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Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union
The preamble of the Charter
The preamble of the Charter
Purpose Enshrine certain ethical principles and rights for citizens
Minibook published by the European Union containing the text of the Charter
European Union

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The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union enshrines certain political, social, and economic rights for EU citizens and residents, into EU law. It came into effect on the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon on 1 December 2009.

Under the Charter the EU must act and legislate consistently with the Charter and the EU's courts will strike down EU legislation which contravenes it. The Charter only applies to member states when they are implementing EU law and does not extend the competences of the EU beyond the competences given to it elsewhere in the treaties.

Contents

Background

The Treaty establishing the European Economic Community did not include any reference to fundamental or human rights and it is not entirely clear why. The EEC Treaty was written a few years after the failure of the European Defence Community Treaty and the European Political Community Treaty. This latter treaty had included rights provisions and Craig and de Búrca argue that, in light of the failure of that failure, the drafters of the EEC Treaty wished to eschew any implicitly political elements.[1] However the idea that the purely economic end of the new EEC Treaty would be unlikely to have any implications for fundamental rights was soon to be tested.

Soon after the entry into force of the EEC Treaty, the Community established itself as a major political entity with policy ramifications beyond its economic aims. In 1964 the European Court of Justice handed down its decision in Costa v ENEL, in which the Court decided that Community law should take precedence over conflicting national law. This meant that national government could not escape what they had agreed to at a European level by enacting conflicting domestic measures, but it also potentially meant that the EEC legislator could legislate unhindered by the restrictions imposed by fundamental rights provisions enshrined in the constitutions of member states. This issue came to a head in 1970 in the case of Handelsgesellschaft case when a German court ruled that a piece of EEC legislation infringed the German Basic Law. On a reference from the German court, the ECJ ruled that whilst the application of Community law could not depend on its consistency with national constitutions, fundamental rights did form part an "integral part of the general principles of [European Community] law" and that inconsistency with fundamental right could form the basis of a successful challenge to a European law.[2]

In ruling as it did in Handelsgesellschaft the ECJ had, in effect, created a doctrine of unwritten rights which bound the Community institutions. While the court's fundamental rights jurisprudence was approved by the institutions in 1977[3] and a statement to that effect by inserted into the treaties by the Maastricht Treaty,[4] it was only in 1999 that the European Council formally went about the process of initiating the drafting a codified catalogue of fundamental rights for the EU.

In 1999 the European Council proposed that a "body composed of representatives of the Heads of State and Government and of the President of the Commission as well as of members of the European Parliament and national parliaments" would be set up to draft a fundamental rights charter.[5] On being constituted in December of that year the "body" entitled itself the European Convention.[6]

The Convention adopted the draft on 2 October 2000 and it was solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the European Commission on 7 December 2000. It was at the same time, however, decided to defer making a decision on the Charter's legal status.[7]

A modified Charter formed part of the defunct European Constitution. After that treaty's failure, its replacement, the Lisbon Treaty, also gave force to the Charter albeit by referencing it an independent document rather than by incorporating it into the treaty itself. It should be noted, however that both the version included in the Constitution and that referenced by the Lisbon Treaty were amended versions.

After the Charter was solemnly proclaimed in 2000 and before the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009, the Charter had no legal status but did come with the political weight of having been approved by three powerful institutions. And as such was regularly cited by the ECJ as a source of fundamental rights.

Legal status

Following the coming into force of the Lisbon Treaty in 2009 the Fundamental Rights' Charter has the same legal value as the European Union Treaties. The Charter referred to in the Treaty is an amended version of the 2000 document which was solemnly declared by the same three institutions a day before the signing the the Lisbon Treaty itself.

Article 51(1) of the Charter address the Charter the the EU institutions, to bodies established under EU law and, when implementing EU laws, the EU's member states. In addition both Article 6 of the amended Treaty of European Union and Article 51(2) of the Charter itself restrict the Charter from extending the competences of the EU. A consequence of this is that the EU will not be able to legislate to vindicate a right set out in the Charter unless the power to do such is set out in the Treaties proper. And individuals will not be able to take member states to court because they have failed to uphold the rights in the Charter unless the member state in question was implementing EU law. It is this last element of these that has been subject to the most debate.

The Charter is not the first outing for human jurisprudence in the EU. In interpreting the general principles of EU law described above, the European Court of Justice has already dealt the issue of whether those general principles applied to member states. Having ruled in Johnston v Royal Ulster Constabulary that a right to fair procedures was one of the general principles of EU law, in Kremzow v Austria the ECJ had to decide whether or not a member state were obliged to apply that principle in relation to a wrongful conviction for murder. Kremzow argued that his case came with the scope of EU law on the grounds that his wrongful conviction and sentence had breached his right to free movement within the EU. The ECJ responded by saying that since the laws under which Kremzow had been convicted were not enacted to secure compliance with EU law, his predicament fell outside the scope of EU law.

It may be noted, however, that the wording in Kremzow, referring to the "field of application of EU law", differs from the wording in the Charter which refers to the implementation of EU law. Although the amended explanatory memorandum issued alongside the Charter in 2007 describes the wording used in the Charter as reflecting ECJ precedent.

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The Polish and United Kingdom protocol

The United Kingdom and Poland have interpretations of the treaty as described in their attached protocol. The protocol limits justiciability of the charter in UK and Poland. In practice this means that European Courts cannot force changes to laws on labour rights in Britain and on individual rights – such as same-sex marriage or abortion – in Poland. The president of the Czech Republic, Vaclav Klaus, has also negotiated an opt-out from the Charter without which, he feared, Germans expelled from Czechoslovakia after WWII could claim property back.[8] The Czech opt-out is not, however, included in the Treaty of Lisbon itself, but will form part of a future treaty, probably the Croatian accession treaty.

Notable provisions

The Charter is organized into 6 titles: dignity, freedoms, equality, solidarity, citizens’ rights, and justice. The second, third, and fourth rubrics reflect the three generations of human rights after Karel Vasak.

  • (Article 2.2) Prohibition of the death penalty.
  • (Article 3) Prohibition of reproductive cloning of human beings
  • (Article 8) Protection of personal data, right to obtain and rectify personal data
  • (Article 53) ‘Nothing in this Charter shall be interpreted as restricting or adversely affecting human rights and fundamental freedoms as recognised, in their respective fields of application, by Union law and international law and by international agreements to which the Union, the Community or all the Member States are party, including the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, and by the Member States' constitutions.’

See also

References

  1. ^ Craig, Paul; de Búrca, Gráinne (2003). EU Law, Text, Cases and Materials (3th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 318.  
  2. ^ Case 228/69, Internationale Handelsgesellschaft mbH v. Einfuhr und Vorratsstelle für Getreide und Futtermittel [1970] ECR 1125; [1972] CMLR 255.
  3. ^ Joint Declaration by the European Parliament, Council and the Commission concerning the protection of fundamental rights and the ECHR (OJ C 103, 27/04/1977 P. 1-2)
  4. ^ By Article F of the Maastricht Treaty Maastricht Treaty.
  5. ^ Presidency Conclusions: Cologne European Council 3 And 4 June 1999, Council of the European Union, http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/en/ec/kolnen.htm, retrieved 23 December 2009  
  6. ^ The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, European Parliament, 21 February 2001, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/charter/default_en.htm, retrieved 23 December 2009  
  7. ^ European Council - Nice 7-10 December 2000: Conclusions Of The Presidency, European Parliament, 11 December 2000, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/summits/nice1_en.htm, retrieved 23 December 2009  
  8. ^ BBC News (2009-11-24): Q&A: The Lisbon Treaty

Further reading

External links


Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Charter of Fundamental Rights
The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, 'solemnly proclaimed' by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission on December 7, 2000. An adapted version of the Charter was proclaimed on December 12, 2007 in Strasbourg, ahead of the signing of the Treaty of Lisbon, which makes the Charter legally binding in all countries except Poland and the United Kingdom.Excerpted from Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

2000-12-18 EN Official Journal of the European Communities C 364

SOLEMN PROCLAMATION

The European Parliament, the Council and the Commission solemnly proclaim the text below as the

Charter of fundamental rights of the European Union.

Done at Nice on the seventh day of December in the year two thousand.

For the European Parliament

For the Council of the European Union

For the European Commission

PREAMBLE

The peoples of Europe, in creating an ever closer union among them, are resolved to share a peaceful future based on common values.

Conscious of its spiritual and moral heritage, the Union is founded on the indivisible, universal values of human dignity, freedom, equality and solidarity; it is based on the principles of democracy and the rule of law. It places the individual at the heart of its activities, by establishing the citizenship of the Union and by creating an area of freedom, security and justice.

The Union contributes to the preservation and to the development of these common values while respecting the diversity of the cultures and traditions of the peoples of Europe as well as the national identities of the Member States and the organisation of their public authorities at national, regional and local levels; it seeks to promote balanced and sustainable development and ensures free movement of persons, goods, services and capital, and the freedom of establishment.

To this end, it is necessary to strengthen the protection of fundamental rights in the light of changes in society, social progress and scientific and technological developments by making those rights more visible in a Charter.

This Charter reaffirms, with due regard for the powers and tasks of the Community and the Union and the principle of subsidiarity, the rights as they result, in particular, from the constitutional traditions and international obligations common to the Member States, the Treaty on European Union, the Community Treaties, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the Social Charters adopted by the Community and by the Council of Europe and the case-law of the Court of Justice of the European Communities and of the European Court of Human Rights.

Enjoyment of these rights entails responsibilities and duties with regard to other persons, to the human community and to future generations.

The Union therefore recognises the rights, freedoms and principles set out hereafter.

Contents

CHAPTER I. DIGNITY

Article 1. Human dignity.

Human dignity is inviolable. It must be respected and protected.

Article 2. Right to life.

  1. Everyone has the right to life.
  2. No one shall be condemned to the death penalty, or executed.

Article 3. Right to the integrity of the person.

  1. Everyone has the right to respect for his or her physical and mental integrity.
  2. In the fields of medicine and biology, the following must be respected in particular:
    1. the free and informed consent of the person concerned, according to the procedures laid down by law,
    2. the prohibition of eugenic practices, in particular those aiming at the selection of persons,
    3. the prohibition on making the human body and its parts as such a source of financial gain,
    4. the prohibition of the reproductive cloning of human beings.

Article 4. Prohibition of torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment

No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 5. Prohibition of slavery and forced labour

  1. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude.
  2. No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour.
  3. Trafficking in human beings is prohibited.

CHAPTER II. FREEDOMS

Article 6. Right to liberty and security

Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person.

Article 7. Respect for private and family life

Everyone has the right to respect for his or her private and family life, home and communications.

Article 8. Protection of personal data

  1. Everyone has the right to the protection of personal data concerning him or her.
  2. Such data must be processed fairly for specified purposes and on the basis of the consent of the person concerned or some other legitimate basis laid down by law. Everyone has the right of access to data which has been collected concerning him or her, and the right to have it rectified.
  3. Compliance with these rules shall be subject to control by an independent authority.

Article 9. Right to marry and right to found a family

The right to marry and the right to found a family shall be guaranteed in accordance with the national laws governing the exercise of these rights.

Article 10. Freedom of thought, conscience and religion

  1. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right includes freedom to change religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or in private, to manifest religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance.
  2. The right to conscientious objection is recognised, in accordance with the national laws governing the exercise of this right.

Article 11. Freedom of expression and information

  1. Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers.
  2. The freedom and pluralism of the media shall be respected.

Article 12. Freedom of assembly and of association

  1. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and to freedom of association at all levels, in particular in political, trade union and civic matters, which implies the right of everyone to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his or her interests.
  2. Political parties at Union level contribute to expressing the political will of the citizens of the Union.

Article 13. Freedom of the arts and sciences

The arts and scientific research shall be free of constraint. Academic freedom shall be respected.

Article 14. Right to education

  1. Everyone has the right to education and to have access to vocational and continuing training.
  2. This right includes the possibility to receive free compulsory education.
  3. The freedom to found educational establishments with due respect for democratic principles and the right of parents to ensure the education and teaching of their children in conformity with their religious, philosophical and pedagogical convictions shall be respected, in accordance with the national laws governing the exercise of such freedom and right.

Article 15. Freedom to choose an occupation and right to engage in work

  1. Everyone has the right to engage in work and to pursue a freely chosen or accepted occupation.
  2. Every citizen of the Union has the freedom to seek employment, to work, to exercise the right of establishment and to provide services in any Member State.
  3. Nationals of third countries who are authorised to work in the territories of the Member States are entitled to working conditions equivalent to those of citizens of the Union.

Article 16. Freedom to conduct a business

The freedom to conduct a business in accordance with Community law and national laws and practices is recognised.

Article 17. Right to property

  1. Everyone has the right to own, use, dispose of and bequeath his or her lawfully acquired possessions. No one may be deprived of his or her possessions, except in the public interest and in the cases and under the conditions provided for by law, subject to fair compensation being paid in good time for their loss. The use of property may be regulated by law in so far as is necessary for the general interest.
  2. Intellectual property shall be protected.

Article 18. Right to asylum

The right to asylum shall be guaranteed with due respect for the rules of the Geneva Convention of 28 July 1951 and the Protocol of 31 January 1967 relating to the status of refugees and in accordance with the Treaty establishing the European Community.

Article 19. Protection in the event of removal, expulsion or extradition

  1. Collective expulsions are prohibited.
  2. No one may be removed, expelled or extradited to a State where there is a serious risk that he or she would be subjected to the death penalty, torture or other inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

CHAPTER III. EQUALITY

Article 20. Equality before the law

Everyone is equal before the law.

Article 21. Non-discrimination

  1. Any discrimination based on any ground such as sex, race, colour, ethnic or social origin, genetic features, language, religion or belief, political or any other opinion, membership of a national minority, property, birth, disability, age or sexual orientation shall be prohibited.
  2. Within the scope of application of the Treaty establishing the European Community and of the Treaty on European Union, and without prejudice to the special provisions of those Treaties, any discrimination on grounds of nationality shall be prohibited.

Article 22. Cultural, religious and linguistic diversity

The Union shall respect cultural, religious and linguistic diversity.

Article 23. Equality between men and women

Equality between men and women must be ensured in all areas, including employment, work and pay. The principle of equality shall not prevent the maintenance or adoption of measures providing for specific advantages in favour of the under-represented sex.

Article 24. The rights of the child

  1. Children shall have the right to such protection and care as is necessary for their well-being. They may express their views freely. Such views shall be taken into consideration on matters which concern them in accordance with their age and maturity.
  2. In all actions relating to children, whether taken by public authorities or private institutions, the child's best interests must be a primary consideration.
  3. Every child shall have the right to maintain on a regular basis a personal relationship and direct contact with both his or her parents, unless that is contrary to his or her interests.

Article 25. The rights of the elderly

The Union recognises and respects the rights of the elderly to lead a life of dignity and independence and to participate in social and cultural life.

Article 26. Integration of persons with disabilities

The Union recognises and respects the right of persons with disabilities to benefit from measures designed to ensure their independence, social and occupational integration and participation in the life of the community.

CHAPTER IV. SOLIDARITY

Article 27. Workers' right to information and consultation within the undertaking

Workers or their representatives must, at the appropriate levels, be guaranteed information and consultation in good time in the cases and under the conditions provided for by Community law and national laws and practices.

Article 28. Right of collective bargaining and action

Workers and employers, or their respective organisations, have, in accordance with Community law and national laws and practices, the right to negotiate and conclude collective agreements at the appropriate levels and, in cases of conflicts of interest, to take collective action to defend their interests, including strike action.

Article 29. Right of access to placement services

Everyone has the right of access to a free placement service.

Article 30. Protection in the event of unjustified dismissal

Every worker has the right to protection against unjustified dismissal, in accordance with Community law and national laws and practices.

Article 31. Fair and just working conditions

  1. Every worker has the right to working conditions which respect his or her health, safety and dignity.
  2. Every worker has the right to limitation of maximum working hours, to daily and weekly rest periods and to an annual period of paid leave.

Article 32. Prohibition of child labour and protection of young people at work

  1. The employment of children is prohibited. The minimum age of admission to employment may not be lower than the minimum school-leaving age, without prejudice to such rules as may be more favourable to young people and except for limited derogations.
  2. Young people admitted to work must have working conditions appropriate to their age and be protected against economic exploitation and any work likely to harm their safety, health or physical, mental, moral or social development or to interfere with their education.

Article 33. Family and professional life

  1. The family shall enjoy legal, economic and social protection.
  2. To reconcile family and professional life, everyone shall have the right to protection from dismissal for a reason connected with maternity and the right to paid maternity leave and to parental leave following the birth or adoption of a child.

Article 34. Social security and social assistance

  1. The Union recognises and respects the entitlement to social security benefits and social services providing protection in cases such as maternity, illness, industrial accidents, dependency or old age, and in the case of loss of employment, in accordance with the rules laid down by Community law and national laws and practices.
  2. Everyone residing and moving legally within the European Union is entitled to social security benefits and social advantages in accordance with Community law and national laws and practices.
  3. In order to combat social exclusion and poverty, the Union recognises and respects the right to social and housing assistance so as to ensure a decent existence for all those who lack sufficient resources, in accordance with the rules laid down by Community law and national laws and practices.

Article 35. Health care

Everyone has the right of access to preventive health care and the right to benefit from medical treatment under the conditions established by national laws and practices. A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all Union policies and activities.

Article 36. Access to services of general economic interest

The Union recognises and respects access to services of general economic interest as provided for in national laws and practices, in accordance with the Treaty establishing the European Community, in order to promote the social and territorial cohesion of the Union.

Article 37. Environmental protection

A high level of environmental protection and the improvement of the quality of the environment must be integrated into the policies of the Union and ensured in accordance with the principle of sustainable development.

Article 38. Consumer protection

Union policies shall ensure a high level of consumer protection.

CHAPTER V. CITIZENS' RIGHTS

Article 39. Right to vote and to stand as a candidate at elections to the European Parliament

  1. Every citizen of the Union has the right to vote and to stand as a candidate at elections to the European Parliament in the Member State in which he or she resides, under the same conditions as nationals of that State.
  2. Members of the European Parliament shall be elected by direct universal suffrage in a free and secret ballot.

Article 40. Right to vote and to stand as a candidate at municipal elections

Every citizen of the Union has the right to vote and to stand as a candidate at municipal elections in the Member State in which he or she resides under the same conditions as nationals of that State.

Article 41. Right to good administration

  1. Every person has the right to have his or her affairs handled impartially, fairly and within a reasonable time by the institutions and bodies of the Union.
  2. This right includes:
    1. the right of every person to be heard, before any individual measure which would affect him or her adversely is taken;
    2. the right of every person to have access to his or her file, while respecting the legitimate interests of confidentiality and of professional and business secrecy;
    3. the obligation of the administration to give reasons for its decisions.
  3. Every person has the right to have the Community make good any damage caused by its institutions or by its servants in the performance of their duties, in accordance with the general principles common to the laws of the Member States.
  4. Every person may write to the institutions of the Union in one of the languages of the Treaties and must have an answer in the same language.

Article 42. Right of access to documents

Any citizen of the Union, and any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office in a Member State, has a right of access to European Parliament, Council and Commission documents.

Article 43. Ombudsman

Any citizen of the Union and any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office in a Member State has the right to refer to the Ombudsman of the Union cases of maladministration in the activities of the Community institutions or bodies, with the exception of the Court of Justice and the Court of First Instance acting in their judicial role.

Article 44. Right to petition

Any citizen of the Union and any natural or legal person residing or having its registered office in a Member State has the right to petition the European Parliament.

Article 45. Freedom of movement and of residence

  1. Every citizen of the Union has the right to move and reside freely within the territory of the Member States.
  2. Freedom of movement and residence may be granted, in accordance with the Treaty establishing the European Community, to nationals of third countries legally resident in the territory of a Member State.

Article 46. Diplomatic and consular protection

Every citizen of the Union shall, in the territory of a third country in which the Member State of which he or she is a national is not represented, be entitled to protection by the diplomatic or consular authorities of any Member State, on the same conditions as the nationals of that Member State.

CHAPTER VI. JUSTICE

Article 47. Right to an effective remedy and to a fair trial

  1. Everyone whose rights and freedoms guaranteed by the law of the Union are violated has the right to an effective remedy before a tribunal in compliance with the conditions laid down in this Article.
  2. Everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal previously established by law. Everyone shall have the possibility of being advised, defended and represented.
  3. Legal aid shall be made available to those who lack sufficient resources in so far as such aid is necessary to ensure effective access to justice.

Article 48. Presumption of innocence and right of defence

  1. Everyone who has been charged shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.
  2. Respect for the rights of the defence of anyone who has been charged shall be guaranteed.

Article 49. Principles of legality and proportionality of criminal offences and penalties

  1. No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence under national law or international law at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than that which was applicable at the time the criminal offence was committed. If, subsequent to the commission of a criminal offence, the law provides for a lighter penalty, that penalty shall be applicable.
  2. This Article shall not prejudice the trial and punishment of any person for any act or omission which, at the time when it was committed, was criminal according to the general principles recognised by the community of nations.
  3. The severity of penalties must not be disproportionate to the criminal offence.

Article 50. Right not to be tried or punished twice in criminal proceedings for the same criminal offence

No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again in criminal proceedings for an offence for which he or she has already been finally acquitted or convicted within the Union in accordance with the law.

CHAPTER VII. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 51. Scope

  1. The provisions of this Charter are addressed to the institutions and bodies of the Union with due regard for the principle of subsidiarity and to the Member States only when they are implementing Union law. They shall therefore respect the rights, observe the principles and promote the application thereof in accordance with their respective powers.
  2. This Charter does not establish any new power or task for the Community or the Union, or modify powers and tasks defined by the Treaties.

Article 52. Scope of guaranteed rights

  1. Any limitation on the exercise of the rights and freedoms recognised by this Charter must be provided for by law and respect the essence of those rights and freedoms. Subject to the principle of proportionality, limitations may be made only if they are necessary and genuinely meet objectives of general interest recognised by the Union or the need to protect the rights and freedoms of others.
  2. Rights recognised by this Charter which are based on the Community Treaties or the Treaty on European Union shall be exercised under the conditions and within the limits defined by those Treaties.
  3. In so far as this Charter contains rights which correspond to rights guaranteed by the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, the meaning and scope of those rights shall be the same as those laid down by the said Convention. This provision shall not prevent Union law providing more extensive protection.

Article 53. Level of protection

Nothing in this Charter shall be interpreted as restricting or adversely affecting human rights and fundamental freedoms as recognised, in their respective fields of application, by Union law and international law and by international agreements to which the Union, the Community or all the Member States are party, including the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, and by the Member States' constitutions.

Article 54. Prohibition of abuse of rights

Nothing in this Charter shall be interpreted as implying any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms recognised in this Charter or at their limitation to a greater extent than is provided for herein.

© European Communities, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/. It is permitted to reuse this legislation on the condition that the following disclaimer is noted:
Only European Union legislation printed in the paper edition of the Official Journal of the European Union is deemed authentic.

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