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A woman being treated with docetaxel chemotherapy for breast cancer.
^ Chemotherapy is used to treat various cancers.

^ Chemotherapy is the use of medicines to treat cancer.
  • UCSD Cancer Center - Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC cancer.ucsd.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chemotherapy is the use of drugs for treating cancer.
  • Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.hsc.wvu.edu [Source type: General]

Cold mittens and wine coolers are placed on her hands and feet to reduce harm to her nails.
.Chemotherapy, in its most general sense, is the treatment of disease by chemicals[1] especially by killing micro-organisms or cancerous cells.^ Chemotherapy works by actually killing cancer cells, and, for some, it’s the only treatment needed.
  • Evergreen Hematology & Oncology | Spokane WA | Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC evergreen4cure.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chemotherapy The treatment of cancer (or other disease) with chemicals that are toxic to the cancer cells.
  • Melanoma.com 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.melanoma.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In chemotherapy, doctors employ chemicals to destroy cancer cells.
  • Chemotherapy - Learning About Chemotherapy | eHow.com 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

.In popular usage, it refers to antineoplastic drugs used to treat cancer or the combination of these drugs into a cytotoxic standardized treatment regimen.^ Chemotherapy is the use of drugs in the treatment of cancer.
  • Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.jcc.hhsc.ca [Source type: General]

^ Chemotherapy is  used to treat the cancerous disease.
  • Chicago Gynecologic Oncology, S.C. Ovarian Cancer Center, da Vinci Robotic Surgeries, IP Chemotherapy, HPV Treatments 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC chicagogynonc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dozens of drugs are used to treat arthritis.

.In its non-oncological use, the term may also refer to antibiotics (antibacterial chemotherapy).^ In its non- oncological use, the term may also refer to antibiotics ( antibacterial chemotherapy ).
  • Natural Chemotherapy and Immume System Building 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC naturalchemotherapy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In its non-oncological use, the term may also refer to antibiotics .

^ Chemotherapy may be used to: .
  • Imaginis - Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.imaginis.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chemotherapy: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • Chemotherapy - Special Health Topics For Healthy Living - South Florida Hospital 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.mhs.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Chemotherapy - Scripps Health - San Diego 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC mobile.scripps.org [Source type: Academic]
  • HowStuffWorks "Chemotherapy - Medical Dictionary" 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC healthguide.howstuffworks.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chemotherapy Information on Healthline 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healthline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chemotherapy - MMCI 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC mmci2.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chemotherapy - Health Information 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.qualityhealth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC stfrancishospitals.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Health Library 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC mywheaton.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chemotherapy - Baptist Hospital Northeast 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC baptistnortheast.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC baptistregional.adam.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC newfrontierincancer.org [Source type: Academic]

.In that sense, the first modern chemotherapeutic agent was Paul Ehrlich's arsphenamine, an arsenic compound discovered in 1909 and used to treat syphilis.^ In that sense, the first modern chemotherapeutic agent was Paul Ehrlich's arsphenamine, an arsenic compound discovered in 1909 and used to treat syphilis.

^ In that sense, the first modern chemotherapeutic agent was Paul Ehrlich ’s arsphenamine , an arsenic compound discovered in 1909 and used to treat syphilis .
  • Natural Chemotherapy and Immume System Building 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC naturalchemotherapy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This compound can be used to treat all warts.
  • Medication Compounding - Medication Flavouring - PEI - Murphy's Pharmacies 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.murphyspharmacies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was later followed by sulfonamides discovered by Domagk and penicillin discovered by Alexander Fleming.^ This was later followed by sulfonamides discovered by Domagk and penicillin discovered by Alexander Fleming.

^ This was later followed by sulfonamides discovered by Domagk and penicillin discovered by Alexander Fleming .
  • Natural Chemotherapy and Immume System Building 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC naturalchemotherapy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, Ehrlich is considered the father of chemotherapy, and he’s also credited for inspiring Alexander Fleming’s discovery of penicillin in 1929.
  • Aug. 31, 1909: First Chemotherapy Drug Treats Syphilis | This Day In Tech | Wired.com 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]
  • Chemotherapy | This Day In Tech | Wired.com 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.wired.com [Source type: General]

.Most commonly, chemotherapy acts by killing cells that divide rapidly, one of the main properties of cancer cells.^ Cell cycle and cancer chemotherapy.
  • PowerPoints on cancer chemotherapy | Pharmamotion 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC pharmamotion.com.ar [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy is poison and kills cells by poisoning them.
  • Cancer Treatments - Should I have Chemotherapy, Radiation or Surgery? 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.drday.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Chemotherapy specifically targets cancerous cells.

.This means that it also harms cells that divide rapidly under normal circumstances: cells in the bone marrow, digestive tract and hair follicles; this results in the most common side effects of chemotherapy—myelosuppression (decreased production of blood cells), mucositis (inflammation of the lining of the digestive tract) and alopecia (hair loss).^ Therefore, the most common side effects of chemotherapy arelinked to their effects on these other fast growing cells.
  • Chemotherapy, Information about Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some common side effects include: .
  • Chemotherapy for Blood-Related Cancers 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.marrow.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are the most common side effects of chemotherapy?

.Other uses of cytostatic chemotherapy agents (including the ones mentioned below) are the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Dermatomyositis, Polymyositis, Lupus, rheumatoid arthritis and the suppression of transplant rejections (see immunosuppression and DMARDs).^ Chemotherapy The treatment of cancer (or other disease) with chemicals that are toxic to the cancer cells.
  • Melanoma.com 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.melanoma.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other chemotherapy agents, such as topotecan, may be used to prolong survival.
  • Ovarian Cancer Canada - Treatment and Recovery – Info and Treatment - Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.ovariancanada.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most commonly used single-agent chemotherapies are listed below.
  • Melanoma Center - Types of Treatment - Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.melanomacenter.org [Source type: Academic]

.Newer anticancer drugs act directly against abnormal proteins in cancer cells; this is termed targeted therapy.^ Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer drugs to treat cancerous cells.
  • Cancer Therapy & Research Center at The University of Texas Health Science Center 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.ctrc.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Chemotherapy Overview | CHOP | The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.chop.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/prostate_health/prostate_cancer/treatments_prostate_cancer/chemotherapy/Pages/index.aspx 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC medicalcenter.osu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy specifically targets cancerous cells.

^ Targeted therapy attacks specific cancer cells.

Contents

History

.The use of minerals and plant-based medicines are believed to date back to prehistoric medicine.^ Some medicinal plants used by Pharaohs .
  • Egypt: Medication in Ancient Egypt 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC touregypt.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the use of medicine to treat chronic low back pain physicians are advised to consider the specific needs of the patient when prescribing and scheduling these medications.
  • Back.com - Treatment Options - Non-Surgical - Medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.back.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Herbal Medication An herbal remedy is made from a medicinal plant or plants and used to prevent and treat diseases and ailments or to promote health and healing.
  • Hemorrhoid.net - Home Remedies and Natural Cures for Hemorrhoids and other anal rectal diseases 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.hemorrhoid.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first use of drugs to treat cancer, however, was in the early 20th century, although it was not originally intended for that purpose.^ Which cancers is chemotherapy used to treat?
  • Holy Cross Hospital. Fort Lauderdale, FL. 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer drugs to treat cancerous cells.
  • Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC nch.staywellsolutionsonline.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Cancer Therapy & Research Center at The University of Texas Health Science Center 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.ctrc.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Chemotherapy Overview | CHOP | The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.chop.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Bridgeport Hospital, CT - Health & Wellness 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.bridgeporthospital.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chemotherapy Drugs and Side Effects - Information About Cancer - Stanford Cancer Center 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC cancer.stanford.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/prostate_health/prostate_cancer/treatments_prostate_cancer/chemotherapy/Pages/index.aspx 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC medicalcenter.osu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy is used to treat various cancers.

.Mustard gas was used as a chemical warfare agent during World War I and was studied further during World War II.^ Chemotherapy was formed from mustard gases, which was in use as chemical- arms during the 1st World-War.
  • COMPLETE Guide For Chemotherapy and It's Treatment 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC chemotherapytreatments.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mustard gas, a poison, was used in World War I (1914).
  • Chemotherapy Basics 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC natamcancer.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mustard gas was used as a chemical warfare agent during World War I and was studied further during World War II. During a military operation in World War II, a group of people were accidentally exposed to mustard gas and were later found to have very low white blood cell counts.
  • Chemotherapy, An Interesting Choice: Baseline's Alternative Health Newsletter 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During a military operation in World War II, a group of people were accidentally exposed to mustard gas and were later found to have very low white blood cell counts[2].^ Many infections that develop in people who have low white blood cell counts are caused by bacteria normally found on or in their bodies.
  • Chemotherapy | Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: General]

^ A low white blood cell count can place you at risk for infection.

^ Low white–blood-cell count can lead to life-threatening infections.
  • Chemotherapy Side Effects: Frequently Asked Questions 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.taxotere.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Chemotherapy Treatment Regimen: How Chemotherapy Drugs Work 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.taxotere.com [Source type: Academic]

.It was reasoned that an agent that damaged the rapidly-growing white blood cells might have a similar effect on cancer.^ Cancer cells grow and divide quickly.
  • Chemotherapy Overview | Women's Cancer Network 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.wcn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some cancer cells grow slowly while others grow rapidly.
  • Treating Cancer With Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.chemotherapy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Treating cancer with Chemotherapy - Cancer Treatment Forums 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cancertreatmentforums.com [Source type: General]

^ White blood cells fight infections.
  • Shots prevent cervical cancer | Information on the cause of cervical cancer 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cervicalcancercampaign.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore, in the 1940s, several patients with advanced lymphomas (cancers of certain white blood cells) were given the drug by vein, rather than by breathing the irritating gas.^ In chemotherapy, cancer patients may be given one or several drugs from the available anti-cancer drugs.

^ Therefore, in the 1940s, several patients with advanced lymphomas (cancers of certain white blood cells) were given the drug by vein, rather than by breathing the irritating gas.
  • Chemotherapy, An Interesting Choice: Baseline's Alternative Health Newsletter 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cancer cells are more vulnerable to chemotherapy drugs than the normal cells.
  • Chemotherapy for breast cancer from MedicineWorld.Org 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC medicineworld.org [Source type: Academic]

.Their improvement, although temporary, was remarkable.^ Their improvement, although temporary, was remarkable.
  • Chemotherapy, An Interesting Choice: Baseline's Alternative Health Newsletter 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3][4] .That experience led researchers to look for other substances that might have similar effects against cancer.^ That experience started researchers studying other substances that might have similar effects against cancer.
  • Chemotherapy, An Interesting Choice: Baseline's Alternative Health Newsletter 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.jonbarron.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Research at the National Cancer Institute and other institutions around the world has led to the development of successful treatments for cancers which are too advanced to be removed surgically, but that are still confined to a specific organ or region of the body.
  • University of Pittsburgh Department of Surgery 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.pittsurgonc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ More than 20,000 women each year in the United States alone might be spared the side effects of Taxol chemotherapy drug or similar ones without significantly raising the risk their cancer will return.
  • Chemotherapy drugs and how to reduce side effects by Ray Sahelian, M.D. 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

.As a result, many other drugs have been developed to treat cancer, and drug development since then has exploded into a multibillion-dollar industry, although the principles and limitations of chemotherapy discovered by the early researchers still apply.^ Chemotherapy is the use of medicines to treat cancer.
  • UCSD Cancer Center - Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC cancer.ucsd.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pancreatic cancer: Researchers find drug that reverses resistance to chemotherapy .
  • Pancreatic cancer: Researchers find drug that reverses resistance to chemotherapy | Science Blog 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.scienceblog.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy cancer treatment includes many types of drugs.
  • Chemotherapy Cancer Treatment Article 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.christianet.com [Source type: Academic]

[5]

Principles

.Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells coupled with malignant behavior: invasion and metastasis.^ Anticancer Drugs Cancer is a condition of uncontrolled cell growth.
  • Wigs Toronto Ontario - Chemotherapy | Female Hair Loss Solutions | Women Hair Replacement Systems | Fashion Hair Extensions 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.continentalhair.com [Source type: General]

^ The rapid growth of cancerous cells is known as a malignant tumour.
  • Chemotherapy - Definition 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nhs.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ See entire page » HOW DOES CHEMOTHERAPY WORK? Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of cells coupled with malignant behavior: invasion and metastasis.
  • Questions about Chemotherapy - Ask.com 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

.Cancer is thought to be caused by the interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental toxins.^ Cancer is thought to be caused by the interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental toxins.
  • Questions about Chemotherapy - Ask.com 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ It was being exacerbated by environmental toxins (carcinogens), but was primarily being caused not by something, but by the absence of a key element in the diet of modern man.

^ Interactions between MAOIs and other substances can cause dangerous elevations in blood pressure or other potentially life-threatening reactions.

.In the broad sense, most chemotherapeutic drugs work by impairing mitosis (cell division), effectively targeting fast-dividing cells.^ Chemotherapeutic drugs inhibit the process of mitosis, or cell division.
  • Chemotherapy | Chemo Drugs, Types and Side Effects | Cancer Treatment 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.knowcancer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Most of the chemotherapeutic drugs are not specifically toxic to cancer cells, but to all cells that are dividing rapidly.
  • Chemotherapy in Small Animals [HomeVet© Natural Pet Care] 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.homevet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The problem with chemotherapy is that it works by interrupting mitosis, the process of cell division.
  • Nervous System Tumors - Treatment - Chemotherapy - neurologychannel 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.neurologychannel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As these drugs cause damage to cells they are termed cytotoxic.^ Some cytotoxic drugs damage the hair making cells.
  • Chemotherapy with Cytotoxic Drugs | Health | Patient UK 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As these drugs cause damage to cells they are termed cytotoxic.

^ These drugs are cytotoxic (cell-killing).

.Some drugs cause cells to undergo apoptosis (so-called "programmed cell death").^ Once again this leads to programmed cell death (apoptosis).

^ Some drugs cause cells to undergo apoptosis (so-called "cell suicide")..

^ Some drugs may cause constipation .
  • Chemotherapy side effects : Cancer Research UK : CancerHelp UK 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cancerhelp.org.uk [Source type: General]

.Scientists have yet to identify specific features of malignant and immune cells that would make them uniquely targetable (barring some recent examples, such as the Philadelphia chromosome as targeted by imatinib).^ Some people who have the Philadelphia chromosome .
  • Chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.macmillan.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Researchers have yet to determine all of the features unique to malignant cells and healthy cells.
  • Chemotherapy | Chemo Drugs, Types and Side Effects | Cancer Treatment 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.knowcancer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This came with better understanding of illnesses and their nature, culminating in a newer approach, designing some chemotherapy drugs that would interfere with certain functions of the cells.
  • Chemotherapy , what you need to know about cancer chemotherapy. 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.tirgan.com [Source type: Academic]

.This means that other fast-dividing cells, such as those responsible for hair growth and for replacement of the intestinal epithelium (lining), are also often affected.^ The drugs affect cancer cells and other cells that divide rapidly: .
  • Breast cancer chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.gloriagemma.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other fast-growing cells can also be affected, like the cells that cause hair to grow.
  • Chemotherapy - Cancer Council Victoria 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, it also affects the bodys other quickly dividing cells like the hair, nails, stomach, intestine lining, and blood cells.
  • Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC tumorfree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, some drugs have a better side effect profile than others, enabling doctors to adjust treatment regimens to the advantage of patients in certain situations.^ Some common side effects include: .
  • Chemotherapy for Blood-Related Cancers 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.marrow.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some people get side effects from medications and other people don't.
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What side effects are associated with the drug/drugs I will be given?
  • Chemotherapy for Mesothelioma Treatment 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.mesotheliomaweb.org [Source type: Academic]

.As chemotherapy affects cell division, tumors with high growth fractions (such as acute myelogenous leukemia and the aggressive lymphomas, including Hodgkin's disease) are more sensitive to chemotherapy, as a larger proportion of the targeted cells are undergoing cell division at any time.^ However, chemotherapy also affects normal c… More .
  • How to Eat the Right Foods During Chemotherapy | eHow.com 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ Lymphoma, mast cell tumor, myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia .
  • Treatment options for cancer in cats and dogs. 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.petcancercenter.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy destroyscancer cells in a tumor.
  • Chemotherapy, Information about Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

.Malignancies with slower growth rates, such as indolent lymphomas, tend to respond to chemotherapy much more modestly.^ Chemotherapy is most often used to treat cancer, since cancer cells grow and multiply much more quickly than most cells in the body.
  • Chemotherapy - MayoClinic.com 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.mayoclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chemotherapy is also sometimes used before surgery to see how well the tumor will respond to chemotherapy and to shrink a tumor so that the cancer can be more easily removed.
  • Chemotherapy for Sarcoma | Sarcoma | Seattle Cancer Care Alliance 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.seattlecca.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recently, however, with the creation and of new and more effective chemotherapy drugs, some doctors are putting their patients on chemotherapy drugs before these patients stop responding to hormone therapy.
  • Prostate Cancer Chemotherapy: Advanced Prostate Cancer and Bone Metastasis 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.prostate-cancer.com [Source type: Academic]

.Drugs affect "younger" tumors (i.e., more differentiated) more effectively, because mechanisms regulating cell growth are usually still preserved.^ Different drugs act differently during different phases of tumor cell growth.
  • How Chemotherapy Is Given | Women's Cancer Network 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.wcn.org [Source type: General]

^ Because cancer cells divide more of...
  • Questions about Chemotherapy - Ask.com 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ Growth factors are drugs that stimulate the production of red or white blood cells.
  • Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.fccc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.With succeeding generations of tumor cells, differentiation is typically lost, growth becomes less regulated, and tumors become less responsive to most chemotherapeutic agents.^ Neoplasm A new growth of tissue or cells; a tumor that is generally malignant .
  • Cancer Glossary - What is Chemotherapy, Hepatitis B, C, What is Leukemia, Mesothelioma & more 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.meds.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The goal of chemotherapy is to shrink primary tumors, slow the tumor growth, and to kill cancer cells that may have spread (metastasized) to other parts of the body from the original tumor.

^ Chemotherapy is the use of powerful toxic drugs to attack cancer cells and are generally reserved for patients with advanced cases of cancer that have become resistant to hormone therapy.
  • .: Expert information about Chemotherapy for Prostate Cancer 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.zerocancer.org [Source type: Academic]

.Near the center of some solid tumors, cell division has effectively ceased, making them insensitive to chemotherapy.^ Chemotherapy destroyscancer cells in a tumor.
  • Chemotherapy, Information about Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tumor cells can grow resistant to chemotherapy.

^ Chemotherapy is not only toxic to tumor cells.

.Another problem with solid tumors is the fact that the chemotherapeutic agent often does not reach the core of the tumor.^ For individuals who have an incomplete response to one medication, the doctor can often work with the patient to find another medication or combination that does control symptoms.
  • Attention Deficit Disorder and Medication: The Basics 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.ncpamd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Even though toxic drugs often do effect a response, a partial or complete shrinkage of the tumor, this reduction does not prolong expected survival ," Abel finds.

.Solutions to this problem include radiation therapy (both brachytherapy and teletherapy) and surgery.^ When given before surgery, radiation therapy ...

^ Options for mesothelioma treatment include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
  • Mesothelioma Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Options include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
  • Non-small cell lung cancer treatment; locally advanced (stage III) cancer 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

.Over time, cancer cells become more resistant to chemotherapy treatments.^ About chemotherapy as a form of cancer treatment .
  • About chemotherapy as a form of cancer treatment 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.marshfieldclinic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy is the use of drugs in the treatment of cancer.
  • Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.jcc.hhsc.ca [Source type: General]

^ So chemotherapy damages cancer cells, and can destroy them.
  • Chemotherapy side effects : Cancer Research UK : CancerHelp UK 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cancerhelp.org.uk [Source type: General]

.Recently, scientists have identified small pumps on the surface of cancer cells that actively move chemotherapy from inside the cell to the outside.^ So chemotherapy damages cancer cells, and can destroy them.
  • Chemotherapy side effects : Cancer Research UK : CancerHelp UK 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cancerhelp.org.uk [Source type: General]

^ Cell cycle and cancer chemotherapy.
  • PowerPoints on cancer chemotherapy | Pharmamotion 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC pharmamotion.com.ar [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy stops cancer cells from multiplying.
  • Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: General]

.Research on p-glycoprotein and other such chemotherapy efflux pumps, is currently ongoing.^ Years of testing and research have proven chemotherapy to be effective and capable of prolonging life, reducing cancer-related symptoms such as pain, and in some instances curing cancer.
  • Chemotherapy - Treatment Options at Mayo Clinic 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.mayoclinic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Newer forms of chemotherapy are being developed and tested at Mayo Clinic and other research centers throughout the world.
  • Chemotherapy - Treatment Options at Mayo Clinic 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.mayoclinic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ You may receive one drug or a combination of drugs, and the chemotherapy may be combined with other treatments, such as surgery, radiation therapy, or biological therapy.
  • About Chemotherapy | Medical Oncology | UPMC Cancer Centers 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: Academic]

.Medications to inhibit the function of p-glycoprotein are undergoing testing as of June, 2007 to enhance the efficacy of chemotherapy.^ Demonstration of Improved Quality of Care for Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy (0.9688) Cancer Chemosensitivity Testing (0.9688) Efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy after cranial irradiation in patients with brain metastasis from non-small cell lung cancer.

^ A few drugs used in chemotherapy enhance immune function, while some alter hormonal activity.
  • Health: Chemotherapy; Chemotherapy typically involves the use of several antineoplastic (anticancer) drugs to ... 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: Academic]

^ While on chemotherapy treatment, blood test results showed abnormal liver function.

Treatment schemes

.There are a number of strategies in the administration of chemotherapeutic drugs used today.^ Systemic Chemotherapy Medications Used to Treat Melanoma Dacarbazine (DTIC) is the only anti-cancer medication that has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating metastatic melanoma.
  • SkinCancerNet Article - Chemotherapy: What Every Patient Should Know 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.skincarephysicians.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In recent years there have been an increasing number of new and different psychiatric medications used with children and adolescents.
  • Psychiatric Medication For Children And Adolescents: Part II - Types Of Medications | American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC aacap.org [Source type: Reference]

^ While chemotherapy drugs are capable of destroying the cancer cells using various techniques, there are other cancer treatment drugs too, that aim at directly blocking the consequences of the body hormones.

.Chemotherapy may be given with a curative intent or it may aim to prolong life or to palliate symptoms.^ Chemotherapy may be given in the following settings: .

^ To relieve cancer symptoms (palliative chemotherapy).

^ Chemotherapy may be used to ease symptoms .
  • Chemotherapy with Cytotoxic Drugs | Health | Patient UK 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Combined modality chemotherapy is the use of drugs with other cancer treatments, such as radiation therapy or surgery.^ Several other treatments may be used for skin cancer, including: .
  • How Is Skin Cancer Treated? 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.ehealthmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cyclophosphamide (Endoxana) A chemotherapy treatment used in various forms of cancer.
  • Mesothelioma Treatment - Cancer Chemotherapy Drugs 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC mesotheliomaplus.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy is used at various stages of cancer.
  • Chemotherapy cancer treatment - side effects, drugs information 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC hcd2.bupa.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most cancers are now treated in this way.^ Most cancers are now treated in this way.
  • Chemotherapy - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy is most often used to treat cancer, since cancer cells grow and multiply much more quickly than most cells in the body.
  • Chemotherapy - MayoClinic.com 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.mayoclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of chemical agents to treat disease-most commonly, cancer.
  • A definition of chemotherapy - from ecomii 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.ecomii.com [Source type: Academic]

.Combination chemotherapy is a similar practice that involves treating a patient with a number of different drugs simultaneously.^ Combination chemotherapy is a similar practice which involves treating a patient with a number of different drugs simultaneously.
  • Chemotherapy - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Every patient receiving chemotherapy is different.
  • Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.gyn-onc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.gyn-onc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some patients should not be treated with certain chemotherapy drugs.
  • Chemotherapy - symptoms, Definition, Purpose, Description, Risks, Normal results 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: Academic]

.The drugs differ in their mechanism and side effects.^ Other drug side effects include: .
  • Medications Used to Treat Parkinson's Disease 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.ehealthmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What side effects are associated with the drug/drugs I will be given?
  • Chemotherapy for Mesothelioma Treatment 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.mesotheliomaweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ And more drugs to treat the side effects.
  • Medication // Current 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC current.com [Source type: General]

.The biggest advantage is minimising the chances of resistance developing to any one agent.^ The biggest advantage is minimizing the chances of resistance developing to any one agent.
  • Chemotherapy - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For a lot of people, combination therapy improves the chances that their cancer will be cured — the cancer has less chance of building up a resistance to a combination of chemotherapy drugs than it does to just one drug.
  • Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chemotherapy 2007-01-12 00:00:00.0 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many cases, combination therapy lessens the chance that a child will become resistant to one type of drug — and improves the chances that the cancer will be cured.
  • Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In neoadjuvant chemotherapy (preoperative treatment) initial chemotherapy is designed to shrink the primary tumour, thereby rendering local therapy (surgery or radiotherapy) less destructive or more effective.^ To shrink a tumour before other treatments (neoadjuvant chemotherapy).

^ Surgery and radiation typical treatment plan following neoadjuvant chemotherapy Read more ...
  • Living Beyond Breast Cancer 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.lbbc.org [Source type: General]

^ Chemotherapy given before surgery and/or radiation is called neoadjuvant therapy.
  • Chemotherapy for Colorectal Cancer | Frequently Asked Questions 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.eloxatin.com [Source type: Academic]

.Adjuvant chemotherapy (postoperative treatment) can be used when there is little evidence of cancer present, but there is risk of recurrence.^ About chemotherapy as a form of cancer treatment .
  • About chemotherapy as a form of cancer treatment 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.marshfieldclinic.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cyclophosphamide (Endoxana) A chemotherapy treatment used in various forms of cancer.
  • Mesothelioma Treatment - Cancer Chemotherapy Drugs 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC mesotheliomaplus.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy is the use of drugs in the treatment of cancer.
  • Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.jcc.hhsc.ca [Source type: General]

.This can help reduce chances of developing resistance if the tumour does develop.^ This can help reduce chances of resistance developing if the tumor does develop.
  • Chemotherapy - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Combining drugs that have different actions at the cellular level may help destroy a greater number of cancer cells and might reduce the risk of your cancer developing resistance to one particular drug.
  • Chemotherapy: Drug treatment uses chemicals to kill cancer cells 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Chemotherapy: Drug treatment uses chemicals to kill cancer cells 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]

^ Combining drugs that have different actions at the cellular level may help destroy a greater number of cancer cells and might reduce the risk of cancer developing resistance to one particular drug.
  • DoctorNDTV: Health Information on Cancer Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC doctor.ndtv.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is also useful in killing any cancerous cells which have spread to other parts of the body.^ Radiation therapy The use of x-rays or other high-energy rays to kill cancer cells.
  • Leukemia & Lymphoma Society - Disease Page Definitions 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.leukemia-lymphoma.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cancer cells are very small and small clumps of cells can spread to other parts of the body.
  • Ovarian Cancer Canada - Treatment and Recovery – Info and Treatment - Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.ovariancanada.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consolidation therapy is used to kill any cancer cells that may be left in the body.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This is often effective as the newly growing tumours are fast-dividing, and therefore very susceptible.^ This is often effective as the newly growing tumors are fast-dividing, and therefore very susceptible.
  • Chemotherapy - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Broadly, most chemotherapeutic drugs work by impairing mitosis (cell division), effectively targeting fast-dividing cells.

^ Chemotherapy’s Role in Prostate Cancer Most cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma usually grow very slowly, meaning the cells divide at a rate that is similar to that of healthy cells.
  • Prostate Cancer Chemotherapy: Advanced Prostate Cancer and Bone Metastasis 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.prostate-cancer.com [Source type: Academic]

.Palliative chemotherapy is given without curative intent, but simply to decrease tumor load and increase life expectancy.^ However, chemotherapy can help control symptoms and shrink tumors and is largely used as a palliative measure to help improve the patient's quality of life.
  • Mesothelioma Chemotherapy - Treatment Options at Asbestos.com 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.asbestos.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In patients with cancer who undergo surgery with curative intent but who are known to be at risk for a recurrence, postoperative chemotherapy increases the chance of a cure.
  • NEJM -- Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Lung Cancer -- A New Standard of Care 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC content.nejm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy also can ease the symptoms of cancer (palliative chemotherapy), helping some patients have a better quality of life.
  • Chemotherapy - symptoms, Definition, Purpose, Description, Risks, Normal results 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: Academic]

.For these regimens, a better toxicity profile is generally expected.^ However, some drugs have a better side-effect profile than others, enabling doctors to adjust treatment regimens to the advantage of patients in certain situations.
  • Chemotherapy - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The specific characteristics of these drug regimens determine the side effect profiles that can range from a mere nuisance to life threatening complications.
  • (c) UrologyHealth.org - Adult Conditions - Cancers - Chemotherapy for Prostate Cancer 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.urologyhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Each has a unique side effect profile, but in general, these medications are better tolerated than the earlier drugs.
  • Medications for Mental Illness 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.athealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • All About Depression: Medication: Types of Meds 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.allaboutdepression.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • What Are Antipsychotic Medications? 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.toddlertime.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All chemotherapy regimens require that the patient be capable of undergoing the treatment.^ Not all patients have a negative reaction to chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy - AOL Health 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.aolhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is currently undergoing chemotherapy treatment.
  • Chemotherapy: 1480 user reviews - DailyStrength 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.dailystrength.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatments: list of all treatments List of Diseases with Chemotherapy as a Treatment .

.Performance status is often used as a measure to determine whether a patient can receive chemotherapy, or whether dose reduction is required.^ How often will I receive chemotherapy?
  • Chemotherapy Treatment Information and Drug Side Effects on MedicineNet.com 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: Academic]
  • How Is Chemotherapy Delivered? - Caring4Cancer 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.caring4cancer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.youngsurvival.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • University of Florida Shands Cancer Center: Most Frequently Asked Questions about Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.ufscc.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Typically patients receive chemotherapy intravenously.
  • Radiation & Chemotherapy - HealthiNation.com 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healthination.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How a patient receives chemotherapy .
  • Understanding Chemotherapy | Cancer.Net 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cancer.net [Source type: Academic]

.Because only a fraction of the cells in a tumor die with each treatment (fractional kill), repeated doses must be administered to continue to reduce the size of the tumor[6].^ Treatment with medications that kill cancer cells.
  • Living Beyond Breast Cancer 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.lbbc.org [Source type: General]

^ Treatment with drugs that kill cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The drug may not significantly reduce tumor size, or the tumor may continue to grow despite treatment.

.Current chemotherapy regimens apply drug treatment in cycles, with the frequency and duration of treatments limited by toxicity to the patient[7].^ Chemotherapy The treatment of cancer with drugs is called chemotherapy.
  • Cancer Glossary - What is Chemotherapy, Hepatitis B, C, What is Leukemia, Mesothelioma & more 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.meds.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Learn about chemotherapy drugs and chemotherapy treatment .
  • Learn about chemotherapy drugs and chemotherapy treatment 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.leukemia-web.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy drugs are typically given in cycles.
  • How Is Chemotherapy Delivered? - Caring4Cancer 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.caring4cancer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Types

.The majority of chemotherapeutic drugs can be divided in to alkylating agents, antimetabolites, anthracyclines, plant alkaloids, topoisomerase inhibitors, and other antitumour agents.^ The alkylating agents and antimetabolites have serious drawbacks.
  • chemotherapy (therapeutics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The majority of chemotherapeutic drugs can be divided in to: alkylating agents, anti-metabolites, plant alkaloids, and antitumor agents.
  • Chemotherapy - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The following chemotherapeutic drugs are alkylating agents: .
  • Chemotherapy | Chemo Drugs, Types and Side Effects | Cancer Treatment 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.knowcancer.com [Source type: Academic]

[8] .All of these drugs affect cell division or DNA synthesis and function in some way.^ The cells which line the mouth are affected by some cytotoxic drugs.
  • Chemotherapy with Cytotoxic Drugs | Health | Patient UK 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of these drugs can suppress the formation of blood cells, resulting in: .
  • Chemotherapy for Arthritis 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC arthritis.webmd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As all of the drugs affects DNA synthesis or function in some way, they are categorized by their effect on the cell cycle.
  • Chemotherapy - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some newer agents do not directly interfere with DNA. These include monoclonal antibodies and the new tyrosine kinase inhibitors e.g.^ Some newer agents cannot be classified.
  • Chemotherapy - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a type of antiangiogenesis agent.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is a type of tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.imatinib mesylate (Gleevec or Glivec), which directly targets a molecular abnormality in certain types of cancer (chronic myelogenous leukemia, gastrointestinal stromal tumors).^ This include the new tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (Gleevec or Glivec), which directly targets a molecular abnormality in certain types of cancer ( Chronic myelogenous leukemia , Gastrointestinal stromal cell tumors ).
  • Chemotherapy - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This tumor is usually associated with myelogenous leukemia.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The type of treatment for your leukemia cancer depends on several factors: the location in the body where it started, the type of cancer cells in your body and whether the cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body.
  • Chemotherapy For Your Leukemia Cancer! Does It Work Successfully? 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.womenhealthzone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These are examples of targeted therapies.^ The hope is that these treatments will target the cancer cells only and spare normal cells, or at least greatly reduce the side effects of therapy.
  • Chemotherapy India,India Chemotherapy Treatment,Cancer Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.indiahospitaltour.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These treatments are often referred to as "targeted therapies."
  • Chemotherapy India,India Chemotherapy Treatment,Cancer Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.indiahospitaltour.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Several of these can be used in combination with monoclonal antibody therapy such as rituximab (Rituxan) or alemtuzumab (Campath), for example, sequential therapy using fludarabine, high-dose cyclophosphamide and rituximab.

.In addition, some drugs that modulate tumor cell behaviour without directly attacking those cells may be used.^ The drugs that may be used in this phase include: .
  • Chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.macmillan.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some drugs may cause constipation .
  • Chemotherapy side effects : Cancer Research UK : CancerHelp UK 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cancerhelp.org.uk [Source type: General]

^ In some cases the drug may be injected directly into the tumor itself.
  • Colorado State University Animal Cancer Center - Fort Collins, Colorado - Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.csuanimalcancercenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hormone treatments fall into this category.
.Where available, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System codes are provided for the major categories.^ Medical forms - medications online , with certain physical-chemical properties and provide the optimal therapeutic effect.

^ Chemotherapy is the therapeutic use of a variety of chemicals - given intravenously or orally - to systemically destroy any cancerous cells that might be lingering anywhere in your body.

^ The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system (ATC) is a more elaborate and widely used classification system for medications.
  • Drugs and Medications - Classification of Medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Alkylating agents (L01A)

.Alkylating agents are so named because of their ability to add alkyl groups to many electronegative groups under conditions present in cells.^ These chemical agents utilize the cellular property of electronegativity to add alkyl groups to cells.
  • Chemotherapy | Chemo Drugs, Types and Side Effects | Cancer Treatment 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.knowcancer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Alkylating agents modify/damage cancer cell DNA and block the replication of DNA, therefore interfering with the growth of cancer cells.
  • Chemotherapy India,India Chemotherapy Treatment,Cancer Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.indiahospitaltour.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Procarbazine and lomustine [CCNU] are 'alkylating' agents attacking the DNA of tumor cells whereas vincristine is a 'spindle toxin' that inhibits proteins that are essential for cell division.

.Cisplatin and carboplatin, as well as oxaliplatin, are alkylating agents.^ Cisplatin is a type of alkylating agent.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Compounds based on elemental platinum Platinum compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin, oxaliplatin) bind to DNA and thus inhibit DNA reduplication and cell proliferation.

^ Oxaliplatins mechanism of action is similar to carboplatin and cisplatin as all are inhibitors of DNA synthesis but oxaliplatin is believed to have a different molecular target than cisplatin.
  • Mesothelioma Treatment - Cancer Chemotherapy Drugs 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC mesotheliomaplus.com [Source type: Academic]

.They impair cell function by forming covalent bonds with the amino, carboxyl, sulfhydryl, and phosphate groups in biologically important molecules.^ They inhibit microtubule function in a cell.
  • Chemotherapy | Chemo Drugs, Types and Side Effects | Cancer Treatment 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.knowcancer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A group of abnormal cells that remain in the place where they first formed.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Group of cells in an organism that are similar in form and function.
  • (c) UrologyHealth.org - Adult Conditions - Cancers - Chemotherapy for Prostate Cancer 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.urologyhealth.org [Source type: Academic]

[8]
.Other agents are mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, chlorambucil, ifosfamide.^ Other alkylating agents include chlorambucil (leukeran), carmustine, lomustine and cisplatin.

^ DNA-damaging agents, such as chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide or melphalan are referred to collectively as alkylating agents.

^ It appears that the major drugs that cause gonadal dysfunction are the alkylating agents such as cyclophosphamide, thiotepa, nitrogen mustard, and chlorambucil.
  • Preventing Chemotherapy Toxicities And Other Issues On Drugs Used In Oncology 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cancersupportivecare.com [Source type: Academic]

[8] They work by chemically modifying a cell's DNA.

Anti-metabolites (L01B)

.Anti-metabolites masquerade as purine ((azathioprine, mercaptopurine)) or pyrimidine - which become the building blocks of DNA. They prevent these substances from becoming incorporated in to DNA during the "S" phase (of the cell cycle), stopping normal development and division.^ They are divided into cell cycle phase-specific and cell cycle phase-nonspecific.
  • Holy Cross Hospital. Fort Lauderdale, FL. 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anti-metabolites therefore prevent normal proteins from binding in the cell and halt normal function and division.

^ These chemical agents mask themselves as purine (one of the building blocks of DNA).
  • Chemotherapy | Chemo Drugs, Types and Side Effects | Cancer Treatment 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.knowcancer.com [Source type: Academic]

.They also affect RNA synthesis.^ As all of the drugs affects DNA synthesis or function in some way, they are categorized by their effect on the cell cycle.
  • Chemotherapy - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antibiotics: Also made from natural substances that interfere with cell division; they can affect cancer cells in all phases of their life cycle and interfere with DNA synthesis.
  • Cancer Treatment: Chemotherapy. How does Chemotherapy work? 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healthcastle.com [Source type: Academic]

.Due to their efficiency, these drugs are the most widely used cytostatics.^ It was one of the most widely used drugs.
  • Epilepsy Ontario :: Medications :: Medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC epilepsyontario.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These drugs can be used on their own or with each other.
  • Action Breast Cancer : Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cancer.ie [Source type: General]

^ Anti-metabolites are among the most widely used chemotherapeutic drugs.
  • Chemotherapy | Chemo Drugs, Types and Side Effects | Cancer Treatment 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.knowcancer.com [Source type: Academic]

Plant alkaloids and terpenoids (L01C)

.These alkaloids are derived from plants and block cell division by preventing microtubule function.^ These chemical agents are derived from plant cells.
  • Chemotherapy | Chemo Drugs, Types and Side Effects | Cancer Treatment 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.knowcancer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These alkaloids are derived from plants and block cell division by preventing microtubules being synthesized.
  • Chemotherapy - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They inhibit microtubule function in a cell.
  • Chemotherapy | Chemo Drugs, Types and Side Effects | Cancer Treatment 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.knowcancer.com [Source type: Academic]

.Microtubules are vital for cell division, and, without them, cell division cannot occur.^ These are vital for cell division and without them it can not occur.
  • Chemotherapy - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tubulin is needed for the production of microtubules which are essential in cell division.

^ These alkaloids are derived from plants and block cell division by preventing microtubules being synthesized.
  • Chemotherapy - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

.The main examples are vinca alkaloids and taxanes.^ The main examples are vinca alkaloids such as vincristine.
  • Chemotherapy - The Doctors Lounge(TM) 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.doctorslounge.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Examples include the following: Antimetabolites Vinca plant alkaloids Miscellaneous agents such as asparaginase and dacarbazine .
  • Holy Cross Hospital. Fort Lauderdale, FL. 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are five chemotherapeutic classes: Chemotherapy Treatment with Alkylating Agents Chemotherapy Treatment with Anthracyclines Chemotherapy Treatment with Taxanes Chemotherapy Treatment with Vinca Alkaloids and Chemotherapy Treatment with Anti-metabolites Chemotherapy Treatment with Alkylating Agents .

Vinca alkaloids (L01CA)

.Vinca alkaloids bind to specific sites on tubulin, inhibiting the assembly of tubulin into microtubules (M phase of the cell cycle).^ They inhibit microtubule function in a cell.
  • Chemotherapy | Chemo Drugs, Types and Side Effects | Cancer Treatment 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.knowcancer.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Vinca alkaloids act on a specific phase of the cell cycle called metaphase (M phase).

^ Cancer chemotherapy kills or arrests the growth of cancer cells by targeting specific parts of the cell growth cycle.
  • AllRefer Health - Chemotherapy (Cancer Chemotherapy, Cancer Drug Therapy, Cytotoxic Chemotherapy) 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC health.allrefer.com [Source type: Academic]

.They are derived from the Madagascar periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus (formerly known as Vinca rosea).^ They are naturally found in Catharanthus roseus.

The vinca alkaloids include:

Podophyllotoxin (L01CB)

.Podophyllotoxin is a plant-derived compound which is said to help with digestion as well as used to produce two other cytostatic drugs, etoposide and teniposide.^ These drugs can be used on their own or with each other.
  • Action Breast Cancer : Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cancer.ie [Source type: General]

^ Others use standard drugs "off-label," for purposes or in dosages that have not been approved by the FDA. This may involve massive doses of conventional drugs.
  • questioning chemo personal 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.ralphmoss.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was a key action that really helped the two of us handle the medications, the isolation, and the many other things one has to deal with when undergoing treatment for a serious illness.

.They prevent the cell from entering the G1 phase (the start of DNA replication) and the replication of DNA (the S phase).^ Therefore they affect cells in phases G1, S, G2, or M, but not G0.
  • Holy Cross Hospital. Fort Lauderdale, FL. 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antitumor antibiotics, such as daunorubicin, doxorubicin, idarubicin, and mitoxantrone, insert themselves into the DNA of the cancer cell, prevent the DNA from functioning normally and often kill the cancer cell.

^ Alkylating agents modify/damage cancer cell DNA and block the replication of DNA, therefore interfering with the growth of cancer cells.
  • Chemotherapy India,India Chemotherapy Treatment,Cancer Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.indiahospitaltour.com [Source type: Academic]

.The exact mechanism of its action is not yet known.^ The exact mechanism of action of acetaminophen is not known.
  • Medications Information - Index of drug monographs produced by pharmacists and medical doctors 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, ribavirin is known to inhibit the production of infectious polio virus and this virus does not have a methyl guanosine cap; so there must be alternative mechanisms for ribavirin action.

^ Although the exact mechanism by which stimulant medication works is not known, available evidence suggests that it works by correcting a biochemical condition in the brain that interferes with attention and impulse control.  .
  • Medication Treatment for ADHD 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.helpforadd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The substance has been primarily obtained from the American Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum). Recently it has been discovered that a rare Himalayan Mayapple (Podophyllum hexandrum) contains it in a much greater quantity, but, as the plant is endangered, its supply is limited. Studies have been conducted to isolate the genes involved in the substance's production, so that it could be obtained recombinantly.

Taxanes (L01CD)

.The prototype taxane is the natural product paclitaxel, originally known as Taxol and first derived from the bark of the Pacific Yew tree.^ Originally, medications were derived from natural (typically plant) sources.
  • Medications For Mental Illness And Mental Health Introduction 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.mentalhelp.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Castanospermine (a natural product derived from a species of Australian chestnut) interferes with glycosylation of HIV and other retroviruses.

Docetaxel is a semi-synthetic analogue of paclitaxel. .Taxanes enhance stability of microtubules, preventing the separation of chromosomes during anaphase.^ Microtubules help separate chromosomes (agents carrying our DNA) when cells divide.

Topoisomerase inhibitors (L01CB and L01XX)

.Topoisomerases are essential enzymes that maintain the topology of DNA. Inhibition of type I or type II topoisomerases interferes with both transcription and replication of DNA by upsetting proper DNA supercoiling.^ Inhibits the A subunits of DNA gyrase, resulting in inhibition of bacterial DNA replication and transcription.
  • Cellulitis: Treatment & Medication - eMedicine Infectious Diseases 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It inhibits herpes DNA replication.

^ It is a type of DNA topoisomerase inhibitor.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.
  • Examples of type II inhibitors include amsacrine, etoposide, etoposide phosphate, and teniposide.^ It is a type of topoisomerase inhibitor and a type of camptothecin analog.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It is a type of topoisomerase inhibitor.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It is a type of DNA topoisomerase inhibitor.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    These are semisynthetic derivatives of epipodophyllotoxins, alkaloids naturally occurring in the root of American Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum).

Antitumour antibiotics (L01D)

See main article: antineoplastic
.These include the immunosuppressant dactinomycin (which is used in kidney transplantations), doxorubicin, epirubicin, bleomycin and others.^ Serious liver and kidney problems may potentially result from misuse or abuse of these drugs and should be used with caution in patients who may have these problems.
  • Guinea Lynx :: Medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.guinealynx.info [Source type: Reference]

^ There are a number of other medications used to treat MG. Many were developed initially for organ transplant patients, or for treating other immune-related diseases.

^ More often, it's used in conjunction with other treatments, such as surgery, radiation or a bone marrow transplant, to improve results.
  • Chemotherapy: Drug treatment uses chemicals to kill cancer cells 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • Chemotherapy: Drug treatment uses chemicals to kill cancer cells 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]

Newer and experimental approaches

Hematopoietic stem cell transplant approaches

.Stem cell harvesting and autologous or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used to allow for higher doses of chemotheraputic agents where dosages are primarily limited by hematopoietic damage.^ Typically, the stem cell transplant is not used outside of a clinical trial .
  • The Testicular Cancer Resource Center Chemotherapy Page 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC tcrc.acor.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another regimen commonly used in preparation for a Stem Cell Transplant .

^ "Secondary AML with or without a preleukemic phase has been reported in patients treated with anthracyclines and is more common after dose escalations, heavy pretreatment with cytotoxic agents, or when they are used in combination with DNA-damaging antineoplastic agents.
  • Bipolar Disorder Daily News Blog: Bipolar Disorder Medications Archives 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.pendulum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Years of research in treating solid tumors, particularly breast cancer, with hematopoeitic stem cell transplants, has yielded little proof of efficacy.^ I have metastatic brain tumors stemming from breast cancer.

^ Comments (0) Autologous stem cell transplantation may benefit breast cancer patients .
  • Chemotherapy News, Research 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Monoclonal antibodies - These substances locate and bind to cancer cells and can be used alone, or to deliver drugs, toxins, or radioactive material directly to tumor cells.
  • Cancer Drugs Can Cause Heart Damage And More - Share The Wealth 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.newmediaexplorer.org [Source type: Academic]

.Hematological malignancies such as myeloma, lymphoma, and leukemia remain the main indications for stem cell transplants.^ Lymphoma, mast cell tumor, myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia .
  • Treatment options for cancer in cats and dogs. 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.petcancercenter.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The donated cells also attack the leukemia, lymphoma or myeloma cells.
  • Leukemia & Lymphoma Society - Disease Page Definitions 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.leukemia-lymphoma.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Malignant —Cells that have been altered such that they have lost normal control mechanisms and are capable of local invasion and spread to other areas of the body.
  • Chemotherapy - symptoms, Definition, Purpose, Description, Risks, Normal results 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: Academic]

Isolated infusion approaches

.Isolated limb perfusion (often used in melanoma), or isolated infusion of chemotherapy into the liver or the lung have been used to treat some tumours.^ Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to treat cancer.
  • Chemotherapy and Your Mouth 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nidcr.nih.gov [Source type: General]
  • Chemotherapy - Cancer Council Victoria 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cancervic.org.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They can also be used to treat some phobias.
  • medication for depression 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC psychologyinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Psychotropic Medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.mhsanctuary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Antidepressant Medications Anti-depressant Drugs 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.support4hope.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Psychiatric Medication Brochure 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.bipolarbrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • MEDICATIONS--MENTAL HEALTH/MENTAL ILLNESS 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chemotherapy is medicine used to treat cancer.
  • Oral Chemotherapy Care Guide Information 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

.The main purpose of these approaches is to deliver a very high dose of chemotherapy to tumor sites without causing overwhelming systemic damage.^ The protective mechanisms that under normal circumstances prevent damage from the nervous system, represent a major obstacle if there is a disease such as a tumor within the brain.

^ Monoclonal antibodies - These substances locate and bind to cancer cells and can be used alone, or to deliver drugs, toxins, or radioactive material directly to tumor cells.
  • Cancer Drugs Can Cause Heart Damage And More - Share The Wealth 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.newmediaexplorer.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These researchers have authored a paper titled “Death by Medicine” that presents compelling evidence that today’s system frequently causes more harm than good.

.These approaches can help control solitary or limited metastases, but they are by definition not systemic, and, therefore, do not treat distributed metastases or micrometastases.^ They are often called biologic response modifiers, because they help stimulate the immune system against foreign invaders such as bacteria, viruses and cancer.

^ But my doctor then did it by IV as he felt that they could help control the bad side effects better that way.
  • medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.olivija.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These cells are part of the immune system and help the body to fight infections.
  • Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chemotherapy 2007-01-12 00:00:00.0 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Targeted delivery mechanisms

.Specially targeted delivery vehicles aim to increase effective levels of chemotherapy for tumor cells while reducing effective levels for other cells.^ Tumor cells can grow resistant to chemotherapy.

^ Chemotherapy is not only toxic to tumor cells.

^ By shrinking tumors, chemotherapy encourages stronger cancer cells to grow and multiply and become chemo resistant.
  • Fraud: Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.mnwelldir.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This should result in an increased tumor kill and/or reduced toxicity.^ Chemotherapy denotes the treatment of brain tumors with medication that is either toxic to tumor cells or kills them through interaction with receptors that induce 'programmed cell death' or prevent cell division.

^ Animal studies have demonstrated that administration of methotrexate with intravenous or oral glutamine may enhance the ability of methotrexate to kill tumor cells, while decreasing methotrexate toxicity and improving survival.
  • Health: Methotrexate; Methotrexate (MTX) is a chemotherapy drug that interferes with folic acid ... 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Melatonin: reducing the toxicity and increasing the efficacy of drugs.

.Specially targeted delivery vehicles have a differentially higher affinity for tumor cells by interacting with tumor-specific or tumour-associated antigens.^ Generally, chemotherapy drugs work by targeting specific processes in cells that are undergoing rapid division and growth, preventing cell division, resulting in the death of the cancerous cells.
  • Mesothelioma Chemotherapy - Treatment Options at Asbestos.com 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.asbestos.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Monoclonal antibodies Artificially manufactured antibodies specifically designed to find targets on cancer cells for diagnostic or treatment purposes.
  • Cancer Glossary - What is Chemotherapy, Hepatitis B, C, What is Leukemia, Mesothelioma & more 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.meds.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy denotes the treatment of brain tumors with medication that is either toxic to tumor cells or kills them through interaction with receptors that induce 'programmed cell death' or prevent cell division.

.In addition to their targeting component, they also carry a payload - whether this is a traditional chemotherapeutic agent, or a radioisotope or an immune stimulating factor.^ Since anticholinesterase medications do not target the immune problem in MG, they do not alter the course of the disease.

^ These clotting factors are referred to as the vitamin K dependent clotting factors and they are factor II (prothrombin), factor VII, factor IX and factor X. In addition, protein C and protein S are also vitamin K dependent.

.Specially targeted delivery vehicles vary in their stability, selectivity, and choice of target, but, in essence, they all aim to increase the maximum effective dose that can be delivered to the tumor cells.^ Monoclonal antibodies - These substances locate and bind to cancer cells and can be used alone, or to deliver drugs, toxins, or radioactive material directly to tumor cells.
  • Cancer Drugs Can Cause Heart Damage And More - Share The Wealth 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.newmediaexplorer.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some tumor cells will begin to produce molecules that will inactivate the chemotherapeutic drugs, or prevent the drugs from gaining access to the cells, or prevent the cells from dying, all of which will render the therapy ineffective.
  • Treatment options for cancer in cats and dogs. 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.petcancercenter.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They all undermine the individual's sense of bodily security and increase stress, while offering the body a specific, detailed disease plan.
  • Why Alternative Cancer Treatment(2): Chemotherapy, Cancer Diagnosing, Mammography, Thermography 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healingcancernaturally.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Reduced systemic toxicity means that they can also be used in sicker patients, and that they can carry new chemotherapeutic agents that would have been far too toxic to deliver via traditional systemic approaches.^ They can also be used to change a patient's immune system.
  • Systemic Chemotherapy - The Eye Cancer Network 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.eyecancer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Secondary AML with or without a preleukemic phase has been reported in patients treated with anthracyclines and is more common after dose escalations, heavy pretreatment with cytotoxic agents, or when they are used in combination with DNA-damaging antineoplastic agents.
  • Bipolar Disorder Daily News Blog: Bipolar Disorder Medications Archives 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.pendulum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is increasingly common for medical facilities to use a computerized system that lowers the risk of error by reducing steps in the process and validating information automatically.
  • Administration of Medication: Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Academic]

Nanoparticles

.Nanoparticles have emerged as a useful vehicle for poorly-soluble agents such as paclitaxel.^ Protective agents such as Sucralfate TM or Kaopectate® are also used to cover ulcers and decrease irritation.

^ Derivatives of one such chemokine (RANTES) have been used as agents to block virus binding.

^ Until more positive research findings emerge no substantial evidence exists to support the use of alpha-tocopherol as a method of reducing cardiac toxicity due to chemotherapeutic agents such as adriamycin.

.Protein-bound paclitaxel (e.g., Abraxane) or nab-paclitaxel was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in January 2005 for the treatment of refractory breast cancer, and allows reduced use of the Cremophor vehicle usually found in paclitaxel.^ Specific treatment for breast cancer will be based on: .

^ Herceptin is a new drug used to treat breast cancer.
  • Action Breast Cancer : Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cancer.ie [Source type: General]

^ Many drugs are used to treat cancer.
  • Chemotherapy | Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: General]

.Nanoparticles made of magnetic material can also be used to concentrate agents at tumour sites using an externally applied magnetic field.^ Tiny nanotubes were used to precisely deliver a concentrated payload of chemotherapy directly to the site of a tumor, according to a team of scientists at Stanford University.
  • Chemotherapy | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Alkylating agent —A chemical that alters the composition of the genetic material of rapidly dividing cells, such as cancer cells, causing selective cell death; used as a chemotherapeutic agent.
  • Chemotherapy - symptoms, Definition, Purpose, Description, Risks, Normal results 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The patient can choose to have a local numbing cream applied to the injection site before the port is used.
  • Leukemia & Lymphoma Society - Disease Page Definitions 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.leukemia-lymphoma.org [Source type: Academic]

Dosage

.Dosage of chemotherapy can be difficult: If the dose is too low, it will be ineffective against the tumor, whereas, at excessive doses, the toxicity (side effects, neutropenia) will be intolerable to the patient.^ About chemotherapy side effects .

^ What are side effects of chemotherapy?
  • Oral Chemotherapy Care Guide Information 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

^ Chemotherapy side effects are different for each child.
  • Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This has led to the formation of detailed "dosing schemes" in most hospitals, which give guidance on the correct dose and adjustment in case of toxicity.^ In most cases, your doctor can give you a general idea of the planned length of treatment.
  • Chemotherapy | Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: General]

^ You'll need to be as vigilant about storing medications as you are about giving the correct dose.
  • Medications: Using Them Safely 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: General]

^ Giving the correct dose is important because most medicines need to be taken in a certain amount and at certain times to be effective.
  • Medications: Using Them Safely 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: General]

.In immunotherapy, they are in principle used in smaller dosages than in the treatment of malignant diseases.^ It is used for the treatment of malignant gliomas.

^ In other instances they may be used after surgery to prevent recurrence or may be used as a palliative measure to control symptoms and improve quality of life, rather than actually curing disease (if this is not possible).

^ Other than this, they are not used much in western countries.

.In most cases, the dose is adjusted for the patient's body surface area, a measure that correlates with blood volume.^ Many, perhaps most drugs are dosed according to your body surface area or BSA. The BSA is a calculation that uses your height and weight to calculate just how much of "you" there is.

^ Phenobarbital 180 mg/m 2 /24 hours given every eight hours is ordered for a child whose BSA (body surface area) is 0.29 m 2 .
  • Medication Math for the Nursing Student 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.alysion.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Click here to go to a Body Surface Area Calculator .

.The BSA is usually calculated with a mathematical formula or a nomogram, using a patient's weight and height, rather than by direct measurement.^ Given the current therapy available, it makes more sense to follow patients using clinical methods (a thorough history and physical) rather than using tests.
  • CancerGuide: Adjuvant Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cancerguide.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, chemotherapy can help control symptoms and shrink tumors and is largely used as a palliative measure to help improve the patient's quality of life.
  • Mesothelioma Chemotherapy - Treatment Options at Asbestos.com 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.asbestos.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Doctors determine the dose of chemotherapy drugs based on many factors, including the patient's height and weight.
  • Chemotherapy - symptoms, Definition, Purpose, Description, Risks, Normal results 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: Academic]

Delivery

.Most chemotherapy is delivered intravenously, although a number of agents can be administered orally (e.g., melphalan, busulfan, capecitabine).^ The most common way to administer chemotherapy is intravenously, or through a vein.
  • Mesothelioma Treatment Options - Surgery, Chemotherapy, and More 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.mesotheliomaweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chemotherapy drugs are most often given through an intravenous (IV) line.
  • Chemotherapy and Side Effects | AHealthyMe.com 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.ahealthyme.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlikely other chemotherapy agents, it may be given as an intramuscular, subcutaneous, or intravenous injection without fear of tissue irritation.

.In some cases, isolated limb perfusion (often used in melanoma), or isolated infusion of chemotherapy into the liver or the lung have been used.^ Taxol, a first line chemotherapy drug used to treat breast, lung and ovarian cancers, is currently administered through an intravenous infusion that can take up to 24 hours to complete.
  • Chemotherapy News, Research 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.news-medical.net [Source type: Academic]

^ In some cases, radiation therapy and chemotherapy shrink the tumor enough that surgery can be done to remove any remaining tumor.
  • Non-small cell lung cancer treatment; locally advanced (stage III) cancer 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I mentioned this to some of the nurses in the infusion clinic , and they told me that my reaction was not uncommon; some cancer survivors can be made sick by the mere mention of chemotherapy.
  • chemotherapy@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The main purpose of these approaches is to deliver a very high dose of chemotherapy to tumour sites without causing overwhelming systemic damage.^ These researchers have authored a paper titled “Death by Medicine” that presents compelling evidence that today’s system frequently causes more harm than good.

^ Tiny nanotubes were used to precisely deliver a concentrated payload of chemotherapy directly to the site of a tumor, according to a team of scientists at Stanford University.
  • Chemotherapy | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ In a study of children with cancer who were receiving high-dose methotrexate, administration of 180,000 IU of vitamin A on the day before methotrexate treatment reduced the severity of intestinal damage caused by the drug.
  • Health: Methotrexate; Methotrexate (MTX) is a chemotherapy drug that interferes with folic acid ... 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: Academic]

.Depending on the patient, the cancer, the stage of cancer, the type of chemotherapy, and the dosage, intravenous chemotherapy may be given on either an inpatient or an outpatient basis.^ Depending on your cancer type, you may receive chemotherapy as an inpatient.
  • Chemotherapy and Side Effects | AHealthyMe.com 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.ahealthyme.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most patients receive chemotherapy as an outpatient.
  • Chemotherapy - symptoms, Definition, Purpose, Description, Risks, Normal results 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemotherapy may be given in several ways.
  • Chemotherapy - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healthscout.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For continuous, frequent or prolonged intravenous chemotherapy administration, various systems may be surgically inserted into the vasculature to maintain access.^ Intravenous (IV) chemotherapy is injected into a vein.
  • Chemotherapy - symptoms, Definition, Purpose, Description, Risks, Normal results 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Significant prolongation of disease-free period gained by oral polysaccharide K (PSK) administration after curative surgical operation of colorectal cancer.

^ Others may have moderate mood swings that lessen as treatment continues, or have less frequent or less severe episodes.
  • Medications for Mental Illness 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.athealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • All About Depression: Medication: Types of Meds 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.allaboutdepression.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Commonly-used systems are the Hickman line, the Port-a-Cath or the PICC line.^ PICC line inserted, had negative side effects to numbing agents used when placed.
  • Chemotherapy - Chemotherapy, Description and Side Effects 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.blogforacure.com [Source type: General]

^ Protective systems that sheath the needle after use are commonly used to prevent inadvertent needle sticks.
  • Administration of Medication: Encyclopedia of Nursing & Allied Health 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.enotes.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Mitomycin and 5 FU beginning 1/18/10 Mitomycin and 5-FU on continuous drip using a PICC line.
  • Chemotherapy - Chemotherapy, Description and Side Effects 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.blogforacure.com [Source type: General]

.These have a lower infection risk, are much less prone to phlebitis or extravasation, and abolish the need for repeated insertion of peripheral cannulae.^ Laparoscopic surgery offers patients less recovery time and comes with a smaller risk of infection....
  • Tag: Medications - Explore content tagged Medications on eHow.com 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

^ When people are in a manic "high," they may be overactive, overly talkative, have a great deal of energy, and have much less need for sleep than normal.
  • All About Depression: Medication: Types of Meds 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.allaboutdepression.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When people are in a manic high, they may be overactive, overly talkative, have a great deal of energy, and have much less need for sleep than normal.
  • Medications for Mental Illness 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.athealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Harmful and lethal toxicity from chemotherapy limits the dosage of chemotherapy that can be given.^ She was given a fatal dosage of chemotherapy.

^ The amount of chemotherapy that can safely be given to a patient is based on that drug's potential to damage normal tissue - drug toxicity .
  • Help with Side Effects - Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.abta.org [Source type: General]

^ Renal toxicities of chemotherapy given in the operating room can be avoided by careful monitoring of urine output during chemotherapy perfusion.
  • Peritoneal Surface Malignancy - Methodologies for IP Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.surgicaloncology.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some tumours can be destroyed by sufficiently high doses of chemotheraputic agents.^ A dose that will destroy cancer cells will probably cause damage to some normal cells.
  • Chemotherapy - symptoms, Definition, Purpose, Description, Risks, Normal results 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Instead of standard-dose maintenance chemotherapy some people may have high-dose chemotherapy .
  • Chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.macmillan.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Metabolic abnormalities emerged with 3 of the 4 agents, differing in type and severity with the agent and, in some cases, with the dose.

.However, these high doses cannot be given because they would be fatal to the patient.^ This reference guide includes information on how each drug is given, how they work, and common side effects patients may experience.
  • Cancer Treatment Information—Chemotherapy, Radiation Oncology, and Surgery | OncoLink 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.oncolink.upenn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It may be associated with a higher than average rate of drug–induced seizures if given in excessively high doses or to those with a history of seizures or bulimia.49–51,6–8 .
  • Medication Management for Adults with ADHD 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.addresources.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This would mean that in the average hospital one patient dies every year or two because someone makes a miscalculation, and one or two patients are sub-lethally harmed each month.
  • Medication Math for the Nursing Student 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.alysion.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Adverse effects

.Chemotherapeutic techniques have a range of side effects that depend on the type of medications used.^ What medications do you recommend and what are the side effects?
  • ADD / ADHD Medications: Are ADHD Drugs Right for You or Your Child? 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: General]

^ Medication side effects and IBD .
  • Medication - Side Effects 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.vetinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The side effects depend on the drugs being used and the drug schedule.
  • Chemotherapy - AOL Health 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.aolhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most common medications mainly affect the fast-dividing cells of the body, such as blood cells and the cells lining the mouth, stomach, and intestines.^ The cells which line the mouth are affected by some cytotoxic drugs.
  • Chemotherapy with Cytotoxic Drugs | Health | Patient UK 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The white blood cells and platelets are most likely to be affected by chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy - symptoms, Definition, Purpose, Description, Risks, Normal results 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If the marrow is affected, the production of blood cells is also affected.
  • Help with Side Effects - Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.abta.org [Source type: General]

Common side effects include:[9]
.
  • Depression of the immune system, which can result in potentially fatal infections.^ The brain is very well protected form potentially damaging organisms or substances circulating with the blood stream and even from an attack from the bodies immune system.

    ^ These cells are part of the immune system and help the body to fight infections.
    • Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Chemotherapy 2007-01-12 00:00:00.0 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Immunity (Immune system) The body's ability to fight infection and disease.
    • Cancer Glossary - What is Chemotherapy, Hepatitis B, C, What is Leukemia, Mesothelioma & more 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.meds.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Although patients are encouraged to wash their hands, avoid sick people, and to take other infection-reducing steps, about 85% of infections are due to naturally occurring microorganisms in the patient's own gut and skin.^ It is important to take measures to avoid infections.
    • Chemotherapy - symptoms, Definition, Purpose, Description, Risks, Normal results 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Patients and caregivers should be taught to use care when handling vomitus or excretions of the patient for 48 hours post treatment and to use good hand-washing technique.
    • Fraud: Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.mnwelldir.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If you have a reduced white cell count, it is very important that you try to prevent infection by taking the following steps: Wash your hands often during the day.
    • Chemotherapy - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healthscout.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [10] .This may manifest as systemic infections, such as sepsis, or as localized outbreaks, such as shingles.^ Oral mucositis occurs independently of oral mucosal infections of viral and fungal etiology, but it may be exacerbated by such concomitant infections.
    • Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis: eMedicine Dermatology 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Your cancer care team may ask you to do certain things to avoid infection, such as: .
    • ACS :: Chemo: What It Is, How It Works 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Such a person must be evaluated for infection and may require antibiotics and even hospitalization.
    • Chemotherapy: Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: Merck Manual Home Edition 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Sometimes, chemotherapy treatments are postponed because the immune system is suppressed to a critically low level.
  • Fatigue.^ Chemotherapy is the most commonly deployed therapeutic modality for mesothelioma treatment because most patients are diagnosed only in the diseases later stages and are not eligible for curative surgery.
    • Chemotherapy - Mesothelioma Treatment 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.mesotheliomahelp.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ They are often called biologic response modifiers, because they help stimulate the immune system against foreign invaders such as bacteria, viruses and cancer.

    ^ Consequently, I wouldn't have chemotherapy and radiation because I'm not interested in therapies that cripple the immune system, and, in my opinion, virtually ensure failure for the majority of cancer patients."
    • Cancer and Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.detoxifynow.com [Source type: Academic]

    .The treatment can be physically exhausting for the patient, who might already be very tired from cancer-related fatigue.^ Cancer treatment-related fatigue can appear suddenly.
    • Chemotherapy | Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Fatigue (feeling very weak and tired).

    ^ Your medical oncologist (a doctor who specializes in the treatment of cancer with chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and immunotherapy) will evaluate your situation based upon your pathology report as well as information obtained from your medical history and physical examination.
    • Chemotherapy - AOL Health 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.aolhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It may produce mild to severe anemia.^ The disorder may range from mild to severe.
    • Psychotropic Medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.mhsanctuary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Psychiatric Medication Brochure 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.bipolarbrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • MEDICATIONS--MENTAL HEALTH/MENTAL ILLNESS 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It may range from mild to severe.
    • Medications for Mental Illness 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.athealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • All About Depression: Medication: Types of Meds 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.allaboutdepression.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If you experience severe anemia, medications can be prescribed to boost the production of red blood cells or a blood transfusion may be suggested.
    • Help with Side Effects - Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.abta.org [Source type: General]

    .Treatments to mitigate anemia include hormones to boost blood production (erythropoietin), iron supplements, and blood transfusions.
  • Tendency to bleed easily.^ Procrit is a natural erythropoietin that stimulates the production of red blood cells.
    • Cancer Chemotherapy - Chemotherapy Drugs, Chemo, COX-2 - Life Extension Health Concern 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ If you experience severe anemia, medications can be prescribed to boost the production of red blood cells or a blood transfusion may be suggested.
    • Help with Side Effects - Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.abta.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Cancer and its treatment with chemotherapy or radiation can depress the number of red blood cells to a low level and eventually produce tiredness, lack of energy, and anemia.
    • Preventing Chemotherapy Toxicities And Other Issues On Drugs Used In Oncology 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cancersupportivecare.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Medications that kill rapidly dividing cells or blood cells are likely to reduce the number of platelets in the blood, which can result in bruises and bleeding.^ Platelet count The number of platelets in a blood sample.
    • Cancer Glossary - What is Chemotherapy, Hepatitis B, C, What is Leukemia, Mesothelioma & more 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.meds.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Cancer cells tend to divide rapidly.
    • Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC kidshealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Chemotherapy 2007-01-12 00:00:00.0 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The white blood cells and platelets are most likely to be affected by chemotherapy.
    • Chemotherapy - symptoms, Definition, Purpose, Description, Risks, Normal results 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: Academic]

    .Extremely low platelet counts may be temporarily boosted through platelet transfusions.^ Also low blood counts, needed a couple blood & platelet transfusions.
    • Chemotherapy - Chemotherapy, Description and Side Effects 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.blogforacure.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If it is too low, you may require a transfusion.
    • Help with Side Effects - Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.abta.org [Source type: General]

    ^ A low platelet count is called thrombocytopenia.
    • Holy Cross Hospital. Fort Lauderdale, FL. 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Sometimes, chemotherapy treatments are postponed to allow platelet counts to recover.
  • Gastrointestinal distress.^ It is not at all uncommon for a patient to have a treatment delayed by one or two weeks because their blood counts have not recovered sufficiently from the previous treatment.

    ^ This allows your body to recover from any side-effects and gives a chance for damaged, normal cells to recover before the next spell of treatment.
    • Chemotherapy with Cytotoxic Drugs | Health | Patient UK 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Most normal cells recover when chemotherapy is over, so most chemotherapy side effects slowly disappear after treatment ends and the healthy cells have a chance to grow normally.

    .Nausea and vomiting are common side effects of chemotherapeutic medications that kill fast-dividing cells.^ What medications do you recommend and what are the side effects?
    • ADD / ADHD Medications: Are ADHD Drugs Right for You or Your Child? 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.helpguide.org [Source type: General]

    ^ They kill any cell that is growing (dividing) fast, whether it's a cancer cell or not.
    • ACS :: Chemo: What It Is, How It Works 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cancer.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Side effects: nausea and dizziness.
    • Chemotherapy - Chemotherapy, Description and Side Effects 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.blogforacure.com [Source type: General]

    This can also produce diarrhea or constipation. .Malnutrition and dehydration can result when the patient doesn't eat or drink enough, or when the patient vomits frequently, because of gastrointestinal damage.^ Or maybe she doesn't agree with somers- I am not sure because I haven't seen enough shows yet.
    • Suzanne Somers on alternates to chemotherapy – The Joy Behar Show - CNN.com Blogs 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC joybehar.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The results presented have a preliminary meaning because of the small number of patients included in this study.

    ^ Many chemotherapy drugs can cause diarrhea , lack of appetite, vomiting, and damage to the gastrointestinal tract.
    • Health: Chemotherapy; Chemotherapy typically involves the use of several antineoplastic (anticancer) drugs to ... 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: Academic]

    .This can result in rapid weight loss, or occasionally in weight gain, if the patient eats too much in an effort to allay nausea or heartburn.^ From working with AIDS and cancer patients, I repeatedly saw how marijuana could ameliorate a patient's debilitating fatigue, restore appetite, diminish pain, remedy nausea, cure vomiting and curtail down-to-the bone weight loss.
    • Is marijuana an effective treatment for reducing nausea and vomiting from chemotherapy? - Medical Marijuana - ProCon.org 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC medicalmarijuana.procon.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ He may have trouble eating and lose weight (although some people eat more and gain weight when depressed).
    • medication for depression 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC psychologyinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Psychotropic Medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.mhsanctuary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Psychiatric Medication Brochure 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.bipolarbrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sibutramine and orlistat are the only weight-loss medications approved for longer-term use in patients who are significantly obese.
    • WIN - Publication - Prescription Medications for the Treatment of Obesity 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC win.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Weight gain can also be caused by some steroid medications.^ Weight gain from medications vs. .
    • Medications | LIVESTRONG.COM 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]
    • Seizure Medication | LIVESTRONG.COM 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Studies have found that weight loss with some medications improves blood pressure, blood cholesterol, triglycerides (fats), and insulin resistance (the body’s inability to use blood sugar).
    • WIN - Publication - Prescription Medications for the Treatment of Obesity 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC win.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He may have trouble eating and lose weight (although some people eat more and gain weight when depressed).
    • medication for depression 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC psychologyinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Psychotropic Medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.mhsanctuary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Psychiatric Medication Brochure 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.bipolarbrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .These side effects can frequently be reduced or eliminated with antiemetic drugs.^ This is a side-effect from some drugs.
    • Chemotherapy with Cytotoxic Drugs | Health | Patient UK 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ And more drugs to treat the side effects.
    • Medication // Current 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC current.com [Source type: General]

    ^ A drug side effect .
    • Geriatric Nursing Resources for Care of Older Adults :: Medication 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC consultgerirn.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Self-care measures, such as eating frequent small meals and drinking clear liquids or ginger tea, are often recommended.^ Drink frequently and drink small amounts.

    ^ Try small, frequent meals.
    • Help with Side Effects - Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.abta.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Eat small, frequent meals.
    • Help with Side Effects - Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.abta.org [Source type: General]

    .This is a temporary effect, and frequently resolves within a week of finishing treatment.
  • Hair loss.^ Hair loss is temporary and hair should grow back after treatment is stopped.
    • Holy Cross Hospital. Fort Lauderdale, FL. 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hair loss usually begins 2 to 3 weeks after chemotherapy treatment starts.

    ^ Anagen effluvium (most common) – refers to toxic effects on rapidly dividing hair cells Telogen effluvium – refers to increased shedding of normal hair cells Alopecia is often temporary and resolves after treatment is stopped but some chemotherapy drugs such as busulphan and cyclophosphamide can cause permanent hair loss.
    • Skin toxicity of chemotherapy drugs. DermNet NZ 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC dermnetnz.org [Source type: Academic]

    .Some medications that kill rapidly dividing cells cause dramatic hair loss; other medications may cause hair to thin.^ Cancer cells tend to divide rapidly.
    • Chemotherapy 2007-01-12 00:00:00.0 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cancer cells (and other cells that rapidly divide) cannot reproduce.

    ^ Some medications may be important for your other medical problems.
    • Drugs and Medications that cause Gynecomastia - Big Male Breasts 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.plasticsurgery4u.com [Source type: General]

    These are temporary effects: hair usually starts growing back a few weeks after the last treatment, sometimes with a tendency to curl that may be called a "chemo perm".
Damage to specific organs may occur, with resultant symptoms:

Immunosuppression and myelosuppression

.Virtually all chemotherapeutic regimens can cause depression of the immune system, often by paralysing the bone marrow and leading to a decrease of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.^ Chemotherapy has a strong effect on the bone marrow, causing a reduced production of blood cells.
  • 20. Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.largomedical.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This drop in your blood counts is called bone marrow depression.
  • Chemotherapy | Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: General]

^ Chemotherapeutic drugs, instead, prevent bone marrow from forming new blood cells.
  • Holy Cross Hospital. Fort Lauderdale, FL. 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The latter two, when they occur, are improved with blood transfusion.^ White blood cells are rarely transfused because, when transfused, they survive only a few hours and produce many side effects.
  • Chemotherapy: Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: Merck Manual Home Edition 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ White blood cells —A group of several cell types that occur in the bloodstream and are essential for a properly functioning immune system; they fight infection.
  • Chemotherapy - symptoms, Definition, Purpose, Description, Risks, Normal results 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: Academic]

.Neutropenia (a decrease of the neutrophil granulocyte count below 0.5 x 109/litre) can be improved with synthetic G-CSF (granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, e.g., filgrastim, lenograstim).^ These medicines are called colony stimulating factors (CSF).

^ Instead, certain substances (such as granulocyte-colony stimulating factor) can be administered to stimulate white blood cell production.
  • Chemotherapy: Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: Merck Manual Home Edition 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is used to stimulate neutrophil production; its use may shorten the period of low neutrophil counts in the blood after chemotherapy.
  • Leukemia & Lymphoma Society - Disease Page Definitions 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.leukemia-lymphoma.org [Source type: Academic]

.In very severe myelosuppression, which occurs in some regimens, almost all the bone marrow stem cells (cells that produce white and red blood cells) are destroyed, meaning allogenic or autologous bone marrow cell transplants are necessary.^ Myelosuppression A decrease in the production of red blood cells , platelets , and some white blood cells by the bone marrow .
  • Cancer Glossary - What is Chemotherapy, Hepatitis B, C, What is Leukemia, Mesothelioma & more 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.meds.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Allogeneic stem cell transplantation A treatment to restore blood and immune cells.
  • Leukemia & Lymphoma Society - Disease Page Definitions 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.leukemia-lymphoma.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The bone marrow is where you make red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
  • Chemotherapy with Cytotoxic Drugs | Health | Patient UK 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(In autologous BMTs, cells are removed from the patient before the treatment, multiplied and then re-injected afterwards; in allogenic BMTs the source is a donor.^ The patient can be given the donor's healthy matched stem cells, which can restore blood and immune cells after high-intensity cancer treatment.
  • Leukemia & Lymphoma Society - Disease Page Definitions 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.leukemia-lymphoma.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This allows your body to recover from any side-effects and gives a chance for damaged, normal cells to recover before the next spell of treatment.
  • Chemotherapy with Cytotoxic Drugs | Health | Patient UK 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Autologous The infusion of a patient's own bone marrow previously removed and stored.
  • Cancer Glossary - What is Chemotherapy, Hepatitis B, C, What is Leukemia, Mesothelioma & more 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.meds.com [Source type: Academic]

) .However, some patients still develop diseases because of this interference with bone marrow.^ It inhibits the growth of rapidly reproducing cells in the body by interfering with the processing of their DNA. However, because of its effects on rapidly reproducing cancer cells, it therefore also impairs the growth of those normal body cells that rapidly reproduce, including cells of the gut, and bone marrow.
  • medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.olivija.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Myelosuppression A decrease in the production of red blood cells , platelets , and some white blood cells by the bone marrow .
  • Cancer Glossary - What is Chemotherapy, Hepatitis B, C, What is Leukemia, Mesothelioma & more 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.meds.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Autologous The infusion of a patient's own bone marrow previously removed and stored.
  • Cancer Glossary - What is Chemotherapy, Hepatitis B, C, What is Leukemia, Mesothelioma & more 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.meds.com [Source type: Academic]

.In Japan the government has approved the use of some medicinal mushrooms like Trametes versicolor, to counteract depression of the immune system in patients undergoing chemotherapy.^ Delays During Chemotherapy Chemotherapy usually has some effect on the immune system.
  • The Testicular Cancer Resource Center Chemotherapy Page 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC tcrc.acor.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chemotherapy is medicine used to treat cancer.
  • Oral Chemotherapy Care Guide Information 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

^ There are also medicines that can be used to treat depression.

[11]

Nausea and vomiting

.Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is common, but use of less emetogenic chemotherapy and better antiemetics have reduced the risks in recent times.^ Chemotherapy often causes nausea and vomiting.

^ Review of acupressure studies for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting control.

^ Ondansetron Side Effects and Uses Ondansetron is a drug that is used to treat the nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy.
  • Drugs and Medications - Classification of Medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Stimulation of the vomiting center in the brain results in the coordination of responses from the diaphragm, salivary glands, cranial nerves, and gastrointestinal muscles to produce the interruption of respiration and forced expulsion of stomach contents known as retching and vomiting.^ When this vomiting center is stimulated, nausea and vomiting can occur.

^ Artificial saliva or medication to stimulate the salivary glands are sometimes used, which your doctor can prescribe for you.
  • Chemotherapy with Cytotoxic Drugs | Health | Patient UK 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, opioid medications can affect regions of the brain that mediate what one perceives as pleasure, resulting in the initial euphoria or sense of well-being that many opioids produce.
  • Prescription and Over-the-Counter Medications - InfoFacts - NIDA 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.nida.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The vomiting center is stimulated directly by afferent input from the vagal and splanchnic nerves, the pharynx, the cerebral cortex, cholinergic and histamine stimulation from the vestibular system, and efferent input from the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ).^ When this vomiting center is stimulated, nausea and vomiting can occur.

^ Sometimes the vomiting center is directly stimulated by chemotherapy.

^ Chemotherapeutic drugs irritate the lining of the stomach and the first section of the small intestine (duodenum), which stimulates certain nerves that lead to the vomiting center of the brain.
  • Holy Cross Hospital. Fort Lauderdale, FL. 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The CTZ is in the area postrema, outside the blood-brain barrier, and is thus susceptible to stimulation by substances present in the blood or cerebral spinal fluid.^ A substance that stimulates the production of blood cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Instead, certain substances (such as granulocyte-colony stimulating factor) can be administered to stimulate white blood cell production.
  • Chemotherapy: Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: Merck Manual Home Edition 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The interior branch carries blood to the brain and eyes, and the exterior branch carries blood to the face, tongue, and outside parts of the head.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

The neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin stimulate the vomiting center indirectly via stimulation of the CTZ.
.The 5-HT3 inhibitors are the most effective antiemetics and constitute the single greatest advance in the management of nausea and vomiting in patients with cancer.^ Management of nausea and vomiting Relax.
  • Help with Side Effects - Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.abta.org [Source type: General]

^ From working with AIDS and cancer patients, I repeatedly saw how marijuana could ameliorate a patient's debilitating fatigue, restore appetite, diminish pain, remedy nausea, cure vomiting and curtail down-to-the bone weight loss.
  • Is marijuana an effective treatment for reducing nausea and vomiting from chemotherapy? - Medical Marijuana - ProCon.org 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC medicalmarijuana.procon.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Failure of high-dose vitamin C (ascorbic acid) therapy to benefit patients with advanced cancer.

.These drugs are designed to block one or more of the signals that cause nausea and vomiting.^ Some do not cause nausea and vomiting at all.

^ Chemotherapy often causes nausea and vomiting.

^ This drug causes nausea as a side effect.

.The most sensitive signal during the first 24 hours after chemotherapy appears to be 5-HT3.^ A personal experience During chemotherapy, I found that most foods tasted a bit funny.

^ Most people who lose their hair during chemotherapy find that it grows back once treatment has ended, usually within 3 months.
  • Chemotherapy 2007-01-12 00:00:00.0 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.devoschildrens.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Action: Long acting 12–hour control of ADHD symptoms for coverage during most of the day.
  • ADHD Medications: Adderall, Concerta, Daytrana, Dexedrine, Focalin, Metadate, Ritalin, Strattera and More 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.addresources.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Blocking the 5-HT3 signal is one approach to preventing acute emesis (vomiting), or emesis that is severe, but relatively short-lived.^ Take several short naps or breaks, rather than one long one.
  • Holy Cross Hospital. Fort Lauderdale, FL. 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Approved 5-HT3 inhibitors include Dolasetron (Anzemet), Granisetron (Kytril, Sancuso), and Ondansetron (Zofran).^ These drugs include the following: Lorazepam (Ativan) Prochlorperazine (Compazine) Metoclopramide (Octamide, Reglan) Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone, Hydrocortisone, Prednisone) Ondansetron (Zofran) Granisetron (Kytril) .
  • Holy Cross Hospital. Fort Lauderdale, FL. 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These include Compazine® (prochlorperazine), Ativan®, Benadryl® (diphenhydramine), Decadron®, Dramamine®, Inapsine® (droperidol), Reglan® (metoclopramide), Zofran® (ondansetron) and Kytril® (granisetron).

^ However, these drugs have more side effects than the setrons (ondansetron, granisetron, and dolasetron).
  • Preventing Chemotherapy Toxicities And Other Issues On Drugs Used In Oncology 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cancersupportivecare.com [Source type: Academic]

.The newest 5-HT3 inhibitor, palonosetron (Aloxi), also prevents delayed nausea and vomiting, which occurs during the 2–5 days after treatment.^ Delayed nausea and vomiting can occur after cisplatin, carboplatin, and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy.
  • Mucositis - Chemotherapy Problems and Solutions 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cancersupportivecare.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Preventing Chemotherapy Toxicities And Other Issues On Drugs Used In Oncology 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.cancersupportivecare.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When this vomiting center is stimulated, nausea and vomiting can occur.

^ Generally nausea and vomiting are preventable.
  • 20. Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.largomedical.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A granisetron transdermal patch (Sancuso) was approved by the FDA in September 2008. The patch is applied 24–48 hours before chemotherapy and can be worn for up to 7 days depending on the duration of the chemotherapy regimen.^ It is constant and burning, 24 hours a day.
  • medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.olivija.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The patient should be reassessed with short-interval follow-up, ideally within 48-72 hours, to ensure improvement.
  • Cellulitis: Treatment & Medication - eMedicine Infectious Diseases 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Action: The same as methylphenidate, but in some individuals up to 6 hours duration.
  • ADHD Medications: Adderall, Concerta, Daytrana, Dexedrine, Focalin, Metadate, Ritalin, Strattera and More 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.addresources.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another drug to control nausea in cancer patients became available in 2005. The substance P inhibitor aprepitant (marketed as Emend) has been shown to be effective in controlling the nausea of cancer chemotherapy.^ Not all chemotherapy drugs cause nausea.
  • Patient Education | Coping with Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.ucsfhealth.org [Source type: General]

^ In the past chemotherapy was not shown to be a very effective treatment for prostate cancer.

^ There are several chemotherapy drugs available to treat prostate cancer.

.The results of two large controlled trials were published in 2005, describing the efficacy of this medication in over 1,000 patients.^ A controlled French trial reported that when postmenopausal late-stage breast cancer patients were given very large amounts of vitamin A (350,000-500,000 IU per day) along with chemotherapy, remission rates were significantly better than when the chemotherapy was not accompanied by vitamin A. 38 Similar results were not found in premenopausal women.
  • Health: Chemotherapy; Chemotherapy typically involves the use of several antineoplastic (anticancer) drugs to ... 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Vitamin A A controlled French trial reported that when postmenopausal late-stage breast cancer patients were given very large amounts of vitamin A (350,000–500,000 IU per day) along with chemotherapy, remission rates were significantly better than when the chemotherapy was not accompanied by vitamin A. 37 Similar results were not found in premenopausal women.
  • MotherNature.com - Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.mothernature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment evaluation studies have established the efficacy of the medications described here; however, much remains to be learned about these medications.
  • Psychotropic Medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.mhsanctuary.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Psychiatric Medication Brochure 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.bipolarbrain.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • MEDICATIONS--MENTAL HEALTH/MENTAL ILLNESS 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.medhelp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]
.Some studies[13] and patient groups claim that the use of cannabinoids derived from marijuana during chemotherapy greatly reduces the associated nausea and vomiting, and enables the patient to eat.^ Some do not cause nausea and vomiting at all.

^ Massage has shown some benefit for reducing nausea caused by chemotherapy.

^ Chemotherapy often causes nausea and vomiting.

.Some synthetic derivatives of the active substance in marijuana (Tetrahydrocannabinol or THC) such as Marinol may be practical for this application.^ Some forms of marijuana-the natural tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the synthetic Marinol®-may control nausea and vomiting.

^ Some children also may appear to have a personality change, such as appearing "flat" or without emotion.
  • NIMH · Mental Health Medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.nimh.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You may need some additional tests such as a heart scan (MUGA or echocardiogram) or a tracing of your heart (ECG - electrocardiogram).
  • Chemotherapy - A guide for patients and their families 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.christie.nhs.uk [Source type: General]

.Natural marijuana, known as medical cannabis is also used and recommended by some oncologists, though its use is regulated and not legal everywhere.^ Studies have found that weight loss with some medications improves blood pressure, blood cholesterol, triglycerides (fats), and insulin resistance (the body’s inability to use blood sugar).
  • WIN - Publication - Prescription Medications for the Treatment of Obesity 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC win.niddk.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only 8 (6%) respondents indicated that they would prescribe marijuana much more frequently--if there were no legal barriers associated with its medical use.

^ You may also have some herbal supplements, vitamins and minerals—even some expired medications and perhaps some prescription drugs you no longer use.
  • Medication Safety | HealthyWomen 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: General]

[14]

Secondary neoplasm

.The development of secondary neoplasia after successful chemotherapy and or radiotherapy treatment has shown to exist.^ Radiotherapy treatment, chemotherapy was also performed.
  • Chemotherapy - Chemotherapy, Description and Side Effects 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.blogforacure.com [Source type: General]

^ Herceptin, a treatment used to boost the benefits of chemotherapy and surgery has been shown to be highly effective, and experts are saying it's a must-use.

^ Sometimes, chemotherapy is given before surgery or radiotherapy so that these other treatments are likely to work better.
  • Chemotherapy with Cytotoxic Drugs | Health | Patient UK 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most common secondary neoplasm is secondary acute myeloid leukemia, which develops primarily after treatment with alkylating agents or topoisomerase inhibitors.^ It is also being studied in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.nci.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Medications are the most common treatment for many diseases and conditions seen in older people and persons with disabilities.
  • FCA: Caregivers' Guide to Medications and Aging 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.caregiver.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "For the treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who have failed treatment with imatinib and who have developed the Bcr-Abl T315I mutation.

[15] .Other studies have shown a 13.5 fold increase from the general population in the incidence of secondary neoplasm occurrence after 30 years from treatment.^ A 13–year prospective study.
  • Medication Management for Adults with ADHD 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.addresources.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In this analysis from the Second-Generation Antipsychotic Treatment Indications, Effectiveness and Tolerability in Youth (SATIETY) study, 10% to 36% of 272 patients between 4 and 19 years of age (mean, 13.9 years) who had not previously received antipsychotic medication became overweight or obese.

^ A study of the adverse effects of 4 second-generation antipsychotics in children and adolescents documented substantial weight gain during 11 weeks of treatment with each agent, with the increased abdominal fat that has been associated with development of metabolic syndrome in adults.

[16]

Other side effects

.In particularly large tumors, such as large lymphomas, some patients develop tumor lysis syndrome from the rapid breakdown of malignant cells.^ Patients with mast cell tumors experience chronic inflammatory symptoms due to circulating histamine.

^ Some patients benefit from meditation, psychological support and aversion training (through media such as audiotapes to help prevent fear and nausea).

^ Generally, patients with hematologic malignancies have an increased rate of oral mucositis compared with those with solid tumors.
  • Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis: eMedicine Dermatology 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Although prophylaxis is available and is often initiated in patients with large tumors, this is a dangerous side effect that can lead to death if left untreated.^ Side effects often can be prevented or decreased.
  • Chemotherapy | Cancer Information | UPMC Cancer Centers 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.upmccancercenters.com [Source type: General]

^ The labeling may not be in English and, therefore, important information on side effects and drug safety may not be available.
  • Medication Safety | HealthyWomen 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: General]

^ The fact that the patient has to endure horrific side effects in order to temporarily shrink the tumor is not considered.
  • Why Alternative Cancer Treatment(2): Chemotherapy, Cancer Diagnosing, Mammography, Thermography 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healingcancernaturally.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Less common side effects include pain, red skin (erythema), dry skin, damaged fingernails, a dry mouth (xerostomia), water retention, and sexual impotence.^ Other drug side effects include: .
  • Medications Used to Treat Parkinson's Disease 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.ehealthmd.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tiredness (fatigue) is a common side-effect.
  • Chemotherapy with Cytotoxic Drugs | Health | Patient UK 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Common side effects .

.Some medications can trigger allergic or pseudoallergic reactions.^ Some adverse reactions result from being allergic to a drug and can be so dangerous you should stop taking the medication and seek emergency medical treatment immediately.
  • Medication Safety | HealthyWomen 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.healthywomen.org [Source type: General]

^ Some symptoms may mean you are having an allergic reaction that may need to be treated at once.

.Some patients report fatigue or non-specific neurocognitive problems, such as an inability to concentrate; this is sometimes called post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment, referred to as "chemo brain" by patients' groups.^ Chemotherapy, sometimes referred to as "chemo," is the treatment of cancer with anticancer drugs.
  • Chemotherapy - symptoms, Definition, Purpose, Description, Risks, Normal results 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.healthofchildren.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Now they call it Chemo Brain.
  • Chemotherapy | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Patients call it "chemo brain."
  • Chemotherapy and Side Effects | AHealthyMe.com 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.ahealthyme.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]
.Specific chemotherapeutic agents are associated with organ-specific toxicities, including cardiovascular disease (e.g., doxorubicin), interstitial lung disease (e.g., bleomycin) and occasionally secondary neoplasm (e.g., MOPP therapy for Hodgkin's disease).^ Cyclorsporin: Cyclophosphamide:(Cytoxan) After beginning cytoxan for interstitial lung diseases, your physician will follow you closely and inquire about any side effects or problems with the medicine.
  • medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.olivija.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sacks PG, Harris D, Chou T-C. Modulation of growth and proliferation in squamous cell carcinoma by retinoic acid: A rationale for combination therapy with chemotherapeutic agents.
  • Health: Chemotherapy; Chemotherapy typically involves the use of several antineoplastic (anticancer) drugs to ... 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: Academic]
  • MotherNature.com - Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.mothernature.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Health: Methotrexate; Methotrexate (MTX) is a chemotherapy drug that interferes with folic acid ... 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: Academic]

^ At the doses we use for interstitial lung diseases, this side effect should be minimal.
  • medications 25 January 2010 7:54 UTC www.olivija.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In other animals

.Chemotherapy is used in veterinary medicine similar to in human medicine.^ Many types of medicines are used in chemotherapy, all of which attack cancer cells in different ways.
  • Chemotherapy - A guide for patients and their families 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.christie.nhs.uk [Source type: General]

^ Chemotherapy means using medicines to treat cancer.
  • Chemotherapy - A guide for patients and their families 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.christie.nhs.uk [Source type: General]

^ Glutamine Though cancer cells use glutamine as a fuel source, studies in humans have not found that glutamine stimulates growth of cancers in people taking chemotherapy.
  • MotherNature.com - Chemotherapy 10 February 2010 13:15 UTC www.mothernature.com [Source type: Academic]

[18]

See also

References

  1. ^ chemotherapy at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^ Hirsch J (September 2006). "An anniversary for cancer chemotherapy". JAMA 296 (12): 1518–20. doi:10.1001/jama.296.12.1518. PMID 17003400. 
  3. ^ Goodman LS, Wintrobe MM, Dameshek W, Goodman MJ, Gilman A, McLennan MT. (1946). "Nitrogen mustard therapy". JAMA 132: 26–32. 
  4. ^ Goodman LS, Wintrobe MM, Dameshek W, Goodman MJ, Gilman A, McLennan MT. (1984). "Landmark article Sept. 21, 1946: Nitrogen mustard therapy. Use of methyl-bis(beta-chloroethyl)amine hydrochloride and tris(beta-chloroethyl)amine hydrochloride for Hodgkin's disease, lymphosarcoma, leukemia and certain allied and miscellaneous disorders. By Louis S. Goodman, Maxwell M. Wintrobe, William Dameshek, Morton J. Goodman, Alfred Gilman and Margaret T. McLennan". JAMA 251 (17): 2255–61. PMID 6368885. 
  5. ^ Joensuu H. (2008). "Systemic chemotherapy for cancer: from weapon to treatment". Lancet Oncol. 9 (3): 304. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(08)70075-5. PMID 18308256. 
  6. ^ Skeel, R. T. (2003). Handbook of Cancer Chemotherapy, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  7. ^ Chabner, B. and D. L. Longo (2006). Cancer Chemotherapy and Biotherapy: Principles and Practice. Philadelphia, Lippincott Willians & Wilkins.
  8. ^ a b c Takimoto CH, Calvo E. "Principles of Oncologic Pharmacotherapy" in Pazdur R, Wagman LD, Camphausen KA, Hoskins WJ (Eds) Cancer Management: A Multidisciplinary Approach. 11 ed. 2008.
  9. ^ What are Common Side Effects? from the American Cancer Society
  10. ^ Huang, Elbert S. (2000). Internal medicine: handbook for clinicians, resident survival guide. Arlington, VA: Scrub Hill Press. pp. 130. ISBN 978-0-9645467-5-2. 
  11. ^ , http://www.cancer.org/docroot/ETO/content/ETO_5_3X_Coriolous_Versicolor.asp 
  12. ^ Gralla R, de Wit R, Herrstedt J, Carides A, Ianus J, Guoguang-Ma J, Evans J, Horgan K (2005). "Antiemetic efficacy of the neurokinin-1 antagonist, aprepitant, plus a 5HT3 antagonist and a corticosteroid in patients receiving anthracyclines or cyclophosphamide in addition to high-dose cisplatin: analysis of combined data from two Phase III randomized clinical trials". Cancer 104 (4): 864–8. doi:10.1002/cncr.21222+. PMID 15973669. 
  13. ^ Tramer MR, Carroll D, Campbell FA, Reynolds DJ, Moore RA, McQuay HJ. Cannabinoids for control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting: quantitative systematic review. BMJ 2001;323:16-21. PMID 11440936.
  14. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions - Medical Marihuana"
  15. ^ U. Rüther, C. Nunnensiek, H.-J. Schmoll,Secondary Neoplasias following Chemotherapy, Radiotherapy, and Immunosuppression,Contributions to Oncology (Beiträge zur Onkologie); Vol 55, 2000, ISBN 380557116X
  16. ^ Hijiya, Hudson, Lensing et al. Cumulative Incidence of Secondary Neoplasms as a First Event After Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic LeukemiaJAMA, 2007;297:1207-1215.
  17. ^ Tannock IF, Ahles TA, Ganz PA, Van Dam FS (June 2004). "Cognitive impairment associated with chemotherapy for cancer: report of a workshop". J. Clin. Oncol. 22 (11): 2233–9. doi:10.1200/JCO.2004.08.094. PMID 15169812. http://www.jco.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15169812. 
  18. ^ McKnight JA (May 2003). "Principles of chemotherapy". Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 18 (2): 67–72. PMID 12831063. 

External links


Simple English

Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat diseases. The word "chemotherapy" is used a lot to talk about a medicine used to help cure cancer called cytotoxic. This kind of chemotherapy works by putting poison into the patient. The fastest growing parts of the patient will receive the most poison, and cancer grows very fast. Unfortunately, so do other parts of the body, which can be harmed through chemotherapy (Hair, immune system and digestive tract).

When people talk about chemotherapy outside the treatment of cancer, they may also be talking about a kind of medicine called antibiotics. Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin, one of the best-known antibiotics.

Chemotherapy can also be use to treat autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis or a blood cancer such as Leukemia. Other uses are the treatment of Hepatitis, which is caused by a virus, or to suppress the reaction to transplanted organs.

Chemotherapy (related to cancer) has side effects including:


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 26, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Chemotherapy, which are similar to those in the above article.








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