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A platter with cheese and garnishes
Wheels of Gouda
Cheese is a generic term for a diverse group of milk-based food products. .Cheese is produced throughout the world in wide-ranging flavors, textures, and forms.^ This cow's milk cheese was first produced in 1956, which makes it very young in the world of cheese, considering it's estimated that cheese has been around for 5000 years.

^ A hard textured cheese with a natural ashed rind, this cheese has a complex, sharp flavor that will appeal to a wide number of cheese lovers.

^ A hearty, full flavored sheep's milk cheese produced in our plant in the village of Nepi, using the finest milk from sheep in the Lazio region.

.Cheese consists of proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of cows, buffalo, goats, or sheep.^ This is a cheese made from 100% sheep's milk.

^ This unusual cheese is made from un-pasteurized goat's or sheep's milk.

^ Sometimes the cheese is made only from goats milk, or a mixture of goat and cow milk.

.It is produced by coagulation of the milk protein casein.^ The milk, rich in fat and protein, is selected from small producers, analyzed regularly and has no additives or hormones.

^ Merendeiras de Nisa is produced with raw sheep's milk and uses thistle flower for coagulation.

Typically, the milk is acidified and addition of the enzyme rennet causes coagulation. The solids are separated and pressed into final form.[1] .Some cheeses have molds on the rind or throughout.^ It is a simple, washed-rind cheese with irregular holes throughout.

^ In aged types, like the Robiola della Valsassina, the cheese is aged in natural caves, where it forms a thin rind of a pinkish color veiled by a layer of greenish mold.

^ It is typically preferred after the rind develops a slight blue mold, & the cheese has become creamy, however; by that time the herbs have dried out too much to be edible.

.Most cheeses melt at cooking temperature.^ As with most cheeses, especially mild ones, Brie should be served at room temperature.

^ As with most cheeses, Peillout should always be served at room temperature so its full flavor is allowed to develop.

^ Served melted with baked potatoes and cooked and cured meats, the cheese demonstrates all its delicious gustative qualities.

.Hundreds of types of cheese are produced.^ Keep in mind that Cheeses are living things, and they each have there own unique characteristics, even amongst cheeses of the same type and producer.

.Their styles, textures and flavors depend on the origin of the milk (including the animal's diet), whether they have been pasteurized, the butterfat content, the bacteria and mold, the processing, and aging.^ As it ages, the flavor becomes more pungent and the texture more granular, making it ideal for grating.

^ It is delicately flavored, hinting at its sweet sheep's milk content.

^ Creamery, semi-firm to hard (depending on age), cow's milk cheese produced in Normandie.

.Herbs, spices, or wood smoke may be used as flavoring agents.^ It gets the best flavor from being smoked with hawthorne & cherry wood.

^ The smoked flavor comes from aging the cheese on abedul wood.

.The yellow to red color of many cheeses is from adding annatto.^ This washing of the rind produces a slightly corrugated and humid, yellow coating which turns red over time and protects the cheese as it ages.

^ Serpa, named for the town of the Baixo Alentejo, is straw yellow colored with a stronger flavor and aroma than cheese from Beira (such as Amarelo).

^ It is a much sharper cheese and is colored with annatto to give it a bright orange hue.

.For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such as vinegar or lemon juice.^ Cow's-milk mozzarella (such as most domestic ones) are balls of fresh cheese swimming in brine, with a similar texture to authentic mozzarella, but absolutely tasteless.

^ To make Gruyre, raw milk is heated to 93 F and liquid rennet is added for curdling.

^ Other cheeses are derived from their dialectal words such as Raclette (to scrape) or Reblochon (from reblocher meaning to milk again).

.Most cheeses are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria, which turn milk sugars into lactic acid, then the addition of rennet completes the curdling.^ Brie is a soft-ripened cow's milk cheese that has become the most well known French cheese and has the nickname "The Queen of Cheeses".

^ Ricotta Salata, or salted ricotta, is one of Italy's most unusual and least understood sheep's milk cheeses.

^ Cow's-milk mozzarella (such as most domestic ones) are balls of fresh cheese swimming in brine, with a similar texture to authentic mozzarella, but absolutely tasteless.

.Vegetarian alternatives to rennet are available; most are produced by fermentation of the fungus Mucor miehei, but others have been extracted from various species of the Cynara thistle family.^ This is the most famous Catalan cheese produced by Josep and family just outside of Tarragona.

.Cheese is valued for its portability, long life, and high content of fat, protein, calcium, and phosphorus.^ The rich and high protein milk is particularly apt for cheese making and imparts the special sweetness so characteristic of the cheese.

^ The period of ripening is at lest one month and the cheese has a fat content of 45%.

^ This is why this cheese is traditionally low in fat content (20-40 %).

.Cheese is more compact and has a longer shelf life than milk.^ Named after the Dutch town of Gouda, just outside Rotterdam, it accounts for more than 60% of the cheese produced in Holland and it has a very long history.

^ Also called Danish blue cheese, this rich cow's milk cheese is milder and less complex than Roquefort, but has a zest all its own.

^ Some time after that France alone was said to have 365 varieties of cheese, one for every day of the year, but there are certainly even more than that now.

Cheesemakers near a dairy region may benefit from fresher, lower-priced milk, and lower shipping costs. .The long storage life of some cheese, especially if it is encased in a protective rind, allows selling when markets are favorable.^ This washing of the rind produces a slightly corrugated and humid, yellow coating which turns red over time and protects the cheese as it ages.

^ If the cheese is allowed to mature longer the rinds color deepens and the mould spreads.

Contents

Etymology

Cheese on market stand in Basel, Switzerland
The word cheese ultimately comes from Latin caseus,[2] from which the modern word casein is closely derived. The earliest source is from the proto-Indo-European root *kwat-, which means "to ferment, become sour".
More recently, cheese comes from chese (in Middle English) and cīese or cēse (in Old English). Similar words are shared by other West Germanic languagesWest Frisian tsiis, Dutch kaas, German Käse, Old High German chāsi — all from the reconstructed West-Germanic form *kasjus, which in turn is an early borrowing from Latin.
.When the Romans began to make hard cheeses for their legionaries' supplies, a new word started to be used: formaticum, from caseus formatus, or "molded cheese" (as in "formed", not "moldy").^ Our friends at Ca' de Ambros began making the cheese again just this year, according to the traditional methods to preserve it's original characteristics.

^ They were able to take advantage of the lush countryside to make a full flavored cheese which is firm in texture yet rather crumbly as it is eaten when semi-hard or hard.

^ Rochebaron is made by injecting their delicious soft-as-Brie cheese with the same mold, penicillium roqueforti, that is used to produce Roquefort.

It is from this word that we get the French fromage, Italian formaggio, Catalan formatge, Breton fourmaj and Provençal furmo. .Cheese itself is occasionally employed in a sense that means "molded" or "formed". Head cheese uses the word in this sense.^ Rochebaron is made by injecting their delicious soft-as-Brie cheese with the same mold, penicillium roqueforti, that is used to produce Roquefort.

^ Other cheeses are derived from their dialectal words such as Raclette (to scrape) or Reblochon (from reblocher meaning to milk again).

^ The cheese dates back to Roman times when it was used as a form of money exchanged for other essential goods.

History

Origins

A piece of soft curd cheese, oven baked to increase longevity
Cheese is an ancient food whose origins predate recorded history. There is no conclusive evidence indicating where cheesemaking originated, either in Europe, Central Asia or the Middle East, but the practice had spread within Europe prior to Roman times and, according to Pliny the Elder, had become a sophisticated enterprise by the time the Roman Empire came into being.[3]
.Proposed dates for the origin of cheesemaking range from around 8000 BCE (when sheep were first domesticated) to around 3000 BCE. The first cheese may have been made by people in the Middle East or by nomadic Turkic tribes in Central Asia.^ This is a cheese made from 100% sheep's milk.

^ A member of the Brie family, this French soft-ripened cheese is made from sheep's milk and has a white creamy smooth interior and a flowery white edible rind.

^ This unusual cheese is made from un-pasteurized goat's or sheep's milk.

.Since animal skins and inflated internal organs have, since ancient times, provided storage vessels for a range of foodstuffs, it is probable that the process of cheese making was discovered accidentally by storing milk in a container made from the stomach of an animal, resulting in the milk being turned to curd and whey by the rennet from the stomach.^ This cheese is made with the milk of Manech ewes.

^ Traditional, creamery, stretched, curd cheese made from cow's milk.

^ This is a cheese made from 100% sheep's milk.

.There is a legend with variations about the discovery of cheese by an Arab trader who used this method of storing milk.^ The cheese is made from November through February using milk collected from a single milking.

^ It takes about 12 gallons of milk to make a wheel of cheese weighing about 9 pounds.

^ A hearty, full flavored sheep's milk cheese produced in our plant in the village of Nepi, using the finest milk from sheep in the Lazio region.

[4][5]
Cheesemaking may have begun independently of this by the pressing and salting of curdled milk in order to preserve it. .Observation that the effect of making milk in an animal stomach gave more solid and better-textured curds, may have led to the deliberate addition of rennet.^ As it ages, the flavor becomes more pungent and the texture more granular, making it ideal for grating.

^ The milk curds and whey used to make this cheese are pressed and dried even before the cheese is aged, giving this pure white cheese a dense but slightly spongy texture and a salty, milky flavor -- like a dry Italian feta.

^ To make Gruyre, raw milk is heated to 93 F and liquid rennet is added for curdling.

The earliest archeological evidence of cheesemaking has been found in Egyptian tomb murals, dating to about 2000 BCE.[6] The earliest cheeses were likely to have been quite sour and salty, similar in texture to rustic cottage cheese or feta, a crumbly, flavorful Greek cheese.
.Cheese produced in Europe, where climates are cooler than the Middle East, required less salt for preservation.^ Named after the Dutch town of Gouda, just outside Rotterdam, it accounts for more than 60% of the cheese produced in Holland and it has a very long history.

^ This genuine cheese owes it salty flavor to the area's soil, which has a high concentration of underlying bedrock salt, and thus produces grass containing hi salt levels.

.With less salt and acidity, the cheese became a suitable environment for useful microbes and molds, giving aged cheeses their pronounced and interesting flavors.^ After about 8 weeks of affinage 2 the cheese will be creamy, the blue flavor will become slightly more pronounced, but will maintain its dominant goat flavor.

^ This cheese is typically aged less than Parmigiano Reggiano, but when aged to the degree of Reggiano, it can be an optimal product.

^ Aged for about 3 months, the flavor of the cheese fills your mouth and lingers at the finish.

Ancient Greece and Rome

Cheese in a market in Italy
Ancient Greek mythology credited Aristaeus with the discovery of cheese. .Homer's Odyssey (8th century BCE) describes the Cyclops making and storing sheep's and goats' milk cheese.^ This is a cheese made from 100% sheep's milk.

^ This unusual cheese is made from un-pasteurized goat's or sheep's milk.

^ This sheep's milk cheese is produced in the Sogliano al Rubicone, region of Romagna.

From Samuel Butler's translation:
We soon reached his cave, but he was out shepherding, so we went inside and took stock of all that we could see. .His cheese-racks were loaded with cheeses, and he had more lambs and kids than his pens could hold...^ Named after the Dutch town of Gouda, just outside Rotterdam, it accounts for more than 60% of the cheese produced in Holland and it has a very long history.

^ The cheese is a darker yellow than Emmental but the texture is more dense and compact.

^ Its flavor is mild and delicate similar to but slightly more acidic than cream cheese.


.When he had so done he sat down and milked his ewes and goats, all in due course, and then let each of them have her own young.^ It is delicious when young, the pte 3 is fairly creamy & moist, the flavor fresh, tangy with the distinctive goat's milk flavor.

^ Originally a version of Banon, a goat's cheese from Provence that is dipped in eau-de-vie and wrapped in chestnut leaves, St. Marcellin is now a cheese all its own.

^ The Bordaleira ewes produce some of the finest milk in all of Portugal.

He curdled half the milk and set it aside in wicker strainers.
.By Roman times, cheese was an everyday food and cheesemaking a mature art.^ The cheese dates back to Roman times when it was used as a form of money exchanged for other essential goods.

Columella's De Re Rustica (circa 65 CE) details a cheesemaking process involving rennet coagulation, pressing of the curd, salting, and aging. .Pliny's Natural History (77 CE) devotes a chapter (XI, 97) to describing the diversity of cheeses enjoyed by Romans of the early Empire.^ When the prince returned to Paris to become King Louis XI, he brought his cheese suppliers with them, and since then, the St. Marcellin has been enjoyed by all members of French society.

.He stated that the best cheeses came from the villages near Nîmes, but did not keep long and had to be eaten fresh.^ This cheese can be eaten fresh and it is creamy to crumbly, with a tangy and somewhat spicy flavor.

.Cheeses of the Alps and Apennines were as remarkable for their variety then as now.^ Some time after that France alone was said to have 365 varieties of cheese, one for every day of the year, but there are certainly even more than that now.

.A Ligurian cheese was noted for being made mostly from sheep's milk, and some cheeses produced nearby were stated to weigh as much as a thousand pounds each.^ This cheese is made with the milk of Manech ewes.

^ This is a cheese made from 100% sheep's milk.

^ This unusual cheese is made from un-pasteurized goat's or sheep's milk.

.Goats' milk cheese was a recent taste in Rome, improved over the "medicinal taste" of Gaul's similar cheeses by smoking.^ If the cheese is allowed to ripen in a warm, humid cellar for two or three weeks, the interior of the cheese melts and the taste is similar to Brie.

^ A member of the Brie family, this French soft-ripened cheese is made from goat's milk and has a white creamy smooth interior and a flowery white edible rind.

^ Amarelo is a soft to semi-soft cheese made from either sheep's milk or a mixture of sheep's and goat's milk with a D.O.P. 1 designation.

Of cheeses from overseas, Pliny preferred those of Bithynia in Asia Minor.
Cheese, Tacuinum sanitatis Casanatensis (XIV century)

Post-classical Europe

Rome spread a uniform set of cheesemaking techniques throughout much of Europe, and introduced cheesemaking to areas without a previous history of it. .As Rome declined and long-distance trade collapsed, cheese in Europe diversified further, with various locales developing their own distinctive cheesemaking traditions and products.^ It's rich, sinfully creamy, and has a distinct, blue flavor; this wonderful product is a fantastic example of the French love for fine cheeses.

.The British Cheese Board claims that Britain has approximately 700 distinct local cheeses;[7] France and Italy have perhaps 400 each.^ This style cheese is perhaps one of the most ancient in all of Piedmont, Italy.

^ Comt is perhaps the most popular cheese in France, with well over 37,000 tons produced annually.

^ Some say the cheese originated in Holland, others claim it was always produced in France.

(A French proverb holds there is a different French cheese for every day of the year, and Charles de Gaulle once asked "how can you govern a country in which there are 246 kinds of cheese?"[8]) Still, the advancement of the cheese art in Europe was slow during the centuries after Rome's fall. Many cheeses today were first recorded in the late Middle Ages or after— cheeses like Cheddar around 1500 CE, Parmesan in 1597, Gouda in 1697, and Camembert in 1791.[9]
In 1546, The Proverbs of John Heywood claimed "the moon is made of a greene cheese." (Greene may refer here not to the color, as many now think, but to being new or unaged.)[10] Variations on this sentiment were long repeated and NASA exploited this myth for an April Fools' Day spoof announcement in 2006.[11]

Modern era

.Until its modern spread along with European culture, cheese was nearly unheard of in oriental cultures, in the pre-Columbian Americas, and only had limited use in sub-Mediterranean Africa, mainly being widespread and popular only in Europe and areas influenced strongly by its cultures.^ Only four producers make the cheese, one large factory and three artisans, our brand being artisanal.

^ From the heart of the Barcelones Mountains in Catalunya, Spain, he makes the cheese using only his own and neighboring herders fresh, same-day milk.

.But with the spread, first of European imperialism, and later of Euro-American culture and food, cheese has gradually become known and increasingly popular worldwide, though still rarely considered a part of local ethnic cuisines outside Europe, the Middle East, and the Americas.^ Slightly grainy, the cheese has a wonderful complexity of flavors - at first fruity, later becomes more earthy and nutty.

^ Brie is a soft-ripened cow's milk cheese that has become the most well known French cheese and has the nickname "The Queen of Cheeses".

.The first factory for the industrial production of cheese opened in Switzerland in 1815, but it was in the United States where large-scale production first found real success.^ A large quantity of this cheese is exported all over the world, especially to the United States.

^ An industrial cheese, it can be readily found in many supermarkets.

^ This cheese was one of the first to be accepted as an A.O.C. 1 product, in 1975.

.Credit usually goes to Jesse Williams, a dairy farmer from Rome, New York, who in 1851 started making cheese in an assembly-line fashion using the milk from neighboring farms.^ The cheese is made from November through February using milk collected from a single milking.

^ The rich and high protein milk is particularly apt for cheese making and imparts the special sweetness so characteristic of the cheese.

^ This cow's milk cheese was first produced in 1956, which makes it very young in the world of cheese, considering it's estimated that cheese has been around for 5000 years.

Within decades hundreds of such dairy associations existed.
The 1860s saw the beginnings of mass-produced rennet, and by the turn of the century scientists were producing pure microbial cultures. .Before then, bacteria in cheesemaking had come from the environment or from recycling an earlier batch's whey; the pure cultures meant a more standardized cheese could be produced.^ Produced in the heart of the Aveyron, France, this soft ripened triple cream is an amazingly rich and creamy cheese that is made from fresh cows milk and enriched with pure cream.

^ As mentioned earlier, the Guide is still in its infancy, and we will be working hard to add more cheeses and refine the Guide.

^ Named after the Dutch town of Gouda, just outside Rotterdam, it accounts for more than 60% of the cheese produced in Holland and it has a very long history.

.Factory-made cheese overtook traditional cheesemaking in the World War II era, and factories have been the source of most cheese in America and Europe ever since.^ Perail is a traditional, un-pasteurized, natural-rind cheese made from sheep's milk.

^ Tradition calls for the cheese to be made from two portions of goats milk to one portion of cows milk.

^ Parmigiano -Reggiano is a traditional, un-pasteurized, hard cheese made from skimmed cow's milk.

.Today, Americans buy more processed cheese than "real", factory-made or not.^ Named after the Dutch town of Gouda, just outside Rotterdam, it accounts for more than 60% of the cheese produced in Holland and it has a very long history.

^ Indigent farmers made it for themselves, and for that reason, made larger wheels than the vora cheese, whose production is similar to that of Nisa.

^ Today, these bands are more for show than necessity in production.

[12]

Making cheese

Curdling

Swiss cheesemaking (heating stage)
During industrial production of Emmental cheese, the as-yet-undrained curd is broken by rotating mixers.
A required step in cheesemaking is separating the milk into solid curds and liquid whey. .Usually this is done by acidifying (souring) the milk and adding rennet.^ To make Gruyre, raw milk is heated to 93 F and liquid rennet is added for curdling.

The acidification can be accomplished directly by the addition of an acid like vinegar in a few cases (paneer, queso fresco), but usually starter bacteria are employed instead. These starter bacteria convert milk sugars into lactic acid. .The same bacteria (and the enzymes they produce) also play a large role in the eventual flavor of aged cheeses.^ This washing of the rind produces a slightly corrugated and humid, yellow coating which turns red over time and protects the cheese as it ages.

^ Keep in mind that Cheeses are living things, and they each have there own unique characteristics, even amongst cheeses of the same type and producer.

^ Asiago is a pressed cooked cheese that produces a firm, strong table cheese after two to six months of aging.

.Most cheeses are made with starter bacteria from the Lactococci, Lactobacilli, or Streptococci families.^ This is the most famous Catalan cheese produced by Josep and family just outside of Tarragona.

^ A member of the Brie family, this French soft-ripened cheese is made from sheep's milk and has a white creamy smooth interior and a flowery white edible rind.

^ Emmenthal is made in Emme valley on small family farms, where the art of making these huge (200 pound) cheeses is passed on from fathers to sons.

.Swiss starter cultures also include Propionibacter shermani, which produces carbon dioxide gas bubbles during aging, giving Swiss cheese or Emmental its holes.^ This washing of the rind produces a slightly corrugated and humid, yellow coating which turns red over time and protects the cheese as it ages.

^ Asiago is a pressed cooked cheese that produces a firm, strong table cheese after two to six months of aging.

^ Creamery, semi-firm to hard (depending on age), cow's milk cheese produced in Normandie.

.Some fresh cheeses are curdled only by acidity, but most cheeses also use rennet.^ The cheese is pasteurized and animal rennet is used.

^ In conjunction with some of their associates in Bergamo, they produce the cheese using milk obtained locally.

^ Cow's-milk mozzarella (such as most domestic ones) are balls of fresh cheese swimming in brine, with a similar texture to authentic mozzarella, but absolutely tasteless.

.Rennet sets the cheese into a strong and rubbery gel compared to the fragile curds produced by acidic coagulation alone.^ Asiago is a pressed cooked cheese that produces a firm, strong table cheese after two to six months of aging.

^ This artisanally produced semi-hard cheese has luscious depth with a great acidic balance.

^ Ours is a blend, and the cheese has a slightly buttery taste, strong but pleasant aroma, and a slightly acidic finish.

It also allows curdling at a lower acidity—important because flavor-making bacteria are inhibited in high-acidity environments. .In general, softer, smaller, fresher cheeses are curdled with a greater proportion of acid to rennet than harder, larger, longer-aged varieties.^ Indigent farmers made it for themselves, and for that reason, made larger wheels than the vora cheese, whose production is similar to that of Nisa.

^ Generally aged longer than the other blues of the region, with slightly less bluing and a sharp, robust flavor.

^ The cheese should be aged for no longer than 10 days and as such eaten as quickly as possible.

Curd processing

At this point, the cheese has set into a very moist gel. .Some soft cheeses are now essentially complete: they are drained, salted, and packaged.^ The draining of the curd lasts several days, once finished the cheese is taken out of the moulds, salted and allowed to dry on willow trellises.

^ In conjunction with some of their associates in Bergamo, they produce the cheese using milk obtained locally.

^ Some time after that France alone was said to have 365 varieties of cheese, one for every day of the year, but there are certainly even more than that now.

.For most of the rest, the curd is cut into small cubes.^ The resulting curd is cut into small pieces which release whey while being stirred.

This allows water to drain from the individual pieces of curd.
Some hard cheeses are then heated to temperatures in the range of 35–55 °C (95–131 °F). .This forces more whey from the cut curd.^ Etorki is aged from 3-6 months from fine, cut curd pressed in plastic molds, vertically stacked to press curd and expel whey.

^ The resulting curd is cut into small pieces which release whey while being stirred.

It also changes the taste of the finished cheese, affecting both the bacterial culture and the milk chemistry. Cheeses that are heated to the higher temperatures are usually made with thermophilic starter bacteria which survive this step—either lactobacilli or streptococci.
.Salt has roles in cheese besides adding a salty flavor.^ The cheese has a sweet and delicate taste, touched by a faintly acidic and salty flavor.

^ As the cheese ages the rind will develop light brown lines on the top, its flavor will become more complex, salty, mushroomy, and the pte 3 will become creamy.

^ Flavorful & salty to the finish as most Portuguese cheeses are.

.It preserves cheese from spoiling, draws moisture from the curd, and firms cheese’s texture in an interaction with its proteins.^ Similar to Castelmagno, this is a semi-firm cheese with a very unique, almost flaky texture.

^ They were able to take advantage of the lush countryside to make a full flavored cheese which is firm in texture yet rather crumbly as it is eaten when semi-hard or hard.

Some cheeses are salted from the outside with dry salt or brine washes. .Most cheeses have the salt mixed directly into the curds.^ Ricotta Salata, or salted ricotta, is one of Italy's most unusual and least understood sheep's milk cheeses.

^ The draining of the curd lasts several days, once finished the cheese is taken out of the moulds, salted and allowed to dry on willow trellises.

Cheese factory in Holland
Other techniques influence a cheese's texture and flavor. Some examples:
.
  • Stretching: (Mozzarella, Provolone) The curd is stretched and kneaded in hot water, developing a stringy, fibrous body.
  • Cheddaring: (Cheddar, other English cheeses) The cut curd is repeatedly piled up, pushing more moisture away.^ Of course we will gladly cut these cheeses down to a more manageable size for you however at 200 lbs it does make an impressive sight.

    ^ Sage leaves are soaked in water and chlorophyll and then this bright green liquid is added to the cheese curds producing a marbling effect and subtle herb flavor.

    ^ Traditional, creamery, stretched, curd cheese made from cow's milk.

    The curd is also mixed (or milled) for a long time, taking the sharp edges off the cut curd pieces and influencing the final product's texture.
  • Washing: (Edam, Gouda, Colby) The curd is washed in warm water, lowering its acidity and making for a milder-tasting cheese.
.Most cheeses achieve their final shape when the curds are pressed into a mold or form.^ To achieve its splendid form, the curd 7 is ladled into a pyramid shaped mould that has holes in it.

^ Appenzeller is a pressed, cooked-curd, brushed-rind cheese with occasional pea-size holes.

^ Etorki is aged from 3-6 months from fine, cut curd pressed in plastic molds, vertically stacked to press curd and expel whey.

The harder the cheese, the more pressure is applied. The pressure drives out moisture—the molds are designed to allow water to escape—and unifies the curds into a single solid body.
Parmigiano reggiano in a modern factory

Aging

.A newborn cheese is usually salty yet bland in flavor and, for harder varieties, rubbery in texture.^ Aged three months, the texture and appearance are similar to Manchego yet the flavor exhibits characteristics of all three milks.

^ The milk curds and whey used to make this cheese are pressed and dried even before the cheese is aged, giving this pure white cheese a dense but slightly spongy texture and a salty, milky flavor -- like a dry Italian feta.

^ The pte 3 is remarkable white with a fine texture, moist and soft and the taste has a rarefied sour flavor, followed by a saltiness, which turns to a sweet, nuttiness.

.These qualities are sometimes enjoyed—cheese curds are eaten on their own—but normally cheeses are left to rest under controlled conditions.^ This cheese, whose quality is strictly controlled by the French Cheese Board, is a close cousin of both Beaufort and Emmenthal cheeses.

^ It is the quality of the milk, the processing of the curd, the adding of penicillium roqueforti and finally the ripening in natural caves that give us this unique and remarkable cheese.

This aging period (also called ripening, or, from the French, affinage) lasts from a few days to several years. .As a cheese ages, microbes and enzymes transform texture and intensify flavor.^ As it ages, the flavor becomes more pungent and the texture more granular, making it ideal for grating.

^ The smoked flavor comes from aging the cheese on abedul wood.

^ Aged for about 3 months, the flavor of the cheese fills your mouth and lingers at the finish.

This transformation is largely a result of the breakdown of casein proteins and milkfat into a complex mix of amino acids, amines, and fatty acids.
.Some cheeses have additional bacteria or molds intentionally introduced before or during aging.^ As the cheese ages, blue and gray molds and yeast are produced on and under the leaves.

^ This cheese starts its life as a top quality Parmigiano-Reggiano, and the best wheels of the lot are hand selected to be aged for an additional year.

^ Its flavor is rich and buttery, due to the addition of sweet cream during the cheese making process.

.In traditional cheesemaking, these microbes might be already present in the aging room; they are simply allowed to settle and grow on the stored cheeses.^ As with most cheeses, Peillout should always be served at room temperature so its full flavor is allowed to develop.

^ Once they make the cheese, it taken to their caves in Val Taleggio where it is aged for 70-80 days.

^ In the middle ages, it was already a favorite cheese amongst nobles, and aristocrats.

.More often today, prepared cultures are used, giving more consistent results and putting fewer constraints on the environment where the cheese ages.^ Today people prefer it more matured which gives it a round appearance.

^ The smoked version, Scamorza Affumicate is more popular than the plain and is often used in pasta dishes.

^ We carry the more popular "hard" version of the cheese (aged 5-6 months) which is equally good as a table cheese as it is shaved over dishes.

.These cheeses include soft ripened cheeses such as Brie and Camembert, blue cheeses such as Roquefort, Stilton, Gorgonzola, and rind-washed cheeses such as Limburger.^ This washing of the rind produces a slightly corrugated and humid, yellow coating which turns red over time and protects the cheese as it ages.

^ If the cheese is allowed to ripen in a warm, humid cellar for two or three weeks, the interior of the cheese melts and the taste is similar to Brie.

^ A member of the Brie family, this French soft-ripened cheese is made from goat's milk and has a white creamy smooth interior and a flowery white edible rind.

Types

Factors in categorization

Factors which are relevant to the categorization of cheeses include:
  • Length of aging
  • Texture
  • Methods of making
  • Fat content
  • Kind of milk
  • Country/Region of Origin

List of common categories

.No one categorization scheme can capture all the diversity of the world's cheeses.^ The French are well-known for their expert ability to produce the world's best soft cheeses, and Rochebaron is no exception.

^ This style cheese is perhaps one of the most ancient in all of Piedmont, Italy.

^ A large quantity of this cheese is exported all over the world, especially to the United States.

In practice, no single system is employed and different factors are emphasised in describing different classes of cheeses. This typical list of cheeses includes categories from food writer Barbara Ensrud.[13]

Fresh, whey and stretched curd cheeses

Feta from Greece
.The main factor in the categorization of these cheese is their age.^ Made in the Canton of Fribourg in west-central Switzerland, these hand made 80 pound wheels are aged in the same "caves" as is Emmenthal cheese.

.Fresh cheeses without additional preservatives can spoil in a matter of days.^ From the heart of the Barcelones Mountains in Catalunya, Spain, he makes the cheese using only his own and neighboring herders fresh, same-day milk.

.For these simplest cheeses, milk is curdled and drained, with little other processing.^ Handmade in Provence in the Dauphin region, this wonderful little cheese is rindless and made from 100% local cow's milk.

^ This little cow's milk cheese has a mild flavor, reminiscent of Brie with a slight acidity.

^ Other cheeses are derived from their dialectal words such as Raclette (to scrape) or Reblochon (from reblocher meaning to milk again).

.Examples include cottage cheese, Romanian Caş, Neufchâtel (the model for American-style cream cheese), and fresh goat's milk chèvre.^ It is delicious when young, the pte 3 is fairly creamy & moist, the flavor fresh, tangy with the distinctive goat's milk flavor.

^ A member of the Brie family, this French soft-ripened cheese is made from goat's milk and has a white creamy smooth interior and a flowery white edible rind.

^ Amarelo is a soft to semi-soft cheese made from either sheep's milk or a mixture of sheep's and goat's milk with a D.O.P. 1 designation.

.Such cheeses are soft and spreadable, with a mild taste.^ A soft, Camembert-like cheese, it has similar attributes, and is considered a mild full-flavored cheese.

^ Despite its distinct persillage 4 the taste remains mild, soft and creamy, and its strength only lies in its shape a long pyramid.

^ Wonderful for cheese lovers who enjoy soft tastes.

.Whey cheeses are fresh cheeses made from the whey discarded while producing other cheeses.^ Monje is a farmhouse Blue Cheese produced in one of the four towns of Asturias where blues are made.

^ Piave is a cow's milk cheese produced with milk from the Bruna Alpina race which are fed on fresh foliage from surrounding mountainous pastures.

^ Some say the cheese originated in Holland, others claim it was always produced in France.

Provencal Brousse, Corsican Brocciu, Italian Ricotta, Romanian Urda, Greek Mizithra, and Norwegian Geitost are examples. .Brocciu is mostly eaten fresh, and is as such a major ingredient in Corsican cuisine, but it can be aged too.^ The cheese should be aged for no longer than 10 days and as such eaten as quickly as possible.

.Traditional pasta filata cheeses such as Mozzarella also fall into the fresh cheese category.^ Cow's-milk mozzarella (such as most domestic ones) are balls of fresh cheese swimming in brine, with a similar texture to authentic mozzarella, but absolutely tasteless.

^ Caciocavallo is one of the pasta filata types of cheeses (like PROVOLONE and MOZZARELLA ), which means it has been stretched and shaped by hand.

.Fresh curds are stretched and kneaded in hot water to form a ball of Mozzarella, which in southern Italy is usually eaten within a few hours of being made.^ Traditional, creamery, stretched, curd cheese made from cow's milk.

^ Cow's-milk mozzarella (such as most domestic ones) are balls of fresh cheese swimming in brine, with a similar texture to authentic mozzarella, but absolutely tasteless.

^ Every night, soot was sprinkled on the fresh curd that remained at the bottom of the barrel, which prevented a rind from forming and kept the insects away.

Stored in brine, it can be shipped, and is known worldwide for its use on pizzas. Other firm fresh cheeses include paneer and queso fresco.

Classed by texture

Categorizing cheeses by firmness is a common but inexact practice. .The lines between "soft", "semi-soft", "semi-hard", and "hard" are arbitrary, and many types of cheese are made in softer or firmer variations.^ A member of the Brie family, this French soft-ripened cheese is made from goat's milk and has a white creamy smooth interior and a flowery white edible rind.

^ Amarelo is a soft to semi-soft cheese made from either sheep's milk or a mixture of sheep's and goat's milk with a D.O.P. 1 designation.

^ Produced in the heart of the Aveyron, France, this soft ripened triple cream is an amazingly rich and creamy cheese that is made from fresh cows milk and enriched with pure cream.

.The factor controlling the hardness of a cheese is its moisture content which is dependent on the pressure with which it is packed into molds and the length of time it is aged.^ This washing of the rind produces a slightly corrugated and humid, yellow coating which turns red over time and protects the cheese as it ages.

^ Creamery, semi-firm to hard (depending on age), cow's milk cheese produced in Normandie.

^ Pepato is a hard sheep's milk cheese aged a minimum of 5 months.

.Semi-soft cheeses and the sub-group, Monastery cheeses have a high moisture content and tend to be bland in flavor.^ This cheese is mild, semi-soft, and fruity and has a distinctive buttery flavor.

^ The flavor will be quite bland, and the cheese will not be very creamy.

^ A soft, Camembert-like cheese, it has similar attributes, and is considered a mild full-flavored cheese.

Some well-known varieties include Havarti, Munster and Port Salut.
.Cheeses that range in texture from semi-soft to firm include Swiss-style cheeses like Emmental and Gruyère.^ As it matures, it softens from a semi-soft texture.

^ Amarelo is a soft to semi-soft cheese made from either sheep's milk or a mixture of sheep's and goat's milk with a D.O.P. 1 designation.

^ Similar to Castelmagno, this is a semi-firm cheese with a very unique, almost flaky texture.

.The same bacteria that give such cheeses their holes also contribute to their aromatic and sharp flavors.^ It is a sharp cheese with a full, nutty flavor.

^ The cheese is rubbed with olive oil and paprika which gives it a pleasantly piquant flavor with a long finish.

^ Serpa, named for the town of the Baixo Alentejo, is straw yellow colored with a stronger flavor and aroma than cheese from Beira (such as Amarelo).

.Other semi-soft to firm cheeses include Gouda, Edam, Jarlsberg and Cantal.^ Gouda is a traditional, creamery, semi-firm to hard cheese.

^ Amarelo is a soft to semi-soft cheese made from either sheep's milk or a mixture of sheep's and goat's milk with a D.O.P. 1 designation.

^ Similar to Castelmagno, this is a semi-firm cheese with a very unique, almost flaky texture.

Cheeses of this type are ideal for melting and are used on toast for quick snacks.
Harder cheeses have a lower moisture content than softer cheeses. .They are generally packed into molds under more pressure and aged for a longer time.^ Generally aged longer than the other blues of the region, with slightly less bluing and a sharp, robust flavor.

^ As the cheese ages, blue and gray molds and yeast are produced on and under the leaves.

.Cheeses that are semi-hard to hard include the familiar Cheddar, originating in the village of Cheddar in England but now used as a generic term for this style of cheese, of which varieties are imitated worldwide and are marketed by strength or the length of time they have been aged.^ The cheese is typically eaten semi-hard and hard.

^ This washing of the rind produces a slightly corrugated and humid, yellow coating which turns red over time and protects the cheese as it ages.

^ In turn, they will rub the cheese with a variety of dried herbs, for the evening or eating after dinner.

.Cheddar is one of a family of semi-hard or hard cheeses (including Cheshire and Gloucester) whose curd is cut, gently heated, piled, and stirred before being pressed into forms.^ The resulting curd is cut into small pieces which release whey while being stirred.

^ The cheese is typically eaten semi-hard and hard.

^ This semi-firm tomme, is a cooked, pressed, washed rind cheese.

.Colby and Monterey Jack are similar but milder cheeses; their curd is rinsed before it is pressed, washing away some acidity and calcium.^ Appenzeller is a pressed, cooked-curd, brushed-rind cheese with occasional pea-size holes.

^ This semi-firm tomme, is a cooked, pressed, washed rind cheese.

^ The milk curds and whey used to make this cheese are pressed and dried even before the cheese is aged, giving this pure white cheese a dense but slightly spongy texture and a salty, milky flavor -- like a dry Italian feta.

A similar curd-washing takes place when making the Dutch cheeses Edam and Gouda.
.Hard cheeses — "grating cheeses" such as Parmesan and Pecorino Romano—are quite firmly packed into large forms and aged for months or years.^ Pepato is a hard sheep's milk cheese aged a minimum of 5 months.

^ Asiago is a pressed cooked cheese that produces a firm, strong table cheese after two to six months of aging.

^ We carry the more popular "hard" version of the cheese (aged 5-6 months) which is equally good as a table cheese as it is shaved over dishes.

St. Pat Cow's Milk Cheese

Classed by content

.Some cheeses are categorized by the source of the milk used to produce them or by the added fat content of the milk from which they are produced.^ In conjunction with some of their associates in Bergamo, they produce the cheese using milk obtained locally.

^ This sheep's milk cheese is produced in the Sogliano al Rubicone, region of Romagna.

^ The cheese is made from November through February using milk collected from a single milking.

.While most of the world's commercially available cheese is made from cows' milk, many parts of the world also produce cheese from goats and sheep, well-known examples being Roquefort, produced in France, and Pecorino Romano, produced in Italy, from ewe's milk.^ A fresh, cow's-milk cheese from Italy's Lombardy region.

^ This unusual cheese is made from un-pasteurized goat's or sheep's milk.

^ Traditional, creamery, stretched, curd cheese made from cow's milk.

.One farm in Sweden also produces cheese from moose's milk.^ This sheep's milk cheese is produced in the Sogliano al Rubicone, region of Romagna.

^ Monje is a farmhouse Blue Cheese produced in one of the four towns of Asturias where blues are made.

^ Produced in the heart of the Aveyron, France, this soft ripened triple cream is an amazingly rich and creamy cheese that is made from fresh cows milk and enriched with pure cream.

[14] .Sometimes cheeses of a similar style may be available made from milk of different sources - Feta style cheeses, for example, are made from goats' milk in Greece and from sheep and cows' milk elsewhere.^ This cheese is made with the milk of Manech ewes.

^ It's other half is made of cow's milk.

^ Tradition calls for the cheese to be made from two portions of goats milk to one portion of cows milk.

.Double cream cheeses are soft cheeses of cows' milk which are enriched with cream so that their fat content is 60% or, in the case of triple creams, 75%.^ Suprme is a triple-cream, soft-ripened cows milk cheese.

^ It is a soft-white, vegetarian cheese made from cow's milk.

^ Saint Paulin is a semi-soft cheese made from cow's milk.

Soft-ripened and blue-vein

.There are three main categories of cheese in which the presence of mold is a significant feature: soft ripened cheeses, washed rind cheeses and blue cheeses.^ This washing of the rind produces a slightly corrugated and humid, yellow coating which turns red over time and protects the cheese as it ages.

^ If the cheese is allowed to ripen in a warm, humid cellar for two or three weeks, the interior of the cheese melts and the taste is similar to Brie.

^ A member of the Brie family, this French soft-ripened cheese is made from goat's milk and has a white creamy smooth interior and a flowery white edible rind.

Vacherin du Haut-Doubs cheese, a French cheese with a white Penicillium mold rind.
.Soft-ripened cheeses are those which begin firm and rather chalky in texture but are aged from the exterior inwards by exposing them to mold.^ A member of the Brie family, this French soft-ripened cheese is made from goat's milk and has a white creamy smooth interior and a flowery white edible rind.

^ It is the result of a successful experiment that combined blue mold with a typically French soft, creamy cheese.

^ Similar to Castelmagno, this is a semi-firm cheese with a very unique, almost flaky texture.

.The mold may be a velvety bloom of Penicillium candida or P. camemberti that forms a flexible white crust and contributes to the smooth, runny, or gooey textures and more intense flavors of these aged cheeses.^ As it ages, its flavor will become more pronounced and the texture will become drier.

^ As it ages, the flavor becomes more pungent and the texture more granular, making it ideal for grating.

^ A member of the Brie family, this French soft-ripened cheese is made from goat's milk and has a white creamy smooth interior and a flowery white edible rind.

.Brie and Camembert, the most famous of these cheeses, are made by allowing white mold to grow on the outside of a soft cheese for a few days or weeks.^ It is a soft-white, vegetarian cheese made from cow's milk.

^ It is a soft-white cheese of cylindrical shape.

^ The cheese is handmade; it takes an average of 3 hours to make one cheese and only 2 or 3 are made per person, per day.

.Goats' milk cheeses are often treated in a similar manner, sometimes with white molds (Chèvre-Boîte) and sometimes with blue.^ Sometimes the cheese is made only from goats milk, or a mixture of goat and cow milk.

^ Nevats rind is treated with a penicillum mold, enabling a beautiful bloomy white rind that transforms the curd.

^ A member of the Brie family, this French soft-ripened cheese is made from goat's milk and has a white creamy smooth interior and a flowery white edible rind.

.Washed-rind cheeses are soft in character and ripen inwards like those with white molds; however, they are treated differently.^ Hmmm It is a soft-white cheese of brick shape with a natural white rind.

^ Its rind looks like white velvet.

^ It is a soft, snow-white, disk-shaped cheese and has no rind.

.Washed rind cheeses are periodically cured in a solution of saltwater brine and other mold-bearing agents which may include beer, wine, brandy and spices, making their surfaces amenable to a class of bacteria Brevibacterium linens (the reddish-orange "smear bacteria") which impart pungent odors and distinctive flavors.^ It is distinguished from other cheeses by the mold growth on the rind.

^ The rind is washed and has a rose-orange color.

^ As it ages, the flavor becomes more pungent and the texture more granular, making it ideal for grating.

.Washed-rind cheeses can be soft (Limburger), semi-hard (Munster), or hard (Appenzeller).^ A member of the Brie family, this French soft-ripened cheese is made from sheep's milk and has a white creamy smooth interior and a flowery white edible rind.

^ This washing of the rind produces a slightly corrugated and humid, yellow coating which turns red over time and protects the cheese as it ages.

^ Hmmm It is a soft-white cheese of brick shape with a natural white rind.

.The same bacteria can also have some impact on cheeses that are simply ripened in humid conditions, like Camembert.^ If the cheese is allowed to ripen in a warm, humid cellar for two or three weeks, the interior of the cheese melts and the taste is similar to Brie.

^ Napoleon liked the cheese, and from that moment Camembert became known by its contemporary name.

^ Typical representatives of the French goat cheese family are soft cheeses with white mould, like Camembert.

Stilton from England.
.So-called blue cheese is created by inoculating a cheese with Penicillium roqueforti or Penicillium glaucum.^ Also called Danish blue cheese, this rich cow's milk cheese is milder and less complex than Roquefort, but has a zest all its own.

^ Rochebaron is made by injecting their delicious soft-as-Brie cheese with the same mold, penicillium roqueforti, that is used to produce Roquefort.

^ It is the quality of the milk, the processing of the curd, the adding of penicillium roqueforti and finally the ripening in natural caves that give us this unique and remarkable cheese.

.This is done while the cheese is still in the form of loosely pressed curds, and may be further enhanced by piercing a ripening block of cheese with skewers in an atmosphere in which the mold is prevalent.^ Appenzeller is a pressed, cooked-curd, brushed-rind cheese with occasional pea-size holes.

^ Etorki is aged from 3-6 months from fine, cut curd pressed in plastic molds, vertically stacked to press curd and expel whey.

^ The curd is piled in the center of a cloth, square corners are knotted and twisted together and the cheese is pressed and twisted for a few days.

.The mold grows within the cheese as it ages.^ As the cheese ages, blue and gray molds and yeast are produced on and under the leaves.

^ In aged types, like the Robiola della Valsassina, the cheese is aged in natural caves, where it forms a thin rind of a pinkish color veiled by a layer of greenish mold.

.These cheeses have distinct blue veins which gives them their name, and, often, assertive flavors.^ The texture is creamy and the calvados gives the cheese a distinct apple aroma.

^ Serpa, named for the town of the Baixo Alentejo, is straw yellow colored with a stronger flavor and aroma than cheese from Beira (such as Amarelo).

^ This cheese is mild, semi-soft, and fruity and has a distinctive buttery flavor.

.The molds may range from pale green to dark blue, and may be accompanied by white and crusty brown molds.^ Its color ranges from white to straw-yellow with an unmistakable marbled green or bluish-green mould.

^ It has narrow, blue-green veins and a wrinkled tan-brown rind which is not edible.

^ After about fifteen days of aging, its delicate white rind becomes covered with little blue molds, and the taste is reminiscent of hazelnut.

Their texture can be soft or firm. .Some of the most renowned cheeses are of this type, each with its own distinctive color, flavor, texture and smell.^ This cheese is often confused with, or used instead of "Parmigiano" since they have a similar flavor and texture and Grana is usually less expensive.

^ As with most cheeses, Rocastin should always be served at room temperature so its full flavor is allowed to develop.

^ Rather than overwhelming the flavor of the cheese itself, as some smoking methods tend to do, here the inherent richness of Raclette is merely enhanced with smoky nuances.

.They include Roquefort, Gorgonzola, and Stilton.^ Stilton is milder, and drier than Roquefort or Gorgonzola, with a slightly bitter note.

Processed cheeses

Processed cheese is made from traditional cheese and emulsifying salts, often with the addition of milk, more salt, preservatives, and food coloring. It is inexpensive, consistent, and melts smoothly. It is sold packaged and either pre-sliced or unsliced, in a number of varieties. It is also available in aerosol cans.

Eating and cooking

Zigerbrüt, cheese grated onto bread through a mill, from the Kanton Glarus in Switzerland.
At refrigerator temperatures, the fat in a piece of cheese is as hard as unsoftened butter, and its protein structure is stiff as well. Flavor and odor compounds are less easily liberated when cold. .For improvements in flavor and texture, it is widely advised that cheeses be allowed to warm up to room temperature before eating.^ If the cheese is allowed to ripen in a warm, humid cellar for two or three weeks, the interior of the cheese melts and the taste is similar to Brie.

^ As with most cheeses, especially mild ones, Brie should be served at room temperature.

^ As with most cheeses, Peillout should always be served at room temperature so its full flavor is allowed to develop.

If the cheese is further warmed, to 26–32 °C (79–90 °F), the fats will begin to "sweat out" as they go beyond soft to fully liquid.[15]
.Above room temperatures, most hard cheeses melt.^ As with most cheeses, Peillout should always be served at room temperature so its full flavor is allowed to develop.

^ As with most cheeses, especially mild ones, Brie should be served at room temperature.

^ As with most cheeses, Rocastin should always be served at room temperature so its full flavor is allowed to develop.

.Rennet-curdled cheeses have a gel-like protein matrix that is broken down by heat.^ To make Gruyre, raw milk is heated to 93 F and liquid rennet is added for curdling.

When enough protein bonds are broken, the cheese itself turns from a solid to a viscous liquid. .Soft, high-moisture cheeses will melt at around 55 °C (131 °F), while hard, low-moisture cheeses such as Parmesan remain solid until they reach about 82 °C (180 °F).^ It is produced by Robert Rouzaire, one of the few remaining affineurs of soft-ripened cheeses.

^ They were able to take advantage of the lush countryside to make a full flavored cheese which is firm in texture yet rather crumbly as it is eaten when semi-hard or hard.

[16] .Acid-set cheeses, including halloumi, paneer, some whey cheeses and many varieties of fresh goat cheese, have a protein structure that remains intact at high temperatures.^ The rich and high protein milk is particularly apt for cheese making and imparts the special sweetness so characteristic of the cheese.

^ Some time after that France alone was said to have 365 varieties of cheese, one for every day of the year, but there are certainly even more than that now.

When cooked, these cheeses just get firmer as water evaporates.
.Some cheeses, like raclette, melt smoothly; many tend to become stringy or suffer from a separation of their fats.^ Rather than overwhelming the flavor of the cheese itself, as some smoking methods tend to do, here the inherent richness of Raclette is merely enhanced with smoky nuances.

^ One gathers round a table, cuts the cheese in half and then melts the cheese over a Raclette machine or other heating device (originally a fire).

Many of these can be coaxed into melting smoothly in the presence of acids or starch. .Fondue, with wine providing the acidity, is a good example of a smoothly melted cheese dish.^ We carry the more popular "hard" version of the cheese (aged 5-6 months) which is equally good as a table cheese as it is shaved over dishes.

^ Chaource is a good example of a cheese that does not require a long period of affinage 2 .

[17] Elastic stringiness is a quality that is sometimes enjoyed, in dishes including pizza and Welsh rarebit. .Even a melted cheese eventually turns solid again, after enough moisture is cooked off.^ In turn, they will rub the cheese with a variety of dried herbs, for the evening or eating after dinner.

^ Served melted with baked potatoes and cooked and cured meats, the cheese demonstrates all its delicious gustative qualities.

.The saying "you can't melt cheese twice" (meaning "some things can only be done once") refers to the fact that oils leach out during the first melting and are gone, leaving the non-meltable solids behind.^ If you want to get historical & technical, cheese was originally made simply as a means to preserve milk before refrigeration existed.

^ Cheshire does come in a white version, which some in Cheshire say is the real thing, but because the annatto does nothing to the flavor the real one is the orange version.

^ This was one of the first cheeses to be made commercially using ultrafiltration, a method of extracting the solids from liquid milk, which gives a much higher yield of solids than when traditional means are used.

As its temperature continues to rise, cheese will brown and eventually burn. .Browned, partially burned cheese has a particular distinct flavor of its own and is frequently used in cooking (e.g., sprinkling atop items before baking them).^ A true specialty item, Tte de Moine's flavor is best revealed when served using its own machine the Girolle.

^ This cheese is mild, semi-soft, and fruity and has a distinctive buttery flavor.

^ The milk curds and whey used to make this cheese are pressed and dried even before the cheese is aged, giving this pure white cheese a dense but slightly spongy texture and a salty, milky flavor -- like a dry Italian feta.

Health and nutrition

In general, cheese supplies a great deal of calcium, protein, phosphorus and fat. A 30-gram (1.1 oz) serving of Cheddar cheese contains about 7 grams (0.25 oz) of protein and 200 milligrams of calcium. .Nutritionally, cheese is essentially concentrated milk: it takes about 200 grams (7.1 oz) of milk to provide that much protein, and 150 grams (5.3 oz) to equal the calcium.^ The rich and high protein milk is particularly apt for cheese making and imparts the special sweetness so characteristic of the cheese.

^ It takes about 12 gallons of milk to make a wheel of cheese weighing about 9 pounds.

[18]
Cheese potentially shares other nutritional properties of milk. .The Center for Science in the Public Interest describes cheese as America's number one source of saturated fat, adding that the average American ate 30 lb (14 kg) of cheese in the year 2000, up from 11 lb (5 kg) in 1970.[19] Their recommendation is to limit full-fat cheese consumption to 2 oz (57 g) a week.^ The cheese is handmade; it takes an average of 3 hours to make one cheese and only 2 or 3 are made per person, per day.

^ The cheese is full of a delicious, nutty, robust taste if it is produced during the period from June to September when the herds move up to the high mountain meadows.

^ Many people consider it one of the most interesting French cheeses.

.Whether cheese's highly saturated fat actually leads to an increased risk of heart disease is called into question when considering France and Greece, which lead the world in cheese eating (more than 14 oz/400 g a week per person, or over 45 lb/20 kg a year) yet have relatively low rates of heart disease.^ This is why this cheese is traditionally low in fat content (20-40 %).

^ The cheese is handmade; it takes an average of 3 hours to make one cheese and only 2 or 3 are made per person, per day.

^ This cow's milk cheese was first produced in 1956, which makes it very young in the world of cheese, considering it's estimated that cheese has been around for 5000 years.

[20] This seeming discrepancy is called the French paradox; the higher rates of consumption of red wine in these countries is often invoked as at least a partial explanation.
Some studies claim that cheddar, mozzarella, Swiss and American cheeses can help to prevent tooth decay.[21][22] Several mechanisms for this protection have been proposed:
.
  • The calcium, protein, and phosphorus in cheese may act to protect tooth enamel.
  • Cheese increases saliva flow, washing away acids and sugars.
  • Cheese may have an antibacterial effect in the mouth.^ This washing of the rind produces a slightly corrugated and humid, yellow coating which turns red over time and protects the cheese as it ages.

    [citation needed]

Controversy

Effect on sleep

A study by the British Cheese Board in 2005 to determine the effect of cheese upon sleep and dreaming discovered that, contrary to the idea that cheese commonly causes nightmares, the effect of cheese upon sleep was positive. The majority of the two hundred people tested over a fortnight claimed beneficial results from consuming cheeses before going to bed, the cheese promoting good sleep. .Six cheeses were tested and the findings were that the dreams produced were specific to the type of cheese.^ Keep in mind that Cheeses are living things, and they each have there own unique characteristics, even amongst cheeses of the same type and producer.

^ Asiago is a pressed cooked cheese that produces a firm, strong table cheese after two to six months of aging.

.Although the apparent effects were in some cases described as colorful and vivid, or cryptic, none of the cheeses tested were found to induce nightmares.^ Saint Agur is characterized by generous blue veining on a smooth ivory pte 3 and has none of the harshness associated with some blue cheeses.

However, the six cheeses were all British. The results might be entirely different if a wider range of cheeses were tested.[23] Cheese contains tryptophan, an amino acid that has been found to relieve stress and induce sleep.[24]

Casein

Like other dairy products, cheese contains casein, a substance that when digested by humans breaks down into several chemicals, including casomorphine, an opioid peptide. In the early 1990s it was hypothesized that autism can be caused or aggravated by opioid peptides.[25] Based on this hypothesis, diets that eliminate cheese and other dairy products are widely promoted.[citation needed] Studies supporting these claims have had significant flaws, so the data are inadequate to guide autism treatment recommendations.[26]

Lactose

.Cheese is often avoided by those who are lactose intolerant, but ripened cheeses like Cheddar contain only about 5% of the lactose found in whole milk, and aged cheeses contain almost none.^ A member of the Brie family, this French soft-ripened cheese is made from goat's milk and has a white creamy smooth interior and a flowery white edible rind.

^ Produced in the heart of the Aveyron, France, this soft ripened triple cream is an amazingly rich and creamy cheese that is made from fresh cows milk and enriched with pure cream.

^ The ripening of this cheese takes place in the natural damp, aired caves found under the village of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon.

[27] Nevertheless, people with severe lactose intolerance should avoid eating dairy cheese. .As a natural product, the same kind of cheese may contain different amounts of lactose on different occasions, causing unexpected painful reactions.^ Generally the same kind of cheese is produced in surrounding areas, as is the case with Emmenthal.

^ A versatile cheese, Bra' Duro is a product of the town of the same name and was awarded the D.O.P. 1 in 1996.

^ The method of production is the same as the Dutch cheese Edam.

As an alternative, also for vegans, there is already a wide range of different soy cheese kinds available. .Some people suffer reactions to amines found in cheese, particularly histamine and tyramine.^ This cheese is Brie's little brother, some people consider it the grandfather.

.Some aged cheeses contain significant concentrations of these amines, which can trigger symptoms mimicking an allergic reaction: headaches, rashes, and blood pressure elevations.^ This genuine cheese owes it salty flavor to the area's soil, which has a high concentration of underlying bedrock salt, and thus produces grass containing hi salt levels.

^ Made in the Canton of Fribourg in west-central Switzerland, these hand made 80 pound wheels are aged in the same "caves" as is Emmenthal cheese.

Pasteurization

.A number of food safety agencies around the world have warned of the risks of raw-milk cheeses.^ Cheese connoisseurs appreciate it around the world.

^ This cow's milk cheese was first produced in 1956, which makes it very young in the world of cheese, considering it's estimated that cheese has been around for 5000 years.

^ This is a raw milk cheese that comes from the farms in the Rhone-Alps area of France.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration states that soft raw-milk cheeses can cause "serious infectious diseases including listeriosis, brucellosis, salmonellosis and tuberculosis".[28] It is U.S. law since 1944 that all raw-milk cheeses (including imports since 1951) must be aged at least 60 days. .Australia has a wide ban on raw-milk cheeses as well, though in recent years exceptions have been made for Swiss Gruyère, Emmental and Sbrinz, and for French Roquefort.^ This is a cheese made from 100% sheep's milk.

^ The local shepherds have made ewes milk cheeses in the French Pyrenees for 4,000 years.

^ This cheese is made with the milk of Manech ewes.

[29] .There is a trend for cheeses to be pasteurized even when not required by law.^ Keep in mind that Cheeses are living things, and they each have there own unique characteristics, even amongst cheeses of the same type and producer.

^ Some time after that France alone was said to have 365 varieties of cheese, one for every day of the year, but there are certainly even more than that now.

Compulsory pasteurization is controversial. .Pasteurization does change the flavor of cheeses, and unpasteurized cheeses are often considered to have better flavor, so there are reasons not to pasteurize all cheeses.^ But most just love the rich flavor of the double cream cheese all by itself.

^ This cheese is often confused with, or used instead of "Parmigiano" since they have a similar flavor and texture and Grana is usually less expensive.

^ A soft, Camembert-like cheese, it has similar attributes, and is considered a mild full-flavored cheese.

.Some say that health concerns are overstated, pointing out that milk pasteurization does not ensure cheese safety.^ Perail is a traditional, un-pasteurized, natural-rind cheese made from sheep's milk.

^ Parmigiano -Reggiano is a traditional, un-pasteurized, hard cheese made from skimmed cow's milk.

^ An un-pasteurized, smoked, sheep's milk cheese aged 8 months.

[30] .This is supported by statistics showing that in some European countries where young raw-milk cheeses may legally be sold, most cheese-related food poisoning incidents were traced to pasteurized cheeses.^ Some cheeses and/or information may be missing.

^ This cow's milk cheese was first produced in 1956, which makes it very young in the world of cheese, considering it's estimated that cheese has been around for 5000 years.

^ In conjunction with some of their associates in Bergamo, they produce the cheese using milk obtained locally.

[citation needed]
.Pregnant women may face an additional risk from cheese; the U.S. Centers for Disease Control has warned pregnant women against eating soft-ripened cheeses and blue-veined cheeses, due to the listeria risk, which can cause miscarriage or harm to the fetus during birth.^ A member of the Brie family, this French soft-ripened cheese is made from goat's milk and has a white creamy smooth interior and a flowery white edible rind.

^ It is the result of a successful experiment that combined blue mold with a typically French soft, creamy cheese.

^ Produced in the heart of the Aveyron, France, this soft ripened triple cream is an amazingly rich and creamy cheese that is made from fresh cows milk and enriched with pure cream.

[31]

World production and consumption

Worldwide, cheese is a major agricultural product. .According to the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, over 18 million metric tons of cheese were produced worldwide in 2004. This is about three kilos for each person on Earth.^ One of the very few Pecorino Romano cheeses still produced in the countryside of Rome; therefore, according to tradition, it is referred to as "Genuine" Pecorino Romano.

^ Only four producers make the cheese, one large factory and three artisans, our brand being artisanal.

^ Comt is perhaps the most popular cheese in France, with well over 37,000 tons produced annually.

The largest producer of cheese is the United States, accounting for 30% of world production, followed by Germany and France.
Top cheese producers
(1,000 metric tons)[32]
 United States 4,275 (2006)
 Germany 1,927 (2008)
 France 1,884 (2008)
 Italy 1,149 (2008)
 Netherlands 732 (2008)
 Poland 594 (2008)
 Brazil 495 (2006)
 Egypt 462 (2006)
 Argentina 425 (2006)
 Australia 395 (2006)
.The biggest exporter of cheese, by monetary value, is France; the second, Germany (although it is first by quantity).^ Chaumes is one of the most popular cheeses in France, produced by the "Fromageries des Chaumes", one of the most famous and the biggest cheese making company.

.Among the top ten exporters, only Ireland, New Zealand, the Netherlands and Australia have a cheese production that is mainly export oriented: respectively 95%, 90%, 72%, and 65% of their cheese production is exported.^ Edam is second only to Gouda as Holland's most exported cheese.

^ This cheese is the same as the top crafted Camembert cheeses, only instead of originating in Normandy, it comes from the village of Charcenne in the Haut-Savoie.

[33] Only 30% of French production, the world's largest exporter, is exported. .The United States, the biggest world producer of cheese, is a marginal exporter, as most of its production is for the domestic market.^ A large quantity of this cheese is exported all over the world, especially to the United States.

^ This cow's milk cheese was first produced in 1956, which makes it very young in the world of cheese, considering it's estimated that cheese has been around for 5000 years.

^ Comt is perhaps the most popular cheese in France, with well over 37,000 tons produced annually.

Top cheese exporters (Whole Cow Milk only) - 2004
(value in '000 US $)[34]
 France 2,658,441
 Germany 2,416,973
 Netherlands 2,099,353
 Italy 1,253,580
 Denmark 1,122,761
 Australia 643,575
 New Zealand 631,963
 Belgium 567,590
 Ireland 445,240
 United Kingdom 374,156
Germany is the largest importer of cheese. The UK and Italy are the second- and third-largest importers.[35]
Top cheese consumers - 2003
(kilograms per person per year)[36]
 Greece 27.3
 France 24.0
 Italy 22.9
 Switzerland 20.6
 Germany 20.2
 Netherlands 19.9
 Austria 19.5
 Sweden 17.9
.Greece is the world's largest (per capita) consumer of cheese, with 27.3 kg eaten by the average Greek.^ The cheese is handmade; it takes an average of 3 hours to make one cheese and only 2 or 3 are made per person, per day.

(Feta accounts for three-quarters of this consumption.) .France is the second biggest consumer of cheese, with 24 kg by inhabitant.^ Chaumes is one of the most popular cheeses in France, produced by the "Fromageries des Chaumes", one of the most famous and the biggest cheese making company.

.Emmental (used mainly as a cooking ingredient) and Camembert are the most common cheeses in France[37] Italy is the third biggest consumer by person with 22.9 kg.^ Comt is perhaps the most popular cheese in France, with well over 37,000 tons produced annually.

^ This style cheese is perhaps one of the most ancient in all of Piedmont, Italy.

^ Chaumes is one of the most popular cheeses in France, produced by the "Fromageries des Chaumes", one of the most famous and the biggest cheese making company.

In the U.S., the consumption of cheese is quickly increasing and has nearly tripled between 1970 and 2003. The consumption per person has reached, in 2003, 14.1 kg (31 lb). .Mozzarella is America's favorite cheese and accounts for nearly a third of its consumption, mainly because it is one of the main ingredients of pizza.^ Cow's-milk mozzarella (such as most domestic ones) are balls of fresh cheese swimming in brine, with a similar texture to authentic mozzarella, but absolutely tasteless.

^ Caciocavallo is one of the pasta filata types of cheeses (like PROVOLONE and MOZZARELLA ), which means it has been stretched and shaped by hand.

^ It is also one of the main ingredients in a classic Swiss fondue.

[38]

Cultural attitudes

A cheese merchant in a French market
A traditional Polish sheep's cheese market in Zakopane, Poland.
.Although cheese is a vital source of nutrition in many regions of the world, and is extensively consumed in others, its use is not universal.^ Many cheese names refer to the area or region from which they come, as in Crottin de Chavignol, or Brie de Meaux (coming from Chavignol & Meaux respectively).

^ The cheese dates back to Roman times when it was used as a form of money exchanged for other essential goods.

Cheese is rarely found in East Asian dishes, as lactose intolerance is relatively common in that part of the world and hence dairy products are rare. .However, East Asian sentiment against cheese is not universal; cheese made from yaks' (chhurpi) or mares' milk is common on the Asian steppes; the national dish of Bhutan, ema datsi, is made from homemade cheese and hot peppers and cheese such as Rushan and Rubing in Yunnan, China is produced by several ethnic minority groups by either using goat's milk in the case of Rubing or cow's milk in the case of Rushan.^ This unusual cheese is made from un-pasteurized goat's or sheep's milk.

^ Traditional, creamery, stretched, curd cheese made from cow's milk.

^ It is made from pasture fed cow's milk.

.Cheese consumption is increasing in China, with annual sales more than doubling from 1996 to 2003 (to a still small 30 million U.S. dollars a year).^ Named after the Dutch town of Gouda, just outside Rotterdam, it accounts for more than 60% of the cheese produced in Holland and it has a very long history.

^ Some time after that France alone was said to have 365 varieties of cheese, one for every day of the year, but there are certainly even more than that now.

^ Its flavor is mild and delicate similar to but slightly more acidic than cream cheese.

[39] .Certain kinds of Chinese preserved bean curd are sometimes misleadingly referred to in English as "Chinese cheese", because of their texture and strong flavor.^ A hard textured cheese with a natural ashed rind, this cheese has a complex, sharp flavor that will appeal to a wide number of cheese lovers.

^ The milk curds and whey used to make this cheese are pressed and dried even before the cheese is aged, giving this pure white cheese a dense but slightly spongy texture and a salty, milky flavor -- like a dry Italian feta.

^ They were able to take advantage of the lush countryside to make a full flavored cheese which is firm in texture yet rather crumbly as it is eaten when semi-hard or hard.

.Strict followers of the dietary laws of Islam and Judaism must avoid cheeses made with rennet from animals not slaughtered in a manner adhering to halal or kosher laws.^ The cheese is pasteurized and animal rennet is used.

[40] .Both faiths allow cheese made with vegetable-based rennet or with rennet made from animals that were processed in a halal or kosher manner.^ The cheese is pasteurized and animal rennet is used.

^ The recipe is based on a cheese that has for centuries been made by local shepherds.

.Many less-orthodox Jews also believe that rennet undergoes enough processing to change its nature entirely, and do not consider it to ever violate kosher law.^ Though many cheese aficionados (myself not excluded) may sneer at this cheese "processed" cheese, many who have tried it cant seem to get enough of it.

(See Cheese and kashrut.) As cheese is a dairy food under kosher rules it cannot be eaten in the same meal with any meat.
.Rennet derived from animal slaughter, and thus cheese made with animal-derived rennet, is not vegetarian.^ The cheese is pasteurized and animal rennet is used.

^ It is a soft-white, vegetarian cheese made from cow's milk.

.Most widely available vegetarian cheeses are made using rennet produced by fermentation of the fungus Mucor miehei.^ The cheese is pasteurized and animal rennet is used.

^ The cheese is made from November through February using milk collected from a single milking.

^ Monje is a farmhouse Blue Cheese produced in one of the four towns of Asturias where blues are made.

.Vegans and other dairy-avoiding vegetarians do not eat real cheese at all, but some vegetable-based cheese substitutes (usually soy-and almond-based) are available.^ Okay, perhaps the real reason that we eat cheese everyday is because we love it, and we promise that we will always do our utmost so that you and your customers are always provided with cheeses that you will love too.

^ Some say the cheese originated in Holland, others claim it was always produced in France.

^ Available all year round, this cow's milk cheese is known by some as Faux (fake) Vacherin.

.Even in cultures with long cheese traditions, it is not unusual to find people who perceive cheese - especially pungent-smelling or mold-bearing varieties such as Limburger or Roquefort - as unpalatable.^ In turn, they will rub the cheese with a variety of dried herbs, for the evening or eating after dinner.

^ Some time after that France alone was said to have 365 varieties of cheese, one for every day of the year, but there are certainly even more than that now.

^ Bluish-green and even reddish mold on their rinds; sticky, pungent smelling cheeses that could clear a room these could be descriptions of the most heavenly cheese you'll ever eat.

.Food-science writer Harold McGee proposes that cheese is such an acquired taste because it is produced through a process of controlled spoilage and many of the odor and flavor molecules in an aged cheese are the same found in rotten foods.^ Not all feta cheese tastes the same.

^ This washing of the rind produces a slightly corrugated and humid, yellow coating which turns red over time and protects the cheese as it ages.

^ Though many cheese aficionados (myself not excluded) may sneer at this cheese "processed" cheese, many who have tried it cant seem to get enough of it.

He notes, "An aversion to the odor of decay has the obvious biological value of steering us away from possible food poisoning, so it is no wonder that an animal food that gives off whiffs of shoes and soil and the stable takes some getting used to."[41]
Collecting cheese labels is called "tyrosemiophilia".[42]

See also

Notes and references

Notes
  1. ^ Fankhauser, David B. (2007). "Fankhauser's Cheese Page". http://biology.clc.uc.edu/fankhauser/Cheese/CHEESE.HTML. Retrieved 2007-09-23. 
  2. ^ Simpson, D.P. (1979). Cassell's Latin Dictionary (5 ed.). London: Cassell Ltd.. pp. 883. ISBN 0-304-52257-0. 
  3. ^ "The History Of Cheese: From An Ancient Nomad’s Horseback To Today’s Luxury Cheese Cart". The Nibble. Lifestyle Direct, Inc.. http://www.thenibble.com/REVIEWS/main/cheese/cheese2/history.asp. Retrieved 2009-10-08. 
  4. ^ Jenny Ridgwell, Judy Ridgway, Food around the World, (1986) Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-832728-5
  5. ^ Vicki Reich, Cheese January 2002 Newsletter
  6. ^ History of Cheese. [1] accessed 2007/06/10
  7. ^ "British Cheese homepage". British Cheese Board. 2007. http://www.britishcheese.com/. Retrieved 2007-07-13. 
  8. ^ Quoted in Newsweek, October 1, 1962 according to The Columbia Dictionary of Quotations (Columbia University Press, 1993 ISBN 0-231-07194-9 p 345). Numbers besides 246 are often cited in very similar quotes; whether these are misquotes or whether de Gaulle repeated the same quote with different numbers is unclear.
  9. ^ Smith, John H. (1995). Cheesemaking in Scotland - A History. The Scottish Dairy Association. ISBN 0-9525323-0-1. . Full text (Archived link), Chapter with cheese timetable (Archived link).
  10. ^ Cecil Adams (1999). "Straight Dope: How did the moon=green cheese myth start?". Retrieved October 15, 2005.
  11. ^ Anon (1st April 2006). "Hubble Resolves Expiration Date For Green Cheese Moon". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA. http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap060401.html. Retrieved 2009-10-08. 
  12. ^ McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking (Revised Edition). Scribner. ISBN 0-684-80001-2.  p 54. "In the United States, the market for process cheese [...] is now larger than the market for 'natural' cheese, which itself is almost exclusively factory-made."
  13. ^ Barbara Ensrud, (1981) The Pocket Guide to Cheese, Lansdowne Press/Quarto Marketing Ltd., ISBN 0-7018-1483-7
  14. ^ "Moose milk makes for unusual cheese". The Globe and Mail. 26 June 2004. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/servlet/ArticleNews/TPStory/LAC/20040626/MOOSE26/TPEntertainment/Style. Retrieved 2007-08-27. 
  15. ^ (McGee 2004, p. 63)
  16. ^ (McGee 2004, p. 64)
  17. ^ (McGee 2004, p. 66)
  18. ^ Nutritional data from CNN Interactive. Retrieved October 20, 2004.
  19. ^ Center for Science in the Public Interest (2001). "Don't Say Cheese". Retrieved October 15, 2005.
  20. ^ McGee, p 67. McGee supports both this contention and that more food poisonings in Europe are caused by pasteurized cheeses than raw-milk.
  21. ^ National Dairy Council. "Specific Health Benefits of Cheese." Retrieved October 15, 2005.
  22. ^ The Pharmaceutical Journal, Vol 264 No 7078 p48 January 8, 2000 Clinical.
  23. ^ Sleep Study, 2005
  24. ^ Cheese Facts, I Love Cheese, 2006. [2].
  25. ^ Reichelt KL, Knivsberg A-M, Lind G, Nødland M (1991). "Probable etiology and possible treatment of childhood autism". Brain Dysfunct 4: 308–19. 
  26. ^ Christison GW, Ivany K (2006). "Elimination diets in autism spectrum disorders: any wheat amidst the chaff?". J Dev Behav Pediatr 27 (2 Suppl 2): S162–71. doi:10.1097/00004703-200604002-00015. PMID 16685183. 
  27. ^ Lactose Intolerance FAQs from the American Dairy Association, Retrieved October 15, 2005.
  28. ^ FDA Warns About Soft Cheese Health Risk". Consumer Affairs. Retrieved October 15, 2005.
  29. ^ Chris Mercer (2005). "Australia lifts Roquefort cheese safety ban". Retrieved October 22, 2005.
  30. ^ Janet Fletcher. "The Myths about Raw-Milk Cheese". Retrieved October 15, 2005.
  31. ^ Listeria and Pregnancy. Retrieved February 28, 2006.
  32. ^ United States Department of Agriculture for the US and non European countries in 2006 [3]and Eurostat for European countries in 2008 [4]
  33. ^ Sources: FAO and Eurostat.
  34. ^ UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[5]
  35. ^ Source FAO
  36. ^ CNIEL
  37. ^ Cidilait, Le fromage
  38. ^ USDA
  39. ^ Rebecca Buckman (2003). "Let Them Eat Cheese". Far Eastern Economic Review 166 n. 49: 41.  Full text.
  40. ^ Toronto Public Health. Frequently Asked Questions about Halal Foods. Retrieved October 15, 2005.
  41. ^ McGee p 58, "Why Some People Can't Stand Cheese"
  42. ^ Cheese label.
References

External links

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Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Poets have been mysteriously silent on the subject of cheese. ~ G. K. Chesterton
Quotes concerning Cheese.
  • Like chalk and cheese. .
    • An expression meaning completely different.
  • A meal without cheese is like a beautiful woman who lacks an eye.^ Its rich amber color, straw-like pte 3 and large eyes 6 make this cheese great for snacks and sandwiches.

    ^ Bouchon means cork in French, and though it is considerably larger, this small, cylindrical cow's milk cheese gets its name due to its cork-like shape.

    ^ Caciocavallo is one of the pasta filata types of cheeses (like PROVOLONE and MOZZARELLA ), which means it has been stretched and shaped by hand.

    .
    • Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin.
  • A slice of pie without cheese is like a kiss without a squeeze.^ The well known Epicurean Brillat Savarin, who has a cheese named after him (see #14), called it "le Roi des fromages " (King of cheeses).

    ^ Brillat-Savarin is a triple cream cow's milk cheese similar to Saint Andr, and Explorateur.

    .
    • Stephen King, Firestarter
  • How can you govern a country where there are 246 different types of cheese?^ "How can one be expected to govern a country where there are 258 varieties of cheese?"

    ^ Keep in mind that Cheeses are living things, and they each have there own unique characteristics, even amongst cheeses of the same type and producer.

    ^ Charles De Gaulle said in 1962: "How can you expect to govern a country where there are 258 varieties of cheese?"

  • Moe, Larry, cheese! .
    • Curly Joe, The Three Stooges
  • I eat swiss cheese from the inside out.^ The traditional way to eat a ripe Edel de Cleron, is to cut off the top rind and eat the runny cheese out of the center.

    ~ Steven Wright
  • Many's the long night I've dreamed of cheese -- toasted, mostly.^ Estanislao and his brother have been making the cheese for many years it is somewhat chewy and complex with a long finish that highlights the rosemary.

  • There's always free cheese in a mousetrap.
  • To cut the cheese
    • a euphemism for flatulence.
  • It ain't easy being cheesy. .
    • Chubby Cheese
  • Life is like a block of cheese, hard and smelly
    • Anonymous
  • [Cheese can] restore an old love and ...^ Cotswold is a classic blend of chives and onion, coupled with a quality Double Gloucester cheese, this cheddar-like, smooth cheese is a modern rendition of an old British favorite.

    ripen a young one. .
  • The moon is made of a green cheese.^ Originally a version of Banon, a goat's cheese from Provence that is dipped in eau-de-vie and wrapped in chestnut leaves, St. Marcellin is now a cheese all its own.

  • Cheese! Why won't it stop flirting with me? .
  • I eat cottage cheese for dinner, with salt and pepper!^ In turn, they will rub the cheese with a variety of dried herbs, for the evening or eating after dinner.

  • "'Why did you yell, 'Cheese'?' And The Man would tell him mockingly, 'Because I felt like it, you stupid machine of poo." Breakfast of Champions (Chapter 16) Kurt Vonnegut

External links

Wikipedia
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Look up cheese in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

CHEESE (Lat. .caseus), a solidified preparation from milk, the essential constituent of which is the proteinous or nitrogenous substance casein. All cheese contains in addition some proportion of fatty matter or butter, and in the more valuable varieties the butter present is often greater in amount than the casein.^ Retailers and Restaurants Note:  This list may not contain all retailers and restaurants who sell Hook's Cheese.
  • Tony and Julie Hook, Hook's Cheese Company Inc. 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.hookscheese.com [Source type: General]

^ Tipping the scales at 75% butterfat and more buttery than butter, this is the legal limit for triple creme.
  • Vivant Fine Cheese - Cheese Selections 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vivantfinecheese.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bass Lake Cheese Factory Award-winning, all natural handmade specialty cheeses from cow's, sheep's and goat's milk.
  • Wisconsin Attractions: Wisconsin Cheese Factories and Tours 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wisconline.com [Source type: General]

.Cheese being thus a compound substance of no definite composition is found in commerce of many different varieties and qualities; and such qualities are generally recognized by the names of the localities in which they are manufactured.^ Many cheese names refer to the area or region from which they come, as in Crottin de Chavignol, or Brie de Meaux (coming from Chavignol & Meaux respectively).

^ Simon's offers over 100 varieties of cheeses along with many imported cheeses.
  • Wisconsin Attractions: Wisconsin Cheese Factories and Tours 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wisconline.com [Source type: General]

^ An industrial cheese, it can be readily found in many supermarkets.

.The principal distinctions arise from differences in the composition and condition of the milk operated upon, from variations in the method of preparation and curing, and from the use of the milk of other animals besides the cow, as, for example, the goat and the ewe, from the milk of both of which cheese is manufactured on a commercial scale.^ Type of Milk: sheep, cow and goat .
  • Cheese Guide: Low fat healthy recipes,nutrition,fitness 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.foodfit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 264 gallons of milk are used for one wheel of cheese.
  • Vivant Fine Cheese - Cheese Selections 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.vivantfinecheese.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Feta – Feta can be made with goat, sheep, or cow’s milk, and I love it all.
  • Is Cheese Unhealthy? | Mark's Daily Apple 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.marksdailyapple.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For details about different cheeses and cheesemaking, see Dairy.^ Tours are offered June through September, and teaches you about dairy cattle and cheese making.
  • Wisconsin Attractions: Wisconsin Cheese Factories and Tours 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wisconline.com [Source type: General]

.From the Urdu chiz ("thing") comes the slang expression "the cheese," meaning "the perfect thing," apparently from Anglo-Indian usage.^ The name of this cheese has somewhat macabre overtones: scamozza is an expression in southern Italy which means "beheaded", it is meant here to describe the cheese's appearance (tied in a rope bag).

.A useful summary of the history and manufacture of all sorts of cheeses, under their different names, is given in Bulletin 105 of the Bureau of Animal Industry (United States Dep.^ Industry leader in the manufacturing of specialty flavored natural cheese.
  • Wisconsin Attractions: Wisconsin Cheese Factories and Tours 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.wisconline.com [Source type: General]

^ History: first introduced in grocery stores in 1915 by J.L. Kraft; this popular cheese boasts the highest volume of profits among cheeses sold in the United States .
  • Cheese Guide: Low fat healthy recipes,nutrition,fitness 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.foodfit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A large quantity of this cheese is exported all over the world, especially to the United States.

of Agriculture), Varieties of Cheese, by C. F. Doane and H. W. Lawson (Washington, 1908).


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki


(A.S. cese). This word occurs three times in the Authorized Version as the translation of three different Hebrew words: (1.) 1 Sam. 17:18, "ten cheeses;" i.e., ten sections of curd. (2.) 2 Sam. 17:29, "cheese of kine" = perhaps curdled milk of kine. The Vulgate version reads "fat calves." (3.) Job 10:10, curdled milk is meant by the word.
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)

Simple English

[[File:|thumb|200px|A cheese platter with many types of cheese.]]

Cheese is a solid food made from milk. It can be soft or firm. It is made by removing water from milk. People may store cheese in a refrigerator, to make sure it does not go bad. Its color varies, but often it is white or yellow.

There are many types of cheese. Their different styles and flavors depend on the origin of the milk and whether it has been pasteurized. It also depends on the butterfat content, the species of bacteria and mold, and the processing including the length of aging. The different colors of cheese are made by adding annatto. Cheeses are eaten both on their own and cooked in various dishes. Most cheeses melt when heated.

For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such as vinegar or lemon juice. Most cheeses are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria, which turn milk sugars into lactic acid, then the addition of rennet completes the curdling. Vegetarian alternatives to rennet are available. Most of these are produced by fermentation of the fungus called Mucor miehei. However, others have been extracted from various species of the Cynara thistle family.

Cheese is important for its long life, and high content of fat, protein, calcium, and phosphorus.

The word cheese can be used in hockey. The term "Top Cheese" refer's to the upper section of the goal net (near the cross bar) where the puck can be shot. Example: "You snipped that top cheese!"

How it is made

Cheese is usually made using milk. Cheese makers usually cook the milk in large pots and add salt and a substance from the stomach of young cows called rennet. This curdles the cheese, it makes it solid. There are special pots for making cheese[needs proof]. Often, these pots are called vats. Some makers do not add rennet and curdle it in other ways. One way which factories use is using bacteria. Other ingredients are added and the cheese is usually aged for a short time.

Types of cheese

There are many different ways to classify cheeses. Some ways include:

  • How long the cheese was aged
  • The texture of the cheese (hard or soft)
  • How the cheese was made
  • What type of milk was used to make the cheese (what animal it came from)
  • How much fat is in the cheese
  • What color it is

Different types of cheese include:

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 13, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Cheese, which are similar to those in the above article.








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