|— Inhabited locality —|
Location of Chelyabinsk Oblast on the map of Russia
Location of Chelyabinsk on the map of Chelyabinsk Oblast
Coat of arms
|Holiday||13 September|
|Federal subject||Chelyabinsk Oblast|
|In administrative jurisdiction of||Chelyabinsk Oblast|
|Administrative center of||Chelyabinsk Oblast|
|Municipal status (as of February 2008)|
|Municipal Status||Urban okrug|
|Head||Mikhail Yurevich|
|Representative body||Council|
|Area||486 km2 (187.6 sq mi)|
|Population (2002 Census)||1,078,300 inhabitants|
|- Density||2,219 /km2 (5,700/sq mi)|
|Time zone||YEKT/YEKST (UTC+5/+6)|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 351|
Chelyabinsk (Russian: Челя́бинск, pronounced [tɕiˈlʲabinsk] ( listen)) is a city in Russia, located just to the east of the Ural Mountains, on Miass River. It is the administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast. Population: 1,077,174 (2002 Census); 1,141,777 (1989 Census).
Fortress Chelyaba, from which the city takes its name, was constructed on the site in 1736; the city was incorporated in 1781. Around 1900, it served as a center for the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway. According to official statistics the population on 1 January 1913 was 45,000 inhabitants.
During the Soviet industrialization of the 1930s, Chelyabinsk experienced rapid growth. Several industrial establishments, including the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant and the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant, were built at this time. During World War II, Joseph Stalin decided to move a large part of Soviet factory production to places out of the way of the advancing German armies in late 1941. This brought new industries and thousands of workers to Chelyabinsk—still essentially a small city. Several enormous facilities for the production of T-34 tanks and Katyusha rocket launchers existed in Chelyabinsk, which became known as "Tankograd" (Tank City). Chelyabinsk was essentially built from scratch during this time. A small town existed before this, signs of which can be found in the centre of the city. The S.M. Kirov Factory no. 185 moved here from Leningrad to produce heavy tanks — it was transferred to Omsk after 1962.
A serious nuclear accident occurred in 1957 at the Mayak nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, 150 km north-west of the city, caused deaths in Chelyabinsk Oblast but not in the city. The province was closed to all foreigners until 1992.
The city is located in the north-western side of its Oblast, 210 km south of Yekaterinburg.
There are over a dozen universities in Chelyabinsk. The main ones are South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk State University and Chelyabinsk Medical Academy. The oldest one is Chelyabinsk State Pedagogical University, which was founded in 1934. There are 13 faculties at the University including the Faculty of Foreign Languages, Mathematics, Physics, and others.
Chelyabinsk is one of the major industrial centers of Russia. Heavy industry predominates, especially metallurgy and military machinery, notably the Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Combinate (CMK, ChMK), Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant (CTZ, ChTZ), Chelyabinsk Electrode plant (CHEZ), Chelyabinsk Tube Rolling Plant (ChTPZ) and Chelyabinsk Forge-and-Press Plant (ChKPZ).
Chelyabinsk also has several electronics plants, including Metran, Polet and Zavod Electromashina, that serve both military and civil needs.
Chelyabinsk started construction of a 3-line subway network in 1993. It is proceeding slowly using the New Austrian Tunneling method. Pending financing, the opening of the first section is scheduled for 2010.
Chelyabinsk has a tramway (since 1932) and trolleybus (since 1942). The fare for tramway and trolleybus - ~$0.28 (10 rubles). Also for passengers available "social cards" and "transport card", these cards provide discounts.
The city is served by Chelyabinsk Balandino Airport.
Chelyabinsk is twinned with:
By air: many daily flights from all three of Moscow's airports starting from 3000 RUB. Air service to other cities is very limited. The nearby Yekaterinburg airport (200 km / 3 hours by bus) has many international flights.
By train: two daily trains to Moscow. Train 13/14 is quicker (34 hours), but the ticket price is comparable to that of the plane ticket. Train 391/392 is cheaper, at around 1300 RUB, but is less safe and slower (41 hours).
Trains to all other parts of Russia are available as well, including the Kyiv-Vladivostok train that travels about 10,000 km. International trains run to Asian ex-USSR countries, such as Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, and even to Beijing (twice a month).
By bus: Yekaterinburg-Chelyabinsk route is very popular, with buses running every 20-30 minutes at around 300 RUB and 3-4 hours travel time. The main bus station in Chelyabinsk (Avtovokzal) is the blue pyramid building opposite the railway station. There is another bus station to the north with mostly buses to smaller towns of the region.
Irish Pub "Fox & Goose"
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