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This is a Chinese name; the family name is Kao (高).
This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
Charles Kuen Kao
高錕

Born 4 November 1933 (1933-11-04) (age 76)
Shanghai, China
Residence Shanghai, China (1933–1948)
Hong Kong
England (1952–1970)
United States
Nationality United States of America
United Kingdom[1]
Ethnicity Chinese
Fields Optics
Electrical engineering
Enterprise
Higher education
Institutions Chinese University of Hong Kong
ITT Corporation
Standard Telephones and Cables
Alma mater University College London (PhD 1965, issued by University of London)
Woolwich Polytechnic (BSc 1957, issued by University of London)
St. Joseph's College, Hong Kong (1952)
Doctoral advisor Harold Barlow
Known for Fiber optics
Fiber-optic communication
Notable awards IEEE Morris N. Liebmann Memorial Award (1978)
IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal (1985)
Marconi Prize (1985)
Faraday Medal (1989)
James C. McGroddy Prize for New Materials (1989)
Prince Philip Medal (1996)
Japan Prize (1996)
3463 Kaokuen (1996)
Charles Stark Draper Prize (1999)
Asian of the Century (1999)
Nobel Prize in Physics (2009)

Charles Kuen ("K. C.") Kao CBE FRS[2] FREng[3] (traditional Chinese: 高錕simplified Chinese: 高锟pinyin: Gāo Kūn (Kao Kuen); born November 4 1933) is a pioneer in the development and use of fiber optics in telecommunications. Kao, widely regarded as the "Father of Fiber Optics"[4][5][6][7][8] or "Father of Fiber Optic Communications"[9][10], was awarded half of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics for "groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication".[11]

Contents

Biography

Kao was born in Shanghai in 1933, but his ancestral home is in Jinshan, Jiangsu now part of Shanghai. He studied Chinese classics at home with his brother, under a tutor.[12] He also studied English and French at an international school in Shanghai which was founded by a number of progressive Chinese educators including Cai Yuanpei.[13]

Kao's family moved to Hong Kong in 1948[14] where he completed his secondary education (advanced level) at St. Joseph's College in 1952. He did his undergraduate studies in electrical engineering at Woolwich Polytechnic (now the University of Greenwich),[15] obtaining his Bachelor of Science degree issued by the University of London.

He then pursued research and received his PhD degree in electrical engineering in 1965 from University College London[16] (under Professor Harold Barlow) as an external student while working at Standard Telecommunication Laboratories (STL) in Harlow, England, the research centre of Standard Telephones and Cables[17]. It is there that Kao did his first groundbreaking work as an engineer and researcher.

Kao joined the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) in 1970, to found the Department of Electronics, which later became the Department of Electronic Engineering. During this period, Kao was the Reader and then the Chair Professor of Electronics at CUHK; he built up both undergraduate and graduate study programs of electronic and saw the first graduation of his students. Under his leadership, the School of Education and other new research institutes were established. He then went back to ITT Corporation in 1974 (the parent corporation of STC at that time), and the United States, and worked in Roanoke, Virginia, first as Chief Scientist and later as Director of Engineering. In 1982, he became the first ITT Executive Scientist and was stationed mainly at the Advanced Technology Center in Connecticut.[7] While there, he served as an adjunct professor and Fellow of Trumbull College at Yale University. In 1985, Kao spent one year in West Germany, at SEL Research Center. In 1986, Kao was the Corporate Director of Research at ITT.

Kao was Vice-Chancellor of the Chinese University of Hong Kong from 1987 to 1996[18]. After his retirement from CUHK in 1996, Kao spent his 6-month sabbatical leave at the Imperial College London Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering; from 1997 to 2002, he also served as Visiting Professor to the same department[19]. From 1993 to 1994, he was the President of ASAIHL (The Association of Southeast Asian Institutions of Higher Learning)[20].

Kao then worked as the Chairman and CEO of Transtech Services Ltd., a telecommunication consultancy company in Hong Kong. He was the founder, Chairman and CEO of ITX Services Limited. From 2003 to January 30, 2009, Kao was an Independent Non-executive Director and Member of the Audit Committee of Next Media[21][22]. Since 1991, Kao has been an Independent Non-Executive Director and a member of the Audit Committee of the Varitronix International Limited in Hong Kong[23].

In 2000, Kao founded the Independent Schools Foundation Academy (ISF), which is located in Cyberport, Hong Kong.[24] He was its founding Chairman in 2000, and stepped down from the Board of the ISF Foundation in December, 2008.[24]

Kao was the keynote speaker at IEEE GLOBECOM 2002 in Taipei, Taiwan.[25] In 2003 Kao was named a Chair Professor by special appointment at the Electronics Institute of the College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, National Taiwan University.[25]

In 1996, Kao donated to Yale University, and the Charles Kao Fund Research Grands was established to support Yale's studies, research and creative projects in Asia[29]. The fund currently is managed by Yale University Councils on East Asian and Southeast Asian Studies.[30]

Kao has been suffering from Alzheimer's disease since early 2004 and has speech difficulty, but has no problem recognizing people or addresses.[31] Kao's father also suffered from the same disease. Kao and his wife would like to donate part of the prize money to aging research and care, possibly to the Hong Kong St. James' Settlement Health Care Centre for Old People, and the American-based Alzheimer's Association.[32]

Since 2008, he resides in Mountain View, California, United States and moved from Hong Kong in order to live near to his children and grandchild.

Pottery making, a traditional Chinese handwork, is a hobby of Kao's. Kao also enjoys reading Wuxia novels.[33]

On October 6, 2009, Kao was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his contributions to the study of the transmission of light in optical fibers and for fiber communication[34], said: "I am absolutely speechless and never expected such an honour"[35][10].

Ancestry and family

Kao's father Kao Chun-Hsiang (高君湘) was a lawyer, who obtained his J.D. from the University of Michigan Law School in 1925.[36] He was a professor at Soochow University (then in Shanghai) Comparative Law School of China.[37][38]

His grandfather was Gao Xie (aka Gao Chuiwan, 高吹萬), a famous scholar, poet, literator, artist, and a leading figure of the South Society (南社) during the late Qing Dynasty.[39] Some influential writers including Gao Xu (高旭, aka Gao Tianmei), Yao Guang (姚光), and Gao Zeng (高增) were also Gao's close relatives.

His father's cousin was astronomer Ping-Tse Kao (高平子;[40] Kao Crater is named after him[41]) Kao has a younger brother named Timothy Wu Kao (高鋙), who is a civil engineer and Professor Emeritus at the Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C.. His research is in hydrodynamics.[42]

Kao met his future wife May-Wan Kao (Née: Wong; 黄美芸) in London after graduation. His wife was a Fortran programmer who worked in the same factory as Kao.[43] She is British Chinese. They were married in 1959 in London, [44][45] and have two children, a son and a daughter,[44] both of whom reside and work in Silicon Valley, California.[43]

Work and related history

Fibre optics and communications

A bundle of silica glass fibers for optical communication, which are used everywhere nowadays. Kao also first publicly suggested that silica glass of high purity is ideal material for long range optical communication[46]. See also strength of glass.

In early 1960s at STL, Kao did his pioneering work in the realisation of fiber optics as a telecommunications medium, by demonstrating that the high-loss of existing fibre optics arose from impurities in the glass, rather than from an underlying problem with the technology itself[47]. Kao was pointed to the head of the electro-optics research group at STL in 1963[48]; he took over the whole optical communication program of STL in December 1964 and decided to overall change their research direction. Kao not only considered the optical physics but also the material properties. The results were first presented by Kao in January 1966 in London, and further published in July with his former colleague George Hockham (1964-1965)[49]a[›]. This study first theorized and proposed to use glass fibers to implement optical communication, the ideas (especially structural features and materials) described largely are the basis of today's optical fiber communications.

In 1965[48][50]b[›], Kao concluded that the fundamental limitation for glass light attenuation is below 20 dB/km (Decibels per Kilometer, is a measure of the attenuation of a signal over a distance), which is a key threshold value for optical communications ([51]it was first reported by Kao to IEE in London in January 1966)[52]. However, at the time of this determination, optical fibers commonly exhibited light loss as high as 1,000 db/km and even more. This conclusion opened the intense race to find low-loss materials and suitable fibers for reaching such criteria.

Kao, together with his new team (members including T.W. Davies, M.W. Jones, and C.R. Wright), pursued this goal by testing various materials. They precisely measured the attenuation of light with different wavelengths in glasses and other materials. During this period, Kao pointed out that the high purity of fused silica (SiO2) made it an ideal candidate for optical communication. Kao also stated that the impurity of glass material is the main cause for the dramatic decay of light transmission inside glass fiber, rather than fundamental physical effects such as scattering as many physicists thought at that time, and such impurity could be removed. This led to a worldwide study and production of high-purity glass fibers.[53] Theatrically, when Kao first proposed that such glass fiber could be used for long-distance information transfer and replace copper wires which were used for telecommunication during that era[54], his ideas were widely disbelieved; later people realized that Kao's ideas revolutionized the whole communication technology and industry.

In 1968, Kao with M.W. Jones measured the intrinsic loss of bulk-fused silica at 4 dB/km, which is the first evidence of ultra-transparent glass. Bell Laboratories started considering fiber optics seriously.[55]

Kao developed important techniques and configurations for glass fiber waveguides, and contributed to the development of different fiber types and system devices which met both civil and militaryc[›] application requirements, and peripheral supporting systems for optical fiber communication[56]. In mid-1970s, he did seminal work on glass fiber fatigue strength[56]. Kao also played a major role in the engineering and commercial realization of optical communication[56]. He visited many research institutes including Bell Labs and even glass factories, discussed with various people including engineers, scientists, businessmen about the techniques and improvement of glass fiber manufacture. When named the first ITT Executive Scientist, Kao launched the "Terabit Technology" program in addressing the high frequency limits of signal processing, so Kao is also known as the "Father of Terabit Technology Concept"[56][57]. Kao has published more than 100 papers and was granted over 30 patents[56], including the water-resistant high-strength fibers (with M.S. Maklad)[58].

At early stage of developing optic fibers, Kao already strongly preferred single mode for long-distance optical communication, instead of using multi-mode systems. His vision later was followed and now applied almost exclusively.[59][53]

Kao is also a pioneer of modern submarine communications cables and largely promoted this idea. He predicted in 1983 that world's seas would be littered with fiber optics, five years ahead such trans-oceanic fiber-optic cable first became serviceable.[60]

Ali Javan’s introduction of steady helium-neon laser and Kao’s discovery of fiber light-loss properties now are recognized as the two essential milestones for the development of fiber-optic communications.[51]

Environmental and energy studies and leadship

Kao is one of the few earliest who started studying the environmental effects of the land reclamation in Hong Kong, and presented one of his first related studies at the conference of ACU (Association of Commonwealth Universities) in Edinburgh in 1972. Kao was the Chairman and Member of the Energy Advisory Committee (EAC) of Hong Kong SAR for two years, and retired from the position on July 15, 2000.[61][62] Kao is a Member of the Council of Advisors on Innovation and Technology of Hong Kong SAR, appointed on April 20, 2000[63].

Honors and awards

Kao has received numerous honors and awards in his life, including:

Notes

^ a: Kao's major task was investigating light-loss properties in materials of optic fibers, and determine whether they could removed or not. Hockham's was investigating light-loss due to discontinuities and curvature of fibre.
^ b: Some sources show around 1964[98][99], for example, "By 1964, a critical and theoretical specification was identified by Dr. Charles K. Kao for long-range communication devices, the 10 or 20 dB of light loss per kilometer standard." from Cisco Press[98].
^ c: In 1980, Kao was awarded the Gold Medal from American Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association, "for contribution to the application of optical fiber technology to military communications".[56]
^ d: In the United States National Academy of Engineering Membership Website, Kao's country is indicated as People's Republic of China.[66]
^ e: OFC/NFOEC - Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference[97]

References

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  77. ^ Yale Honorary Degree Recipients
  78. ^ Honorary degrees Awarded by Princeton University - 2000s
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  82. ^ SPIE: The Gold Medal of the Society
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Monographes

  • Optical fiber technology; by Charles K. Kao. IEEE Press, New York, USA; 1981.
  • Optical Fiber Technology, II; by Charles K. Kao. IEEE Press, New York, USA; 1981, 343 pages. ISBN 0-471-09169-3 ISBN 978-0-471-09169-1.
  • Optical Fiber Systems: Technology, Design, and Applications; by Charles K. Kao. McGraw-Hill, USA; 1982; 204 pages. ISBN 0-07-033277-0 ISBN 978-0-07-033277-5.
  • Optical fibre (IEE materials & devices series, Volume 6); by Charles K. Kao. Palgrave Macmillan on behalf of IEEE; 1988; University of Michigan; 158 pages. ISBN 0-86341-125-8 ISBN 978-0-86341-125-0
  • A Choice Fulfilled: the Business of High Technology; by Charles K. Kao. The Chinese University Press/ Palgrave Macmillan; 1991, 203 pages. ISBN 962-201-521-2 ISBN 978-962-201-521-0
  • Tackling the Millennium Bug Together: Public Conferences; by Charles K. Kao. Central Policy Unit, Hong Kong; 48 pages, 1998.
  • Technology Road Maps for Hong Kong: a Preliminary Study; by Charles K. Kao. Office of Industrial and Business Development, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; 126 pages, 1990.
  • Nonlinear Photonics: Nonlinearities in Optics, Optoelectronics and Fiber Communications; by Yili Guo, Kin S. Chiang, E. Herbert Li, and Charles K. Kao. The Chinese University Press, Hong Kong; 2002, 600 pages.

Further reading

See also

External links

Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Andrew Viterbi
IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal
1985
Succeeded by
Bernard Widrow
Preceded by
Nick Holonyak
Japan Prize
1996
Succeeded by
T. Sugimura
Preceded by
Yoichiro Nambu,
Makoto Kobayashi, and
Toshihide Maskawa
Nobel Prize Laureate in Physics
with Willard Boyle and George E. Smith

2009
Most recent
Academic offices
Preceded by
Ma Lin
Vice-Chancellor of the Chinese University of Hong Kong
1987–1996
Succeeded by
Arthur Li

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

I was trying to sell a dream ... There was very little I could put in concrete to tell these people it was really real.

Charles Kuen Kao (born November 4, 1933) is an engineer and a pioneer in the use of fiber optics in telecommunications. Kao is widely regarded as the "Father of Fiber Optic Communications". He was awarded half of the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics for "groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication".

Sourced

  • If you really look at it, I was trying to sell a dream ... There was very little I could put in concrete to tell these people it was really real.
    • In an interview, April 9, 1995, about his efforts at persuading telecommunications companies to use optical fibers, as quoted by Jeff Hecht (2004). City of light: the story of fiber optics. Oxford University Press. p. 117. ISBN 0195162552.  

External links

Wikipedia
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