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Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Detail of a portrait of Queen Charlotte by Esther Denner, 1761
Queen consort of Great Britain and Ireland later
of the United Kingdom and of Hanover
Tenure 8 September 1761 – 17 November 1818 (&0000000000000057.00000057 years, &0000000000000070.00000070 days)
Coronation 22 September 1761
Spouse George III
Issue
George IV
Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
William IV
Charlotte, Queen of Württemberg
Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Princess Augusta Sophia
Elizabeth, Langravine of Hesse-Homburg
Ernest Augustus I, King of Hanover
Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex
Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Princess Sophia
Prince Octavius
Prince Alfred
Princess Amelia
Full name
Sophia Charlotte
House House of Hanover (by marriage)
House of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (by birth)
Father Charles I Ludwig Frederick, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Mother Princess Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen
Born 19 May 1744(1744-05-19)
Mirow, Germany
Died 17 November 1818 (aged 74)
Kew Palace, London
Burial 2 December 1818
St George's Chapel, Windsor

Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (19 May 1744 – 17 November 1818) was the queen-consort of the United Kingdom as wife of King George III.

Queen Charlotte was a patroness of the arts, known to Johann Christian Bach and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, among others. She was also an amateur botanist who helped establish Kew Gardens. George III and Queen Charlotte had 15 children, 13 of whom survived to adulthood.

Contents

Early life

Charlotte was the youngest daughter of Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Prince of Mirow and his wife, Princess Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen.

She was a granddaughter of Adolf Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz by his third wife, Christiane Emilie Antonie, Princess of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen. Her father's elder half brother reigned from 1708 to 1753 as Adolf Friedrich III.

For a woman marrying the sovereign of one of the most powerful countries of the time, her descent from kings was somewhat remote. All her ancestors up to the level of great-great-great-grandparents were solidly princes, dukes and counts (or the equivalent) with no kings. While her 58 closest ancestors (rather than 62; four of her great-great-great-grandparents are counted twice) included some reigning princes, one might observe that she was of ducal and princely blood, rather than royal blood. Only two of her great-great-great-great-grandfathers were kings: Gustav I of Sweden and Frederick I of Denmark and Norway. Other royal monarchs are found in her earlier ancestry.

Marriage

In 1767, Francis Cotes drew a pastel of Queen Charlotte with her eldest daughter Charlotte, Princess Royal. Lady Mary Coke called the likeness "so like that it could not be mistaken for any other person".[1]

Charlotte's brother Adolf Friedrich IV, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (reigned 1752–94) and her widowed mother actively negotiated for a prominent marriage for the young princess. At the age of 17, Charlotte was not thought conventionally pretty; she had a wide nose and mouth, and dark hair.[2] Nevertheless, she was selected as the bride of the young King George, although she was not his first choice. He had already flirted with several young women considered unsuitable by his mother, Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, and by his political advisers. He also was rumored to have married a young Quaker woman named Hannah Lightfoot, though all later claims to prove this marriage were deemed unfounded and the purported supporting documents found to be forgeries.

Princess Charlotte was collected at Cuxhaven by a squadron of British yachts and warships under Admiral Anson (including the specially renamed HMY Royal Charlotte), but on its return the squadron was subjected to westerly gales and took ten days to reach Harwich, which it did in early September 1761. Charlotte then travelled to London, where the couple were married at the Chapel Royal in St. James's Palace, London, on 8 September of that year. Looking back at her betrothal, Charlotte reflected, "The English people did not like me much, because I was not pretty." After a carriage accident in which she broke her nose, she joked "I think I was not so ugly after that!"[3]

Her mother-in-law did not welcome her with open arms, and for some time there was a slight tension between the two. However, the king's mother had yet to accept any woman with whom he was alleged to have been involved, therefore it seems that the young king cared little for her approval by this time. Despite not having been her husband's first choice as a bride, and having been treated with a general lack of sympathy by her mother-in-law, the Dowager Princess of Wales, Charlotte's marriage was a happy one, and the king was apparently never unfaithful to her. In the course of their marriage, they had 15 children, all but two of whom (Octavius and Alfred) survived into adulthood. As time went on, she wielded considerable power within the realm, although she evidently never misused it.

Interests and patronage

"Patroness of Botany, and of the Fine Arts"

Queen Charlotte was keenly interested in the fine arts and supported Johann Christian Bach, who was her music teacher. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, then aged eight, dedicated his Opus 3 to her at her request after they met in London in 1764. Charlotte sang an aria accompanied by Mozart. When Joseph Haydn visited London in 1794, Charlotte invited him to stay at Windsor.[4]

The queen also founded orphanages and a hospital for expectant mothers. The education of women was a great importance to her, and she saw to it that her daughters were better educated than was usual for young women of the day. However, she insisted that her daughters live restricted lives close to their mother, and refused to allow them to marry until they were well-advanced in years, with the result that none of her daughters had legitimate issue (one, Princess Sophia, may have had an illegitimate son).

The queen was a well-educated amateur botanist and helped establish what is today Kew Gardens. Her interest in botany led to the magnificent South African flower, the Bird of Paradise, being named Strelitzia reginae in her honour.

In 2004, the Queen's Gallery at Buckingham Palace staged an exhibition illustrating George and Charlotte's enthusiastic arts patronage, which was particularly enlightened in contrast to that of earlier Hanoverian monarchs; it compared favorably to the adventuresome tastes of the king's father, Frederick, Prince of Wales. Among the royal couple's favored craftsmen and artists were the cabinetmaker William Vile, silversmith Thomas Heming, the landscape designer Capability Brown, and the German painter Johann Zoffany, who frequently painted the king and queen and their children in charmingly informal scenes, such as a portrait of Queen Charlotte and her children as she sat at her dressing table.[5]

Up until 1788, portraits of Charlotte often depict her in maternal poses with her children, and she looks young and contented.[6] However, in that year her husband fell seriously ill and became temporarily insane. It is now thought that the King was suffering from a genetic metabolic disorder, porphyria, but at the time the cause of the King's illness was unknown. Sir Thomas Lawrence's portrait of her at this time marks a transition point after which she looks much older in her portraits. Indeed, the Assistant Keeper of Charlotte's Wardrobe, Mrs. Papendiek, wrote that the Queen was "much changed, her hair quite grey".[7]

Relations with Marie Antoinette

Queen Charlotte painted by Benjamin West ca. 1776
Charlotte sat for Sir Thomas Lawrence in September 1789. His portrait of her was exhibited at the Royal Academy the following year. Reviewers thought it "a strong likeness".[8]

The French Revolution of 1789 probably added to the strain that Charlotte felt.[9] Queen Charlotte and Queen Marie Antoinette of France kept a close relationship. Queen Charlotte was 11 years older than the Queen of France yet they shared many interests, such as their love of music and the arts in which they both enthusiastically took an interest. Never meeting face to face they kept the friendship to pen and paper. Marie Antoinette confided in the Queen of Great Britain upon the outbreak of the French Revolution. Queen Charlotte had even organized apartments to be prepared and ready for the refugee royal family of France to stay in.[10] After the execution of Marie Antoinette and the bloody events that followed, Queen Charlotte was said to be shocked and overwhelmed that such a thing could happen to a kingdom, and right on Britain's doorstep. King George lowered taxes to avoid a British revolution.

Husband's illness

After the onset of his madness, George III was placed in the care of his wife, who could not bring herself to visit him very often, due to his erratic behaviour and occasional violent reactions. However, Charlotte remained supportive of her husband as his illness, now believed to be porphyria, worsened in old age. While her son, the Prince Regent, wielded the royal power, she was her husband's legal guardian from 1811 until her death in 1818.

Later life

The queen died in the presence of her eldest son, the Prince Regent, who was holding her hand as she sat in an armchair at the family's country retreat, Dutch House in Surrey (now known as Kew Palace). She was buried at St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle. Her husband died just over a year later. She is the second longest-serving consort in British history, having served as such from her marriage (on 8 September 1761) to her death (17 November 1818), a total of 57 years and 70 days.

Her eldest son, the Prince Regent, claimed Charlotte's jewels at her death, but the rest of her property was sold at auction from May to August 1819. Her clothes, furniture, and even her snuff was sold by Christie's.[11] It is highly unlikely that her husband ever knew of her death, and he died, blind, deaf, lame and insane, fourteen months later.

Titles, style, honours and arms

Styles of
Queen Charlotte
UK Arms 1801.svg
Reference style Her Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Ma'am
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Titles and styles

  • 19 May 1744 – 8 September 1761: Her Serene Highness Duchess Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg, Princess of Mirow
  • 8 September 1761 – 17 November 1818: Her Majesty The Queen

Arms

The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom are impaled with her father's arms as Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

Arms of Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.[12]
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz with two of her children in 1765.

Issue

See also: Descendants of George III and Queen Charlotte

Name Birth Death Notes
George IV 12 August 1762 26 June 1830 married 1795, Princess Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel; had issue
The Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany 16 August 1763 5 January 1827 married 1791, Princess Frederica of Prussia; no issue
William IV 21 August 1765 20 June 1837 married 1818, Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen; no surviving legitimate issue
Charlotte, Princess Royal 29 September 1766 6 October 1828 married 1797, King Frederick of Württemberg; no surviving issue
The Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn 2 November 1767 23 January 1820 married 1818, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld; had issue (Queen Victoria)
The Princess Augusta Sophia 8 November 1768 22 September 1840 never married
The Princess Elizabeth 22 May 1770 10 January 1840 married 1818, Frederick, Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg; no issue
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover 5 June 1771 18 November 1851 married 1815, Princess Friederike of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; had issue
The Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex 27 January 1773 21 April 1843 (1) married in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act 1772, The Lady Augusta Murray; had issue; marriage annulled 1794
(2) married 1831, The Lady Cecilia Buggin (later 1st Duchess of Inverness); no issue
The Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge 24 February 1774 8 July 1850 married 1818, Princess Augusta of Hesse-Cassel; had issue
The Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester 25 April 1776 30 April 1857 married 1816, Prince William, Duke of Gloucester; no issue
The Princess Sophia 3 November 1777 27 May 1848 never married
The Prince Octavius 23 February 1779 3 May 1783 died in childhood
The Prince Alfred 22 September 1780 20 August 1782 died in childhood
The Princess Amelia 7 August 1783 2 November 1810 never married

Ancestry

Legacy

Claims of African ancestry

Queen Charlotte painted by Allan Ramsay in 1762.
Margarita de Castro e Souza genealogy and descent.JPG

Mario de Valdes y Cocom, a historian of the African diaspora, has argued[13] that Allan Ramsay, a noted abolitionist, frequently painted the Queen in works said to emphasize the alleged mulatto appearance of Charlotte, and that Ramsay's coronation portrait of Charlotte was sent to the colonies and was used by abolitionists as a de facto support for their cause. Valdes y Cocom goes on to state that, along with descriptions of a "mulatto face" (as, supposedely, Baron Stockmar, whom Valdes y Cocom wrongly considers Queen Charlotte's personal physician[14], wrote in his autobiography)[13][15], the Queen's features had also been described as Vandalic, as exemplified by a poem written for the occasion of her marriage ("most literary of these allusions", according to Valdes y Cocom)[13]:

"Descended from the warlike Vandal race,
She still preserves that title in her face.
Tho' shone their triumphs o'er Numidia's plain,
And Andalusian[16] fields their name retain;
They but subdued the southern world with arms,
She conquers still with her triumphant charms,
O! born for rule, - to whose victorious brow
The greatest monarch of the north must bow."

Valdes y Cocom does not seem to take notice that the Vandals were a Germanic people originating from Northern Europe, that migrated first to Andalusia (modern southern Spain) in 409 CE, and afterwords to North Africa in 429 CE (namely to Numidia, were they established the Vandal Kingdom in North Africa), and that this poem is an eulogy linking Queen Charlotte to that distant Germanic nation, further straining the credulity of Charlotte's supposed Sub-Saharan African ethnicity. It should be however also noticed that phrase Vandal race, used to describe Queen Charlotte, is linked with an official ducal title of the House of Mecklenburg Princeps Vandalorum ie. Prince of Wends because of their overt Slavic origin.[17][18]

All this has led Mario de Valdes y Cocom to inquire about her ancestry and research her genealogy. Still according to Valdes y Cocom, one of the possibilities for Queen Charlotte's supposed racial features is that they were a concentration of traits inherited through three to six lines from a nine times removed ancestor of hers, Margarita de Castro e Souza, a 15th century Portuguese noblewoman who traced her ancestry six generations earlier to King Afonso III of Portugal and one of his lovers, Madragana.

Critics of this theory argue that Margarita's and Madragana's distant perch in the queen's family tree, respectively 9 and 15 generations removed, makes any presumed African ancestry, Northern or sub-Saharan, negligible and no more significant in Charlotte than in any other member of any German royal house at that time, and therefore that Charlotte could hardly be accurately described as "mulatto" or "African".

Even more, Valdez y Cocom assumed that Madragana was a Black African woman. In fact, a single author, Duarte Nunes de Leão, described her as a Moor[19], that is to say, in the context of the Iberian Reconquista, someone of Islamic religion, regardless of actual ethnic origin (and that could have been Arab, North African Berber, or Muladi - native Iberian European Christians who converted to Islam after the arrival of the Moors, all of whom can be described as Caucasian or White). Modern researchers, however, believe Madragana to have been a Mozarab, that is to say an Iberian Christian living under Muslim control, of Sephardi Jewish origin.[20]

Valdez y Cocom has also argued, trying to defend the African origin of Queen Charlotte, that the Royal Household itself, at the time of Queen Elizabeth II's coronation in 1952, referred to both her Asian and African bloodlines in an apologia it published defending her position as head of the Commonwealth.[13] This is denied by Buckingham Palace.[21]

The issue remains important to Afrocentrists.

Honorific eponyms

Geographic locations

Structures

Buildings
Ships

Flora

Portrayals

Queen Charlotte was played by actress Frances White in the 1979 BBC series Prince Regent and later by Helen Mirren in the film The Madness of King George (1994).

Notes and sources

  1. ^ Levey, pp.8–9
  2. ^ Charles Dickens calls her "plain faced" in the opening sentences of A Tale of Two Cities.
  3. ^ Levey, p.3
  4. ^ Levey, p.5
  5. ^ Levey, p.4
  6. ^ Levey, pp.7–8
  7. ^ Levey, p.7
  8. ^ Levey, p.16
  9. ^ Levey, p.15
  10. ^ Fraser, Antonia: Marie Antoinette: The Journey, 2001; page 287
  11. ^ Baker, Kenneth (2005). George IV: A Life in Caricature. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 9780500251270. p.114.
  12. ^ Maclagan, Michael; Louda, Jiří (1999). Line of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe. London: Little, Brown & Co. p. 30. ISBN 0-85605-469-1. 
  13. ^ a b c d PBS - The blurred racial lines of famous families - Queen Charlotte
  14. ^ In fact, Christian Friedrich Freiherr von Stockmar was personal physician not to Queen Charlotte, but to Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha in 1816 at the time of Leopold's marriage to Princess Charlotte of the United Kingdom. See "Christian Friedrich, baron von Stockmar", in Encyclopædia Britannica (2010), retrieved February 14, 2010, and "Christian Friedrich Stockmar, Baron von", in The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition (2008), retrieved February 14, 2010.
  15. ^ Valdes y Cocom credits this sources to the "History Department of McGill University. It was the director of the Burney Project (Fanny Burney, the prolific 19th century British diarist, had been secretary to the Queen), Dr. Joyce Hemlow, who obtained from Olwen Hedly, the most recent biographer of the Queen Charlotte (1975), at least half a dozen quotes by her contemporaries regarding her negroid features." (in PBS - The blurred racial lines of famous families - Queen Charlotte).
  16. ^ In the quote by Valdes y Cocom misquoted as "And and Alusian" (PBS - The blurred racial lines of famous families - Queen Charlotte), and further misquoted as "And Alusian" in One Hundred Great Black Britons. Andalusian, refering to "Andalusia" or "Vandalusia", is a word originating in the Arabic Al-Andalus, that was traditionally believed to be derived from "Vandal" (the Germanic tribe that colonized parts of Iberia from 407 to 429).
  17. ^ Erich Bauer, F. A. Pietzsch, Kritisches zur Anfangsgeschichte der Göttinger und Heidelberger Vandalia. Einst und Jetzt 10 (1965), S. 10
  18. ^ Albert Krantz, Wandalia oder Beschreibung Wendischer Geschicht, 1636
  19. ^ Duarte Nunes de Leão,Crónica d'El Rei Dom Afonso III, 1600; modern edition: Duarte Nunes de Leão, Crónica dos Reis de Portugal, Porto, Lello & Irmão, 1975.
  20. ^ Anselmo Braamcamp Freire, Brasões da Sala de Sintra, 3 vols., Lisbon, Imprensa Nacional-Casa de Moeda, 1973; António Caetano de Sousa, História Genealógica da Casa Real Portuguesa, Coimbra, Atlântida-Livraria Editora, 1946; Felgueiras Gayo & Carvalhos de Basto, Nobiliário das Famílias de Portugal, Braga, 1989; José Augusto de Sotto Mayor Pizarro, Linhagens Medievais Portuguesas, 3 vols., Porto, Universidade Moderna, 1999; Manuel Abranches de Soveral, "Origem dos Souza ditos do Prado", in Machado de Vila Pouca de Aguiar. Ascendências e parentescos da Casa do Couto d'Além em Soutelo de Aguiar, Porto, 2000.
  21. ^ Letter from the Palace shown at OneDropRule.org - The Study of Racialism: Discussion of U.S. Racialism.

References

  • Hedley, Olwen (1975). Queen Charlotte J Murray ISBN 0-7195-3104-7
  • Levey, Michael (1977). A Royal Subject: Portraits of Queen Charlotte. London: National Gallery.

External links and references

Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Cadet branch of the House of Mecklenburg
Born: 19 May 1744 Died: 17 November 1818
British royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
Caroline of Ansbach
Queen consort of Great Britain
1761–1801
Act of Union 1801
Queen consort of Ireland
1761–1801
New title
Previously Queen consort of Great Britain and of Ireland
Queen consort of the United Kingdom
1801–1818
Vacant
Title next held by
Caroline of Brunswick
Hanoverian royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
Caroline of Ansbach
Electress of Hanover
1761–1814
Became queen consort
New title
Previously electress
Queen consort of Hanover
1814–1818
Vacant
Title next held by
Caroline of Brunswick

Simple English

Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Queen consort of the United Kingdom and of Hanover; prev.Queen consort of Great Britain; Electress consort of Hanover (more...)
File:Charlotte Esther Denner
Consort 8 September 176117 November 1818
Coronation 22 September 1761
Consort to George III
Issue
George IV
Frederick, Duke of York
William IV
Charlotte, Princess Royal
Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent
Princess Augusta Sophia
Princess Elizabeth
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex
Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
Princess Mary
Princess Sophia
Prince Octavius
Prince Alfred
Princess Amelia
Full name
Sophia Charlotte
Titles and styles
HM The Queen
HSH Duchess Sophia Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Royal house House of Hanover
House of Mecklenburg
Father Charles I Ludwig Frederick, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Mother Princess Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen
Born 19 May 1744(1744-05-19)
Mirow, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Germany
Baptised 20 May 1744
Mirow, Germany
Died November 17, 1818 (aged 74)
Kew Palace, London, England, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
Burial 2 December 1818
St George's Chapel, Windsor

Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (19 May 1744 – 17 November 1818) was the Queen of the United Kingdom as wife of King George III. She was Queen Consort of the United Kingdom from her marriage on September 8, 1761, to her death on November 18,1818. Charlotte and George III had 15 children of whom thirteen survived to adulthood. She was the longest consort, serving 58 years. She died in 1818, and George III died three years later.

Ancestors

Charlotte's ancestors in three generations
Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Father:
Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Paternal grandfather:
Adolf Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Paternal great-grandfather:
Adolf Friedrich I of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Paternal great-grandmother:
Maria Katharina of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Paternal grandmother:
Christiane Emilie of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
Paternal great-grandfather:
Christian Wilhelm I of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
Paternal great-grandmother:
Antoine Sybille of Barby-Muhlingen
Mother:
Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen
Maternal grandfather:
Ernest Frederick I of Saxe-Hildburghausen
Maternal great-grandfather:
Ernest III of Saxe-Hildburghausen
Maternal great-grandmother:
Sofie of Waldeck
Maternal grandmother:
Sofie Albertine of Erbach-Erbach
Maternal great-grandfather:
Georg Ludwig I of Erbach-Erbach
Maternal great-grandmother:
Amelie Katherine of Waldeck-Eisenberg


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