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Rajput, Jat & Gurjar[1] clan : Chauhan (चौहान)
Vansh Agnivanshi
Descended from: Dhundhar
Branches: Sanchora, Sonigara, Hadas, Deoras, Kheechi's, Bhadurias
Ruled in Nadol, Jalor, Dhundhar, Ajmer, Delhi, Haryana, Hadoti, Godwar
Princely states: Ajmer (7th c.-1365)
Ranthambore (1236-1302), Neemrana, Mainpuri (U.P)

Chauhan or Chohan (Hindi: चौहान Urdu: چوہان) - is a clan who ruled parts of northern India in the Middle Ages. The Chauhan gotra (lineage) is found among the Rajputs[2], Jats[3] and Gujjars[4],

Contents

Origins

According to the Rajput bards, Chauhan is one of the four Agnikula or 'fire sprung' clans, deriving their origin from a sacrificial fire-pit (agnikunda) at Mount Abu to fight against the Asuras or demons. Chauhan is also one of the 36 ruling races of the Rajputs.[5][6] Agnikula origin was perpetuated by later manuscripts of Raso from the 16th century onwards.

According a number of scholars Chauhans were originally Gurjars[7] and Chauhan was prominent clan of the Gujjars.[8]

History

The Chauhans later asserted their independence from the Pratiharas, and in the early eleventh century, the Sakhambari king Ajaya-Raja founded the city of Ajayameru (Ajmer) in the southern part of their kingdom, and in the mid twelfth century, his successor Vigraharaja enlarged the state, captured Dhilika (the ancient name of Delhi) from the Tomaras and annexed some of their territory along the Yamuna River, including Haryana and Delhi. In 12th century the Chauhans dominated Delhi, Ajmer and Ranthambhor. They were also prominent at Godwar in the southwest of Rajputana, and at Hadoti (Bundi and Kota) in the east. Chauhans adopted a political policy that saw them indulge largely in campaigns against the Chalukyas and the Muslim invaders.

Rise of the Soods

The Chauhan dynasty flourished from the 8th to 12th centuries AD. It was one of the four main Rajput dynasties of that era, the others being Pratiharas, Paramaras and Chalukyas. Chauhan dynasties established themselves in several places in North India and in the state of Gujarat in Western India. They were also prominent at Sirohi in the southwest of Rajputana, and at Bundi and Kota in the east. Inscriptions also associate them with Sambhar, the salt lake area in the Amber (later Jaipur) district (the Sakhambari branch remained near lake Sambhar and married into the ruling Gurjara-Pratihara, who then ruled an empire in Northern India). Chauhans adopted a political policy that saw them indulge largely in campaigns against the Chalukyas and the invading Muslim hordes. In the 11th century they founded the city of Ajayameru (Ajmer) in the southern part of their kingdom, and in the 12th century captured Dhilika (the ancient name of Delhi) from the Tanwar and annexed some of their territory along the Yamuna River.

Prithviraj Chauhan

Prithviraj III has become famous in folk tales and historical literature as the Juhan king of Delhi who resisted the Muslim attack in the First Battle of Tarain (1191). Armies from other Rajput kingdoms, including Mewar assisted him. However, Prithviraj was defeated in the Second Battle of Tarain the following year. This failure ushered in Muslim rule in North India in the form of the Slave Dynasty, the first of the Delhi Sultanates.

Ajmer,erected its castle of Taragarh. The name of Ajaipal is one of the most conspicuous that tradition has preserved, and is always followed by the epithet of Chakravartin, or uni-versal potentate. His era must ever remain doubtful, unless, as already observed, we should master the characters said to belong to this race, and which are still extant, both on stone and on copper. Prithi Pahar was brought from Mahishmati to Ajmer. By a single wife he had twenty-four sons, whose progeny peopled these regions, one of whose descendants, Manika Rae, was lord of Ajmer and Sambhar, in the year S. 741, or A.D. 685. Prithiraj, the descen-dant of Manika Rae, even when emperor of all Northern India. Manika Rae, whom we may consider as the founder of the Chauhans of the north, recovered Ajmer. He had a numerous progeny, who established many petty dynasties throughout Western Rajwara, giving birth to various tribes, which are spread even to the Indus. The Khichi, the Hara, the Mohil, the Nirwana, Bhadauria, the Bhaurecha,the Dhanetiya, and the Baghrecha, are all descended from him.


The Chauhan kingdom became the leading state and a powerful kingdom in Northern India under King Prithviraj III (1165-1192), also known as Prithvi Raj Chauhan or Rai Pithora. Prithviraj III has become famous in folk tales and historical literature as the Chauhan king of Delhi who resisted and repelled the invasion by Mohammed of Ghor at the first Battle of Tarain in 1191. Armies from other Rajput kingdoms, including Mewar, assisted him. The Chauhan kingdom collapsed after Prithviraj faced defeat in the war.[9][10] the battle ground against Mohammed of Ghor in 1192 at the Second Battle of Tarain.

After Prithviraj III

Prithviraj's defeat and capture at Tarain ushered in Muslim rule in North India by the Delhi Sultanate. The Chauhans of Ajmer remained in exile due to Muhammad of Ghor and his successors, the Sultans of Delhi, and thus swelled the ranks of the armed forces of the Maharana of Mewar, until 1365, when Ajmer was captured by the Sisodias rulers of Mewar, and Ajmer was then returned to the Chauhans.

A branch of the Chauhans, led by Govinda, the grandson of Pritviraj III, established themselves as rulers of Ranthambore from the thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries, until Ranthambore was captured by Rana Kumbha of Mewar. The Hadas, great dynasty of the Chauhans, moved into the Hadoti region in the twelfth century, capturing Bundi in 1241 and ruled there until the twentieth century. One sept of these Hada Rajputs won KotaThe Dhanetiyas of Shahabad, which by a singular fatality has at length come into the possession of the Hadas of Kota and ruled their till the merger of state in independent India.

Chauhans of the Deora branch established the state of Sirohi in southern Rajasthan, and ruled there from the fifteenth century until Indian Independence. In western India, Chauhans are found at Devgadh Baria, founded by Dungarsinhji, a member of the Khichi Chauhan clan about 700 years ago. Rajkumar (Bhadaiyan State of Awadh), Bachgoti (Diyara State of Awadh)and Rajwar are three other branches of Chauhans in Uttar Pradesh. Chauhan's are also found in Khurja Dasheri and Arnia.

Madho Prasad Singh (of Adharganj), Rai. Born in October 1847. The title is hereditary, the Rai being the representative of the great Bachgoti sept of Rajputs, sprung from the ancient and illustrious family of the Chauhan Rajputs of Mainpuri (q.v.) The sept having incurred the excessive wrath of the Emperor Ala -ud- din of Delhi, who vowed its extermination, the survivors emigrated, and for safety's sake adopted the name of Vasishtagoti (contracted into Batasgoti, and ultimately Bachgoti), from the saint who called forth their ancestor (the Agnikula) from the fire to defend the Munis of Mount Abu against the demons. The Chief, Bariar Singh, descendant of Chahir Deo, Prithvi Raj's brother, left Sambhalgarh, and wandering eastward, settled about 1248 A.D. in Sultanpur, Oudh. He married the daughter of Raja Ram Deo, Bhilkaria, Chief of Patti, became chief military officer under the Raja, and ultimately dispossessed his brother-in-law, and seized the territory. His descendant, Bodh Singh, received the title of Rai. The Santak of the Chauhan Rajputs, called Cfiakra, used in the seal and for signature. (A circle with four Trisulas or Tridents as radii at the cardinal points.)

Diaspora in India

The Chauhan Rajputs come from the region around the lakes of Sambhar and Pushkar in Rajasthan, near Amber and present-day Marwar, Mewar Jaipur. Other seats of Chauhans are Mainpuri in Uttar Pradesh, Uttarkhand, Himachal Pradesh and Neemrana in Alwar District of Rajasthan. There is a great village of the Chauhan clan by the name of Gura Sonigara near Pali in Rajasthan. These Chauhans belong to Man Singot Sonigara Chouhan. Another village of Chauhans is Amin near Thanesar in Haryana. These Chauhans belong to the Ror community. The average height of the Ror Chauhans of Amin is well over six feet. Amin is also supposed to be the village where the Pandavas arrayed their forces before the last battle in the war of Mahabharat.

In Gujarat Chauhans ruled a few states like Chota Udepur, Mundetti and Vav. Sanchora Chauhans of Mundetti are well known for their valor both during the Marwar Raj and British Raj. Surajmal Chauhan is a very popular figure and well sung hero of the local folk songs of Idar State. He had challenged the British and Idar state's proprietorship of Mundetti.

One of very few Chauhan Rajput villages in Doaba Bist, Punjab is Sarhal Mundi.

Sarhal Mundi is a small village situated 5 miles south of Behram in Tehsil Phillaur, District Jallandhar, Punjab. According to Census Report for Punjab 1883 (Denzil Ibbetson) and Census Report for Punjab 1892 (E.D.Maclagan) and the book A Glossary of the tribes and casts of Punjab and N.W.F written by H. A. Rose this village is populated by Chauhan Rajputs. The common belief is that the foundation of this village was laid by Gopal Chauhan - 6th generation of Lav Dev. Some argue that Lav Dev was not Prithvi Raj's but Krishna Chauhan's son who was a General in Prithvi Raj Chauhan's army and fell martyr in the second battle against Muhammad of Ghor commonly known in the history as Muhammad Gauri.

A historic ‘Shiv Dawala’ and many old houses of small brick can roughly put the origin of this village back to as early as 16th century. It is quite probable that the ancestors of this village could be Ghorewaha Rajputs. Elders of this village also talk of Bundi links which make them Hara (Hada) Chauhan’s. Kota Shahabad is linked with Dhanetiya Chauhan's. Whatever may be the case Sarhal Mundi is one of the very few Rajput villages of Doaba besides Karnana and Sahlon which H. A. Rose’s book lists as Rajput.

This village is a nice mix of Sikh and Hindu Rajput families and many of its old inhabitants migrated to UK & USA. Just like most villages of this area Sarhal Mundi may be much older in historic terms than most of us think it is as the words ‘Mundi’ and ‘Lundi’ are found in ancient Takka language. Old excavations of ‘Harrappa’ found around these villages of Phillaur also suggest that these areas have always been the hub of civilizations just the old has been replaced by the new. Some historians believe that from time to time Rajputs of these villages found new lands rather than submitting to invaders who ruled Northern India from time to time. Genealogical and physical attributes such as tall stature, good martial skills, fair colour as compared to others, stubborn nature, sense of adventure and travel and a belly full of fire makes Doaba Bist inhabitants of these villages more akin to Rajput ancestry. Sardar Gurdial Singh as quoted by H. A. Rose believes them to be of “good Rajput blood”.

Although some historians tend to follow the thinking that Rajputs are descendants of Huns but the controversial view that Rajputs are linked to Indus Aryans holds equally powerful logic, general sharp Grecian/Mediterranean/Caucasian features hint at an Aryan/Scythic decent. No matter what the argument it has to be admitted that North India was the melting pot out of which Rajputs kept their traditions alive.

Present day Sarhal Mundi is only a shadow of its old self with many houses under lock and key and disrepair as inhabitants live abroad. The total adult population of voting age is just 1152 (M 569 F583). There is a Government Elementary School but no medical hospital. The Shrine of Baba Uttam Das and the pond are still there reviving the old nostalgia. This village is easily accessible by going to Phagwara and traveling approximately 8 miles by the side of a canal, the route used by many buses and cars.

85 villages of Chauhan's lie in Western Uttar Pradesh, in the districts of Bulandshahr, Aligarh, Agra etc. Village Davkoura in Bulandshahr has 75% Chauhan population.

Culture

Religion

In India, Chauhans are predominantly Hindu.

Some Chauhan Rajputs of the Doab region of Punjab also adopted Sikhism and are called Sikh Rajputs, not to be confused with Jat Chohans of the Punjab (who happen to write the transliteration of their name in English differently).

86 villages of chauhan's lies in western uttarpradesh, in the district of Bulandshahr, Ghaziabad, Aligarh, Agra Etc. Village Davkoura lies in Bulandshahr have 75% population of Chauhan's. Even few villages that comes under Siyana tehsil have around 90% Chauhan population. Same in case of Pisawa tehsil & village Dibha Hamidpur, where 80% population is from Chauhan. Late Sh. Sher Singh Chauhan & his son Late Sh Lakhan Singh Chauhan was a renowned freedom fighter from Dhibha village, who contributed a lot to spread the awareness about the "Quit India Movement" in 1930 decade.

Chohan/Chauhans belong to a select group of clans that are Hindus Muslims and Sikhs. While the transliteration in english can give a clue as to the origins of the individual, a particular spelling is no guarantee of where the name originates.

Chauhan rulers of Ajmer,Rajasthan

  • Ajay Pal - founded the city Ajaymeru which came to be called as Ajmer in the modern times.
  • Prithviraja I
  • Jagdeva
  • Vigraharaja IV
  • Apara Gangeya
  • Prithviraja II
  • Someshwara
  • Manu Pratap Singh Chauhan

Chauhan rulers of Mainpuri

  • Pratap Rudra Ji left Neemrana in 1310 Samvat, and establish Mainpuri as capital
  • Dhaarak Dev ji
  • Pooran Chand Dev ji
  • Karan Dev ji
  • Ghaatam Dev Ji
  • dinesh chauhan, the last Chauhan King who ruled in madanpur khadar
  • Tej singh chauhan is last chauhan king of Mainpuri

Genelogy of Early Chauhans

    MANIK RAI, King of Ajmer, ancestor of the 24 clans of the Chauhan Dynasty.
         |
     ANURAJ
       fl.685
   BISULDEO [VISALADEVA]
        | 1010/1074?
 SARANGDEO-------------------------------------------------------------------ANURAJ
        |                                                                       |
    ANAH   -   KHICHI CHAUHAN                                                    ISHTPAL   -    HARA CHAUHAN
        |                                                                         |
    JEIPAL                                                                    CHANDKARAN
        |                                                                         |
  AJAI DEO                                                                      LOKPAL
        |                                                                         |
 SOMASWAR]----KRISHNA                                                          Rao HAMIR of Aser
        | married Ruka Bai, dau of ANANGPAL,Tuar King of Delhi                      | +1193  
 PRITHVIRAJ-------CHAHIRDEO                                                        KALKARNA
        |  +1193                |                                                      |
  RAINASI               VIJAYARAJ                                                  MAHA MAGD
            +1193               | adopted as successor by his uncle.                   |
                               LAKUNSI                                              Rao BACHA
                            father of 21 sons                                          |
                            21 generations                                          Rao CHAND  
                      NONUD SINGH of Nimrana                                            | +1295
                                        fl.1820                                        RAINSI
                                                                                         |   
                                                                                      KALAN ----------- KANKAL
                                                                                          |                |                     
                                                                                      Rao BANGA       Kroria Bhati
                                                                                          |
                                                                                        Rao DEVA of Bundi [1342]

Notable Chauhans

  • MANIK RAE S. 741, or A.D. 685,founder of chauhans
  • Prithvi Raj Chauhan, Ruler of Ajmer
  • Vagbhatta, Ruler of Ranathambore
  • Jaitrasinha, Ruler of Ranathambore
  • Hammir Dev Chauhan, Ruler of Ranathambore
  • Akheraj Singh Songara, Ruler of pali Marwar
  • Hada Hameer Chauhan, Ruler of Ranthambore
  • Devi singh Dhanetiya,Thikanadar of Shahabad Kota (Rajasthan)
  • Bhagwan Singh Chauhan, Ashapurna Sansthan, Rajasthan[Social Worker].
  • Kanhad Dev Sonigara, Ruler of Jalor
  • Maharaja Vikram Dev Chauhan, Ruler of Jalor
  • Gogaji Dev Chauhan, Jahar Veer Goga, Ruler, Now worshiped as a saint
  • Rani Padmavati Chauhan, Queen of CHITTOR
  • Rani Karmavati Chauhan, Princess of Mewar,wife of Rana Sanga
  • Maharani Javanta Bai Songara (Chauhan),Mother of Maharana Pratap
  • Subhadra Kumari Chauhan, poetess of "Jhansi ki Rani
  • Jagjit Singh Chauhan,original founder of the Khalistan movement

Sportspeople

References

  1. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1834). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Volume 1999. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland.. p. 651. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=TPgAAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA651&. "By that marriage Haarsha had contracted an alliance with the dominant race of the Gurjaras, of whom the chohans were a prominent clan." 
  2. ^ Ram Sarup Joon (1968). History of the Jats. Jaitly Painting [sic] Press, foreword. p. 77. http://books.google.co.in/books?lr=&cd=25&id=fe88AAAAMAAJ&dq=chohan+are+found+among+jat+gujar+rajput&q=chauhan#search_anchor. "Chauhan gotra is found among the the Rajputs." 
  3. ^ ^ A Glossary of the Tribes & Castes of Punjab by H. A Rose
  4. ^ Dasharatha Sharma (1975). Early Chauhān dynasties: a study of Chauhān political history, Chauhān political institutions, and life in the Chauhān dominions, from 800 to 1316 A.D.. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 280. ISBN 0-8426-0618-1, ISBN 978-0-8426-0618-9. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=n4gcAAAAMAAJ&q=bhandarkar++gurjara&dq=bhandarkar++gurjara&cd=6. "According to a number of scholars, the agnikula clas were originally Gurjaras." 
  5. ^ http://www.rajasthantravelguide.com/rajasthan_tourism/rajputs/chauhan_history.html
  6. ^ ↑ Bhim Singh Dahiya, Jats the Ancient Rulers, p. 249
  7. ^ Dasharatha Sharma (1975). Early Chauhān dynasties: a study of Chauhān political history, Chauhān political institutions, and life in the Chauhān dominions, from 800 to 1316 A.D.. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 280. ISBN 0-8426-0618-1, ISBN 978-0-8426-0618-9. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=n4gcAAAAMAAJ&q=bhandarkar++gurjara&dq=bhandarkar++gurjara&cd=6. "According to a number of scholars, the agnikula clas were originally Gurjaras." 
  8. ^ Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (1834). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Volume 1999. Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland.. p. 651. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=TPgAAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA651&. "By that marriage Haarsha had contracted an alliance with the dominant race of the Gurjaras, of whom the chohans were a prominent clan." 
  9. ^ http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=L5eFzeyjBTQC&pg=PA26&lpg=PA26&dq=muhammad+sam+prithvi+defeat&source=bl&ots=3q7YwSwvq4&sig=rZNn3EWbkCoLbgEH3TDJK7zDgLs&hl=en&ei=8exRSrGLNoWNjAfB26CiBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3 Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals (1206-1526) - I By Satish Chandra
  10. ^ A History of India By August Friedrich Rudolf Hoernle, Herbert Alick Stark

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Neena Chauhan article)

From Wikispecies

Neena Chauhan (Chauhan)

Entomologist (Coleoptera)








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