
  • The Journal of Charles Wesley: September 17 - November 5, 1756 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wesley.nnu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The convocation, which met in the very first year of the king’s reign, voted as high monarchical principles as are contained in the decrees of the university of Oxford, during the rule of the tories.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Several individuals opposed Charles's taxes and Laud's policies, and some left as a result, such as the Puritan minister Thomas Hooker, who set sail for America along with other religious dissidents in the Griffin (1634).^ You may perhaps hear the cunning and promise-breaking of King Henry the First, called 'policy' by some people, and 'diplomacy' by others.
  • EasyFunSchool - A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens - Chapters 7-10 - EasyFunSchool - Free homeschool curriculum lesson plans, fun unit studies, pre school activities, homeschooling high school literature units, Christian homeschooling history unit study activities, Charlotte Mason style homeschool ideas, easy preschool curriculum ideas, craft projects, homeschool through high school curriculum, unit study recipes, literature based units, homemade gifts, math games, preschool reading activities, home education help, homeschooling lesson plans, science experiments, classical history, home ec projects, geography units, art project ideas, language arts activities, and more! 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.easyfunschool.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The main reasons for this increase in anti-Catholicism were Charles' promotion of a pro-Spanish foreign policy, his support of the so called "popish" religious reforms of Archbishop Laud, his marriage to Henrietta Marie, an ardent Catholic, who stridently promoted her religion at court, and his toleration of other court Catholics, including the first papal representative to be received in England since the Reformation.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lord North, the man who lost America and one of the worst Prime Ministers in history, is chosen to lead the government.

.By 1633 Star Chamber had, in effect, taken the place of High Commission as the supreme tribunal for religious offenses as well as dealing with Crown cases of a secular nature.^ High commission and star-chamber abolished.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ship money, fines in destraint of knighthood and forced loans were declared unlawful, and the hated Courts of Star Chamber and High Commission were abolished.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Every discretionary or arbitrary sentence of the star-chamber and high commission; courts, which, from their very constitution, were arbitrary, underwent a severe scrutiny: And all those, who had concurred in such sentences, were voted to be liable to the penalties of law.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[37] .Under Charles's reign, defendants were regularly hauled before the Court without indictment, due process of the law, or right to confront witnesses, and their testimonies were routinely extracted by the Court through torture.^ The right to be informed of the charge and to have adequate time and facilities to prepare his defence and to communicate with advisers 55 ; the right to be tried without delay 56 ; the right to examine or have examined the witnesses against him who gave their testimony before a committee of the Court 57 , and the right not to be compelled to testify against himself or to confess his guilt 58 .
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Magna Carta - The charter of rights and privileges signed into law by King John in 1215 under duress of his barons.
  • The Governance of Real Property in EnglandFrom Henry I to the Second Reiteration of Magna Carta 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbm.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was during the reign of Henry II that the concept of due process was introduced into this tenure system.
  • The Governance of Real Property in EnglandFrom Henry I to the Second Reiteration of Magna Carta 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbm.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, when Charles attempted to impose his religious policies in Scotland he faced numerous difficulties.^ Charles's policy was not very successful however.
  • The Life and Crimes of Oliver Cromwell 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ James, however, faced the Monmouth Rebellion, which was led by Charles II's illegitimate son, the Duke of Monmouth.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles' religious and political policies aroused many suspicions, even among his supporters such as Reresby, specifically because of the perception of his lukewarm adherence to Protestantism.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

.The king ordered the use of a new Prayer Book to be used within Scotland that was almost identical to the English Book of Common Prayer, without consultation with either the Scottish Parliament or Kirk.^ Laud and Charles tried to introduce a new prayer book in Scotland.

^ For the second task Salisbury offered that in return for a regular revenue the King would give up all feudal dues belonging to the Crown and not levy new taxes without going to Parliament.

^ And when they accompanied the English commissioners to the isle of Wight, they secretly formed a treaty with the king, for arming Scotland in his favour.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although this move was supported by the Scottish Bishops, it was resisted by many Presbyterian Scots, who saw the new Prayer Book as a vehicle for introducing Anglicanism to Scotland.^ Laud and Charles tried to introduce a new prayer book in Scotland.

^ Many new writs were issued for elections, in the room of members, who had died, or were disqualified by adhering to the king; yet still the presbyterians retained the superiority among the commons: And all the peers, except Lord Say, were esteemed of that party.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The outbreak of the Bishops' Wars in the North saw King Charles and many of his loyal followers depart for the battlefield.
  • William Lawes. Composer at the Court of Charles I. This site is to honour William Lawes in his 400th aniversary year. He was christened 1st May, 1602. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canterburygreenman.fsnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.In 1637, spontaneous unrest erupted throughout the Kirk upon the first Sunday of its usage, and the public began to mobilise around rebellious nobles in the form of the National Covenant.^ In February 1638 Scottish nobles and ministers signed a document called the National Covenant.

^ In 1928, Charles Scribner II turned over the presidency to his younger brother Arthur, who began the publication of the first volumes of the Dictionary of American Biography .
  • A Finding Aid to the Charles Scribner's Sons Art Reference Department records, 1839-1962, in the Archives of American Art - Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.aaa.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland abolished Episcopalian government (that is, governance of the Church by bishops) in 1638, replacing it with Presbyterian government (that is, governance by elders and deacons), Charles sought to put down what he saw as a rebellion against his authority.^ When in 1639 a large Spanish transport fleet sought refuge in the English Downs moorage, Charles did not dare to protect it against a Dutch attack; the resulting Battle of the Downs undermined both Spanish sea power and Charles' reputation.
  • The Life and Crimes of Oliver Cromwell 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.reformation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Presbyterians in England and Scotland agreed with Congregationalists in rejecting episcopacy, or government of the church by bishops who owed their appointment to the Crown, but they granted that the election of ministers and elders by local congregations should be subject to confirmation by larger assemblies, or presbyteries.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles, sensible that an extorted consent, attended with such invidious circumstances, would rather be prejudicial to his measures, had wholly laid aside the use of assemblies, and was resolved, in conjunction with the bishops, to govern the church by an authority, to which he thought himself fully intitled, and which he believed inherent in the crown.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.In 1639, when the First Bishops' War broke out, Charles failed in his attempts to collect taxes from his English subjects in order to organise an armed response against the Covenanters.^ In 1673, Parliament voted Charles the money he needed to pursue war against the Dutch, but on condition that he reinstate the laws against Dissenters and Catholics, laws that excluded dissenters and Catholics.
  • England, from Charles II to Isaac Newton 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.fsmitha.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The outbreak of the Bishops' Wars in the North saw King Charles and many of his loyal followers depart for the battlefield.
  • William Lawes. Composer at the Court of Charles I. This site is to honour William Lawes in his 400th aniversary year. He was christened 1st May, 1602. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canterburygreenman.fsnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The voluntary contribution, which they had made, in order to assist the king in his war against the Scottish covenanters, was enquired into, and represented as the greatest enormity.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Charles could not effectively wage war and was thus forced into a humiliating truce in June of the same year.^ It was in the same year that a Club was founded and the title "Cavalier King Charles Spaniel" was chosen.
  • Cavalier King Charles Spaniels 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.k9web.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While Charles was thus falling into years, the order of things, of which he was the outcome and ornament, was growing old along with him.
  • Charles of Orleans 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Once again, the tenant could claim ignorance of the summons in order to generate a writ of novel disseisin, and force the case into the King's court.
  • The Governance of Real Property in EnglandFrom Henry I to the Second Reiteration of Magna Carta 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbm.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the Pacification of Berwick, Charles agreed to grant his Scottish subjects civil and ecclesiastical freedoms.^ This remonstrance was, perhaps, not the less provoking to Charles, because, joined to the extreme acrimony of the subject, there were preserved in it, as in most of the remonstrances of that age, an affected civility and submission in the language.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But to show the parliament, that he was sufficiently apprised of the importance of his grant, he observed to them, that this statute altered in a great measure the fundamental laws, ecclesiastical and civil, which many of his predecessors had established.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ King Charles II of England granted a charter to Rhode Island guaranteeing freedom of worship..
  • HistoryMole Timeline: King Charles II (1630-1685) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

.Charles's military failure in the First Bishops' War in turn caused a financial and military crisis for Charles, which ultimately ended the period of Personal Rule.^ Charles was under increasing pressure from Parliament to find a way to end the war.
  • Honor of Lancaster: A Magna Mundi England AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The outbreak of the Bishops' Wars in the North saw King Charles and many of his loyal followers depart for the battlefield.
  • William Lawes. Composer at the Court of Charles I. This site is to honour William Lawes in his 400th aniversary year. He was christened 1st May, 1602. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canterburygreenman.fsnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles Best went overseas in the First War in 1918 as a Sergeant, aged 19, on the basis of his abilities as a horseman.

[38] .Due to his financial weakness, Charles was forced to call Parliament into session by 1640 in an attempt to raise funds.^ Meanwhile, desperate for money, Charles was forced to call parliament again in November 1640.

^ Eventually Charles was forced to call parliament.

^ The Militia Act was passed which vested control of the armed forces in the Crown and guarenteed funding for the army from Parliament.
  • HistoryMole Timeline: King Charles II (1630-1685) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.historymole.com [Source type: General]

.While the ruling class's grievances with the changes to government and finance during the Personal Rule period were a contributing factor in the Scottish Rebellion, the key issue of religion was the main reason that forced Charles to confront the ruling class in Parliament for the first time in eleven years.^ Change the law so that it can not be changed during Charles' life time.
  • Royal news: Prince Charles is secretly plotting to make Camilla our Queen | News Of The World 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.newsoftheworld.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament meets for a third time during Charles I reign.

^ Parliament meets for the first time in James rule.

In essence, it was Charles's and Laud's confrontational religious modifications that ended what the Whig historians refer to as "The Eleven Years of Tyranny".

The Second Bishops' War

.Charles immediately sought to redress his grievances with the Church of Scotland, taking the fateful step of recalling Parliament in April 1640. Although Charles offered to repeal ship money, and the House of Commons agreed to allow Charles to raise the funds for war, an impasse was reached when Parliament demanded the discussion of various abuses of power during the Personal Rule.^ Although Charles offered to repeal ship money, the House of Commons demanded the discussion of various abuses of power during the period of Charles's personal rule.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A dispute with the Churches in Scotland meant that Charles needed more money.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Personal rule in Scotland .

.Both sides refused to give ground on this matter, and in the General Election in March, court candidates fared badly.^ These papers furnished the partizans on both sides with ample matter of apology or of recrimination.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The two sides meet for negotiations but Charles refuses to give in to any of the terms and Charles goes to war.

^ March 1917: George V refuses to give his cousin Nicholas II of Russia political asylum dooming him to death.

.The Parliamentarians' calls for further reforms were ignored by Charles, who still maintained the support of the House of Lords.^ Charles had lost the services of Cardinal Somerset, a cousin to the late Lord Somerset who had been so close to his family, and the Roman curia was now aligned with England's enemies.
  • Honor of Lancaster: A Magna Mundi England AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was therefore determined that Charles should still call himself a Protestant, and should still, at high festivals, receive the sacrament according to the ritual of the Church of England.
  • T.B. Macaulay - History of England, Vol. I, Ch. II (part 3) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.strecorsoc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, those who maintain, that the byass° of the British government leans towards a republic, may support their opinion by specious° arguments.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Parliament was dissolved in May 1640, less than a month after it assembled; thus, the Parliament became known as the "Short Parliament."[39]
Portrait of Charles I with Seignior de St Antoine
.By this stage Thomas Wentworth, who was promoted to Earl of Strafford in January 1640, had emerged as Charles' right hand man and together with Laud, pursued a policy of 'thorough'.[40] Although originally a major critic of the king, Strafford defected to royal service in 1628 (due in part to Buckingham's persuasion)[41]; since emerging as the most capable of Charles' ministers.^ Parliament also took revenge on the king's hated advisor, Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford.

^ Relying on an all but forgotten feudal statute passed in 1278, requiring anyone who earned £40 or more each year to present himself at the King's coronation so that he may join the royal army as a knight, Charles fined everyone who failed to attend his coronation in 1626.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cavalier King Charles Yakutia Stamp(right) ...
  • Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Stamps 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.animalstamps.com [Source type: Original source]

.Having trained up a large army in Ireland in support of the king, and seriously weakened the authority of the Irish Parliament, particularly those members of parliament belonging to the Old English, Strafford had been instrumental in obtaining an independent source of both royal revenue and forces within the three kingdoms.^ The English Parliament was very independent.

^ He was accused of having been deeply concerned in the sale of Charles the First to the English Parliament, and was therefore, in the estimation of good Cavaliers, a traitor, if possible, of a worse description than those who had sate in the High Court of Justice.
  • T.B. Macaulay - History of England, Vol. I, Ch. II (part 3) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.strecorsoc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For the second task Salisbury offered that in return for a regular revenue the King would give up all feudal dues belonging to the Crown and not levy new taxes without going to Parliament.

.As the Scottish Parliament declared itself capable of governing without the king's consent and, in September 1640, moved into Northumber, Strafford was sent north to command the English forces.^ Upon approaching the city, on September 23, 1645, the King sent Sir MArmaduke Langdale, with a strong force of cavalry, over Holt Bridge toward Rowton Heath which was a few miles south-east of the city.
  • William Lawes. Composer at the Court of Charles I. This site is to honour William Lawes in his 400th aniversary year. He was christened 1st May, 1602. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canterburygreenman.fsnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Having first established a principle, which is noble in itself, and seems specious, but is belied by all history and experience, That the people are the origin of all just power; they next declared, that the commons of England, assembled in parliament, being chosen by the people, and representing them, are the supreme authority of the nation, and that whatever is enacted and declared to be law by the commons, hath the force of law, without the consent of king or house of peers.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They were preparing a remonstrance against the levying of tonnage and poundage without consent of parliament.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Scottish soldiery, many of whom were veterans of the Thirty Years' War, had far greater morale and training compared to their English counterparts, and met virtually no resistance until reaching Newcastle where, at the Battle of Newburn, the town—and hence England's coal supply—fell into the hands of the Covenanter forces.^ England has a finely trained army or Fyrd (or Feared as most armies fear facing English warriors), who can take on the most powerful enemies, the mighty ANT. Many of the battles throughout England's history consist of a great army of tribesmen armed with very sharp sticks and pieces of fruit.
  • England - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He put himself into the hands of the Scottish Presbyterian army at Newark, and was taken to nearby Southwell while his "hosts" decided what to do with him.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The celebrations are short-lived, as England passes peacefully into the hands of Cromwell's son Richard.

At this critical juncture, the English host based at York was unable to mount a counterattack due to the fact that Strafford was incapacitated by a serious case of gout.
.On the 24th of September Charles took the unusual step of summoning the magnum concilium, the ancient council of all the Peers of the Realm, who were considered the King's hereditary counsellors, who recommended recalling Parliament.^ Charles took the unusual step of summoning the magnum concilium , the ancient council of all the Peers of the Realm, who were considered the King's hereditary counsellors.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The magnum concilium had not been summoned in centuries, and it has not been summoned since Charles's reign.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles VI., who was then in a lucid interval, did probably all that he could, when he raised up the kneeling suppliant with kisses and smooth words.
  • Charles of Orleans 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, events overtook the King as the Covenanters took the initiative and marched on York, thereby forcing Charles to agree to the humiliating Treaty of Ripon, signed October 1640. The treaty stated that the Scots would continue to occupy Newcastle and be paid £850 per day, until peace was restored and the English Parliament re-called.^ Spain and England sign a peace treaty.

^ Eventually Charles was forced to call parliament.

^ Charles was forced to make peace with the Scots.

.Consequently, in November Charles summoned what was later to become known as the Long Parliament.^ On the advice of the peers, Charles summoned another Parliament, which became known as the Long Parliament.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is likely Charles might have become a Catholic if there had been no serious political consequences attached to his conversion.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The treaty is well known for its Catholic clause in which Charles agreed to become a Catholic and to impose Catholicism on England with French military force if necessary.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

.Of the 493 MPs of the Commons, 399 were opposed to the king, and only 94 could be counted on, by Charles, for support.^ MPs could refuse to raise money for the king unless he bowed to their demands.

^ When the Ordinance was sent from the Commons to the House of Lords, only twelve Lords could be found to consider it.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ William Lawes seems to have been, as much as a common man could be, a beloved friend of Charles, someone the King admired both for his music and for his person.
  • William Lawes. Composer at the Court of Charles I. This site is to honour William Lawes in his 400th aniversary year. He was christened 1st May, 1602. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canterburygreenman.fsnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

The "Long Parliament"

.The Long Parliament assembled in November 1640 under the leadership of John Pym, and proved just as difficult for Charles as the Short Parliament.^ The Long Parliament assembled in November 1640 and proved just as difficult to negotiate with as the Short Parliament.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles was under increasing pressure from Parliament to find a way to end the war.
  • Honor of Lancaster: A Magna Mundi England AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The day, so long wished for, now approached, on which the parliament was appointed to assemble.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although the members of the House of Commons thought of themselves as conservatives defending the King, Church and Parliamentary government against innovations in religion and the tyranny of Charles's advisors, Charles viewed many of them as dangerous rebels trying to undermine his rule.^ India rebels against British rule.

^ Ireland rebels against English rule.

^ It is 350 years exactly since King Charles was tried and beheaded in January 1649 2 .
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.To prevent the King from dissolving it at will, Parliament passed the Triennial Act, to which the Royal Assent was granted in February 1641. The Act required that Parliament was to be summoned at least once every three years, and that when the King failed to issue proper summons, the members could assemble on their own.^ In May 1641, he assented to an even more far-reaching Act, which provided that Parliament could not be dissolved without its own consent.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament passes the India Act.

^ A Dissolution Act stated that parliament could not be dissolved without its consent.

.In May, he assented to an even more far-reaching Act, which provided that Parliament could not be dissolved without its own consent.^ In May 1641, he assented to an even more far-reaching Act, which provided that Parliament could not be dissolved without its own consent.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A Dissolution Act stated that parliament could not be dissolved without its consent.

^ Except during sessions of parliament, the history of this reign may more properly be called the history of the court than that of the nation.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Charles was forced into one concession after another.^ Charles was forced into one concession after another.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As the Cavalier Parliament was overwhelmingly Royalist, Charles saw no reason to dissolve it and force another general election for seventeen years.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Margaret Meiling Wang-Soloman, Singapore/Poole UK Charles and Camilla are obviously extremely dedicated to one another.
  • BBC NEWS | Have Your Say | Should Charles marry Camilla? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Ship money, fines in destraint of knighthood and forced loans were declared unlawful, and the hated Courts of Star Chamber and High Commission were abolished.^ High commission and star-chamber abolished.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Ship money was also abolished .

^ Ship-money was declared illegal and arbitrary; the sentence against Hambden cancelled; the court of York abolished; compositions for knighthood stigmatized; the enlargement of the forests condemned; patents for monopolies annulled; and every late measure of administration treated with reproach and obloquy.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although he made several important concessions, Charles improved his own military position by securing the favour of the Scots.^ Although he made several important concessions, Charles improved his own military position by securing the favour of the Scots.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles thought, that what concessions were made to the public were of little consequence, if no gratifications were bestowed on individuals, who had acquired the direction of public counsels and determinations.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although most people still made their living from farming trade now became an increasingly important part of English life.

.He finally agreed to the official establishment of Presbyterianism; in return, he was able to enlist considerable anti-parliamentary support.^ He finally agreed to the official establishment of Presbyterianism, and in return got considerable anti-parliamentary support.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In spite of this, he was willing to adopt an anti-Catholic stance as a means of guaranteeing popular and Parliamentary support for his political policies.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

Henrietta Maria (c. 1633) by Sir Anthony van Dyck
.In March 1641 Strafford, who had become the immediate target of the Parliamentarians, went on trial for high treason.^ She was the second daughter of James, who went on to become James II, and his first wife, Lady Anne Hyde.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The war ended in defeat for Charles, who was subsequently tried, convicted and executed for high treason.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The King's trial (on charges of high treason and "other high crimes") began on 2 January, but Charles refused to enter a plea, claiming that no court had jurisdiction over a monarch.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.The incident provided a new departure for Irish politics whereby Old English, Gaelic Irish and New English settlers joined together in a legal body to present evidence against Strafford.^ They chose lord Gormanstone their leader; and, joining the old Irish, rivaled them in every act of violence towards the English protestants.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was directed against court Catholics at the centre of political power rather than the general English Catholic population.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He enjoyed living; he himself set an example not only of godliness, faith, love, and patience, but also of the old English politeness.
  • Charles Simeon 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.tecmalta.org [Source type: Original source]

[42] .However, the Lords were opposed to the severity of the sentence of death imposed upon Strafford on the 22nd of March, and the evidence supplied by Vale in relation to Strafford's alleged improper use and threat to England via the Irish army was not upheld by another witness, and the case consequently began to flounder.^ With Lythrum we have the still more wonderful case of three forms standing in a similar relation to one another.
  • Books: The Autobiography of Charles Darwin 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC eserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But the death of Strafford was too important a stroke of party to be left unattempted by any expedient, however extraordinary.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of them have known the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ: several received it at church; one in the Litany, another in the Lord's Prayer.
  • The Journal of Charles Wesley: September 17 - November 5, 1756 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wesley.nnu.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Moreover, Strafford's life ultimately lay in Charles' hands as his execution could not go ahead unless the king signed the Bill of Attainder.^ If he could speak to us today, Charles Clay I might describe his life as follows.
  • Virginians: The Family History of Charles Clay I (c.1635-1686) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.virginians.com [Source type: General]

^ MPs could refuse to raise money for the king unless he bowed to their demands.

^ The end, on which the king was most intent in changing ministers, was, to save the life of the earl of Strafford, and to mollify, by these indulgences, the rage of his most furious prosecutors.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Yet, increased tensions and an attempted coup by the army in favour of Strafford began to sway the issue. .In the Commons the Bill went virtually unopposed (204 in favour, 59 opposed, 250 abstained),[43] the Lords acquiesced, and Charles, fearing for the safety of his family, signed on May 10.[44] The Earl of Strafford was beheaded two days later.^ Charles feared for his and his familys safety and he was forced to sign the act.

^ The initial drafts of the Bill had named the two Chief Justices (of the King's Bench and of Common Pleas), Henry Rolle and Oliver St John as well as Lord Chief Baron Wilde of the Exchequer Court to preside at the King's trial.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles had lost the services of Cardinal Somerset, a cousin to the late Lord Somerset who had been so close to his family, and the Roman curia was now aligned with England's enemies.
  • Honor of Lancaster: A Magna Mundi England AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

.In a similar manner as pursued by the English Parliament in their opposition to Buckingham, albeit from a far less disingenuous stance, the Old English within the Irish Parliament argued that their opposition to Strafford did not negate their loyalty to Charles and that Charles, rather, had been led astray by the malign influence of the Earl,[45] and that, moreover, the ambiguity surrounding Poynings' Law meant that, instead of ensuring that the king was directly involved in the governance of Ireland, that a viceroy such as Strafford, the Earl of Wentworth, could emerge as a despotic figure.^ The Irish Parliament did not follow the example of the English Parliament and instead declared that James remained King.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament also took revenge on the king's hated advisor, Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford.

^ This was a great defeat for Charles and his government and a great victory for the opposition party in Parliament.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

[46] .However, unlike their Old English counterparts who were Catholic, the New English settlers in Ireland were Protestant and could loosely be defined as aligned with the English Parliament and the Puritans; thereby fundamentally opposed to the crown due to unfolding events within England herself.^ And who denies that England and/or the English exist?
  • To be a party of the Union, the Conservatives must also be a party for England | openDemocracy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: Original source]

^ For the second task Salisbury offered that in return for a regular revenue the King would give up all feudal dues belonging to the Crown and not levy new taxes without going to Parliament.

^ The new Duchess of York, who had married James by proxy on September 30, arrived in England at the end of November, 1673.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

.Various disputes between native and coloniser concerning fallout from the most recent plantation of Ulster, coupled with the gradual polarisation of monarchist and anti-monarchist would sow the seeds of conflagration in Ireland that, despite its initial chaos, provide the catalyst for direct armed combat within England between those who opposed the authority of the king and those who supported it.^ Who was the last King of England?
  • WikiAnswers - Monarchy Questions including "Who was the first King or Queen of England" 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who were the Kings and Queens of England in the 1800s?
  • WikiAnswers - Monarchy Questions including "Who was the first King or Queen of England" 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who was the first King or Queen of England?
  • WikiAnswers - Monarchy Questions including "Who was the first King or Queen of England" 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Original source]

.The success of the trial against Strafford weakened Charles' influence whilst also paving the way for cooperation between the Gaelic Irish and Old English in Ireland, who had hitherto been antagonistic towards one another.^ Ireland rebels against English rule.

^ But miserable was my disappointment: I was assailed by one cry of reproach, disapprobation, and even detestation; English, Scotch, and Irish, Whig and Tory, churchman and sectary, freethinker and religionist, patriot and courtier, united in their rage against the man, who had presumed to shed a generous tear for the fate of Charles I. and the Earl of Strafford; and after the first ebullitions of their fury 7 were over, what was still more mortifying, the book seemed to sink into oblivion.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The judges, who had given their vote against Hambden in the trial of ship-money, were accused before the peers, and obliged to find surety for their appearance.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, in the conflict between the Gaelic Irish and New English settlers in the Irish Rebellion of 1641, the Old English sided with the Celtic Irish whilst simultaneously professing their loyalty to the king.^ They chose lord Gormanstone their leader; and, joining the old Irish, rivaled them in every act of violence towards the English protestants.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The king too, sensible of his utter inability to subdue the Irish rebels, found himself obliged, in this exigency, to have recourse to the English parliament, and depend on their assistance for supply.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Irish Parliament did not follow the example of the English Parliament and instead declared that James remained King.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Following the attempted coup of 'The Incident' in Scotland, Charles' remaining Scottish support disintegrated.^ His support dwindling as the siege wore on, Charles desperately smuggled out messages and hired Scottish mercenaries, placing them under the command of Henry Percy.
  • Honor of Lancaster: A Magna Mundi England AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ James also introduced the unicorn, a symbol of Scotland, as an heraldic supporter in his armorial achievement; the other supporter remained the English lion.

^ Finally in August 1641 Charles was forced to abandon all attempts to impose religious changes on Scotland.

.However, though in November 1641 the House of Commons passed the Grand Remonstrance, a long list of grievances against actions by Charles's ministers that were asserted to be abuses of royal power Charles had committed since the beginning of his reign, it was in many ways a step too far by Pym (passed by 5 votes, 200 abstain, and opposed by the Lords).^ For many that was a step too far.

^ In November 1641 a list of grievances called the Grand Remonstrance was drawn up but it was passed by only 11 votes.

^ The capital was thronged with troops who with their officers had been petitioning Parliament for many weeks on behalf of the policy expressed in the Remonstrance of the Army back in November 1648, for the bringing to justice of "the capital and grand author of our troubles, the person of the King".

.The tension was heightened when the Irish rebelled against Protestant English rule and rumours of Charles's complicity reached Parliament.^ India rebels against British rule.

^ Ireland rebels against English rule.

^ The king too, sensible of his utter inability to subdue the Irish rebels, found himself obliged, in this exigency, to have recourse to the English parliament, and depend on their assistance for supply.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The support of the 'Papist Army' established by Strafford for the king, whose religious convictions were already doubted by the English Parliament, coupled with the massacres of Protestant New English in Ireland by Gaelic Irish who could not be controlled by their lords, proved to be the final antinomy between the English Parliament and the king in relation to Charles' authority to govern.^ And by whose power is it done in parliament but by the king’s absolute power?
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was accused of having been deeply concerned in the sale of Charles the First to the English Parliament, and was therefore, in the estimation of good Cavaliers, a traitor, if possible, of a worse description than those who had sate in the High Court of Justice.
  • T.B. Macaulay - History of England, Vol. I, Ch. II (part 3) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.strecorsoc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The capital was thronged with troops who with their officers had been petitioning Parliament for many weeks on behalf of the policy expressed in the Remonstrance of the Army back in November 1648, for the bringing to justice of "the capital and grand author of our troubles, the person of the King".

.The English Parliament did not trust Charles' motivations when he called for funds to put down the Irish rebellion, many members of the House of Commons fearing that forces raised by Charles might later be used against Parliament itself.^ Eventually Charles was forced to call parliament.

^ However, Parliament chose to support James and the rebellion was put down.

^ Two members of the house, Sir Dudley Digges and Sir John Elliott, who had been employed as managers of the impeachment against the duke, were thrown into prison.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Militia Bill was intended to wrest control of the army from the King, but Charles refused to agree to it.^ The form of a petition to the king and parliament was concerted; and it was intended to get this petition subscribed by the army.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The peace treaty he agreed required the King to pay the expenses of the Scottish army he had just fought.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No sooner had the king refused his assent to the four bills, than Hammond, by orders from the army, removed all his servants, cut off his correspondence with his friends, and shut him up in close confinement.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, the Militia Ordinance appears to have been the single most decisive moment in prompting an exodus from the Upper House to support the king.^ It must, however, be confessed, that the king was so far right, that he had, now at last, fallen on the only effectual method for supporting his prerogative.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To the ordinance of the parliament concerning the militia, the king opposed his commissions of array.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But it may be said, that this spirit, however great, will never be able to support itself against that immense property, which is now lodged in the king, and which is still encreasing.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[47] Parliament decreed The Protestation as an attempt to lessen the conflict. .Yet, when rumours reached Charles that Parliament intended to impeach his Catholic Queen, Henrietta Maria, he decided to take drastic action which would not only end the diplomatic stalemate between himself and parliament, but signal the beginning of the civil war.^ With this last defeat, it became apparent the war would end in a stalemate.
  • Honor of Lancaster: A Magna Mundi England AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I would like to do the Civil War here.

^ The House of Commons then threatened to impeach Charles' Catholic Queen, Henrietta Maria, finally leading the King to take desperate action.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was possibly Henrietta who persuaded Charles to arrest the five members of the House of Commons who were perceived to be the most troublesome on charges of high treason.^ It charged him with "high treason and high misdemeanours ...
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles had a high opinion of Henrietta.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The tribunal was composed of three hereditary peers; four aldermen of the city of London; twenty-two baronets and knights; three generals; thirty-four colonels; the twelve judges of the High Court (who all declined to serve); three sergeants-at-law and representative members of various principalities and the House of Commons.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.Charles intended to carry out the arrests personally, but news of the warrant reached Parliament ahead of him, and the wanted men, Pym, John Hampden, Denzil Holles, William Strode and Sir Arthur Haselrig had already slipped away by the time he arrived.^ Do you see him reaching that point in your books, or would it steal part of the allure away from the character to let him exist at peace once more?

^ "But out of personal choice I like to be called William because that is my name and I want people to call me William for now.

^ Herbert, attorney general, appeared in the house of peers, and, in his majesty’s name, entered an accusation of high treason against lord Kimbolton and five commoners, Hollis, Sir Arthur Hazlerig, Hambden, Pym, and Strode.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Charles entered the House of Commons with an armed force on 4 January 1642, but found that his opponents had already escaped.^ Charles entered the House of Commons with an armed force on 4 January 1642, but found that his opponents had already escaped.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Ordinance was sent from the Commons to the House of Lords, only twelve Lords could be found to consider it.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ In January 1649, the House of Commons without the assent of either the Sovereign or the House of Lords—passed an Act of Parliament creating a court for Charles's trial.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Having displaced the Speaker, William Lenthall from his chair, the King asked him where the MPs had fled.^ It is said, when the approach of the committee, who were to present it, was notified to him, he ordered twelve chairs to be brought: For that there were so many kings a coming.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Possessed of this wealth, he soon persuaded the Archbishop of Canterbury to crown him, and became William the Second, King of England.
  • EasyFunSchool - A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens - Chapters 7-10 - EasyFunSchool - Free homeschool curriculum lesson plans, fun unit studies, pre school activities, homeschooling high school literature units, Christian homeschooling history unit study activities, Charlotte Mason style homeschool ideas, easy preschool curriculum ideas, craft projects, homeschool through high school curriculum, unit study recipes, literature based units, homemade gifts, math games, preschool reading activities, home education help, homeschooling lesson plans, science experiments, classical history, home ec projects, geography units, art project ideas, language arts activities, and more! 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.easyfunschool.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The king accordingly came to the house of peers; sent for the commons; and, being seated in his chair of state, the petition was read to him.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Lenthall famously replied, "May it please your Majesty, I have neither eyes to see nor tongue to speak in this place but as the House is pleased to direct me, whose servant I am here."^ The speaker, falling on his knee, prudently replied: “I have, Sir, neither eyes to see, nor tongue to speak in this place, but as the house is pleased to direct me, whose servant I am.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I am pleased to see your mention of Sellers/ Sellars from Yorkshire England.

^ May't please you, Sire, the high Commissioners Crave audience of your Majesty.
  • BWP1800 - Charles the First - Act I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.etang.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

[48] .Charles abjectly declared 'all my birds have flown', and was forced to retire, empty-handed.^ Well, since I see all the birds are flown, I do expect that you will send them to me as soon as they return.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles II tried to increase religious tolerance with his Declaration of Indulgence, but was forced to withdraw it.

^ "Charles' sense of humor is with me at all times, on the job, in my sleep, all the time!
  • Tributes to Charles Pierce 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bochynski.com [Source type: General]

.The botched arrest attempt was politically disastrous for Charles.^ Charles' reign is remembered as "Merry Olde England," but in truth, it was an extremely turbulent time politically, including a disastrous war with Holland.

^ In January 1642 Charles made the situation worse by highhandedly entering the Commons and attempting to arrest 5 MPs for treason.

.It caused acute embarrassment for the monarch and essentially triggered the total breakdown of government in England.^ The manners of the nation were agreeable to the monarchical government, which prevailed; and contained not that strange mixture, which, at present, distinguishes England from all other countries.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What pretensions would be advanced, how unprecedented, how unlimited, were easily imagined; and nothing less was foreseen, whatever ancient names might be preserved, than an abolition, almost total, of the monarchical government of England.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This original A&E production is the dramatic and romantic story of Charles II of England, the “merry monarch,” the last king to rule before Parliament completely took over the government.

.Afterwards, Charles could no longer feel safe in London and he began travelling north to raise an army against Parliament; the Queen, at the same time, went abroad to raise money to pay for it.^ Charles raises an army to enforce his will on Scotland.

^ The army march against the parliament.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles had raised money from towns to pay for a navy, had had continued to collect tonnage and poundage illegally, he had imposed medieval methods to get money such as fines upon gentry who refused to fight for him.

English Civil War

.The English Civil War had not yet started, but both sides began to arm.^ The English Civil War had not yet started, but both sides began to arm.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And so great was the bigotry on both sides, that they were willing to sacrifice the greatest civil interests, rather than relinquish the most minute of their theological contentions.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These fears were one of the prime factors leading to the start of the Civil War in 1642.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

.Following futile negotiations, Charles raised the royal standard in Nottingham on 22 August 1642. He then set up his court at Oxford, when his government controlled roughly the Midlands, Wales, the West Country and north of England.^ He then set up his court at Oxford, from where he controlled roughly the north and west of England, Parliament remaining in control of London and the south and east.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles raised the royal standard in Nottingham on 22 August 1642.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1642 Parliament closed the theatres and by March 1643 Charles I had commanded his entire household to report to the Court at Oxford.
  • William Lawes. Composer at the Court of Charles I. This site is to honour William Lawes in his 400th aniversary year. He was christened 1st May, 1602. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canterburygreenman.fsnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Parliament remained in control of London and the south-east as well as East Anglia.^ He then set up his court at Oxford, from where he controlled roughly the north and west of England, Parliament remaining in control of London and the south and east.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.Charles raised an army using the archaic method of the Commission of Array.^ Charles raises an army to enforce his will on Scotland.

^ The private men in this army were all catholics; but the officers, both commission and non-commission, were protestants, and could entirely be depended on by Charles.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was no longer safe for Charles to be in London, and he went north to raise an army against Parliament.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Civil War started on 26 October 1642 with the inconclusive Battle of Edgehill and continued indecisively through 1643 and 1644, until the Battle of Naseby tipped the military balance decisively in favour of Parliament.^ The Civil War started on 25 October 1642 with the inconclusive Battle of Edgehill and continued indecisively through 1643 and 1644, until the Battle of Naseby tipped the military balance decisively in favour of Parliament.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The English Civil War had not yet started, but both sides began to arm.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ These fears were one of the prime factors leading to the start of the Civil War in 1642.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

.There followed a great number of defeats for the Royalists, and then the Siege of Oxford, from which Charles escaped in April 1646.[49] He put himself into the hands of the Scottish Presbyterian army at Newark, and was taken to nearby Southwell while his "hosts" decided what to do with him.^ There followed a great number of defeats for the Royalists, and then the Siege of Oxford, from which Charles escaped in April 1646.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He put himself into the hands of the Scottish Presbyterian army at Newark, and was taken to nearby Southwell while his "hosts" decided what to do with him.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I am not a royalist, but respected the work Prince Charles did for The Prince of Wales Hospice in Pontefract when I was employed there.
  • BBC NEWS | Have Your Say | Should Charles marry Camilla? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The Presbyterians finally arrived at an agreement with Parliament and delivered Charles to them in 1647. He was imprisoned at Holdenby House in Northamptonshire, until cornet George Joyce took him by force to Newmarket in the name of the New Model Army.^ The Presbyterians finally arrived at an agreement with Parliament and delivered Charles to them in 1647.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As the Cavalier Parliament was overwhelmingly Royalist, Charles saw no reason to dissolve it and force another general election for seventeen years.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He was imprisoned at Holdenby House in Northamptonshire, but was soon transferred to a number of different locations.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.At this time mutual suspicion had developed between the New Model Army and Parliament, and Charles was eager to exploit it.^ It was no longer safe for Charles to be in London, and he went north to raise an army against Parliament.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Parliament meets for a third time during Charles I reign.

^ While the disorders of the army were yet in their infancy, he kept at a distance; lest his counterfeit aversion might throw a damp upon them, or his secret encouragement beget suspicion in the parliament.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.He was then transferred first to Oatlands and then Hampton Court, where more involved but fruitless negotiations took place.^ The first partition took place in 1772.
  • Oracles of Nostradamus: England 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Introduction — James’s first transactions — State of Europe — Rosni’s negociations — Raleigh’s conspiracy — Hampton-court conference — A Parliament — Peace with Spain .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Wolsey gets richer as the years pass and builds York Place in Whitehall and Hampton Court.

.He was persuaded that it would be in his best interests to escape — perhaps abroad, to France, or to the custody of Colonel Robert Hammond, Parliamentary Governor of the Isle of Wight.^ In the neighbourhood lay the isle of Wight, of which Hammond was governor.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps just as good, just as interesting, but the plotting would have been shaped in the American aftermath, as would have the characters.

^ Im african and never been to europe.........but all said and done.It would be in the best interest of the people not to have Charles and Camilla as king and Queen.
  • Royal news: Prince Charles is secretly plotting to make Camilla our Queen | News Of The World 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.newsoftheworld.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[50] He decided on the last course, believing Hammond to be sympathetic, and fled on 11 November.[51] Hammond, however, was opposed to Charles, whom he confined in Carisbrooke Castle.[52]
From Carisbrooke, Charles continued to try to bargain with the various parties. .In ironic contrast to his previous conflict with the Scottish Kirk, Charles gained the promise of military intervention from Scotland in exchange for a promised imposition of Presbyterianism in England as well as Scotland for a trial period.^ I suspect a non conformist religion, or Presbyterian, Kirk of Scotland.

^ The English Interregnum was the period of parliamentary and military rule after the English Civil War, between the execution of Charles I in 1649 and the restoration of Charles II in 1660.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ AFTER THE TRIAL At the Palace of St James, King Charles was permitted to see the two children who had remained in England 33 .
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.The Royalists rose in July 1648 igniting the Second Civil War, and as agreed with Charles the Scots invaded England.^ Second civil war.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The treaty is well known for its Catholic clause in which Charles agreed to become a Catholic and to impose Catholicism on England with French military force if necessary.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ England's debts were coming due, and with the war raging Charles had no way to make ends meet, let alone save money for the debts.
  • Honor of Lancaster: A Magna Mundi England AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

.Most of the uprisings in England were put down by forces loyal to Parliament after little more than skirmishes, but uprisings in Kent, Essex, and Cumberland, the rebellion in Wales and the Scottish invasion involved the fighting of pitched battles and prolonged sieges.^ However, Parliament chose to support James and the rebellion was put down.

^ Then we get involved and can't put the book down.

^ This treaty, one of the wisest and most equitable concluded by James, during the course of his reign, was more the work of the prince himself, than any of his ministers.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

But with the defeat of the Scots at the Battle of Preston, the Royalists lost any chance of winning the war.

Trial

A plate depicting the Trial of Charles I on 4 January 1649.
.Charles was moved to Hurst Castle at the end of 1648, and thereafter to Windsor Castle.^ Charles was finally moved to Windsor Castle and then St James's Palace.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles was buried in private and at night on 7 February 1649, in the Henry VIII vault inside St George's Chapel in Windsor Castle.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles and Camilla, who is also divorced, will marry in a civil ceremony at Windsor Castle, west of London.

.In January 1649, in response to Charles's defiance of Parliament even after defeat, and his encouraging the second Civil War while in captivity, the House of Commons passed an Act of Parliament creating a court for Charles's trial.^ Parliament passes the India Act.

^ Second civil war.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In January 1649, the House of Commons without the assent of either the Sovereign or the House of Lords—passed an Act of Parliament creating a court for Charles's trial.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.After the first Civil War, the parliamentarians accepted the premise that the King, although wrong, had been able to justify his fight, and that he would still be entitled to limited powers as King under a new constitutional settlement.^ Tellingly, he made the point that if a King could be put on trial before an irregular tribunal established by power not lawful authority, the same could happen (and would happen) to others.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ And the first this great news, this wondrous gift was proclaimed to wasn't the affluent and powerful, but the weak and lowly.

^ The king, in his memorial to foreign churches after the commencement of the civil wars, insists on his care in educating his children in the protestant religion, as a proof that he was no-wise inclined to the catholic.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was now felt that by provoking the second Civil War even while defeated and in captivity, Charles showed himself incorrigible, dishonourable, and responsible for unjustifiable bloodshed.^ Second civil war.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This remonstrance was, perhaps, not the less provoking to Charles, because, joined to the extreme acrimony of the subject, there were preserved in it, as in most of the remonstrances of that age, an affected civility and submission in the language.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Besides those from Charles himself, there were even some from the audience.
  • Tributes to Charles Pierce 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bochynski.com [Source type: General]

.The idea of trying a king was a novel one; previous monarchs (Edward II, Richard II, Henry VI, Edward IV) had been deposed, but had never been brought to trial as monarchs.^ The contemporary French king was Henri II .
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ King Edward VI of England assumed the...
  • WikiAnswers - Monarchy Questions including "Who was the first King or Queen of England" 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Edward VI was a young and unhealthy king.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The High Court of Justice established by the Act consisted of 135 Commissioners but only about half of that number ever sat in judgement (all firm Parliamentarians); the prosecution was led by Solicitor General John Cooke.^ The High Court of Justice established by the Act consisted of 135 Commissioners (all firm Parliamentarians).
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All these were disgusted with the court, both by the prevalence of the principles of civil liberty essential to their party; and on account of the restraint, under which they were held by the established hierarchy.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The High Court of Justice to try the King assembled on Saturday 20 January 1649.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.His trial on charges of high treason and "other high crimes" began on 20 January 1649, but Charles refused to enter a plea, claiming that no court had jurisdiction over a monarch.^ The King's trial (on charges of high treason and "other high crimes") began on 2 January, but Charles refused to enter a plea, claiming that no court had jurisdiction over a monarch.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles was beheaded on 30 January, 1649.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fifty-nine of the Commissioners signed Charles's death warrant on 29 January, 1649.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

[53] .He believed that his own authority to rule had been given to him by God and by the traditions and laws of England when he was crowned and anointed, and that the power wielded by those trying him was simply that of force of arms.^ It was the first of five trips, each of which greatly impressed him with the German efforts to build an efficient and powerful air force.
  • Wings of Valor - Charles Lindberg, an American Hero 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.homeofheroes.com [Source type: General]

^ And the commons reaped this multiplied advantage by their vote: They disarmed the crown; they established the maxims of rigid law and liberty; and they spread the terror of their own authority.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Mary, although a sovereign in her own right, did not wield power during most of her reign.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.When urged to enter a plea, he stated his objection with the words: "I would know by what power I am called hither, by what lawful authority...?"^ I would know by what authority, I mean lawful.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ When called up to answer to the Court he said 18 : "I would know by what power I am called hither.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Tellingly, he made the point that if a King could be put on trial before an irregular tribunal established by power not lawful authority, the same could happen (and would happen) to others.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

[53] The court, by contrast, proposed an interpretation of the law that legitimised the trial, which was founded on
"...the fundamental proposition that the King of England was not a person, but an office whose every occupant was entrusted with a limited power to govern ‘by and according to the laws of the land and not otherwise’."[54]
.The trial began with a moment of high drama.^ The King's trial (on charges of high treason and "other high crimes") began on 2 January, but Charles refused to enter a plea, claiming that no court had jurisdiction over a monarch.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.After the proceedings were declared open, Solicitor General John Cooke rose to announce the indictment; standing immediately to the right of the King, he began to speak, but he had uttered only a few words when Charles attempted to stop him by tapping him sharply on the shoulder with his cane and ordering him to "Hold". Cooke ignored this and continued, so Charles poked him a second time and rose to speak; despite this, Cooke continued his speech.^ Cook rose to read the accusation to the King.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ John and Charles appear to have had little to do with him.

^ Cavalier King Charles Yakutia Stamp(right) ...
  • Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Stamps 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.animalstamps.com [Source type: Original source]

.At this point Charles, incensed at being thus ignored, struck Cooke across the shoulder so forcefully that the ornate silver tip of the cane broke off, rolled down Cooke's gown and clattered onto the floor between them.^ Rachael Kohn: Well Charles being down there and in the rainforests of South America, was certainly out of his usual climate and surrounding.
  • The Spirit of Things - 15 November 2009 - Charles Darwin: the Body and the Soul 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.abc.net.au [Source type: Original source]

^ As often as we come across it in our expositions we do not turn aside from the point, but if guilty at all on this point, it is rather in being too silent than saying too much.
  • Charles H. Spurgeon and the Nation of Israel 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.spurgeon.org [Source type: Original source]

.Charles then ordered Cooke to pick it up, but Cooke again ignored him, and after a long pause, Charles stooped to retrieve it.^ While Charles was thus falling into years, the order of things, of which he was the outcome and ornament, was growing old along with him.
  • Charles of Orleans 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Next morning Charles sent to the mayor, and ordered him to call a common-council immediately.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This long-awaited conquest is accompanied in short order by another one: Charles’s successful seduction of the beautiful and tantalizing Barbara Villiers.

[53][54]
.Over a period of a week, when Charles was asked to plead three times, he refused.^ Three hundred and fifty years after the trial and execution of King Charles I, we should pause and remember those violent times.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles wrote three times as much as William Wordsworth, one of England 's most prolific poets.

^ When Parliament met on February 4, 1673, for the first time since the start of the Dutch war, Charles boldly asked for supply to continue the war.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was then normal practice to take a refusal to plead as pro confesso: an admission of guilt, which meant that the prosecution could not call witnesses to its case.^ It was then normal practice to take a refusal to plead as an admission of guilt, which meant that the prosecution could not call witnesses to its case.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence what became known as the altar call, that is, the practice of calling those who would be converted to take some visible action which would clinch the matter.
  • "Charles G. Finney: How Theology Affects Understanding of Revival" by Iain H. Murray 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.the-highway.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The professional soldier hired to do it, Giovan Battista, Count of Montesecco, refused to participate when last minute changes called for the assault to take place in the cathedral.

However, the trial did hear witnesses. Fifty-nine of the Commissioners signed Charles's death warrant, possibly at the Red Lion Inn in Stathern, Leicestershire[55] on 29 January 1649.
After the ruling, he was led from St. James's Palace, where he was confined, to the Palace of Whitehall, where an execution scaffold had been erected in front of the Banqueting House.

Execution

This contemporary German print depicts Charles I's decapitation.
.Charles was beheaded on Tuesday, 30 January 1649. At the execution it is reputed that he wore two cotton shirts as to prevent the cold weather causing any noticeable shivers that the crowd could have mistaken for fear or weakness.^ Charles was beheaded on 30 January, 1649.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Who succeeded Charles I? King Charles I of England was executed for treason on 30 January 1649.
  • WikiAnswers - Monarchy Questions including "Who was the first King or Queen of England" 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Original source]

^ January 1649 Tuesday 30 January 1649 January 30th 1649 On the 30th of January, 1649.
  • WikiAnswers - Monarchy Questions including "Who was the first King or Queen of England" 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Original source]

.He put his head on the block after saying a prayer and signalled the executioner when he was ready; he was then beheaded with one clean stroke.^ So cautious on this head were some of the republicans, that, it is pretended, in reciting the Lord’s prayer, they would not say thy kingdom come, but always thy commonwealth come.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But let God be to you and them all in all!” Going to disrobe, and prepare himself for the block, “I thank God,” said he, “that I am nowise afraid of death, nor am daunted with any terrors; but do as chearfully lay down my head at this time, as ever I did when going to repose!” With one blow was a period put to his life by the executioner.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.His last words were, "I shall go from a corruptible to an incorruptible Crown, where no disturbance can be."^ Consider, it will soon carry you a great way; it will carry you from earth to heaven; and there you shall find, to your great joy, the prize, to which you hasten, a crown of glory.” “I go,” replied the king, “from a corruptible to an incorruptible crown; where no disturbance can have place.” At one blow was his head severed from his body.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I exhorted them to go to church, that they might be found of Jesus in the temple; and, above all, to pray always, that that word might be written on their hearts, "Go and sin no more."
  • The Journal of Charles Wesley: September 17 - November 5, 1756 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wesley.nnu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If we do we shall be strangely pleased, for there is a genuine pathos in these simple words, and the lines go with a lilt, and sing themselves to music of their own.
  • Charles of Orleans 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.djmcadam.com [Source type: Original source]

[2]
.Philip Henry records that moments after the execution, a moan was heard from the assembled crowd, some of whom then dipped their handkerchiefs in his blood, thus starting the cult of the Martyr King.^ Thirty-three witnesses were heard by an appointed committee comprising some only of the "judges" who assembled for that purpose on 24 and 25 January 1849.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ King Henry VII did not execute his wife.
  • WikiAnswers - Monarchy Questions including "Who was the first King or Queen of England" 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The contemporary French king was Philip II. The king: John, the eighth legitimate child of Henry II, succeeded his brother Richard.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.However, no other eyewitness source, including Samuel Pepys, records this.^ Samuel Pepys wrote the bystanders "found no fault with the rioters but rather of the soldiers for hindering them."
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

.Henry's account was written during the Restoration, some 12 years after the event though Henry was 19 when the King was executed and he and his family were Royalist propaganda writers.^ You may perhaps hear the cunning and promise-breaking of King Henry the First, called 'policy' by some people, and 'diplomacy' by others.
  • EasyFunSchool - A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens - Chapters 7-10 - EasyFunSchool - Free homeschool curriculum lesson plans, fun unit studies, pre school activities, homeschooling high school literature units, Christian homeschooling history unit study activities, Charlotte Mason style homeschool ideas, easy preschool curriculum ideas, craft projects, homeschool through high school curriculum, unit study recipes, literature based units, homemade gifts, math games, preschool reading activities, home education help, homeschooling lesson plans, science experiments, classical history, home ec projects, geography units, art project ideas, language arts activities, and more! 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.easyfunschool.com [Source type: Original source]

^ King Stephen reigned for 19 years,from Dec 26,1135 until Oct 25,1154.
  • WikiAnswers - Monarchy Questions including "Who was the first King or Queen of England" 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What year did Prince Henry become King?
  • WikiAnswers - Monarchy Questions including "Who was the first King or Queen of England" 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: Original source]

[1]
The executioner was masked, and there is some debate over his identity. .It is known that the Commissioners approached Richard Brandon, the common Hangman of London, but that he refused, and contemporary sources do not generally identify him as the King's headsman.^ It is said, when the approach of the committee, who were to present it, was notified to him, he ordered twelve chairs to be brought: For that there were so many kings a coming.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the king applied to have his children, the parliament always told him, that they could take as much care at London, both of their bodies and souls, as could be done at Oxford.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The king accordingly came to the house of peers; sent for the commons; and, being seated in his chair of state, the petition was read to him.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Ellis's Historical Inquiries, however, names him as the executioner, contending that he stated so before dying.^ There is no reason that the twenty-eight before Garland might not have signed before him on the 27 th , after sentence as the warrant states.

.It is possible he relented and agreed to undertake the commission, but there are others who have been identified.^ There must have been many other officers around who felt, as Axtel was later reported by Huncks to have said at the time, that it would be shameful if, "the ship ...

^ Charles even agreed to deprive of their seats, four judges who had adhered to his interests; and their place was supplied by others more agreeable to the ruling party.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There is so much I would like to say, and I am sure there are others who have said much and may say it better.
  • Tributes to Charles Pierce 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bochynski.com [Source type: General]

.An Irishman named Gunning is widely believed to have beheaded Charles, and a plaque naming him as the executioner is on show in the Kings Head pub in Galway, Ireland.^ It is 350 years exactly since King Charles was tried and beheaded in January 1649 2 .
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ And, inventing a distinction, hitherto unheard of, between the office and the person of the king; those very forces, which they employed against him, they levied in his name, and by his authority.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles will be head of the Church of England, a church that was created to allow a king to divorce and remarry, yet all of a sudden that's frowned upon?!
  • BBC NEWS | Have Your Say | Should Charles marry Camilla? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

William Hewlett was convicted of regicide after the Restoration.[56] In 1661, two people identified as "Dayborne and Bickerstaffe" were arrested but then discharged. .Henry Walker, a revolutionary journalist, or his brother William, were suspected but never charged.^ And was his brother, Henry, also apprenticed to Coprario and was he with William?
  • William Lawes. Composer at the Court of Charles I. This site is to honour William Lawes in his 400th aniversary year. He was christened 1st May, 1602. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canterburygreenman.fsnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The king : Henry was son of William the conqueror and succeeded to the throne on the death of his brother (William Rufus).
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In Dinton, William Lawes famous older brother, Henry, was baptised on January 5, 1596.
  • William Lawes. Composer at the Court of Charles I. This site is to honour William Lawes in his 400th aniversary year. He was christened 1st May, 1602. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canterburygreenman.fsnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Various local legends around England name local worthies.^ England today, for instance, isn't as varied as it was 100 years ago -- it's lost a lot of its character, its local color.

An examination performed in 1813 at Windsor suggests that the execution was done by an experienced headsman.
.It was common practice for the head of a traitor to be held up and exhibited to the crowd with the words "Behold the head of a traitor!"^ A clue to the solution of this problem may lie in the fact that the words "open Streete" before Whitehall" seem to be crowded up exceptionally closely.

Although Charles's head was exhibited, the words were not used. .In an unprecedented gesture, one of the revolutionary leaders, Oliver Cromwell, allowed the King's head to be sewn back onto his body so the family could pay its respects.^ But Christ's ways are revolutionary in one respect.

^ One of the revolutionary leaders, Oliver Cromwell, allowed the King's head to be sewn back on his body so the family could pay its respects.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The body of Oliver Cromwell was also "executed".
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

Charles was buried in private on the night of 7 February 1649, inside the Henry VIII vault in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. .The royal retainers Sir Thomas Herbert, Capt.^ Sir Thomas Herbert .
  • BWP1800 - Charles the First - Act I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.etang.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Anthony Mildmay, Sir Henry Firebrace, William Levett Esq.^ George Frederick Handel; Hannibal; Thomas Hardy; William Harvey; Sir Anthony Hope Hawkins; Sir John Hawkins, undated .
  • A Finding Aid to the Charles Scribner's Sons Art Reference Department records, 1839-1962, in the Archives of American Art - Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.aaa.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

and .Abraham Dowcett (sometimes spelled Dowsett) conveyed the King's body to Windsor.^ To demand The body of Charles Stuart, sometime King Of England— .
  • BWP1800 - Charles the First - Act I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.etang.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

[57][58] .The King's son, King Charles II, later planned an elaborate royal mausoleum, but it was never built.^ "It's going to be a racy, visceral, violent, modern and no holds barred look at what being king meant to Charles II," Ms Tranter said.

^ Filming for Charles II beginsin the Czech Republic later this month.

^ In 1952 King George died and Prince Charles's mother became Queen Elizabeth II. Prince Charles was now the heir apparent to the throne.
  • USURPER TO THE THRONE OF ENGLAND 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: Original source]

.Ten days after Charles's execution, a memoir purporting to be from Charles's hand appeared for sale.^ Ten days before the meeting of parliament, Lord Monteagle, a catholic, son to Lord Morley, received the following letter, which had been delivered to his servant by an unknown hand.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the time of the trial and execution of King Charles, dates in England were ten days behind the Continent.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ While Charles didn't write poetry every day, his output averages out to ten lines of poetry every day for fifty years.

.This book, the Eikon Basilike (Greek: the "Royal Portrait"), contained an apologia for royal policies, and it proved an effective piece of royalist propaganda.^ One of the most effective pieces of propaganda the Dutch used was the distribution of the pamphlet, England's Appeal from the Private Cabal at Whitehall in March, 1673.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

.William Levett, Charles's groom of the bedchamber, who accompanied Charles on the day of his execution, swore that he had personally witnessed the King writing the Eikon Basilike.^ Charles should abdicate and William should be King.
  • BBC NEWS | Have Your Say | Should Charles marry Camilla? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles took the unusual step of summoning the magnum concilium , the ancient council of all the Peers of the Realm, who were considered the King's hereditary counsellors.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles should do the honourable thing by passing the title of King to William Simon Barry, Birmingham, UK .
  • BBC NEWS | Have Your Say | Should Charles marry Camilla? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[59] .John Cooke published the speech he would have delivered if Charles had entered a plea, while Parliament commissioned John Milton to write a rejoinder, the Eikonoklastes ("The Iconoclast"), but the response made little headway against the pathos of the royalist book.^ It must, however, be confessed, that the experiment here made by the parliament, was not a little rash and adventurous.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ November 1869 Editor's drawer/Article Editor's drawer SEE ALSO: Dickens, Charles ; Humor ; Milton, John ; Mint juleps ; Irving, Washington PDF IMAGES .
  • Dickens, Charles (Harper's Magazine) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC harpers.org [Source type: General]

^ Charles is turning leftist, and using bullying tactics, as a little child would do, to spark more traffic to his site.
  • Libelblogger Charles Johnson of Little Green Footballs digs deeper, adding new lies to his original ones - Jihad Watch 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.jihadwatch.org [Source type: Original source]

[60]
.Following the death of the king, several works were written expressing the outrage of the people at such an act.^ By such means, and by taxing and oppressing the English people in every possible way, the Red King became very rich.
  • EasyFunSchool - A Child's History of England by Charles Dickens - Chapters 7-10 - EasyFunSchool - Free homeschool curriculum lesson plans, fun unit studies, pre school activities, homeschooling high school literature units, Christian homeschooling history unit study activities, Charlotte Mason style homeschool ideas, easy preschool curriculum ideas, craft projects, homeschool through high school curriculum, unit study recipes, literature based units, homemade gifts, math games, preschool reading activities, home education help, homeschooling lesson plans, science experiments, classical history, home ec projects, geography units, art project ideas, language arts activities, and more! 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.easyfunschool.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A week after the King's death, the House of Commons passed an additional Act abolishing the monarchy.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ An "Act" was passed by the Commons to make it an offence to proclaim a new King 34 and to declare the representatives of the people, the Commons, as the source of all just power.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.The ability to execute a king, believed to be the spokesman of God, was a shock to the country.^ The trial and execution of King Charles I, in many ways a cultivated and intelligent monarch and a devout family man, shocked the world in which it occurred.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ I am inclined to believe that it was intended to sentence the King on the 26 th and execute him on the 27 th ...

.Several poems, such as Catherine Phillips' Upon the Double Murder of King Charles, express the depth of their outrage.^ Charles will be head of the Church of England, a church that was created to allow a king to divorce and remarry, yet all of a sudden that's frowned upon?!
  • BBC NEWS | Have Your Say | Should Charles marry Camilla? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Bradshaw thereupon threatened the King that he would be in contempt of court: a somewhat ineffectual protest given that Charles was on trial for his life for treason and for murder.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The trial of King Charles is interesting because it illustrates the way in which the King, at the peril of his life, insisted bravely upon his conception of the rule of law and basic English liberties.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

.In her poem, Phillips describes the "double murder" of the king; the execution of his life as well as the execution of his dignity.^ Bradshaw thereupon threatened the King that he would be in contempt of court: a somewhat ineffectual protest given that Charles was on trial for his life for treason and for murder.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The BBC is to broadcast a 4m drama about the life of King Charles II, which is being described as an "historical West Wing".

.By killing a king, Phillips questioned the human race as a whole - what they were capable of, and how low they would sink.^ Isn't there a fairy tale about killing the goose that lays golden eggs, so the king can learn how it did such a rare thing?

^ Below is a list of members of the Royal Family and the order in which they would become King or Queen if our current Queen, Elizabeth II, died or stepped down.

^ The County (shire) would be very helpful,infact I don't know how one would go about searching without some knowledge of where they need to search.

[61]

Legacy

The image of Charles being mocked by Cromwell's soldiers was used by French artist Hippolyte Delaroche in his 1836 painting, Charles I Insulted by Cromwell's Soldiers, rediscovered in 2009, as an allegory to the more recent similar events in France, felt to be still too recent to paint
.With the monarchy overthrown, and the Commonwealth of England declared, power was assumed by a Council of State, which included Lord Fairfax, then Lord General of the Parliamentary Army, and Oliver Cromwell.^ England was ruled by a Council of State and the Rump Parliament led by Oliver Cromwell.

^ The monarchy was overthrown, and a commonwealth was established.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ About the same moment Cromwell reached London from Ireland, and General Fairfax retired from the army.
  • Oracles of Nostradamus: England 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The final conflicts between Parliamentary forces and Royalists were decided in the Third English Civil War and Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, whereby all significant military opposition to the Parliament and New Model Army was extinguished.^ In opposition to the parliament at Westminster, a military parliament was formed.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Civil War started on 25 October 1642 with the inconclusive Battle of Edgehill and continued indecisively through 1643 and 1644, until the Battle of Naseby tipped the military balance decisively in favour of Parliament.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The English Interregnum was the period of parliamentary and military rule after the English Civil War, between the execution of Charles I in 1649 and the restoration of Charles II in 1660.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Long Parliament (known by then as the Rump Parliament) which had been called by Charles I in 1640 continued to exist (with varying influence) until Cromwell forcibly disbanded it completely in 1653, thereby establishing The Protectorate.^ While Cromwel allured the king by these expectations, he still continued his scheme of reducing the parliament to subjection, and depriving them of all means of resistance.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ England was ruled by a Council of State and the Rump Parliament led by Oliver Cromwell.

^ As a result, Parliament voted against a supply to continue the war and Charles was forced to sign the Treaty of Westminster on February 9, 1674.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

.Cromwell then became Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland; a monarch in all but name: he was even 'invested' on the royal coronation chair.^ He was the last Roman Catholic monarch to reign over England, Scotland and Ireland.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As Mann and Mann ( Women Playwrights in England, Ireland, and Scotland, 1660-1823 , Indiana UP, 1996) write, "later the new Lord Chamberlain—the Duke of Devonshire—approved the opening performance at the Royal Victoria Theatre on 2 July 1834.
  • BWP1800 - Charles the First - Act I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.etang.umontreal.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ After leading the parliamentary army to victory over forces loyal to Charles I, Cromwell ruled as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1653 to 1658.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Upon his death in 1658, Cromwell was briefly succeeded by his son, Richard Cromwell.^ Oliver Cromwell was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son, Richard Cromwell.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ September 3, 1658: Cromwell dies and gives the government to his son Richard.

^ The celebrations are short-lived, as England passes peacefully into the hands of Cromwell's son Richard.

.Richard Cromwell was an ineffective ruler, and the Long Parliament was reinstated in 1659. The Long Parliament dissolved itself in 1660, and the first elections in twenty years led to the election of a Convention Parliament which restored Charles I's eldest son to the monarchy as Charles II.^ For the first time in almost twenty years, the members of Parliament faced a general election.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Convention Parliament was dissolved in December 1660.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The monarchy, although limited in scope, was successfully restored - the eleven years of Commonwealth were officially ignored as nothing more than an interregnum between the reign of Charles I and Charles II. Charles' tolerance was astounding considering the situation of England at the time of his ascension, but was necessary for his reign to stand a chance at success.

Following the Restoration, Oliver Cromwell was exhumed and posthumously beheaded.
.Republicanism thus had a brief tenure in British governance, but nevertheless, the monarchy never regained the heights of power it had experienced under the Tudors and early Stuarts.^ Were the British government proposed as a subject of speculation, one would immediately perceive in it a source of division and party, which it would be almost impossible for it, under any administration, to avoid.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In Australia, and doubtless in the United Kingdom, there are citizens who advocate a republican form of government and an end to monarchy.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The crown of england was never transmitted from father to son with greater tranquillity, than it passed from the family of Tudor to that of Stuart.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.Moreover, continued fears concerning the accession of a Catholic heir, and consequent persecution of the Protestant Church (as under Mary I), or foreign intervention by the Hapsburgs or French, meant that the right of succession was closely guarded.^ The king, in his memorial to foreign churches after the commencement of the civil wars, insists on his care in educating his children in the protestant religion, as a proof that he was no-wise inclined to the catholic.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Louis XIV Besides these growing fears about French power, the English were concerned about the increasing influence of Catholics at the Stuart court in the late 1660's and the early 1670's.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was Protestant in commitment, unlike his very Catholic sister Mary.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Ultimately, in the conflict between William III, and James II, it was William, the foreign usurper, who became the popular defender of Protestantism.^ Commonwealth follows upon death of Charles I. (5) Restoration under Charles II. (6) William III. takes the throne of James II. (7) The House of Hanover succeeds.
  • Oracles of Nostradamus: England 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He married Eleanor (of Provence) who became queen consort and ultimately died a nun.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the later days of the Margravate, it became a battlefield of the conflict between the German Emperors and the Popes.

.Throughout the 19th century Parliament gradually assumed greater effective control of British government, whereby the king's prime minister became the de facto leader of the United Kingdom.^ Lord North, the man who lost America and one of the worst Prime Ministers in history, is chosen to lead the government.

^ Constitutionally, Charles is important because he was the last British king to attempt to rule absolutely without Parliament.

^ It ultimately passed to the Dukes of Savoy , who then styled themselves the kings of Sardinia and became the kings of a united Italy.

.The Colony of Carolina in North America was named after Charles I, as was the major city of Charleston.^ Great Britain kept of Gibraltar and Minorca, and got some French colonies in North America.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Caroline Hibbard, Charles I and the Popish Plot (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press 1983) pp.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The other is a son of Charles II, St. Louis the Bishop of Toulouse, after whom the Mission (and city) of "San Luis Obispo" is named.

.Carolina later separated into North Carolina and South Carolina, which eventually declared independence from Great Britain during the formation of the United States.^ Ireland is brought into Great Britain.

^ Even Napoleon, although annexing Rome itself and ruling the north as the King of Italy, kept the south as a separate Kingdom.

^ However, Scotland and England remained separate states - it was not until 1707 that the Acts of Union merged the two nations to create a new state, the Kingdom of Great Britain.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

.To the north in the Virginia Colony, Cape Charles, the Charles River, Charles River Shire, and Charles City Shire were named after him.^ By degrees, new colonies were established in that continent, and gave new names to the places where they settled, leaving that of Virginia to the province first planted.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The other is a son of Charles II, St. Louis the Bishop of Toulouse, after whom the Mission (and city) of "San Luis Obispo" is named.

^ The newly crowned Charles I was allowed to leave the city only by paying a king's ransom - literally - that dragged England's name through the muck.
  • Honor of Lancaster: A Magna Mundi England AAR - Paradox Interactive Forums 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC forum.paradoxplaza.com [Source type: Original source]

Charles personally named the Charles River after himself.[62] .Charles City Shire survives almost 400 years later as Charles City County, Virginia.^ Despite that controversy, surfacing only in later years and for all the wrong reasons, Charles Lindbergh was indeed a hero.
  • Wings of Valor - Charles Lindberg, an American Hero 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.homeofheroes.com [Source type: General]

^ Charles Scribner II died in 1930 and Arthur Scribner died two years later, leaving Charles Scribner III to preside alone.
  • A Finding Aid to the Charles Scribner's Sons Art Reference Department records, 1839-1962, in the Archives of American Art - Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.aaa.si.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My partner & I have been together almost 30 years, one of our first dates was to see Charles in SF, I forget the club, but it was in North Beach I think.
  • Tributes to Charles Pierce 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bochynski.com [Source type: General]

.The Virginia Colony is now the Commonwealth of Virginia and retains its official nickname of "The Old Dominion" bestowed by Charles II because it had remained loyal to Charles I during the English Civil War.^ The outbreak of the Bishops' Wars in the North saw King Charles and many of his loyal followers depart for the battlefield.
  • William Lawes. Composer at the Court of Charles I. This site is to honour William Lawes in his 400th aniversary year. He was christened 1st May, 1602. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canterburygreenman.fsnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ This remonstrance was, perhaps, not the less provoking to Charles, because, joined to the extreme acrimony of the subject, there were preserved in it, as in most of the remonstrances of that age, an affected civility and submission in the language.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Civil government of England during this period — Ecclesiastical government — Manners — Finances — Navy — Commerce — Manufactures — Colonies — Learning and arts .
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

.English furniture produced during the reign of Charles I is distinctive and is commonly characterised as Charles I period.^ The court Catholicism of the 1670's reminded the English people of earlier bad memories of the court Catholicism of Charles I's reign during the 1630's and early 1640's.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The revival of pope-burnings, which first started during the reign of Charles I in the 1630's, was another example of the growing anti-Catholicism of the 1670's.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It may, however, be affirmed, that, during no preceding period of English history, was there a more sensible encrease, than during the reign of this monarch, of all the advantages which distinguish a flourishing people.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Sainthood

Saint Charles Stuart
King Charles the Martyr
Born 19 November 1600(1600-11-19), Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland
Venerated in Anglican Communion
Canonized 1660
Major shrine Church of King Charles the Martyr
Feast 30 January
Patronage Society of King Charles the Martyr, artists
.During the reign of his son Charles II, Charles was venerated a Saint by the Anglican Church.^ Parliament meets for a third time during Charles I reign.

^ In the late 1660's and during the 1670's, anti-Catholicism in England was on the rise again due to the pro-French policies of Charles II's government, especially the government's foreign policy.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The most important emphasis in the paper will be on the discussion of the pro-French religious and political policies of Charles II's government in the late 1660's and during the 1670's.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

He is considered a martyr who died for the preservation of Apostolic Succession in the Anglican Church. .There are many societies dedicated to his devotion.^ There are many divorced and remarried people in today's society and no-one objects.
  • BBC NEWS | Have Your Say | Should Charles marry Camilla? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Besides the Biblical and Roman Catholic Church saints that the Anglicans venerate on their calendar, Charles is the only person ever officially venerated by the Anglican Communion.^ The Romish church: ] the Roman Catholic church.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ James appoints an ecclesiastical commission to prevent the Anglican clergy from attacking the tenets of the Roman Catholic religion from their pulpits.

^ Notwithstanding the tender regard which Charles bore to the whole church, he had been able, in Scotland, to acquire only the affection of the superior rank among the clergy.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Assessments

Archbishop William Laud described Charles as "A mild and gracious prince who knew not how to be, or how to be made, great."[63]
.Ralph Dutton says - "In spite of his intelligence and cultivation, Charles was curiously inept in his contacts with human beings.^ Just because Charles is royalty that doesn't stop him being human!
  • BBC NEWS | Have Your Say | Should Charles marry Camilla? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ I say that Charles is a human being on the same level as other human beings and has the same expectations invested in his life and in the future and that he has every right to speak - every right - on what ever topic he chooses.
  • I wish Charles would stay out of it | George Monbiot | Environment | guardian.co.uk 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

Socially, he was tactless and diffident, and his manner was not helped by his stutter and thick Scottish accent, while in public he was seldom able to make a happy impression."[64]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

Royal styles of
Charles I of England
England COA.svg
Reference style His Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Sire
Royal styles of
Charles I, King of Scots
Royal coat of arms of Scotland.svg
Reference style His Grace
Spoken style Your Grace
Alternative style Sire
  • 19 November 1600 – 27 March 1625: Prince (or Lord) Charles
  • 23 December 1603 – 27 March 1625: The Duke of Albany
  • 6 January 1605 – 27 March 1625: The Duke of York
  • 6 November 1612 – 27 March 1625: The Duke of Cornwall
  • 4 November 1616 – 27 March 1625: The Prince of Wales
  • 27 March 1625 – 30 January 1649: His Majesty The King
.During his time as heir apparent, Charles held the titles of Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Duke of York, Duke of Albany, Marquess of Ormond, Earl of Carrick, Earl of Ross, Baron Renfrew, Lord Ardmannoch, Lord of the Isles, Prince and Great Steward of Scotland.^ I am not a royalist, but respected the work Prince Charles did for The Prince of Wales Hospice in Pontefract when I was employed there.
  • BBC NEWS | Have Your Say | Should Charles marry Camilla? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The then Prince Charles was studying bass viol with Coprario at about the same time that William Lawes was the former's pupil.
  • William Lawes. Composer at the Court of Charles I. This site is to honour William Lawes in his 400th aniversary year. He was christened 1st May, 1602. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.canterburygreenman.fsnet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Change the law so that it can not be changed during Charles' life time.
  • Royal news: Prince Charles is secretly plotting to make Camilla our Queen | News Of The World 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.newsoftheworld.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

The official style of Charles I was "Charles, by the Grace of God, King of England, France and Ireland, King of Scots, Defender of the Faith, etc." (The claim to France was only nominal, and was asserted by every English King from Edward III to George III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled.) .The authors of his death warrant, however, did not wish to use the religious portions of his title.^ Preface The Mystery of the Death Warrant of Charles I Some Further Historic Doubts The History of the Warrant Did any of the Regicides sign in Advance of Sentence?

It referred to him only as "Charles Stuart, King of England".

Honours

Memorial to Charles I at Carisbrooke Castle, Isle of Wight

Arms

.As Duke of York, Charles bore the arms of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points, each bearing three torteaux gules.^ With three Dukes doubling as Kings of Lombardy, and some of them also Dukes of Friuli, Spoleto clearly had stronger ties to Northern Italy, and so was more vulnerable to the fate of the Kingdom.

As Prince of Wales he bore the arms of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points.[65] .Whilst he was King, Charles I's arms were: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland).^ The king: Charles was born in Scotland in 1600.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Reverse: The royal arms of England and France quarterly within the Garter, crowned, with supporters.

^ And when they accompanied the English commissioners to the isle of Wight, they secretly formed a treaty with the king, for arming Scotland in his favour.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Ancestry

.Of Charles's 16 great-great-grandparents, 5 were German, 4 Scottish, 1 English, 2 French, 1 Danish and 1 Polish, giving him a thoroughly cosmopolitan background.^ The Commons sent addresses to Charles on March 29, April 13 and April 16 expressing their great fears about the dangers of French power and asking him to negotiate an alliance with the Dutch.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Had his [Nostradamus's] genius dictated unto him Marnebourg , he might have understood and written down without hesitation, for the English Marl and the French Marne are one and the same.
  • Oracles of Nostradamus: England 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.sacred-texts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Charles II, with his pro-French sympathies, had failed to express the deep anxieties the English people felt about the Catholic threat in Europe in the 1670's.
  • Role of Anti-Catholicism in England in the 1670s - Popish Plot, Charles II, Treaty of Dover, France, religious persecution 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.moyak.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]

Marriage and issue

Painting of Charles I's children. The future Charles II is depicted at centre, stroking the dog
.Charles was father to a total of seven legitimate children, two of whom would eventually succeed him as king.^ It consisted of two male adults, five female adults (four of them married) and seven children.
  • The New England Emigrant Aid Company Parties of 1855, by Louise Barry, August 1943 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.kshs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

His wife also had two stillbirths.[66]
.Charles is also believed to have had a daughter, prior to his marriage with Henrietta Maria.^ The prospect, however, of a conjunction with England was presently embraced, and all imaginable encouragement was given to every proposal for conciliating a marriage between Charles and the princess Henrietta.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

Her name was Joanna Brydges, born 1619-20, the daughter of a Miss Brydges ("a member of a younger branch of the ancient Kentish family of that name"), possibly from the line of Brydges of Chandos and Sudeley. Joanna Brydges, who was provided for by the estate of Mandinam, Carmarthenshire, was brought up in secrecy at Glamorgan, Wales. .She went on to become second wife to Bishop Jeremy Taylor, author of Holy Living and Holy Dying and chaplain to both Archbishop Laud and Charles I. The Bishop and his wife Joanna Brydges left for Ireland, where Jeremy Taylor became Bishop of Down, Connor and Dromore in 1660. Joanna Brydges and Jeremy Taylor had several children, including two daughters, Joanna Taylor (Harrison) and Mary Taylor (Marsh).^ A multitude, consisting of two thousand sectaries, entered St. Paul’s, where the high commission then sat; tore down the benches; and cried out, No bishop, no high commission.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When Charles IV of France died in 1328, his wife was expecting a child, who would, if a son, succeed to the throne.
  • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

[67][68][69]
Name Birth Death Notes
Charles II, King of England, Scotland and Ireland 29 May 1630 6 February 1685 Married Catherine of Braganza (1638–1705) in 1663. No legitimate issue. Charles II is believed to have fathered such illegitimate children as James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, who later rose against James VII and II.
Mary, Princess Royal 4 November 1631 24 December 1660 Married William II, Prince of Orange (1626–1650) in 1641. She had one child: William III of England
James VII and II, King of England, Scotland and Ireland 14 October 1633 16 September 1701 Married (1) Anne Hyde (1637–1671) in 1659. Had issue including Mary II of England and Anne of England;
Married (2) Mary of Modena (1658–1718) in 1673. Had issue.
Elizabeth, Princess of England 29 December 1635 8 September 1650 No issue.
Anne, Princess of England 17 March 1637 8 December 1640 Died young.
Henry, Duke of Gloucester 8 July 1640 18 September 1660 No issue.
Henrietta Anne, Princess of England 16 June 1644 30 June 1670 Married Philip I, Duke of Orléans (1640–1701) in 1661. Had legitimate issue. Among her descendants were the kings of Sardinia and Italy.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "History — Charles I (1600–1649)". British Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/charles_i_king.shtml. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Charles I (r. 1625–49)". Royal.gov.uk. http://www.royal.gov.uk/HistoryoftheMonarchy/KingsandQueensoftheUnitedKingdom/TheStuarts/CharlesI.aspx. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  3. ^ "Queen Henrietta Maria, 1609–69". British-civil-wars.co.uk. http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/henrietta-maria.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  4. ^ "Queen Henrietta Maria, 1609–69". British-civil-wars.co.uk. http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/glossary/parliament-1625-29.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  5. ^ "Charles, King and Martyr". SKCM. http://www.skcm.org/SCharles/scharles_main.html. Retrieved 2008-10-16. 
  6. ^ "Memorable Christians". justus.anglican.org. http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bio/92.html. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  7. ^ a b Carlton, C., Charles I: The Personal Monarch, (London: Routledge, 1995), p.2
  8. ^ Carlton, C., Charles I: The Personal Monarch, (London: Routledge, 1995), p.3
  9. ^ Loades, D.M., Politics and the Nation, (London: Fontana, 1974) 352
  10. ^ Loades, D.M., Politics and the Nation, (London: Fontana, 1974), 356
  11. ^ Loades, D.M., Politics and the Nation, (London: Fontana, 1974), 352
  12. ^ Coward, Barry, The Stuart Age (London:Longman,1994), 152
  13. ^ Coward, Barry, The Stuart Age (London:Longman,1994), 153
  14. ^ Trevelyan, G.M. A History of England England under the Stuarts(London: The Folio Society, 1996), 107
  15. ^ Trevelyan, G.M. A History of England England under the Stuarts(London: The Folio Society, 1996), 110
  16. ^ Trevelyan, G.M. A History of England England under the Stuarts(London: The Folio Society, 1996), 108
  17. ^ Trevelyan, G.M. A History of England England under the Stuarts(London: The Folio Society, 1996), 111
  18. ^ "Charles I (1625-49 AD)". Britannia.com. http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon47.html. Retrieved 17 October 2007. 
  19. ^ "Lecture 7: The English Civil War". History Guide. http://www.historyguide.org/earlymod/lecture7c.html. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  20. ^ "Timeline - English Civil War". History on the Net. http://www.historyonthenet.com/Chronology/timelinecivilwar.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  21. ^ ENGLANDS OATHS. Taken by all men of Quallity in the Church and Common-wealth of ENGLAND. Published by G.F. London, Printed, 1642.
  22. ^ "Info Please: Charle I's Early Life". Infoplease.com. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0920728.html. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  23. ^ See Acts 25:10-12 (NRSV translation): "Paul said, 'I am appealing to the emperor's tribunal; this is where I should be tried. I have done no wrong to the Jews, as you very well know. 11Now if I am in the wrong and have committed something for which I deserve to die, I am not trying to escape death; but if there is nothing to their charges against me, no one can turn me over to them. I appeal to the emperor.' 12Then Festus, after he had conferred with his council, replied, 'You have appealed to the emperor; to the emperor you will go.'"
  24. ^ Reddaway, W.F. 'A History of Europe - Volume VI' (London: Methuen, 1948), 129
  25. ^ Sturdy, David J, 'Fractured Europe 1600-1721' (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002), 108
  26. ^ Smith, David L. The Stuart Parliaments 1603-1689 (Arnold: London, 1999), 116
  27. ^ J.P. Kenyon, Stuart England, pp. 96-97, 101-05 (Harmondsworth, England, Penguin Books, 1978); Simon Schama, A History of England, Vol. II, pp. 69-74 (New York, Simon and Schuster, 2001).
  28. ^ "Info Please: Charles I's Reign". Infoplease.com. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0920729.html. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  29. ^ Kenyon, pp. [105-06 "Kenyon"]. 105-06. 
  30. ^ Gregg, Pauline, King Charles I (London: Dent, 1981),220
  31. ^ Quintrell, Brian, Charles I 1625-1640(Harlow: Pearson Education, 1993), 460
  32. ^ a b Quintrell, Brian, Charles I 1625-1640(Harlow: Pearson Education, 1993), 62
  33. ^ Loades, D.M., Politics and the Nation, (London: Fontana, 1974), 385
  34. ^ "Charles I of England". Spiritus-temporis.com. http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/charles-i-of-england/. Retrieved 2008-04-24. 
  35. ^ "Archbishop William Laud, 1573-1645". British-civil-wars.co.uk. http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/laud.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-24. 
  36. ^ "William Laud". Nndb.com. http://www.nndb.com/people/435/000107114/. Retrieved 2008-04-24. 
  37. ^ Loades, D.M., Politics and the Nation, (London: Fontana, 1974), 393
  38. ^ Murphy, p.211-235
  39. ^ "CHARLES I (r. 1625-49)". Royal.gov.uk. http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/Page76.asp. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  40. ^ Smith, Alan G.R.The Emergence of a Nation State (London:Longman, 1984),278
  41. ^ Quintrell, Brian, Charles I 1625-1640 (Harlow: Pearson Education, 1993), 46
  42. ^ Gillespie, Raymond, Seventeenth Century Ireland, (Dublin: Gill and McMillon, 2006), 130.
  43. ^ Smith, David L. The Stuart Parliaments 1603-1689 (Arnold: London, 1999), 123
  44. ^ Smith, David L. The Stuart Parliaments 1603-1689 (Arnold: London, 1999), 123
  45. ^ Gillespie, Raymond, Seventeenth Century Ireland, (Dublin: Gill and McMillon, 2006), 131
  46. ^ Gillespie, Raymond, Seventeenth Century Ireland, (Dublin: Gill and McMillon, 2006), 137
  47. ^ Smith, David L. The Stuart Parliaments 1603-1689 (Arnold: London, 1999), 129
  48. ^ "Some predecessors kept their nerve, others lost their heads". The Daily Telegraph. 28 October 2000. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/4790900/Some-predecessors-kept-their-nerve-others-lost-their-heads.html. Retrieved 2009-06-03. 
  49. ^ "Info Please: Charles I's Civil War". Infoplease.com. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0920730.html. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  50. ^ [List "of Persons Desired by His Majesty to Attend Him the Isle of Wight, The Parliamentary or Constitutional History of England, 1763"]. List. 
  51. ^ "Message from the King; on His Escape from Hampton Court, that He will appear again if He can be heard, and will give Satisfaction.". Journal of the House of Lords. 9. London, South East, South West, East, Midlands, North, Scotland, Wales: (History of Parliament Trust). 12 November 1647. pp. 519–522. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=37160#s15. 
  52. ^ "Letter from Colonel Hammond, that he has ordered, no Persons shall come in or go out of the Isle of Wight without his Pass;—and desiring the King's former Allowance may be continued to Him.". Journal of the House of Lords. 9. London, South East, South West, East, Midlands, North, Scotland, Wales: (History of Parliament Trust). 18 November 1647. pp. 531–533. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=37165#s16. 
  53. ^ a b c Robertson, Geoffrey (2002). "Chapter 1 The Human Rights Story". Crimes Against Humanity: The Struggle for Global Justice (2nd ed.). Penguin Books. pp. 5. ISBN 978-0141010144. 
  54. ^ a b Geoffrey Robertson, The Tyrannicide Brief (Chatto & Windus, 2005)
  55. ^ "Red Lion Inn, a Pub and Bar in Stathern, Leicestershire. Search for Leicestershire Pub and Bars". Information Britain. http://www.information-britain.co.uk/showPlace.cfm?Place_ID=27717. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  56. ^ "Selections from the Trial and Execution of Col. Daniel Axtell in October 1660"". Axtell Family. http://www.axtellfamily.org/axfamous/regicide/DanielAxtellTrial1660.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  57. ^ A Narrative by John Ashburnham of His Attendance on King Charles I, 1830. Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=jMMBAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA410&lpg=PA410&dq=levet+mildmay&source=web&ots=CCIkqzaBve&sig=_7UTuBmOTNYFsKRvwElm8uOi5AA&hl=en. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  58. ^ Memoirs of the two last years of the Reign of King Charles I, Thomas Herbert, 1815. Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=czoIAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA213&lpg=PA213&dq=%22thomas+herbert%22+levet&source=web&ots=ChpzPYASah&sig=l14RsxpMiI0Oprh2qHO17C_-PtA&hl=en. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  59. ^ The Life of Charles the First, the Royal Martyr, Charles Wheeler Coit, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1926. Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=Hv__9MKX1aMC&pg=PA299&lpg=PA299&dq=%22william+levett%22+king+charles&source=web&ots=IOJIOMvD5r&sig=laIvu6LOgqfTxIFnfqslmadz1Tk&hl=en. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  60. ^ The Life of Charles the First, the Royal Martyr, Charles Wheeler Coit, Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1926. Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=2H6gpNM-yFcC&pg=PA91&lpg=PA91&dq=%22william+levet%22+marlborough&source=web&ots=fp8sW3-NcA&sig=7Ljio0r-ePPVY38LlZlu2G_OfqQ. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  61. ^ Broadview Anthology of British Literature, Vol. 2
  62. ^ Stewart, George R. (1967) [1945]. Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States (Sentry edition (3rd) ed.). Houghton Mifflin. pp. 38. ISBN 1590172736. 
  63. ^ Archbishop Laud, quoted by his chaplain Peter Heylin in Cyprianus Angelicus, 1688
  64. ^ Dutton, Ralph (1963). English Court Life: From Henry VII to George II.. B.T. Batsford. pp. 232. 
  65. ^ "Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family". Heraldica.org. http://www.heraldica.org/topics/britain/cadency.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  66. ^ "Britannia: Monarchs of Britain". Britannia. http://www.britannia.com/history/monarchs/mon47.html. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  67. ^ ""The Family of Pollock of Newry and Descendants"". Meddows Taylor. http://www.meddows-taylor.com/Pollock.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  68. ^ ""A Sketch of the Life and Times of Bishop Taylor"". Bible Study. http://biblestudy.churches.net/CCEL/T/TAYLOR/HOLY_LIV/HOLY_LI1.HTM. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  69. ^ ""Jeremy Taylor, Bishop and Theologian (13 August 1667)"". Satucket.com. http://www.satucket.com/lectionary/Jeremy_Taylor.htm. Retrieved 2008-10-27. 

Further reading

  • Carlton, Charles (1995). Charles I: The personal monarch. Routledge. pp. 423. ISBN 0415121418. 
  • Gardiner, Samuel Rawson (1962). The Constitutional Documents of the Puritan Revolution 1625–1660 (3rd Revised Edition.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 476. 
  • Kishlansky, Mark A. (2005). "Charles I: A Case of Mistaken Identity" no. 189, Past and Presentpp. 41–80. 
  • Murphy, Derrick (2002). Britain 1558-1689. London: HarperCollins Publishers. pp. 384. ISBN 0-00-713850-4.  pp. 211–235
  • Robertson, Geoffrey (2005). The Tyrannicide Brief: The Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. Chatto & Windus. pp. 429. ISBN 0-7011-7602-4. 
  • Williamson, D. (1998). .'The Kings and Queens of England.^ He represented the indignity of the action, that so great a princess, mother to the king of France and to the queens of Spain and England, should be affronted by the multitude.
    • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    London: National Portrait Gallery. ISBN 1-85514-228-7. OCLC 153799778.
     
  • Rushworth, J. (1959). .The Trial of King Charles I.^ The ordinance for the trial of Charles Stuart, king of England, so they called him, was again read and unanimously assented to.
    • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    Lockyer. pp. 133–4.
     
  • Carlton, Charles (1995). Charles I: The Personal Monarch. Great Britain: Routledge. pp. 423. ISBN 0415121418. 
  • Holmes, Clive (2006). Why was Charles I Executed?. Continuum International. pp. 244. ISBN 1852852828. 
  • Abbott, Jacob (1901). Charles I.. Great Britain: Harper & brothers. pp. 285. ISBN 1409909840. 
  • Cust, Richard (2007-07-21). Charles I. Longman. pp. 512. ISBN 978-1405859035. 
  • Abbott, Jacob (1900). .History of King Charles the First of England.^ The ordinance for the trial of Charles Stuart, king of England, so they called him, was again read and unanimously assented to.
    • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This event is memorable; as being the first instance, perhaps, in the whole history of England, of any king’s advancing a man, on account of parliamentary interest, and of opposition to his measures.
    • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I The Online Library of Liberty A project of Liberty Fund, Inc.
    • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    Great Britain: Henry Altemus company. pp. 230.
     
  • Turnbull, Mark (2009). Historical Fiction - Decision Most Deadly. Toro. 
  • Mackintosh, James; William Wallace, Robert Bell (1835). Great Britain: Longman. 
  • Hill, C. (1991). The Century of Revolution, 1603–1714. Great Britain: Routledge. pp. 296. ISBN 0415051789. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=k1P9UCxwmUkC. 
  • V Wedgwood, C (1955). The Great Rebellion: The King's Peace, 1637–1641. Colins. pp. 510. 
  • V Wedgwood, C (1958). .The Great Rebellion: The King's War, 1641-1647..^ The instant the king heard of the rebellion, which was a very few days after its commencement, he wrote to the parliament, and gave over to them the management of the war.
    • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And on account of these claims, which might have been foreseen, was the war renewed; with great advantages on the side of the covenanters, and disadvantages on that of the king.
    • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    Collins. pp. 702.
     
  • Wedgewood, Cicely Veronica (1964). .A Coffin for King Charles: The Trial and Execution of Charles I.^ The ordinance for the trial of Charles Stuart, king of England, so they called him, was again read and unanimously assented to.
    • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    Macmillan. pp. 307. ISBN 978-0026255004.
     
  • Ashley, Maurice (1987). Charles I and Cromwell. Methuen. pp. 256. ISBN 978-0413162700. http://www.amazon.com/Charles-I-Cromwell-Maurice-Ashley/dp/0413162702/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&s=books&qisbn=1208807323&sr=1-2. 
  • Reeve, L. J. (1989). Charles I and the Road to Personal Rule. Great Britain: Cambridge University Press. pp. 325. ISBN 0521521335. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=kszoNS3KM4oC. 

External links

Books about Charles I available online

.
Charles I of England
Born: 19 November 1600 Died: 30 January 1649
Regnal titles
Preceded by
James I and VI
King of England
King of Ireland

27 March 1625 – 30 January 1649
Vacant
Title next held by
Charles II
King of Scotland
27 March 1625 – 30 January 1649
British royalty
Preceded by
Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales
Heir to the English, Scottish and Irish Thrones
as heir apparent
6 November 1612 – 27 March 1625
Succeeded by
Elizabeth of Bohemia
Prince of Wales
1612–1625
Vacant
Title next held by
Charles II
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales
Duke of Cornwall
1612–1625
Vacant
Title next held by
Charles II
New creation Duke of York
4th creation
1605–1625
Merged in the Crown
Peerage of Scotland
Preceded by
Henry Frederick
Duke of Rothesay
1612–1625
Vacant
Title next held by
Charles II
New creation Duke of Albany
5th creation
1603–1625
Merged in the Crown

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.Charles I (November 19, 1600 – January 30, 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution in 1649. He famously engaged in a struggle for power with the Parliament of England.^ He was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.
  • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The king: Charles was born in Scotland in 1600.
  • England Royal Coins, English Kings Coins, England Kings Coins 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC home.eckerd.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The scaffold for the King's execution was ready by 30 January 1849 in the afternoon.
  • THE TRIAL OF KING CHARLES I - DEFINING MOMENT FOR OUR CONSTITUTIONAL LIBERTIES 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.hcourt.gov.au [Source type: Original source]

Sourced

.
  • Be your holiness persuaded that I am, and ever shall be, of such moderation as to keep aloof, as far as possible, from every undertaking which may testify any hatred towards the Roman Catholic religion.^ Be your holiness persuaded that I am, and ever shall be, of such moderation as to keep aloof, as far as possible, from every undertaking which may testify any hatred towards the Roman Catholic religion.
    • Charles I of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Many of his opponents believed that as he had a Roman Catholic wife, he was a secret Roman Catholic himself, and as such would be a threat to their Protestant Church.

    ^ The king, in his speech to the parliament, observed, that, though religion had engaged the conspirators in so criminal an attempt, yet ought we not to involve all the Roman catholics in the same guilt, or suppose them equally disposed to commit such enormous barbarities.
    • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Nay, rather I will seize all opportunities, by a gentle and generous mode of conduct, to remove all sinister suspicions entirely; so that, as we all confess one undivided Trinity and one Christ crucified, we may be banded together unanimously into one faith.^ This was rather too much for the King and he stormed into the chamber unannounced one day with his foppish gang of thugs in an attempt to remove the parliamentarians from their seats, take them to the Tower and have them punished with tortures .
    • Charles I - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC mirror.uncyc.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In May, 1741 he recorded: "At Kingswood, as soon as I named my text, "'It is finished', the love of Christ crucified so constrained me that I burst into tears and felt strong sympathy with Him in His sufferings.

    ^ No doubt this book may come into the hands of some who are not in complete sympathy with all or with much which Father Dolling so vigorously advocated at one time or another.
    • The Life of Father Dolling, by Charles E. Osborne (1903) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC anglicanhistory.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Letter to Pope Gregory XV (20 April, 1623).
    • Sir Charles Petrie (ed.^ Letter to Pope Gregory XV (20 April, 1623).
      • Charles I of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Sir Charles Petrie (ed.
      • Charles I of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Henry and Jane visited Mary and after, she wrote letters to the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (her cousin) and the Pope stating that her parent's marriage had not been valid.

      ), .The Letters...of King Charles I (1935), p.^ Letters of King Charles the First to Queen Henrietta Maria (1856) .
      • Internet Archive: Free Download: Charles I. in 1646. Letters of King Charles the First to Queen Henrietta Maria 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: General]

      ^ The Letters...of King Charles I (1935), p.
      • Charles I of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Letters of King Charles the First to Queen Henrietta Maria View the book .
      • Internet Archive: Free Download: Charles I. in 1646. Letters of King Charles the First to Queen Henrietta Maria 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: General]

      .16.
  • I must tell you that the liberty and freedom [of the people] consists in having of Government, those laws by which their life and their goods may be most their own.^ I tell you I am the martyr of the people.

    ^ On the scaffold, he repeated his case: 'I must tell you that the liberty and freedom [of the people] consists in having of Government, those laws by which their life and their goods may be most their own.
    • CHARLES I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC staff.gps.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • The Trial of King Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC jesus-is-lord.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Trial of Charles I (1649): Selected Links and Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I must tell you that the liberty and freedom [of the people] consists in having of Government, those laws by which their life and their goods may be most their own.
    • Charles I of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .It is not for having share in Government, Sir, that is nothing pertaining to them.^ It is not for having share in government, sirs; that is nothing pertaining to them; a subject and a sovereign are clear different things.

    ^ It is not for having share in Government, Sir, that is nothing pertaining to them.
    • CHARLES I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC staff.gps.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Charles I of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • The Trial of King Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC jesus-is-lord.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Trial of Charles I (1649): Selected Links and Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is not having share in government, sirs; that is nothing pertaining to them.'

    .A subject and a sovereign are clean different things.^ A subject and a sovereign are clean different things.
    • CHARLES I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC staff.gps.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • Charles I of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • History of the Monarchy > The Stuarts > Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.royal.gov.uk [Source type: Original source]
    • The Trial of King Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC jesus-is-lord.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Trial of Charles I (1649): Selected Links and Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is not for having share in government, sirs; that is nothing pertaining to them; a subject and a sovereign are clear different things.

    ^ His strongly held view that “a subject and his sovereign are clean different things” was contested by many moderate men, but when he came to say why he was on the scaffold, he spoke a truth few could deny: .

    .If I would have given way to an arbitrary way, for to have all laws changed according to the Power of the Sword, I needed not to have come here, and therefore I tell you...that I am the martyr of the people.^ I tell you I am the martyr of the people.

    ^ With you all the way .
    • History of England - Lonely Planet Travel Information 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If I would have given way to an arbitrary way, for to have all laws changed according to the Power of the Sword, I needed not to have come here, and therefore I tell you ...
    • CHARLES I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC staff.gps.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • The Trial of King Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC jesus-is-lord.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Trial of Charles I (1649): Selected Links and Bibliography 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.law.umkc.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • On the scaffold before his execution.^ On the scaffold before his execution.
      • Charles I of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Last words, said on the scaffold before his execution.
      • Charles I of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ This sentence, which was certainly hard, but which ought to save his memory from all imputations of treachery to his master, was executed on a scaffold, erected before Westminster-hall.
      • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

      .(30 January, 1649).
  • I go from a corruptible to an incorruptible Crown, where no disturbance can be, no disturbance in the world.^ The king adjoins, 'I go from a corruptible to an incorruptible crown; where no disturbance can be, no disturbance in the world.'

    ^ Charles was beheaded on 30 January, 1649.
    • Wikijunior:Kings and Queens of England/The Stuarts - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I go from a corruptible to an incorruptible Crown, where no disturbance can be, no disturbance in the world.
    • Charles I of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Last words, said on the scaffold before his execution.^ Last words, said on the scaffold before his execution.
      • Charles I of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ On the scaffold before his execution.
      • Charles I of England - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Heare his last words on the scaffold.
      • King James I of England (VI of Scotland) Page 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.jesus-is-lord.com [Source type: Original source]

      (30 January, 1649).

Attributed

.
  • I see the birds have flown.^ Well, since I see all the birds are flown, I do expect that you will send them to me as soon as they return.
    • Online Library of Liberty - Reading Lists - Essaying Liberty in Hume's History of England in the Reigns of James I and Charles I 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC oll.libertyfund.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Charles accepts this rebuff with a good line of his own: 'I see all the birds are flown.'

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Simple English

Charles I of England
File:King Charles I by Antoon van
Born 1600
Died January 29,1649
File:Carolus
Painting of Charles I

Charles I of England (19 November 1600 - 30 January 1649) was the King of England and Scotland, of the House of Stuart, crowned 27 March 1625. [1] He was a son of James I of England. He was married to Henrietta Maria of France.

Charles was born at Fife in Scotland, before his father came to the throne of England. He had an elder brother, Henry, who was clever, handsome and popular, and who was next in line for the throne. Henry died suddenly in 1612, and his brother Charles was made Prince of Wales in his place, showing that he was now the heir to the throne. Charles was less suited to be king than Henry had been, because he was small and weak and not as clever. After his brother died, the person he liked best was George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, who was also his father's best friend. The Duke of Buckingham was very powerful and rich, but was not popular with ordinary people. He took Charles to Spain in the hope of finding him a Spanish princess as a bride, but they had a lot of problems on the journey and could not persuade the Spanish king to give them his daughter as a wife for Charles. On the way home, they went to France, and there Charles met the French royal family. The youngest of the French princesses was called Henrietta Maria of France, and Charles later chose her to be his wife.

When Charles became king, he decided that he did not like sharing the work of government with the people who were elected to Parliament. So his answer for this problem was to rule by himself for eleven years, without calling a Parliament. From 1629 to 1640, there was no Parliament. This made him very unpopular with the people, who did not like the different taxes they had to pay directly to the king, since Parliament could not vote to give him any budget. Many also did not like the King's closest advisor, William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, who was trying to force everyone in England to use the same Anglican Prayer Book and stop the many other Protestant denominations that were becoming popular at that time.

When the king and the Archbishop then tried to force a Prayer Book on Scotland, which was even more Protestant, armed rebellion broke out there. Now that the king was at war, he needed more money than he actually had, so he had no choice but to call Parliament again in 1640. The members of Parliament, angry about being left out for 11 years, did not want to vote for giving him money to fight his war, as much as they wanted to talk about what a terrible king he was. So after only three weeks, Charles shut down Parliament again. For this reason, it was known as the Short Parliament.

Without enough money, Charles lost the war badly, and had to pay the Scots even more money that he did not have. This meant that once again he had to call a Parliament, much as he hated to do so. One of the first things they did was vote that the King had to call Parliament, and could not shut them down again. Charles had no choice but to agree. This Parliament is known as the Long Parliament, because it ended up lasting for twenty years, until 1660.

The Parliament and the King then began to quarrel about who was in control of the army. Each side ended up with their own army, and this led to the English Civil War that started in 1642. The army of Parliament got the upper hand in this war, and Charles, after a crushing defeat in 1646, went to the Scots for protection. But they decided to turn him over to Parliament in 1647. Charles escaped at one point and went to the governor of the Isle of Wight for protection, but this was also a bad move because he too was on the side of Parliament and only captured the king again. While he was being held in the castle, Charles made an agreement with the Scots who joined his side, and the fighting started again in 1648. Because he was still making trouble for them even while he was captured, Parliament voted to put the king on trial. This had never been done to a king of England before.

At the trial he was found guilty and was finally put to death by beheading in January 1649. Some of the members of Parliament who were opposed to killing king Charles were purged, and from this time on, what was left of the Long Parliament became known as the Rump Parliament. This Parliament took complete power in England, and there was no new king at all until 1660.

Issue

NameBirthDeathNotes
Charles James, Duke of Cornwall13 March 162913 March 1629Stillborn
Charles II29 May 16306 February 1685Married Catherine of Braganza (1638–1705) in 1663. No legitimate issue.
Mary, Princess Royal4 November 163124 December 1660Married William II, Prince of Orange (1626–1650) in 1641. Had issue.
James II, King of England14 October 163316 September 1701Married (1) Anne Hyde (1637–1671) in 1659; had issue
(2) Mary of Modena (1658–1718) in 1673; had issue
Elizabeth, Princess of England29 December 16358 September 1650Died young; no issue. Buried Newport, Isle of Wight
Anne, Princess of England17 March 16378 December 1640Died young; no issue. Buried Westminster Abbey
Catherine, Princess of England29 January 163929 January 1639Stillborn; buried Westminster Abbey.
Henry, Duke of Gloucester8 July 164018 September 1660 Died unmarried; no issue. Buried Westminster Abbey
Henrietta, Princess of England16 June 164430 June 1670Married Philippe de France, Duke of Orléans (1640–1701) in 1662; had issue

References


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Charles I of England, which are similar to those in the above article.








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