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Chernobyl disaster
Chernobyl Disaster.jpg
.The nuclear reactor after the disaster.^ The nuclear reactor after the disaster.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is addressed to all those who are dedicated to the alleviation of suffering and to reconstruction efforts in the regions still affected by the consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor disaster.

^ The Chernobyl nuclear reactor disaster, which took place April 26, 1986, has yet to reveal the full spectrum of disease and death which are to occur in its wake.
  • Key Issues: Nuclear Energy: Issues: Chernobyl, The Human Toll 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nuclearfiles.org [Source type: Academic]

Reactor 4 (center). .Turbine building (lower left).^ Chernobyl disaster aftermath shows extensive damage to the main reactor hall (center) and turbine building (lower left ).

Reactor 3 (center right).
Date 26 April 1986 (1986-04-26)
Time 01:21 a.m. (UTC+3)
Location Pripyat, Soviet Union, now Ukraine
Casualties
56 direct deaths
.800,000 (est) suffered radiation exposure, which may result in as many as 4,000 cancer deaths over the lifetime of those exposed, in addition to the approximately 100,000 fatal cancers to be expected from all other causes in this population.^ In addition, approximately one non-fatal cancer is expected for each fatal cancer produced.
  • CHAPTER 24, Chernobyl: A Crossroad in the Radiation Health Sciences, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ratical.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Many other health problems have been noted in the populations that are not related to radiation exposure.
  • UNSCEAR assessments of the Chernobyl accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.unscear.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many are suffering from cancer and leukaemia.
  • History News Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

[1]
The abandoned city of Pripyat with Chernobyl plant in the distance.
Radio-operated bulldozers being tested prior to use.
Abandoned housing blocks in Pripyat.
.The Chernobyl disaster, also alternatively spelled Chornobyl disaster, was a nuclear accident that occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (then part of the Soviet Union), now in Ukraine.^ The world’s worst nuclear accident occurred at Chernobyl in Ukraine, then part of the Soviet Union, on 26 April 1986.
  • ENDS Europe | Groups mark Chernobyl accident anniversary 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.endseurope.com [Source type: News]

^ The Chernobyl accident occurred on April 26, 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Pripyat, Ukraine.
  • YouTube - Chernobyl nuclear accident 2 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.youtube.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • YouTube - Chernobyl nuclear accident 1 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.youtube.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After the Chernobyl accident, Soviet authorities sealed off an 18-mile ''exclusion zone" around the Ukrainian nuclear power plant.
  • Boston.com / News / World / Europe / In Chernobyl, fallout lingers for villages 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.boston.com [Source type: News]

.It is considered to be the worst nuclear power plant disaster in history and the only level 7 event on the International Nuclear Event Scale.^ It is considered to be the worst nuclear power plant disaster in history and the only level 7 event on the International Nuclear Event Scale.
  • skdfans : Message: Chernobyl Disaster [19 pics] 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC in.groups.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The Chernobyl nuclear disaster was one of the worst catastrophes in human history.
  • www.geografiya.net - Chernobyl   3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.geografiya.net [Source type: News]

^ The"Chernobyl disaster", reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, or simply "Chernobyl", was the worst nuclear power plant accident in history and the only instance so far of level 7 on the International Nuclear Event Scale, resulting in a severe nuclear meltdown.
  • Chernobyl - �ernobil T�rkiye 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.cernobilturkiye.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It resulted in a severe release of radioactivity following a massive power excursion that destroyed the reactor.^ Massive release of radioactive fission products.
  • RadioActive! The Nuclear Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC corium.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It resulted in a severe release of radioactivity following a massive power excursion that destroyed the reactor.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Volcano Ppt Presentation 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.authorstream.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After a sudden power surge, two explosions destroyed the reactor core and blasted a large hole in the roof of the reactor building.
  • Chernobyl Facts 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.kievukraine.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl, Ukraine  -  Travel Photos by Galen R Frysinger, Sheboygan, Wisconsin 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.galenfrysinger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl Children Appeal (NI) Ltd. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ccanireland.com [Source type: Original source]

.Most fatalities from the accident were caused by radiation poisoning.^ Most deaths from the accident were caused by radiation poisoning.
  • India’s Chernobyl « Pakistanpal’s Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC pakistanpal.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • skdfans : Message: MTT Newsletter:76 - Wednesday, December 23, 2009. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC in.groups.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Volcano Ppt Presentation 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.authorstream.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even so, most officials maintain that even with the extra layer, the amount of radiation released after the accident was enough to have penetrated and contaminated the area surrounding the power plant.

^ The accident killed 30 people immediately and at least 200 people contracted radiation sickness, of which most died of, soon after.
  • Mt. Everest 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.boisestate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On April 26, 1986 at 01:23 a.m.^ On 26 April 1986 at 01:23:40 a.m.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl - �ernobil T�rkiye 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.cernobilturkiye.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Meltdown at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant : Greg Laden's Blog 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AM on April 26, 1986.
  • Chernobyl: The Worse Nuclear Accident in Modern History 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.aasc.ucla.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ April 25th, 2009 01:26 .

.(UTC+3), reactor number four at the Chernobyl plant, near Pripyat in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, had a fatal meltdown.^ The number four reactor at Chernobyl was believed to have 9 billion curies of radioactivity.
  • Math Lesson: Chernobyl 1 - Radiation Released 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC pulse.pharmacy.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (UTC+3) reactor number four at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant located in the Soviet Union near Pripyat in Ukraine exploded.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Meltdown at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant : Greg Laden's Blog 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The power station in Chernobyl is a nuclear power plant, with four reactors.
  • THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR ACCIDENT 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.pupilvision.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Further explosions and the resulting fire sent a plume of highly radioactive fallout into the atmosphere and over an extensive geographical area, including the nearby town of Pripyat.^ The resulting radioactive plume blanketed the nearby city of Pripyat.
  • 'Voices of Chernobyl': Survivors' Stories : NPR 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ The resulting fire and further explosions sent radioactive fallout across Europe.
  • Chernobyl: What Happened? 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Pripyat, Chernobyl, and nearby towns were evacuated.
  • Chernobyl Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Chernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/world/A0811693.html 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.factmonster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Four hundred times more fallout was released than had been by the atomic bombing of Hiroshima.^ And that accident released 400 times the radiation of the Hiroshima bomb.

^ I am more than willing to put in the time.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Four hundred times more radioactivity than Hiroshima bomb was released and traveled around the world.
  • Chernobyl Disaster 20 years ago - we must listen to history :: LAVoice.org :: LOS ANGELES SPEAKS HERE :: A public-access blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC lavoice.org [Source type: General]

[2]
.The plume drifted over large parts of the western Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Northern Europe.^ The plume drifted over large parts of the western Soviet Union , Eastern Europe , Western Europe , and Northern Europe , with some nuclear rain falling as far away as Ireland .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A plume of radioactive fallout drifted over parts of the western Soviet Union, Eastern and Western Europe, Scandinavia, the British Isles, and eastern North America.

^ Pripyat, Ukraine (then part of the Soviet Union) .
  • JST Failure Knowledge Database > Case Details > Chernobyl Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC shippai.jst.go.jp [Source type: Reference]

.Rain contaminated with radioactive material fell as far away as Ireland.^ The radioactive material released was hundreds of times greater than the fallout over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, polluting about 80,000 square miles of land across Europe and spreading radioactive rain as far as north-west Ireland.
  • The Mystery of Chernobyl | CommonDreams.org 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ The plume drifted over large parts of the western Soviet Union , Eastern Europe , Western Europe , and Northern Europe , with some nuclear rain falling as far away as Ireland .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The smoke and steam from the fire released radioactive material into the atmosphere and spread it far beyond the towns and farms of Chernobyl.
  • » Chernobyl Tour MaisonBisson.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC maisonbisson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • » Chernobyl Tour MaisonBisson.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC maisonbisson.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Large areas in Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia were badly contaminated, resulting in the evacuation and resettlement of over 336,000 people.^ A large area in Russia south of Bryansk was also contaminated, as were parts of northwestern Ukraine.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Approximately 135,000 people were evacuated.
  • NRC: Fact Sheet on the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nrc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, about 270,000 people continue to live in dangerously contaminated areas of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia.

.According to official post-Soviet data,[3] about 60% of the radioactive fallout landed in Belarus.^ According to official post-Soviet data, about 60% of the radioactive fallout landed in Belarus.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Meltdown at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant : Greg Laden's Blog 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Belarus lands are still contaminated with radioactivity.

^ About 60% of the radioactive fallout landed in Belarus, according to official post-Soviet data.

.The accident raised concerns about the safety of the Soviet nuclear power industry as well as nuclear power in general, slowing its expansion for a number of years while forcing the Soviet government to become less secretive.^ Nuclear power expansion in China stirs concerns .
  • Nuclear power expansion in China stirs concerns 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC 234next.com [Source type: News]

^ Reported number of accidents in U.S. nuclear power plants in 1987: 2,810 .
  • Forget Magazine. Remember, Remember, Remember. 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC www.forgetmagazine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nuclear power expansion in China stirs concerns Login .
  • Nuclear power expansion in China stirs concerns 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC 234next.com [Source type: News]

[4]
.The countries of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus have been burdened with the continuing and substantial decontamination and health care costs of the Chernobyl accident.^ Infant leukemia in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident.
  • The Chernobyl Disaster: Cancer following the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant -- Hatch et al. 27 (1): 56 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Childhood leukaemia in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine following the Chernobyl power station accident: results from an international collaborative population-based case-control study -- Davis et al. 35 (2): 386 -- International Journal of Epidemiology 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC ije.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The now independent countries of Ukraine and Belarus have been burdened with continuing and substantial costs for decontamination and health care because of the Chernobyl' accident.
  • Chernobyl, Ukraine  -  Travel Photos by Galen R Frysinger, Sheboygan, Wisconsin 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.galenfrysinger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cancer incidence in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident.
  • The Chernobyl Disaster: Cancer following the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant -- Hatch et al. 27 (1): 56 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is difficult to accurately quantify the number of deaths caused by the events at Chernobyl, as over time it becomes harder to determine whether a death has been caused by exposure to radiation.^ It is difficult to accurately quantify the number of deaths caused by the events at Chernobyl , as over time it becomes harder to determine whether a death has been caused by exposure to radiation.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Chernobyl disaster, 32 people died immediately and 38 more people died of acute illnesses caused by radiation in the following months 3 .
  • Nuclear energy vs. global warming: policy tradeoffs 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reliable information about Chornobyl is still not easily determined and accurate statistics are difficult to confirm.
  • InfoUkes: Ukrainian History -- Chornobyl Nuclear Catastrophe 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.infoukes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The 2005 report prepared by the Chernobyl Forum, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and World Health Organization (WHO), attributed 56 direct deaths (47 accident workers and nine children with thyroid cancer) and estimated that there may be 4,000 (questioned, could be higher) extra cancer deaths among the approximately 600,000 most highly exposed people.^ Chernobyl nuclear accident: figures for deaths and cancers still in dispute .
  • Chernobyl nuclear accident: figures for deaths and cancers still in dispute - Democratic Underground 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.democraticunderground.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In September 2005, a report by the Chernobyl Forum, comprising a number of agencies including the International Atomic Energy Agency, the World Health Organization, UN bodies and the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, put the total predicted number of deaths due to the accident at 4,000.
  • Chernobyl accident effects 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Critical analysis of a recent report by the IAEA and WHO on Chernobyl .
  • Living on Earth: Chernobyl at 20 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.loe.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .Although the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and certain limited areas remain off limits, the majority of affected areas are now considered safe for settlement and economic activity.^ Although the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and certain limited areas remain off limits, the majority of affected areas are now considered safe for settlement and economic activity.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is it safe to visit the area now?
  • Frequently Asked Chernobyl Questions 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.iaea.or.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The majority of the territories initially designated as "contaminated" are therefore safe for settlement and economic activity.
  • UNDP | Europe & CIS | UNDP and Chernobyl: Q&A 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC europeandcis.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • UNDP | Europe & CIS | UNDP and Chernobyl: Q&A 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC europeandcis.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5]

Contents

Chernobyl nuclear power plant

Location of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.
.The Chernobyl station is near the town of Pripyat, Ukraine, 18 km (11 mi) northwest of the city of Chernobyl, 16 km (10 mi) from the border of Ukraine and Belarus and about 110 km (68 mi) north of Kiev.^ The Chernobyl station is near the town of Prypiat , Ukraine, 18 km (11 mi) northwest of the city of Chernobyl , 16 km (10 mi) from the border of Ukraine and Belarus, and about 110 km (68 mi) north of Kyiv .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chernobyl power plant is about 7 km from the border with Belarus, while about 100 km to the south lays Kiev, the capital of Ukraine, with a population of 3.1 million.
  • Information Sheets - Chernobyl Children's Project International 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.chernobyl-international.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is situated at the new town of Pripyat, near Chernobyl and 60 miles north of Kiev.
  • Soviet Announces Nuclear Accident at Electric Plant 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.The station consisted of four RBMK-1000 nuclear reactors, each capable of producing 1 gigawatt (GW) of electric power, and the four together produced about 10% of Ukraine's electricity at the time of the accident.^ Chernobyl power station with these four reactors combined produced about 10% of total Ukraine's electricity.
  • Chernobyl disaster - Our energy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.our-energy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the time of the accident, the Chernobyl station had 4 reactors in operation and 2 under construction.
  • JST Failure Knowledge Database > Case Details > Chernobyl Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC shippai.jst.go.jp [Source type: Reference]

^ Nuclear power produces electricity for about 1.7 cents a kilowatt, the cheapest source of power after hydro.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

[6] .Construction of the plant began in the late 1970s, with reactor no. 1 commissioned in 1977, followed by no. 2 (1978), no. 3 (1981), and no. 4 (1983).^ At the time that Chernobyl's construction began, in the late '70s, Brezhnev had been in power for more than a decade.
  • The Banyan--THE CLASS OF ACS-202, SPRING 2000 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC depts.clackamas.cc.or.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nuclear power plant itself wasn't located in Chernobyl but in fact 18 km northwest of the city of Chernobyl, near the town of Pripyat and was consisted of four reactors of type RBMK-1000, of which reactor Number one was commissioned in 1977 and fatal reactor Number four in 1983.
  • Chernobyl disaster - Our energy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.our-energy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But as Volodin flew toward the plume of smoke and steam rising from Reactor No 4, strange-looking, viscous droplets of liquid began beading on the canopy.
  • Daily Kos: Chernobyl, beyond the numbers 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two more reactors, no. 5 and 6, also capable of producing 1 GW each, were under construction at the time of the disaster.^ Two more reactors, were under construction at the time of the accident.

^ Two more RBMK reactors were under construction at the site at the time of the accident.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chapter I The site and accident sequence - Chernobyl: Assessment of Radiological and Health Impact 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nea.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the time of the accident, the Chernobyl station had 4 reactors in operation and 2 under construction.
  • JST Failure Knowledge Database > Case Details > Chernobyl Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC shippai.jst.go.jp [Source type: Reference]

Reactor design and behavior

RBMK reactor structure
RBMK power plant schematics
Reactor control rod positions at the moment of the explosion; blue=neutron sources (12), yellow=shortened control rods from the reactor bottom (32), grey=pressure tubes (1661), green=control rods (167), red=automatic control rods (12)
.The reactor is a cylindrical concrete-lined vessel with core composed of vertically stacked graphite blocks, with zircaloy pressure tubes through their centers.^ Also, there was no pressure vessel surrounding the core of the Chernobyl reactor.
  • MdConservCouncil - The Health Effects of Nuclear Reactor Accidents 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC mdconservationcouncil.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The reactor core had many pressure tubes running through vertically.
  • JST Failure Knowledge Database > Case Details > Chernobyl Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC shippai.jst.go.jp [Source type: Reference]

^ The reactor core had neither a steel pressure vessel nor containment for pressure-proof.
  • JST Failure Knowledge Database > Case Details > Chernobyl Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC shippai.jst.go.jp [Source type: Reference]

.A 350 kg block is located on top of each fuel channel, giving the top of the reactor its characteristic tiled appearance.^ Excellent descriptions and photographs of the sarcophagus which was built over the ruined reactor after the accident, with a detailed analysis of the location of the melted and resolidified fuel in the lower regions of the reactor building.

^ A mixture of nitrogen and helium is circulated between the graphite blocks to prevent oxidation of the graphite and to improve the transmission of the heat produced by neutron interactions in the graphite to the fuel channel.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The power excursion ruptured fuel channels, and the pressure af the escaping iieom blew opart ikecore and caused severe damage to the reactor building.
  • THE CHERNOBYL' ACCIDENT SOCIAL AND POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS (SOV 87-10078X) - CIA document 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The blocks and the pressure tubes are affixed to a massive circular complete block, the Upper Biological Shield.^ The upper plate of the reactor is hurled up, all pressure tubes break off.
  • RadioActive! The Nuclear Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC corium.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Steam pressure blew the 1000-ton steel- and cement-filled biologic shield off the top of the reactor, severing all pressure tubes(some 1600 of them) and exposing the hot core to the atmosphere.

^ Over many hours, the gases built up and combined with oxygen released by the cracked pressure tubes, triggering a massive explosion.
  • Chernobyl: Cause and Effect 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.richeast.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Above the reactor top, a gantry crane where the refueling machinery is located; the reactor design allows refueling during on-line, without need to shut down the reactor.^ A specially designed refuelling machine allows fuel bundles to be changed without shutting down the reactor.
  • Chapter I The site and accident sequence - Chernobyl: Assessment of Radiological and Health Impact 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nea.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to keep the reactor from automatically shutting down under these conditions, they had to disconnect the emergency core cooling system and several of the automatic scram circuits.

^ The accident at the Chernobyl reactor happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance.
  • UNSCEAR assessments of the Chernobyl accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.unscear.org [Source type: Academic]

.The bottom side of the reactor is covered by the Lower Biological Shield.^ A partial meltdown of the nuclear core was followed by a violent explosion, and the top of the reactor, called the Upper Biological Shield and weighing 2 million pounds, blew off the sides and destroyed part of the reactor walls when it fell.
  • Children of Chernobyl -- Main Page 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC 70.88.225.34 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The blast was so powerful that the 1,000 ton biological shield was blown off the roof and it was as if as much as 30-40 tons of TNT had detonated inside the reactor.
  • Hist311 - Chernobyl-Esman 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hist311.wmwikis.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Detailed analysis of the release dynamics of the accident; as the graphite component of the core (corium) burned, it allowed the remaining fuel to eat away the lower biological shield (LBS) and flow into the lower regions of the reactor building.

.The reactor core is 7 meters high and 11.8 meters in diameter.^ Unless the residual heat is removed from the reactor core as fast as it is produced, the temperature will rise, and there is no theoretical limit as to how high it can get.
  • A Chernobyl in Canada? It could happen . . . 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ccnr.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chernobyl type of reactor core is a huge graphite cylinder (7 m high, 12 m diameter) and within some 1600 channels with water and steam cooled fuel inside.
  • Neutron Kinetics of the Chernobyl Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.euronuclear.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Core - a cylinder 12 metres in diameter and seven metres high, built from blocks of graphite , which also serves as a moderator .
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Partly due to the large size of the reactor, the reactivity of different portions of the core is only loosely coupled and the regulation of spatial power distribution is crucial; the reactor may behave like several semi-independent reactors, especially if there is a non-uniform buildup of nuclear poisons (especially xenon-135) in different parts of the core, which occurs at low power levels when the neutron flux is insufficient to burn the Xe-135. Just before the disaster, the upper and lower part of the core were behaving fairly independently, separated by a heavily xenon-poisoned central region.^ Non-power uses of nuclear energy .
  • Early Soviet Reactors and EU Accession 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This was recently completed just before the disaster.
  • Nuclear Winter in Chernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.stuckincustoms.com [Source type: General]
  • Nuclear Winter in Chernobyl on Flickr - Photo Sharing! 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The regulations for the operation of the reactor do indeed show the danger of the reactor at low power level .
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org.nz [Source type: Original source]

.The possibility of destructive local reactivity feedback had already been demonstrated during the partial core meltdown of the Unit 1 RBMK1000 reactor in the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant in 1975. The Leningrad plant is of a similar design to the Chernobyl one.^ The accident at Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its consequences.

^ A partial meltdown of the core also occurred.
  • Chernobyl accident (nuclear disaster, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The damaged Chernobyl unit 4 reactor building .
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]

Reactor vessel, moderator and shielding

.The reactor pit is made of reinforced concrete and has dimensions 21.6×21.6×25.5 meters.^ As the reactor was not housed in a reinforced concrete shield, large amounts of debris escaped in the atmosphere.
  • Publications. Materials about: Pripyat, Chernobyl accident 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC pripyat.com [Source type: General]

^ A reinforced concrete casing was built around the ruined reactor building over the seven months following the accident.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By May 9, the graphite fire had been extinguished, and work began on a massive reinforced concrete slab with a built-in cooling system beneath the reactor.
  • Chapter I The site and accident sequence - Chernobyl: Assessment of Radiological and Health Impact 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nea.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It houses the vessel of the reactor, made of a cylindrical wall and top and bottom metal plates.^ It was too late, and the insertion of the rods from the top concentrated all of the reactivity to the bottom of the core, causing the reactor power to rise 100 times the allotted design value.
  • Chernobyl Disaster - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The control rod follower did not match the full height of the reactor core, leaving a water gap at the top and bottom and exacerbating the effect.
  • Chernobyl: Ten Years After. Causes, Consequences, Solutions. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC archive.greenpeace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The floor, the walls and the roof of the reactor are made of lead, which is the only radiation-proof substance on Earth.
  • Chernobyl: The 20-Year Anniversary - Worldpress.org 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.worldpress.org [Source type: News]

.The vessel contains the graphite stack and is filled with a helium-nitrogen mixture for providing an inert atmosphere for the graphite and for mediation of heat transfer from the graphite to the coolant channels.^ A mixture of nitrogen and helium is circulated between the graphite blocks largely to prevent oxidation of the graphite and to improve the transmission of the heat produced by neutron interactions in the graphite, from the moderator to the fuel channel.
  • Chapter I The site and accident sequence - Chernobyl: Assessment of Radiological and Health Impact 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nea.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A mixture of nitrogen and helium is circulated between the graphite blocks to prevent oxidation of the graphite and to improve the transmission of the heat produced by neutron interactions in the graphite to the fuel channel.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Film boiling occurs in the fuel channels, cutting the amount of heat the coolant is absorbing from the rapidly-overheating fuel rods to almost nothing.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The moderator blocks are made of nuclear graphite of dimensions 250×250×500 mm.^ MILESTONES DIED. ANATOLI ALEXANDROV, 90, the Soviet scientist who led the effort to develop Chernobyl-type, graphite-moderated nuclear reactors; in Moscow.
  • CHERNOBYL NOTES 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.time.com [Source type: News]

^ In the RBMK design, there is no containment shell, the graphite blocks used to moderate the fission reaction are flammable, and excess steam in the reactor core will cause the nuclear reaction to increase.

^ The two explosions caused a loss of integrity of the pile cap, allowing the entry of air that reacted with the graphite moderator blocks to form carbon monoxide gas.
  • Chernobyl Disaster - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are holes with 114 mm diameter through the longitudal axis of the blocks for the fuel and control channels.^ These 1,693 pressure tubes (80 mm caliber, 88 mm outside diameter) are made of zirconium alloy and called channels.
  • JST Failure Knowledge Database > Case Details > Chernobyl Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC shippai.jst.go.jp [Source type: Reference]

^ In fact, the US Gov't controls all uranium fuel once it is dug from the ground through long term storage.
  • The Answer Ain't Nuclear | Mother Jones 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The core is threaded with about 1700 3.5" pressure channels for fuel, coolant and control rods.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The blocks are stacked inside the reactor vessel into a cylindrical core 14 m in diameter and 8 m high.^ In addition, the graphite blocks used as a moderating material in the RBMK caught fire at high temperature as air entered the reactor core, which contributed to emission of radioactive materials into the environment.
  • Frequently Asked Chernobyl Questions 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.iaea.or.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That early class of Soviet reactor had no containment dome, and therefore the radiation was free to spew out into the environment when there was an explosion inside.
  • Online NewsHour: Ceremonies Mark 20th Anniversary of Chernobyl Disaster -- April 26, 2006 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A second explosion threw out fragments of burning fuel and graphite from the core and allowed air to rush in, causing the graphite moderator to burst into flames (14).
  • JST Failure Knowledge Database > Case Details > Chernobyl Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC shippai.jst.go.jp [Source type: Reference]

[8] The maximum allowed temperature of the graphite is less or equal to 730 °C.[9]
.The reactor vessel is a steel cylinder (Schema KZh) with outer diameter of 14.52 m, wall thickness 16 mm, height 9.75 m, and is equipped with a bellows compensator to absorb axial thermal expansion loads.^ The Chernobyl nuclear plant's Soviet RBMK [type design] reactors were not encased in thick concrete structures called containment vessels that are standard in the West.
  • Sunday Marks 23-Year Anniversary of Chernobyl Nuclear Accident | News | English 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www1.voanews.com [Source type: News]

^ The Seabrook plants' walls are 4 foot thick concrete with steel reinforcement added and is noted as state-of-the-art with regards to its engineering along with its extra safety features.
  • The Banyan--THE CLASS OF ACS-202, SPRING 2000 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC depts.clackamas.cc.or.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In most nuclear reactor complexes a steel and concrete building, commonly spherical or dome-shaped, encloses the reactor containment vessel, to contain any radiation escaping from the core.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The moderator is surrounded by a cylindrical water tank (Schema L), a welded structure with 30 mm thick walls, inner diameter of 16.6 m and outer diameter of 19 m, internally divided to 16 vertical compartments.^ The core is surrounded by a metal containment structure filled with inert gas; this is encircled, topped and tailed with thick concrete biological shields.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Uranium fuel enriched to 3% in U-235 surrounded by water moderator; this is the option used in all U.S. power reactors.
  • THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT — CAN IT HAPPEN HERE? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.phyast.pitt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ It is 4.90 by 6.30 metres large and is divided into two chambers by a wall hollowed out of the rock.
  • History News Network 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

.The water is supplied to the compartments from the bottom and removed from the top; the water can be used for emergency reactor cooling.^ How much water will the reactors use?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Wouldn't your reactor use a huge amount of water for cooling?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ What will the water useage be and what reactor will be used?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.The tank contains thermocouples for sensing the water temperature and ion chambers for monitoring the reactor power.^ The engineers, who had little knowledge of reactor physics, wanted to see if the reactor's turbine could run emergency water pumps on inertial power.
  • Life After People: Chernobyl - History.Com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

^ It contains the information on electricity generation technology at nuclear plant, on some auxiliary nuclear power installation devices and on RBMK Reactor design and characteristics .
  • Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant - 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC new.chnpp.gov.ua [Source type: Academic]

^ These are high-power, pressure-tube reactors, moderated with graphite and cooled with water.
  • NRC: Backgrounder on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nrc.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • NRC: Fact Sheet on the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nrc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • chernobyl a nuclear accident some of the story 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.usnuclearenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] .The tank, sand layer, and concrete of the reactor pit serve as additional biological shields.^ Nor were the Chernobyl reactors protected by containment structures like those required for U.S. reactors, though they were shielded with heavy concrete covers.
  • FRONTLINE: nuclear reaction: chernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To reduce emissions, the team bombarded the reactor with 5,000 metric tons of shielding material consisting of lead, boron, sand, and clay.
  • Chernobyl Facts 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.kievukraine.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl, Ukraine  -  Travel Photos by Galen R Frysinger, Sheboygan, Wisconsin 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.galenfrysinger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The blast was so powerful that the 1,000 ton biological shield was blown off the roof and it was as if as much as 30-40 tons of TNT had detonated inside the reactor.
  • Hist311 - Chernobyl-Esman 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hist311.wmwikis.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The top of the reactor is covered by the Upper Biological Shield, also called Schema E, Pyatachok, or, after the explosion, Elena, a 3 m thick cylinder 17 m in diameter.^ They also built a structure, called a sarcophagus, to cover the shattered reactor and its radioactive fuel.  The workers' equipment became so contaminated that it had to be abandoned.  The workers became contaminated as well.
  • Sunday Marks 23-Year Anniversary of Chernobyl Nuclear Accident | News | English 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www1.voanews.com [Source type: News]

^ The power surge and chemical explosions that followed were so powerful that they lifted the 1,000-metric-ton cover off the top of the reactor.
  • NEI Source Book: Fourth Edition (NEISB_3.3.A1.1) 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.insc.anl.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The chemical explosions that followed were so powerful that they blew the 1,000 ton cover off the top of the reactor.
  • BBC News | EUROPE | The Chernobyl accident: What happened 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC news.bbc.co.uk [Source type: News]

.It is penetrated by standpipes for fuel and control channel assemblies.^ The core is threaded with about 1700 3.5" pressure channels for fuel, coolant and control rods.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This ruptured all the remaining uranium fuel rods and most of the control rod channels, which were welded to the Neutron Shield.
  • Children of Chernobyl -- Main Page 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC 70.88.225.34 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The top and bottom are covered with 40 mm thick steel plates, welded to be helium-tight, and additionally joined by structural supports.^ The concrete shelter currently covering the remains of unit 4, having been built hastily by remote control on top of the remnants of the original structure, is increasingly unstable.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The extensions of the fuel channels penetrate the lower plate and the cover plate of the core and are welded to each.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ P.S .: note that the photo above is made from 2 different photos (top photo of the reactor and bottom photo of the bridge in Pripyat joined together) .
  • Chernobyl Today: A Creepy Story told in Pictures | Village Of Joy 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC villageofjoy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The space between the plates and pipes is filled with serpentinite, a rock containing significant amount of bound water.^ As a result of the chemical reaction between the very hot water and graphite, large amounts of hydrogen were created; the hydrogen mixed with the air and exploded.
  • Warsaw Voice - Going Nuclear 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.warsawvoice.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the robotic digging machine continues digging, less rock and more mud and water will fill the subterranean chamber.
  • Halfbakery: Burying Chernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.halfbakery.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Posted by boomerbeth on Tue, Mar 10, 2009, at 9:45 PM It will take a tremendous amount of water to support the infection filled therapeutic pool."
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

The disk is supported on 16 rollers, located on the upper side of the reinforced cylindrical water tank. .The structure of the UBS supports the fuel and control channels, the floor above the reactor in the central hall, and the steam-water pipes.^ In the case of a breakdown in the reactor coolant system, the usual countermeasure is to cool the reactor hall by flooding it with cold water from special tanks.
  • Warsaw Voice - Going Nuclear 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.warsawvoice.pl [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this case, reactors were designed around a single central turbine hall so that they could be installed and brought on line in quick succession.
  • 7 The Chernobyl disasters Its effect on Belarus and Ukraine 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They also built a structure, called a sarcophagus, to cover the shattered reactor and its radioactive fuel.  The workers' equipment became so contaminated that it had to be abandoned.  The workers became contaminated as well.
  • Sunday Marks 23-Year Anniversary of Chernobyl Nuclear Accident | News | English 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www1.voanews.com [Source type: News]

[10][11]
.Below the bottom of the reactor core there is the Lower Biological Shield (Schema OR), similar to the UBS, but only 14.5 m in diameter and 2 m thick.^ There was a partial core meltdown in Unit 2 (a pressurized water reactor) due to technical breakdowns and personnel errors.
  • Ten myths about the Chernobyl disaster | Top Russian news and analysis online | 'RIA Novosti' newswire 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC en.rian.ru [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They did not know that as the control rods are lowered into the reactor core, the reactivity does not drop immediately, but it first rises and drops only later.
  • Process Control | Chernobyl Did Not Need To Occur | Control Global 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.controlglobal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The blast was so powerful that the 1,000 ton biological shield was blown off the roof and it was as if as much as 30-40 tons of TNT had detonated inside the reactor.
  • Hist311 - Chernobyl-Esman 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hist311.wmwikis.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is penetrated by the tubes for the lower ends of the pressure channels and carries the weight of the graphite stack and the coolant inlet piping.^ These 1,693 pressure tubes (80 mm caliber, 88 mm outside diameter) are made of zirconium alloy and called channels.
  • JST Failure Knowledge Database > Case Details > Chernobyl Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC shippai.jst.go.jp [Source type: Reference]

^ These are high-power, pressure-tube reactors, moderated with graphite and cooled with water.
  • NRC: Backgrounder on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nrc.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • NRC: Fact Sheet on the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nrc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • chernobyl a nuclear accident some of the story 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.usnuclearenergy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pressure tubes ruptured to let the coolant water to gush out (12) which then came in contact with the graphite moderators and a steam explosion occurred.
  • JST Failure Knowledge Database > Case Details > Chernobyl Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC shippai.jst.go.jp [Source type: Reference]

.A steel structure, two heavy plates intersecting in right angle under the center of the LBS and welded to the LBS, supports the LBS and transfers the mechanical load to the building.^ The two "Mammoth Beams" that support the roof of the shelter are resting upon the structurally unsound west wall of the reactor building that was damaged by the accident.

^ Most of them died shortly afterwards, but 3rd right from the center (i think) was the first guy to die, whos body is still in the plant, under the sarcopagus somewhere.
  • My trip to chernobyl, the pictures! [56K ULTRA DEATH!!!] 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC forums.filefront.com [Source type: General]

^ The two "Mammoth Beams" that support the roof of the shelter are resting partly upon the structurally unsound west wall of the reactor building that was damaged by the accident.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]
.Above the UBS there is the upper shield cover; its top surface is the floor of the central hall.^ A further threat to the shelter is the concrete slab that formed the "Upper Biological Shield" (UBS), and rested atop the reactor prior to the accident.

^ Even now people there work, they build a special cover on top of the blown up reactor, so that radiation could not spread further.
  • English Russia » Lost City of Chernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A further threat to the shelter is the concrete slab that formed the "Upper Biological Shield" (UBS), situated above the reactor prior to the accident.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It serves as part of the biological shield and for thermal insulation of the reactor space.^ A partial meltdown of the nuclear core was followed by a violent explosion, and the top of the reactor, called the Upper Biological Shield and weighing 2 million pounds, blew off the sides and destroyed part of the reactor walls when it fell.
  • Children of Chernobyl -- Main Page 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC 70.88.225.34 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The blast was so powerful that the 1,000 ton biological shield was blown off the roof and it was as if as much as 30-40 tons of TNT had detonated inside the reactor.
  • Hist311 - Chernobyl-Esman 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hist311.wmwikis.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Power reactors have several feet of concrete shielding between the active part of the reactor and the operators.
  • Nuclear Energy is the most certain future source. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-formal.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its center area above the reactor channel consists of individual removable steel-graphite plugs, located over the tops of the channels.^ There are a number of very practical reasons why the reactor must be located near the center of mass, not in the ship's stern as is the practice with conventional propulsion.
  • http://www.strategypage.com/militaryforums/27-500.aspx 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.strategypage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fig.1 Photograph of the Chornobyl environment in the former "Red Forest" region, taken in June 1998, some 700 meters west of Reactor 4 in an area remediated by removal and burial of top soil and dead pine trees.
  • The Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster and Subsequent Creation of the Wildlife Preserve 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nsrl.ttu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The reactor consisted of about 1,600 individual fuel channels and each operational channel required a flow of 28 metric tons of water per hour.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]

Pressure channels

.The fuel channels consist of welded zircaloy pressure tubes 80 mm in inner diameter with 4 mm thick walls, led through the channels in the center of the graphite moderator blocks.^ MILESTONES DIED. ANATOLI ALEXANDROV, 90, the Soviet scientist who led the effort to develop Chernobyl-type, graphite-moderated nuclear reactors; in Moscow.
  • CHERNOBYL NOTES 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.time.com [Source type: News]

^ A mixture of nitrogen and helium is circulated between the graphite blocks largely to prevent oxidation of the graphite and to improve the transmission of the heat produced by neutron interactions in the graphite, from the moderator to the fuel channel.
  • Chapter I The site and accident sequence - Chernobyl: Assessment of Radiological and Health Impact 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nea.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The vertical pressure tubes contain the zirconium-alloy clad uranium-dioxide fuel around which the cooling water flows.
  • Chapter I The site and accident sequence - Chernobyl: Assessment of Radiological and Health Impact 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nea.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The top and bottom parts of the tubes are made of stainless steel, and joined with the central zircaloy segment with zirconium-steel alloy couplings.^ The vertical pressure tubes contain the zirconium-alloy clad uranium-dioxide fuel around which the cooling water flows.
  • Chapter I The site and accident sequence - Chernobyl: Assessment of Radiological and Health Impact 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nea.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These 1,693 pressure tubes (80 mm caliber, 88 mm outside diameter) are made of zirconium alloy and called channels.
  • JST Failure Knowledge Database > Case Details > Chernobyl Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC shippai.jst.go.jp [Source type: Reference]

^ Fuel - pellets of 2%-enriched uranium dioxide in 3.5cm zirconium alloy tubes.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The pressure tube is held in the graphite stack channels with two alternating types of 20 mm high split graphite rings; one is in direct contact with the tube and has 1.5 mm clearance to the graphite stack, the other one is directly touching the graphite stack and has 1.3 mm clearance to the tube; this assembly reduces transfer of mechanical loads caused by neutron-induced swelling, thermal expansion of the blocks, and other factors to the pressure tube, while facilitating heat transfer from the graphite blocks.^ It is believed that for some unknown reason, there was a sudden loss of water that was used to cool 1,661 uranium fuel assemblies that were set in pressure pipes surrounded by 1,700 tons of graphite blocks, causing the fuel rods to overheat.
  • Chernobyl: Cause and Effect 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.richeast.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of the very first tasks of the fire crews was to prevent the graphite fire spreading from the first two reactor units to the third (only achieved at high cost in human lives).
  • 7 The Chernobyl disasters Its effect on Belarus and Ukraine 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This caused the melting of fuel rods and rapid increase of steam pressure, resulting in one large steam explosion which displaced and destroyed the reactor lid, ruptured the coolant tubes and blew off part of the roof.
  • Chernobyl disaster - Our energy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.our-energy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The tubes are welded to the top and bottom metal plates of the reactor vessel.^ The upper plate of the reactor is hurled up, all pressure tubes break off.
  • RadioActive! The Nuclear Blog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC corium.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The control rod follower did not match the full height of the reactor core, leaving a water gap at the top and bottom and exacerbating the effect.
  • Chernobyl: Ten Years After. Causes, Consequences, Solutions. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC archive.greenpeace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The station was shut in April 2000 following the discovery of defects in welds on pipes inside the reactor pressure vessel.
  • chernobyl | Greenpeace UK 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.greenpeace.org.uk [Source type: News]
  • 15th Anniversary of Chernobyl focuses attention on nuclear risks in Wales | Greenpeace UK 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.greenpeace.org.uk [Source type: News]

[11]
.It is estimated that about 5.5% of the core thermal power is in the form of graphite heat.^ The graphite had burned out and the temperature in the core had declined to about 270°C, but the fuel was still there in an unknown condition.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The base load is the form of energy that is at the core of our civilization's power supply, and it must be absolutely reliable.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The cubic meter estimate assumes reprocessing, unfortunately not being done in the U.S. Q. What about diversion of material from power plants to countries wanting to make bombs?
  • Nuclear Energy is the most certain future source. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-formal.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.About 80-85% of this heat is removed by the fuel rod coolant channels, via the graphite rings.^ The core is threaded with about 1700 3.5" pressure channels for fuel, coolant and control rods.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A mixture of nitrogen and helium is circulated between the graphite blocks largely to prevent oxidation of the graphite and to improve the transmission of the heat produced by neutron interactions in the graphite, from the moderator to the fuel channel.
  • Chapter I The site and accident sequence - Chernobyl: Assessment of Radiological and Health Impact 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nea.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 1661 fuel rods became red hot from their lack of coolant and disintegrated into powder and fragments.
  • Children of Chernobyl -- Main Page 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC 70.88.225.34 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rest of the heat is removed by the control rod channel coolant.^ When power generation fell to less than 1 percent of capacity, operators tried to compensate by manually removing the rods that slow and control the nuclear reaction.
  • On This Day: Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Melts Down 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.findingdulcinea.com [Source type: News]

^ The core is threaded with about 1700 3.5" pressure channels for fuel, coolant and control rods.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The coolant is absorbing neutrons the control rods should be absorbing, which is why more control rods have had to be withdrawn.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The gas circulating in the reactor plays role of assisting the heat transfer to the coolant channels; itself plays almost no role in heat removal.^ The dry-type cooling system is analogous to a very large auto radiator, a closed system where coolant is circulated among fans and heat-sinks to dissipate heat.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ A coolant, generally water (although carbon dioxide or liquid metals such as sodium or potassium are also used) is circulated around the core to extract the heat.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If not immediately removed by coolant systems, the heat could lead to core damage .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are 1661 fuel channels and 211 control rod channels in the reactor core.^ The core is threaded with about 1700 3.5" pressure channels for fuel, coolant and control rods.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Core - this is the vessel for the fuel, coolant and control rods of the reactor.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A power reactor contains a core with a large number of fuel rods.
  • Nuclear Energy is the most certain future source. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-formal.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The fuel assembly is suspended in the fuel channel on a bracket, with a seal plug. .The seal plug has a simple design, to facilitate its removal and installation by the remotely controlled refueling machine.^ One site I visited has a machine gun mounted on a tower that is remote controlled!
  • The Answer Ain't Nuclear | Mother Jones 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A specially designed refuelling machine allows fuel bundles to be changed without shutting down the reactor.
  • Chapter I The site and accident sequence - Chernobyl: Assessment of Radiological and Health Impact 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nea.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fuel channels may instead of fuel contain fixed neutron absorbers, or be empty and just filled with the cooling water.^ The vertical pressure tubes contain the zirconium-alloy clad uranium-dioxide fuel around which the cooling water flows.
  • Chapter I The site and accident sequence - Chernobyl: Assessment of Radiological and Health Impact 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nea.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the 6th of May the emission of radionuclides dropped from 8 million curies to 150,000, so it was believed the fire had gone out and the fuel was cooling down.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The reactor consisted of about 1,600 individual fuel channels and each operational channel required a flow of 28 metric tons of water per hour.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The small clearance between the pressure channel and the graphite block makes the graphite core susceptible to damage.^ A mixture of nitrogen and helium is circulated between the graphite blocks largely to prevent oxidation of the graphite and to improve the transmission of the heat produced by neutron interactions in the graphite, from the moderator to the fuel channel.
  • Chapter I The site and accident sequence - Chernobyl: Assessment of Radiological and Health Impact 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.nea.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also the water channels run throughout the core vertically which means that water temperature increases as water moves up and thus makes the temperature gradient in the core.
  • Chernobyl disaster - Our energy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.our-energy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The core is threaded with about 1700 3.5" pressure channels for fuel, coolant and control rods.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

If the pressure channel deforms, e.g. by too high internal pressure, the deformation or rupture can cause significant pressure loads to the graphite blocks and lead to their damage, and possibly propagate to neighboring channels.

Fuel

RBMK reactor fuel rod holder 1 - distancing armature; 2 - fuel rods shell; 3 - fuel tablets.
.The fuel pellets are made of uranium dioxide powder, sintered with a suitable binder into barrels 11.5 mm diameter and 15 mm long.^ These 1,693 pressure tubes (80 mm caliber, 88 mm outside diameter) are made of zirconium alloy and called channels.
  • JST Failure Knowledge Database > Case Details > Chernobyl Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC shippai.jst.go.jp [Source type: Reference]

^ On 23 November, the process began of loading the 36 tons of radioactive uranium fuel into the Chashma nuclear power plant.
  • Chowk: : Chashma - Almost too Late 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC chowk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, the US Gov't controls all uranium fuel once it is dug from the ground through long term storage.
  • The Answer Ain't Nuclear | Mother Jones 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

.The material may contain added europium oxide as a burnable nuclear poison to lower the reactivity differences between a new and partially spent fuel assembly.^ What is the difference between U.S. and Ukrainian nuclear reactors?

^ The lava (or fuel containing materials FCM) .
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between the years 1979 and 2007 not a single permit was requested to open a new nuclear power plant in the US. Anyone know why?
  • World of Warcraft - English (NA) Forums -> Blizzard, why do you murder gnomes? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC forums.worldofwarcraft.com [Source type: General]

[12] To reduce thermal expansion issues and interaction with the cladding, the pellets have hemispherical indentations. .A 2 mm hole through the axis of the pellet serves to reduce the temperature in the center of the pellet and facilitates removal of gaseous fission products.^ When fuel rods are removed from the reactor they contain large quantities of highly radioactive fission products and are generating heat at a high rate.
  • Nuclear Energy is the most certain future source. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-formal.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After about two years, enough of the U-235 has been converted to fission products and the fission products have built up enough so that the fuel rods must be removed and replaced by new ones.
  • Nuclear Energy is the most certain future source. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-formal.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The enrichment level is 2% (0.4% for the end pellets of the assemblies). Maximum allowable temperature of the fuel pellet is 2100 °C.
.The fuel rods are zircaloy (1% Nb) tubes 13.6 mm in outer diameter, 0.825 mm thick.^ The fuel rods (which by this time were white-hot) broke through their protective cladding and interacted with the outer steam water enclosures.
  • Children of Chernobyl -- Main Page 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC 70.88.225.34 [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These 1,693 pressure tubes (80 mm caliber, 88 mm outside diameter) are made of zirconium alloy and called channels.
  • JST Failure Knowledge Database > Case Details > Chernobyl Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC shippai.jst.go.jp [Source type: Reference]

^ In a Chernobyl-type reactor, each of the 1,700 fuel rods is enclosed in a single tube through which the water flows.
  • THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT — CAN IT HAPPEN HERE? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.phyast.pitt.edu [Source type: Original source]

The rods are filled with helium at 0.5 MPa and hermetically sealed. .Retaining rings help to seat the pellets in the center of the tube and facilitate heat transfer from the pellet to the tube.^ The steam generator tubes must go through the primary fluid to enable heat transfer.
  • The Mystery of Chernobyl | CommonDreams.org 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

The pellets are axially held in place by a spring. .Each rod contains 3.5 kg of fuel pellets.^ Rods or plates containing uranium are formed into fuel assemblies that are used in nuclear reactors to provide energy.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ A. Besides fission products, spent fuel rods contain some plutonium produced by the U-238 in the reactor absorbing a neutron.
  • Nuclear Energy is the most certain future source. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-formal.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fuel rods or plates (elements) are bundled together and structurally reinforced to form a fuel assembly, typically containing 50-300 fuel elements.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.The fuel rods are 3.64 m long, with 3.4 m of that being the active length.^ More permanent solutions are currently under discussion, and facilities are being constructed for the processing and long term storage of fuel, liquid and solid waste.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of the fuel rods fractured, blocking the control rod columns, and causing the control rods to become stuck after being inserted only one-third of the way.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This type of reactor requires water being continuously circulated through the core, as long as the nuclear fuel is present.

The maximum allowed temperature of a fuel rod is 600 °C.[13]
.The fuel assemblies consist of two sets of 18 fuel rods.^ It is believed that for some unknown reason, there was a sudden loss of water that was used to cool 1,661 uranium fuel assemblies that were set in pressure pipes surrounded by 1,700 tons of graphite blocks, causing the fuel rods to overheat.
  • Chernobyl: Cause and Effect 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.richeast.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rods or plates containing uranium are formed into fuel assemblies that are used in nuclear reactors to provide energy.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The fuel melted, causing at least two explosions that partially destroyed the reactor building and set the graphite stacks of the core on fire .
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The rods are arranged along the central carrier rod (13 mm outer diameter) and held in place with 10 stainless steel spacers separated by 360 mm distance.^ Lubricating water drips out, along with stainless steel shavings.
  • Nuclear Bid to Rival Coal Chilled by Flaws, Delay in Finland - Bloomberg.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bloomberg.com [Source type: News]

^ Posted by OpinionMissy on Sat, Dec 13, 2008, at 10:37 PM MM: My proof regarding the GreenPlay report is this.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Posted by MrMister on Sat, Dec 13, 2008, at 11:46 PM One more thing MM, that GreenPlay report was held back.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.The two sub-assemblies are joined with a cylinder at the center of the assembly; during the operation of the reactor, this dead space without fuel lowers the neutron flux in the central plane of the reactor.^ It comprised four RBMK-1000 generators outputting 1000MWe 3 reactors, unit one going operational in 1977, unit two in 1978, three in 1981 and four in 1983.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two possible scenarios are examined for a second reactivity peak: (a) creation of a mixture of fuel, water, and cladding in a number of central fuel channels, resulting in the explosion of these channels, and (b) uniform vaporization throughout the entire reactor, resulting in reactor depressurization.
  • Chernobyl Non-Web References - Tony's Index to the WWW 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC tony.deangelo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This book could not have been written without the help of hundreds of people whom I have had the good fortune to meet during the period I have spent as an active participant in the rectification operation.
  • Book Excerpts: "Chernobyl, Insight from the Inside", 1991 book by Vladimir M. Chernousenko 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ratical.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The total mass of uranium in the fuel assembly is 114.7 kg.^ Rods or plates containing uranium are formed into fuel assemblies that are used in nuclear reactors to provide energy.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

The fuel burnup is 20 MW·d/kg. The total length of the fuel assembly is 10.025 m, with 6.862 m of the active region.
.In addition to the regular fuel assemblies, there are instrumented ones, containing neutron flux detectors in the central carrier.^ A. If the reactor design is much more economical of neutrons, enough U-238 can be converted to plutonium so that after a fuel cycle there is more fissionable material than there was in the original fuel rods in the reactor.
  • Nuclear Energy is the most certain future source. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-formal.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rods or plates containing uranium are formed into fuel assemblies that are used in nuclear reactors to provide energy.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Of course I really enjoy the used book section and have made many purchases there also over the years, but having additional new ones available will be nice too.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.In this case, the rod is replaced with a tube with wall thickness of 2.5 mm; and outer diameter of 15 mm.^ These 1,693 pressure tubes (80 mm caliber, 88 mm outside diameter) are made of zirconium alloy and called channels.
  • JST Failure Knowledge Database > Case Details > Chernobyl Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC shippai.jst.go.jp [Source type: Reference]

^ It is relatively easy to open one of these tubes at a time, change the fuel rod, and replace it, without having to shut down the reactor.
  • THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT — CAN IT HAPPEN HERE? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.phyast.pitt.edu [Source type: Original source]

[14]
.Unlike the rectangular PWR/BWR fuel assemblies, the RBMK fuel assembly is cylindrical to fit the round pressure channels.^ The core is threaded with about 1700 3.5" pressure channels for fuel, coolant and control rods.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This facility, treating 2500 fuel assemblies per year, would be the first of its kind for RBMK fuel.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The power excursion ruptured fuel channels, and the pressure af the escaping iieom blew opart ikecore and caused severe damage to the reactor building.
  • THE CHERNOBYL' ACCIDENT SOCIAL AND POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS (SOV 87-10078X) - CIA document 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The refueling machine is mounted on a gantry crane and remotely controlled.^ One site I visited has a machine gun mounted on a tower that is remote controlled!
  • The Answer Ain't Nuclear | Mother Jones 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

.The fuel assemblies can be replaced without shutting down the reactor, a factor significant for production of weapon-grade plutonium and, in a civilian context, for better reactor uptime.^ On December 15th, 2000, then-President Leonid Kuchma personally turned off Reactor 3 in an official ceremony, effectively shutting down the entire plant.

^ Although the Chernobyl reactors were of a design that was optimised for the production of Plutonium-239 for nuclear weapons as well as for the production of electricity and as such probably did have Cold War relevance, the plant was not secret, closed, or inaccessible.
  • A trip to Chernobyl and the USSR | Samizdata.net 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]
  • A trip to Chernobyl and the USSR | Samizdata.net 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ On December 15, 2000, then-President Leonid Kuchma personally turned off Reactor 3 in an official ceremony, effectively shutting down the entire plant.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When a fuel assembly has to be replaced, the machine is positioned above the fuel channel, mates to it, equalizes pressure within, pulls the rod, and inserts a fresh one.^ It is believed that for some unknown reason, there was a sudden loss of water that was used to cool 1,661 uranium fuel assemblies that were set in pressure pipes surrounded by 1,700 tons of graphite blocks, causing the fuel rods to overheat.
  • Chernobyl: Cause and Effect 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.richeast.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Film boiling occurs in the fuel channels, cutting the amount of heat the coolant is absorbing from the rapidly-overheating fuel rods to almost nothing.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The rupture of several fuel channels increased the pressure in the reactor to the extent that the 1000 t reactor support plate became detached, consequently jamming the control rods, which were only halfway down by that time.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The spent rod is then placed in a cooling pond.^ Used fuel from units 1 to 3 is stored in each unit's cooling pond, in a small interim spent fuel storage facility pond (ISF-1), and in the reactor of unit 3.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The last of the 650 fuel rods were removed from the reactor on March 18, 2003, and are now stored in cooling ponds.
  • The Answer Ain't Nuclear | Mother Jones 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As of 2006, some fuel at units 1 to 3 remained in the reactors, most of which is in each unit's cooling pond, as well as some material in a small interim spent fuel storage facility pond (ISF-1).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The capacity of the refueling machine with the reactor at nominal power level is two fuel assemblies per day, with peak capacity of five per day.^ For the test, the reactor had to be powered down to 25 per cent of its capacity.
  • Information Sheets - Chernobyl Children's Project International 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.chernobyl-international.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The power level in the reactor began to rise.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The worst nuclear accident in the West, which was rated a level five by the INES, occurred in the pressurized water reactor at the Three Mile Island facility in Pennsylvania in 1979.
  • Chernobyl Disaster a Turning Point: Part three of a series (EnvironmentalChemistry.com) 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC environmentalchemistry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Control rods

.Most of the reactor control rods are inserted from above; 24 shortened rods are inserted from below and are used to augment the axial power distribution control of the core.^ Normally the reactor would have started to insert all of the control rods .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Core - this is the vessel for the fuel, coolant and control rods of the reactor.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A power reactor contains a core with a large number of fuel rods.
  • Nuclear Energy is the most certain future source. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-formal.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the exception of 12 automatic rods, the control rods have a 4.5 meters long graphite section at the end, separated by a 1.25 meters long telescope (which creates a water-filled space between the graphite and the absorber), and a boron carbide neutron absorber section.^ Boron Carbide control rods absorb neutrons in order to control the rate of fission.
  • Chernobyl - A breakdown of communication between scientists and the public 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cnx.org [Source type: General]

^ All of the RMBK reactors have now been modified by changes in the control rods, adding neutron absorbers and consequently increasing the fuel enrichment from 1.8 to 2.4% uranium -235 ( 235 U), making them very much more stable at low power.
  • Chernobyl, Ukraine - Encyclopedia of Earth 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mainly using Graphite control rods versus Cadnium and not building a protective structure around the building to prevent widespread fallout.
  • Chernobyl: Revisited 20 Years After The Disaster | The Thinking Blog ~ Knowledge Grows When Shared! 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.thethinkingblog.com [Source type: General]

.The role of the graphite section, known as "displacer," is to enhance the difference between the neutron flux attenuation levels of inserted and retracted rods, as the graphite displaces water that would otherwise act as a neutron absorber, although much weaker than boron carbide; a control rod channel filled with graphite absorbs fewer neutrons than when filled with water, so the difference between inserted and retracted control rod is increased.^ Normally the reactor would have started to insert all of the control rods .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Increased energy output caused the deformation of control rod channels.

^ Control rods that absorb neutrons can also be moved in and out to control the nuclear reaction.
  • Nuclear Energy is the most certain future source. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-formal.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the control rod is fully retracted, the graphite displacer is located in the middle of the core height, with 1.25 meters of water at its each end.^ Mainly using Graphite control rods versus Cadnium and not building a protective structure around the building to prevent widespread fallout.
  • Chernobyl: Revisited 20 Years After The Disaster | The Thinking Blog ~ Knowledge Grows When Shared! 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.thethinkingblog.com [Source type: General]

^ In the RBMK reactor design, the control rod end tips were made of graphite and the extenders (the end areas of the control rods above the end tips, measuring 1-metre (3 ft) in length) were hollow and filled with water, while the rest of the rod – the truly functional part which absorbs the neutrons and thereby halts the reaction – was made of boron carbide.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the RBMK reactor design, the control rod end tips were made of graphite and the extenders (the end areas of the control rods above the end tips, measuring 1 m in length) were hollow and filled with water, while the rest of the rod – the truly functional part which absorbs the neutrons and thereby halts the reaction – was made of boron carbide.

.The displacement of water in the lower 1.25 meters of the core as the rod moves down causes a local increase of reactivity in the bottom of the core as the graphite part of the control rod passes that section.^ Increased energy output caused the deformation of control rod channels.

^ Control rods started to enter the core, increasing the reactivity at the bottom of the core.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The control rods displaced water from the rod channels as well, increasing reactivity further.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This "positive scram" effect was discovered in 1983 at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant; however, the matter was soon forgotten.^ I have an update on this house insurance matter and the proposed nuclear power plant.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Not a good thing for a nuclear power plant.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Chernobyl nuclear power plant .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The control rod channels are cooled by an independent water circuit and kept at 40-70 °C. The narrow space between the rod and its channel hinders water flow around the rods during their movement and acts as a fluid damper, which is the primary cause of their slow insertion time (nominally 18–21 seconds for the RCPS rods, or about 0.4 m/s).^ Increased energy output caused the deformation of control rod channels.

^ A total of about 12 x 10 18 Bequerels of radioactivity was released, around 200 times that of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs according to the World Health Organisation.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to the slow speed of the control rod insertion mechanism (18–20 seconds to complete), the hollow tips of the rods and the temporary displacement of coolant, the SCRAM caused the reaction rate to increase.

.After the disaster, the control rod servos on other RBMK reactors were exchanged to allow faster rod movements, and even faster movement was achieved by cooling of the control rod tubes by a thin layer of water while letting the rods themselves move in gas.^ A minimum reserve for an RBMK reactor is supposed to be 30 control rods.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It focused less on inherent reactor flaws, such as the positive void coefficient and the faulty manufacture of the control rods used on the RBMK, 15 and more on operator error.
  • 7 The Chernobyl disasters Its effect on Belarus and Ukraine 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All of the RBMK reactors have now been modified by changes in the control rods, adding neutron absorbers and consequently increasing the fuel enrichment from 1.8 to 2.4% U-235, making them very much more stable at low power.
  • Early Soviet Reactors and EU Accession 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The division of the control rods between manual and emergency protection groups was arbitrary; the rods could be reassigned from one system to another during reactor operation without technical or organizational problems.^ The lines operate independently without duplicating one another.

^ It focused less on inherent reactor flaws, such as the positive void coefficient and the faulty manufacture of the control rods used on the RBMK, 15 and more on operator error.
  • 7 The Chernobyl disasters Its effect on Belarus and Ukraine 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During preparation and testing of the turbine generator under run-down conditions using the auxiliary load, personnel disconnected a series of technical protection systems and breached the most important operational safety provisions for conducting a technical exercise ".
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additional static boron-based absorbers are inserted into the core when it is loaded with fresh fuel.^ A second explosion threw out fragments of burning fuel and graphite from the core and allowed air to rush in, causing the graphite moderator to burst into flames (14).
  • JST Failure Knowledge Database > Case Details > Chernobyl Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC shippai.jst.go.jp [Source type: Reference]

^ A second explosion threw out fragments of burning fuel and graphite from the core and allowed air to rush in, causing the graphite moderator to burst into flames.
  • Chernobyl, Ukraine - Encyclopedia of Earth 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A set of control rods can be inserted into the core to absorb the neutrons and thus slow down the reaction as required.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.About 240 absorbers are added during initial core loading.^ As a fully withdrawn rod is inserted, an area at the bottom of the core that initially contains water (neutron absorbing) is replaced by the graphite displacer, adding to the reactivity in this region.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These absorbers are gradually removed with increasing burnup. .The reactor's void coefficient depends on the core content; it ranges from negative with all the initial absorbers to positive when they are all removed.^ Positive void coefficient.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A reactor with a negative void coefficient—i.e.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The void coefficient depends on the composition of the core - a new RBMK core will have a negative void coefficient.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The normal reactivity margin is 43-48 control rods.^ The operators noticed the power surge and realized they needed to reduce reactivity quickly by inserting more control rods.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reactivity or power of the reactor is controlled by raising or lowering 211 control rods, which, when lowered into the moderator, absorb neutrons and reduce the fission rate.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this case the majority of control rods were withdrawn to their upper limits, but the low value of the operational reactivity margin restricted further rise of reactor power.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Gas circuit

.The reactor operates in a helium-nitrogen atmosphere (70-90% He, 10-30% N2).^ The safety record of the 104 nuclear reactors operating in the United States today, all of which were built at least 30 years ago, is enviable.
  • Why the world may turn to nuclear power: demand for fossil fuels may decline, but demand for electric power will soar. Nuclear power, resisted by many, may provide a long-term solution, and it has come a long way since Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. | Energy & Utilities > Utilities Industry from AllBusiness.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: News]

^ At 1:22:30, the operator saw from a printout of the fast reactivity evaluation program that the available excess reactivity had reached a level requiring immediate shutdown of the reactor.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ According to some estimations, the reactor jumped to around 30 GW thermal, ten times the normal operational output but not immediately.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .The gas circuit is composed of a compressor, aerosol and iodine filters, adsorber for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ammonia, a holding tank for allowing the gaseous radioactive products to decay before being discharged, an aerosol filter to remove solid decay products, and a ventilator stack, the iconic chimney above the plant building.^ This will allow time for long-term solutions to be examined, such as removing the radioactive materials from Chernobyl and reincarnating it into a green field site, or a “hermetically sealed dome over the existing plant,” both ambitious proposals.
  • Effects of the Chernobyl Disaster on Sámi Life 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.utexas.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The release of radioactive materials to the atmosphere consisted of gases, aerosols and finely fragmented nuclear fuel particles.
  • Executive summary -Chernobyl: Assessment of Radiological and Health Impact 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.nea.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since carbon dioxide, as a greenhouse gas, effectively traps radiation from and sun and reflected from the earth surface, it keeps our planet warm.
  • Nuclear energy vs. global warming: policy tradeoffs 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC web.mit.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .The gas is injected to the stack from the bottom in a low flow rate, and exits from the standpipe of each channel via an individual pipe.^ The reactor consisted of about 1,600 individual fuel channels and each operational channel required a flow of 28 metric tons of water per hour.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The moisture and temperature of the outlet gas is monitored; an increase of them is an indicator of a coolant leak.[9]

Cooling and steam circuits

.The reactor has two independent cooling circuits, each having four main circulating pumps (three operating, one standby).^ We looked at reactors one and two.
  • A trip to Chernobyl and the USSR | Samizdata.net 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]
  • A trip to Chernobyl and the USSR | Samizdata.net 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Reactors one and two were closest.
  • A trip to Chernobyl and the USSR | Samizdata.net 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]
  • A trip to Chernobyl and the USSR | Samizdata.net 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ With reactor four entombed, operation of the other three continued.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cooling water is fed to the reactor through lower water lines to a common pressure header (one for each cooling circuit), which is split to 22 group distribution headers, each feeding 38-41 pressure channels through the core, where the feedwater boils.^ Coolant - this is light water (H 2 O) which is pumped through the pressure channels.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "What is an economic simplified boiling water reactor?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Water fed in by the emergency feedwater pumps injected at a rate of 200-300 tonnes/hr went to other parts of the damaged primary circuit.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mixture of steam and water is led by the upper steam lines, one for each pressure channel, from the reactor top to the steam separators, pairs of thick horizontal drums located in side compartments above the reactor top; each has 2800 mm diameter, 31 m length, wall thickness of 100 mm, and weighs 240 t.^ This reduces the steam pressure and water levels in the steam separator drums.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Steam was produced so quickly that the top of the reactor was blown off.
  • Chernobyl - A breakdown of communication between scientists and the public 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cnx.org [Source type: General]

^ Grigori Medvedev, former Deputy Chief Engineer, Reactor 1, Chernobyl NPP 01:19 - to address the problems of water levels and steam pressure in the separator drums, Toptunov withdraws more control rods to increase power.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[8] .Steam, with steam quality of about 15%, is taken from the top of the separators by two steam collectors per separator, combined, and led to two turbogenerators in the turbine hall, then to condensers, reheated to 165 °C, and pumped by the condensate pumps to deaerators, where remains of gaseous phase and corrosion-inducing gases are removed.^ The radioactivity released was estimated to be about two hundred times that of the combined releases in the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster Revisited: Part one of a series (EnvironmentalChemistry.com) 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC environmentalchemistry.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fires started in what remained of the unit 4 building, giving rise to clouds of steam and dust, and fires also broke out on the adjacent turbine hall roof (bitumen, a flammable material, had been used in its construction).
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a boiling light water reactor, with two loops feeding steam directly to the turbines, without an intervening heat exchanger.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The resulting feedwater is led to the steam separators by feedwater pumps and mixed with water from them at their outlets.^ The slow-down of these pumps reduced the water flow to the reactor, which caused more of the water in the fuel tubes to turn into steam.
  • THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT — CAN IT HAPPEN HERE? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.phyast.pitt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At this stage they saw the steam pressure in the drum separators sag by 0.5-0.6 MPa and the water level drop below the emergency mark.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ The steam to the turbines was shut off and, as the momentum of the turbine generator drove the water pumps, the water flow rate decreased, decreasing the absorption of neutrons by the coolant.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the bottom of the steam separators, the feedwater is led by 12 downpipes (from each separator) to the suction headers of the main circulation pumps, and back into the reactor.^ About 200-300 tonnes of water per hour was injected into the intact half of the reactor using the auxiliary feedwater pumps but this was stopped after half a day owing to the danger of it flowing into and flooding units 1 and 2.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 25 April, prior to a routine shutdown, the reactor crew at Chernobyl 4 began preparing for a test to determine how long turbines would spin and supply power to the main circulating pumps following a loss of main electrical power supply.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The resulting steam explosion and fire released at least five percent of the radioactive reactor core into the atmosphere and downwind.
  • br23 blog - minsk, belarus » Blog Archive » My Chernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.br23.net [Source type: General]

[16] There is an ion exchange system included in the loop to remove impurities from the feedwater.
.The turbine consists of one high-pressure rotor and four low-pressure ones.^ Only one in four Oklahoma public high school students can name the first President of the United States, according to a survey released today.
  • History News Network 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

^ This was partly responsible for one of the most significant errors by the operators: they cut back and failed to maintain the high pressure injection (HPI) system.
  • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Funny how he claims a gain by a factor of four when the month prior, August 7, 2008, it opened at $0.40, hit a high of $0.40, a low of $0.30, and closed at $0.40.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.Five low-pressure separators-preheaters are used to heat steam with fresh steam before being fed to the next stage of the turbine.^ The heat is used to create steam which turns turbines to make electricity.
  • Chernobyl - A breakdown of communication between scientists and the public 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC cnx.org [Source type: General]

^ (THE ACCIDENT) CLOSING OF TURBINE FEED VALVES This should have caused an increase in pressure in the cooling system, which in turn would have caused a decrease in steam in the core.
  • Volcano Ppt Presentation 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.authorstream.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At this stage they saw the steam pressure in the drum separators sag by 0.5-0.6 MPa and the water level drop below the emergency mark.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org.nz [Source type: Original source]

.The uncondensed steam is fed into a condenser, mixed with condensate from the separators, fed by the first-stage condensate pump to a chemical purifier, then by a second-stage condensate pump to four deaerators where dissolved and entrained gases are removed; deaerators also serve as storage tanks for feedwater.^ This caused a steam explosion, followed by a second (chemical, not nuclear) explosion from the ignition of generated hydrogen mixed with air, which tore the top from the reactor and its building, and exposed the reactor core.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Volcano Ppt Presentation 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.authorstream.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The slow-down of these pumps reduced the water flow to the reactor, which caused more of the water in the fuel tubes to turn into steam.
  • THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT — CAN IT HAPPEN HERE? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.phyast.pitt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At this stage they saw the steam pressure in the drum separators sag by 0.5-0.6 MPa and the water level drop below the emergency mark.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org.nz [Source type: Original source]

.From the deaerators the water is pumped through filters and into the bottom parts of the steam separator drums.^ This reduces the steam pressure and water levels in the steam separator drums.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It reads for example: "The operators attempted manually to sustain the main parameters of the system - steam pressure and the water level in the drum separators - but they did not entirely succeed in doing so.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ The slow-down of these pumps reduced the water flow to the reactor, which caused more of the water in the fuel tubes to turn into steam.
  • THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT — CAN IT HAPPEN HERE? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.phyast.pitt.edu [Source type: Original source]

[17]
.The main circulating pumps have the capacity of 5,500–12,000 m3/h and are powered by 6 kV electric motors.^ On 25 April, prior to a routine shutdown, the reactor crew at Chernobyl 4 began preparing for a test to determine how long turbines would spin and supply power to the main circulating pumps following a loss of main electrical power supply.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some 125,000 people lived in the main restricted zone around the four reactors of the Chernobyl power station.
  • Chernobyl After Perestroika 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC phe.rockefeller.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That does not discount the importance of renewable sources of electricity, which are ideal for low-capacity generation, special applications, and locations where nuclear power is impractical.
  • Why the world may turn to nuclear power: demand for fossil fuels may decline, but demand for electric power will soar. Nuclear power, resisted by many, may provide a long-term solution, and it has come a long way since Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. | Energy & Utilities > Utilities Industry from AllBusiness.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: News]

.The normal coolant flow is 8000 m3/hour per pump; this is throttled down by control valves to 6000-7000 m3/h when the reactor power is below 500 MWt.^ When the managers cut off the reactor coolant flow, the reactor core promptly overheated and melted down.
  • Chernobyl: The true scale of the accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About the inset picture it says: “The control block of the plant can shut down the reactor in a matter of seconds.” Nikolai Fomin, the chief engineer of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, even believed that .

^ At 11:00 p.m., April 25, the grid controller allowed the reactor shut-down to continue.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Each pump has a flow control valve and a backflow preventing check valve on the outlet, and shutoff valves on both inlet and outlet. .Each of the pressure channels in the core has its own flow control valve so that the temperature distribution in the reactor core can be optimized.^ When the managers cut off the reactor coolant flow, the reactor core promptly overheated and melted down.
  • Chernobyl: The true scale of the accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (THE ACCIDENT) CLOSING OF TURBINE FEED VALVES This should have caused an increase in pressure in the cooling system, which in turn would have caused a decrease in steam in the core.
  • Volcano Ppt Presentation 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.authorstream.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The core is threaded with about 1700 3.5" pressure channels for fuel, coolant and control rods.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

Each channel has a ball type flow meter.
.The nominal coolant flow through the reactor is 46,000-48,000 m3/h.^ When the managers cut off the reactor coolant flow, the reactor core promptly overheated and melted down.
  • Chernobyl: The true scale of the accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second, with so many cooling pumps operating at such low reactor power, coolant flow exceeds normal levels by about 30%.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, when the reactor is running at low power, particularly with high coolant flow, the situation is different.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The steam flow at full power is 5440-5600 t/h.^ When the reactor is running at full or high power, there is more steam than coolant in the core anyway.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the momentum of the turbine generator that powered the water pumps decreased, the water flow rate decreased, leading to increased formation of steam voids in the core.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]
.The nominal temperature of the cooling water at the inlet of the reactor is about 265-270 °C and the outlet temperature 284 °C, at pressure of 6.9 MPa (in the drum separator).^ This reduces the steam pressure and water levels in the steam separator drums.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So, what about those reactors and water use?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ It reads for example: "The operators attempted manually to sustain the main parameters of the system - steam pressure and the water level in the drum separators - but they did not entirely succeed in doing so.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org.nz [Source type: Original source]

[9] .The pressure and the inlet temperature determine the height at which the boiling begins in the reactor; if the coolant temperature is not sufficiently below its boiling point at the system pressure, the boiling starts at the very bottom part of the reactor instead of its higher parts; the positive void coefficient of the reactor makes the reactor very sensitive to the feedwater temperature.^ Positive void coefficient.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A "void" is a pocket of steam in reactor coolant.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A reactor with a negative void coefficient—i.e.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.If the coolant temperature is too close to its boiling point, cavitation can occur in the pumps and their operation can become erratic or even stop entirely.^ Second, with so many cooling pumps operating at such low reactor power, coolant flow exceeds normal levels by about 30%.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I remain firmly convinced that the world can no longer resist its innate urge to unite and co-operate with one another and we are very close to the point where war can no longer be an option if this transformation is to occur.
  • Allen L Roland's Radio Weblog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.salon.com [Source type: General]
  • Allen L Roland's Radio Weblog 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC blogs.salon.com [Source type: General]
  • Allen L Roland's Radio Weblog 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC blogs.salon.com [Source type: General]

^ This hot coolant is usually contained within a closed loop (the primary circuit) as it becomes highly radioactive.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The feedwater temperature is dependent on the steam production; the steam phase portion is led to the turbines and condensers and returns significantly cooler (155-165 °C) than the water returning directly from the steam separator (284 °C).^ At this stage they saw the steam pressure in the drum separators sag by 0.5-0.6 MPa and the water level drop below the emergency mark.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ They also caused the water level to lower in a component of the reactor called the steam separator.
  • Volcano Ppt Presentation 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.authorstream.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Steam is less dense than water and has less cooling power, so the fuel gets hotter.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At low reactor power, therefore, the inlet temperature may become dangerously high.^ An essential component of all power reactors is called the “moderator,” and the moderator used at Chernobyl was graphite, while at TMI it was the cooling water itself (which therefore served two purposes).
  • MdConservCouncil - The Health Effects of Nuclear Reactor Accidents 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC mdconservationcouncil.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Then it reads in the report of the GRS: "As a conscious bringing about of the incident can be excluded, the behaviour of the personnel becomes understandable only if one assumes that it did not know sufficiently the behaviour of the reactor at low power levels."
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ When the reactor is running at full or high power, there is more steam than coolant in the core anyway.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The water is kept below the saturation temperature to prevent film boiling and the associated drop in heat transfer rate.^ At this stage they saw the steam pressure in the drum separators sag by 0.5-0.6 MPa and the water level drop below the emergency mark.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ The water temperature is kept warm (93-97 deg) to promote ease of motion.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ A peaceful oriented commercial nuclear power plant wants to use the nuclear heat to boil water, turn a turbine, and generate electricity.
  • The Answer Ain't Nuclear | Mother Jones 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

[8]
.The reactor is tripped in case of too high or low water level in the steam separators (with two selectable low-level thresholds), high steam pressure, low feedwater flow, or loss of two main coolant pumps on either side.^ They also caused the water level to lower in a component of the reactor called the steam separator.
  • Volcano Ppt Presentation 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.authorstream.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coolant - this is light water (H 2 O) which is pumped through the pressure channels.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This reduces the steam pressure and water levels in the steam separator drums.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

These trips can be manually disabled.[10]
.The level of water in the steam separators, the percentage of steam in the reactor pressure tubes, the level at which the water begins to boil in the reactor core, the neutron flux and power distribution in the reactor, and the feedwater flow through the core have to be carefully controlled.^ They also caused the water level to lower in a component of the reactor called the steam separator.
  • Volcano Ppt Presentation 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.authorstream.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The steam withdrawn and run through the turbines controls the power level of the reactor.
  • Nuclear Energy is the most certain future source. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-formal.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The power level in the reactor began to rise.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The level of water in the steam separator is mainly controlled by the feedwater supply, with the deaerator tanks serving as a water reservoir.^ This reduces the steam pressure and water levels in the steam separator drums.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Grigori Medvedev, former Deputy Chief Engineer, Reactor 1, Chernobyl NPP 01:19 - to address the problems of water levels and steam pressure in the separator drums, Toptunov withdraws more control rods to increase power.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It reads for example: "The operators attempted manually to sustain the main parameters of the system - steam pressure and the water level in the drum separators - but they did not entirely succeed in doing so.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org.nz [Source type: Original source]

.The maximum allowed heat-up rate of the reactor and the coolant is 10 °C/hour; the maximum cool-down rate is 30 °C/hour.^ When the managers cut off the reactor coolant flow, the reactor core promptly overheated and melted down.
  • Chernobyl: The true scale of the accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Vladimir Chernousenko, chief scientific supervisor of the “clean up” for a 10-kilometer zone around the exploded reactor, 1991) .
  • Math Lesson: Chernobyl 1 - Radiation Released 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC pulse.pharmacy.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As I-135 has a half-life of 6.7 hours, Xe-135 will continue to build up after a reactor has been shut down.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]

ECCS

.The reactor is equipped with an emergency core cooling system (ECCS), consisting of dedicated water reserve tank, hydraulic accumulators, and pumps.^ The planned programme called for shutting off the reactor's emergency core cooling system (ECCS), which provides water for cooling the core in an emergency.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The proposal also required the reactor's Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) to be disabled.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) was made inoperative.
  • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.ECCS piping is integrated with the normal reactor cooling system.^ A system was installed by 5 May to feed cold nitrogen to the reactor space, to provide cooling and to blanket against oxygen.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second, with so many cooling pumps operating at such low reactor power, coolant flow exceeds normal levels by about 30%.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The proposal also required the reactor's Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) to be disabled.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.In case of total loss of power, the ECCS pumps are supposed to be powered by the rotational momentum of the turbogenerator rotor for the time before the diesel generators come online.^ The plant's technicians wanted to see if, whether, in the event of a power cut, the declining momentum of the turbines could generate enough electricity to power the pumps for forty or fifty seconds before the standby diesel generators took over.
  • Chernobyl and Trade 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chernobyl's reactors have a pair of diesel generators available as standby, but these do not activate instantaneously—the reactor was, therefore, to be used to spin up the turbine, at which point the turbine would be disconnected from the reactor and allowed to spin under its own rotational momentum , and the aim of the test was to determine whether the turbines in the rundown phase could power the pumps while the generators were starting up.

^ It is found that the reactor response to a loss of pumping power was a reactivity trip that could not be fully overcome by the Doppler effect because of the neutronic importance of hydrogen captures under the conditions before the accident.
  • Chernobyl Non-Web References - Tony's Index to the WWW 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC tony.deangelo.com [Source type: Academic]

The ECCS has three systems, connected to the coolant system headers. .In case of damage, the first ECCS subsystem provides cooling for up to 100 seconds to the damaged half of the coolant circuit (the other half is cooled by the main circulation pumps), and the other two subsystems then handle long-term cooling of the reactor.^ There are two cooling circuits and four coolant pumps.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There were two main cooling systems excluding the back-up, each with four main pumps.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 25 April, prior to a routine shutdown, the reactor crew at Chernobyl 4 began preparing for a test to determine how long turbines would spin and supply power to the main circulating pumps following a loss of main electrical power supply.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
.The short-term ECCS subsystem consists of two groups of six accumulator tanks, containing water blanketed with nitrogen under pressure of 10 MPa, connected by fast-acting valves to the reactor.^ A system was installed by 5 May to feed cold nitrogen to the reactor space, to provide cooling and to blanket against oxygen.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, more efficient nuclear reactors, such as “fast-reactor” technology, could extend those supplies by more than two thousand years.
  • Nuclear Power: Too Costly to Revive : Greentech Media 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.greentechmedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Japan, for example, 10 desalination facilities are connected to nuclear power plants to produce 3,000 cubic meters per day of potable water.
  • Why the world may turn to nuclear power: demand for fossil fuels may decline, but demand for electric power will soar. Nuclear power, resisted by many, may provide a long-term solution, and it has come a long way since Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. | Energy & Utilities > Utilities Industry from AllBusiness.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: News]

.Each group can supply 50% of the maximum coolant flow to the damaged half of the reactor.^ When the managers cut off the reactor coolant flow, the reactor core promptly overheated and melted down.
  • Chernobyl: The true scale of the accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second, with so many cooling pumps operating at such low reactor power, coolant flow exceeds normal levels by about 30%.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, when the reactor is running at low power, particularly with high coolant flow, the situation is different.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The third group is a set of electrical pumps drawing water from the deaerators.^ That reduced the electrical supply to the reactor's water pumps, which in turn reduced the flow of cooling water through the reactor.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A decision was made to test the ability of the reactor's turbine generator to generate sufficient electricity to power the reactor's safety systems (in particular, the water pumps), in the event of a loss of external electric power.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 1:05 A.M., additional water pumps were turned on as part of the experiment; these were the pumps to be driven by the rotational inertia of the turbine-generator following a loss of electricity.
  • THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT — CAN IT HAPPEN HERE? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.phyast.pitt.edu [Source type: Original source]

The short-term pumps can be powered by the spindown of the main turbogenerators.[10]
.ECCS for long-term cooling of the damaged circuit consists of three pairs of electrical pumps, drawing water from the pressure suppression pools; the water is cooled by the plant service water by means of heat exchangers in the suction lines.^ The reactor's cooling pumps relied on electrical power, so the operators wanted to see how long the turbines could produce sufficient energy to keep the pumps running in the event of a loss of power.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, just north of Kiev, consists of four nuclear reactors, known as light-water cooled, graphite-moderated reactors - a type hardly used outside the Soviet Union.
  • Voices From Chornobyl - Performance Blog » 2007» October 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC voicesfromchornobyl.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The differences include: not all of the primary cooling circuit is enclosed; it is made up of a number of semi-interconnected compartments; it utilizes ten separate pools of water for steam condensation; and it includes a clean air venting system.
  • Chernobyl Non-Web References - Tony's Index to the WWW 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC tony.deangelo.com [Source type: Academic]

Each pair is able to supply half of the maximum coolant flow. .ECCS for long-term cooling of the intact circuit consists of three separate pumps drawing water from the condensate storage tanks, each able to supply half of the maximum flow.^ That reduced the electrical supply to the reactor's water pumps, which in turn reduced the flow of cooling water through the reactor.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The differences include: not all of the primary cooling circuit is enclosed; it is made up of a number of semi-interconnected compartments; it utilizes ten separate pools of water for steam condensation; and it includes a clean air venting system.
  • Chernobyl Non-Web References - Tony's Index to the WWW 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC tony.deangelo.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, the US Gov't controls all uranium fuel once it is dug from the ground through long term storage.
  • The Answer Ain't Nuclear | Mother Jones 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

.The ECCS pumps are powered from the essential internal 6 kV lines, backed up by diesel generators.^ The diesel generator started and sequentially picked up loads, which was complete by 01:23:43; during this period the power for these four MCPs was supplied by the coasting down turbine generator.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of this drop, some control rods were removed to bring the power back up.
  • Volcano Ppt Presentation 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.authorstream.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Emergency Core Cooling System is disabled before continuing, as some of the test conditions would trigger it (the reduction in power to the coolant pumps from the slowing turbine, or the triggering of the diesel generators).
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some valves that require uninterrupted power are also backed up by batteries.^ Because of this drop, some control rods were removed to bring the power back up.
  • Volcano Ppt Presentation 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.authorstream.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Might impress some voters if we generate power back to the grid, like the jail is making money holding State inmates.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Dyatlov, by ordering the Akimov and Toptunov to bring the power of the reactor back up after it had dropped to 30MWt was probably the last straw .
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[10]

Reactor control/supervision systems

.The distribution of power density in the reactor is measured by ionization chambers located inside and outside the core.^ The magnitude of this 'positive scram' effect depended on the spatial distribution of the power density and the operating regime of the reactor."
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Next to reactors one and two was a truly immense electrical power distribution system.
  • A trip to Chernobyl and the USSR | Samizdata.net 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]
  • A trip to Chernobyl and the USSR | Samizdata.net 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The RBMK is a boiling water reactor, so in-core boiling is normal at higher power levels.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The physical power density distribution control system (PPDDCS) has sensors inside the core; the reactor control and protection system (RCPS) uses sensors in the core and in the lateral biological shield tank.^ The power was due to be lowered further; however, the controller of the electricity grid in Kiev requested the reactor operator to keep supplying electricity to enable demand to be met.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Operators shut down the system, but a large chemical explosion followed a power surge and the 1,000-tonne cover blew off the top of the reactor.
  • UN accused of ignoring 500,000 Chernobyl deaths | Environment | The Guardian 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ The magnitude of this 'positive scram' effect depended on the spatial distribution of the power density and the operating regime of the reactor."
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The external sensors in the tank are located around the reactor middle plane, therefore do not indicate axial power distribution nor information about the power in the central part of the core.^ In this case, reactors were designed around a single central turbine hall so that they could be installed and brought on line in quick succession.
  • 7 The Chernobyl disasters Its effect on Belarus and Ukraine 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.unu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Green Building Technologies 3: Power Generation For much of our industrial history power generation was provided by a mammoth, centrally located, power plant dependent upon a massive grid distribution system.
  • Why the world may turn to nuclear power: demand for fossil fuels may decline, but demand for electric power will soar. Nuclear power, resisted by many, may provide a long-term solution, and it has come a long way since Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. | Energy & Utilities > Utilities Industry from AllBusiness.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: News]

^ The validation investigations are completed by whole-core criticality calculations of experiments at the Smolensk Unit 3 nuclear power plant as part of the startup procedure.
  • Chernobyl Non-Web References - Tony's Index to the WWW 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC tony.deangelo.com [Source type: Academic]

.There are over 100 radial and 12 axial power distribution monitors, employing self-powered detectors.^ Distribution of doses from external radiation to cleanup workers, as recorded in national registries, following the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident * .
  • The Chernobyl Disaster: Cancer following the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant -- Hatch et al. 27 (1): 56 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There are 12 million children in the Ukraine and therefore it is absolutely necessary to have 100 -150 special oncopedriatic beds.
  • Mission In East: Social impact of the Chernobyl disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC home3.swipnet.se [Source type: Original source]

^ The radiation levels given off by the substances emitted from the reactor will in the first 100 years decrease 5 times from 5 x 10^12 to 1 x 10^12 and, in 1000 years, 1000 times to 1 x 10^9.
  • Book Excerpts: "Chernobyl, Insight from the Inside", 1991 book by Vladimir M. Chernousenko 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ratical.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Reactivity meters and removable startup chambers are used for monitoring of reactor startup. .Total reactor power is recorded as the sum of the currents of the lateral ionization chambers.^ Nothing worse could happen with a power reactor: a total meltdown of its core, and a ten days free release of radioactive material into the open air.
  • Jennifer Marohasy » 20 Years Since Chernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC jennifermarohasy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not one of the remaining 22 countries with nuclear power is currently building any new reactors, including the USA, Canada and all of Western Europe.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A molten salt thorium reactor can also run at about 50% efficiency in producing electrical power, a 50% improvement over current reactors which again reduces the amount of fuel used and waste produced.
  • DailyTech - Obama Calls on U.S. to Embrace Clean Nuclear Energy, Defies Opponents 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

The moisture and temperature of the gas circulating in the channels is monitored by the pressure tube integrity monitoring system.
The PPDCSS and RCPS are supposed to complement each other. .The RCPS system consists of 211 movable control rods.^ The reactivity or power of the reactor is controlled by raising or lowering 211 control rods, which, when lowered into the moderator, absorb neutrons and reduce the fission rate.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Control Rods - 211 boron carbide rods which absorb neutrons, either inhibiting the nuclear reaction or stopping it completely.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Graphite (carbon) blocks between pressure tubes act as a moderator, and 211 boron carbide control rods - 179 of which can be inserted or removed from above - control the reaction.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both systems, however, have deficiencies, most noticeably at low reactor power levels.^ The power level in the reactor began to rise.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The power was due to be lowered further; however, the controller of the electricity grid in Kiev requested the reactor operator to keep supplying electricity to enable demand to be met.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even the modest goal of 26 reactors will only be achievable, however, if nuclear utilities can overcome entrenched opposition that so far has successfully slowed the use of nuclear power.
  • Why the world may turn to nuclear power: demand for fossil fuels may decline, but demand for electric power will soar. Nuclear power, resisted by many, may provide a long-term solution, and it has come a long way since Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. | Energy & Utilities > Utilities Industry from AllBusiness.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: News]

.The PPDDCS is designed to maintain reactor power density distribution between 10 and 120% of nominal levels and to control the total reactor power between 5 and 120% of nominal levels.^ The power level in the reactor began to rise.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The power was due to be lowered further; however, the controller of the electricity grid in Kiev requested the reactor operator to keep supplying electricity to enable demand to be met.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Power fell to less than 1% of capacity, so the operators manually removed control rods to compensate, switched off automatic regulators and eventually stabilised the reactor at the planned test power level.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The LAC-LAP (local automatic control and local automatic protection) RPCS subsystems rely on ionization chambers inside the reactor and are active at power levels above 10%.^ The power level in the reactor began to rise.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The power was due to be lowered further; however, the controller of the electricity grid in Kiev requested the reactor operator to keep supplying electricity to enable demand to be met.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Power fell to less than 1% of capacity, so the operators manually removed control rods to compensate, switched off automatic regulators and eventually stabilised the reactor at the planned test power level.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Below those levels, the automatic systems are disabled and the in-core sensors are not accessible.^ Akimov orders Toptunov to disable the Local Automatic Control (LAC) system to give the operators more precise control of the reactor.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The proposal also required the reactor's Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) to be disabled.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With the power level at about 500 MWt, control was transferred from the local to the automatic regulating system.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Without the automatic systems and relying only on the lateral ionization chambers, control of the reactor becomes very difficult; the operators do not have sufficient data to control the reactor reliably and have to rely on their intuition.^ The reactor's cooling pumps relied on electrical power, so the operators wanted to see how long the turbines could produce sufficient energy to keep the pumps running in the event of a loss of power.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The power was due to be lowered further; however, the controller of the electricity grid in Kiev requested the reactor operator to keep supplying electricity to enable demand to be met.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Power fell to less than 1% of capacity, so the operators manually removed control rods to compensate, switched off automatic regulators and eventually stabilised the reactor at the planned test power level.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During startup of a reactor with a poison-free core this lack of information can be manageable because the reactor behaves predictably, but a non-uniformly poisoned core can cause large nonhomogenities of power distribution, with potentially catastrophic results.^ A power reactor contains a core with a large number of fuel rods.
  • Nuclear Energy is the most certain future source. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-formal.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The accident assumed catastrophic proportions because the reactor was taken by the staff into a non-regulation state in which the positive void coefficient of reactivity was able substantially to enhance the power excursion."
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ The magnitude of this 'positive scram' effect depended on the spatial distribution of the power density and the operating regime of the reactor."
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The reactor emergency protection system (EPS) was designed to shut down the reactor when its operational parameters are exceeded.^ On December 15th, 2000, then-President Leonid Kuchma personally turned off Reactor 3 in an official ceremony, effectively shutting down the entire plant.

^ On December 15, 2000, then-President Leonid Kuchma personally turned off Reactor 3 in an official ceremony, effectively shutting down the entire plant.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to avoid shutting down the reactor in such conditions, the staff blocked the emergency protection signals relating to these parameters.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org.nz [Source type: Original source]

.The design accounted for steam collapse in the core when the fuel element temperature falls below 265 °C, coolant vaporization in fuel channels in cold reactor state, and sticking of some emergency protection rods.^ The core is threaded with about 1700 3.5" pressure channels for fuel, coolant and control rods.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Core - this is the vessel for the fuel, coolant and control rods of the reactor.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This ruptured further fuel channels – as a result the remaining coolant flashed to steam and escaped the reactor core.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the slow insertion speed of the control rods, together with their design causing localized positive reactivity as the displacer moves through the lower part of the core, created a number of possible situations where initiation of the EPS could itself cause or aggravate a reactor runaway.^ On receipt of a scram signal causing a fully withdrawn rod to fall, the displacement of water from the lower part of the channel as the rod moved downwards from its upper limit stop position caused a local insertion of positive reactivity in the lower part of the core.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Control rods started to enter the core, increasing the reactivity at the bottom of the core.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This should have lowered the reactivity in the core.
  • Volcano Ppt Presentation 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.authorstream.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The computer system for calculation of the reactivity margin was collecting data from about 4000 sources.^ The paper presents technical characteristics and describes functional potentialities of the automated system of collecting and processing data of radionuclide diagnosis SCINTIPRO (scontigraphy processing) based on personal computer of IBM PC AT-type.

^ Based again on a risk factor of 2x10^-4/rem, about 4000 excess cancer deaths outside the Soviet Union may be calculated to result from the accident.
  • CHAPTER 24, Chernobyl: A Crossroad in the Radiation Health Sciences, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ratical.com [Source type: Academic]

^ That project may also be expanded to include a program that would lay the groundwork for a system to collect data for research.
  • NEI Source Book: Fourth Edition (NEISB_3.3.A1.1) 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.insc.anl.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Its purpose was to assist the operator with steady-state control of the reactor.^ The power was due to be lowered further; however, the controller of the electricity grid in Kiev requested the reactor operator to keep supplying electricity to enable demand to be met.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The unstable state of the reactor was not reflected in any way on the control panel, and it does not appear that anyone in the reactor crew was fully aware of any danger.

^ The safety record of the 104 nuclear reactors operating in the United States today, all of which were built at least 30 years ago, is enviable.
  • Why the world may turn to nuclear power: demand for fossil fuels may decline, but demand for electric power will soar. Nuclear power, resisted by many, may provide a long-term solution, and it has come a long way since Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. | Energy & Utilities > Utilities Industry from AllBusiness.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: News]

.10–15 minutes were required to cycle through all the measurements and calculate the results.^ All that is certain is that at least 10.000 men died as a result, and many more are today living as invalids.
  • Mission In East: Social impact of the Chernobyl disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC home3.swipnet.se [Source type: Original source]

^ Posted by Lucky45 on Mon, Jun 15, 2009, at 3:10 PM so did they all three vote yes for the nuke plant?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ It is impossible to measure the victims, both through disease and climate change, that results from it.

.The operators could disable some safety systems, reset or suppress some alarm signals, and bypass automatic scram, by attaching patch cables to accessible terminals.^ A series of operator actions, including the disabling of automatic shutdown mechanisms, preceded the attempted test early on 26 April.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nearly unbelievable story is that the operators of the plant deliberately turned off three separate safety systems to conduct - ironically - a safety experiment.
  • InfoUkes: Ukrainian History -- Chornobyl Nuclear Catastrophe 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.infoukes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other terms, according to Reason (1990), operators must be able to handle the `non-design' emergencies, because the system designers could not foresee all possible scenarios of failures and are not able to provide automatic safety devices for every contingency.
  • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

This practice was allowed under some circumstances.
.The reactor is equipped with a fuel rod leak detector.^ First of all in general it is astonishing that such a reactor fully equipped with radioactive fuel rods is said to be used by its crew as a simple "test object", normally for experiments of that kind test devices are being used for the first time.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ A. If the reactor design is much more economical of neutrons, enough U-238 can be converted to plutonium so that after a fuel cycle there is more fissionable material than there was in the original fuel rods in the reactor.
  • Nuclear Energy is the most certain future source. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-formal.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rods or plates containing uranium are formed into fuel assemblies that are used in nuclear reactors to provide energy.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.A scintillation counter detector, sensitive to energies of short-lived fission products, is mounted on a special dolly and moved over the outlets of the fuel channels, issuing an alert if increased radioactivity is detected in the steam-water flow.^ As steam production in the fuel channels increases, the neutrons that would have been absorbed by the denser water now produce increased fission in the fuel.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The water flow increased at 1:19 a.m.

^ The fuel elements ruptured and the resultant explosive force of steam lifted off the cover plate of the reactor, releasing fission products to the atmosphere.
  • Chernobyl 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Containment

.The bottom part of the reactor is enclosed in a leaktight compartment.^ Also, our heat exchangers are totally enclosed within a reactor compartment, unlike the Russian's.
  • The Mystery of Chernobyl | CommonDreams.org 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

.There is a space between the reactor bottom and the floor.^ The water that had hurriedly been pumped into the reactor building in a futile attempt to extinguish the fire had run down to the space underneath the reactor floor.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The response to that question is that there are very major differences between the Chernobyl reactor and the American reactors on which our previous discussion was based.
  • THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT — CAN IT HAPPEN HERE? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.phyast.pitt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The reactor cavity overpressure protection system consists of steam relief assemblies embedded in the floor and leading to Steam Distributor Headers covered with rupture discs and opening into the Steam Distribution Corridor below the reactor, on level +6. The floor of the corridor contains entrances of a large number of vertical pipes, leading to to the bottoms of the Pressure Suppression Pools ("bubbler" pools) located on levels +3 and +0. In the event of an accident, which was predicted to be at most a rupture of one or two pressure channels, the steam was to be bubbled through the water and condensed there, reducing the overpressure in the leaktight compartment.^ Electrical equipment (4) [ 42 ] A bubbler pool beneath the reactor served as a large water reservoir from the emergency cooling pumps and as a pressure suppression system capable of condensing steam from a (small) broken steam pipe.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Next to reactors one and two was a truly immense electrical power distribution system.
  • A trip to Chernobyl and the USSR | Samizdata.net 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Then there is two pools.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.The flow capacity of the pipes to the pools limited the protection capacity to simultaneous rupture of two pressure channels; a higher number of failures would cause pressure buildup sufficient to lift the cover plate ("Structure E," after the explosion nicknamed "Elena"), sever the rest of the fuel channels, destroy the control rod insertion system, and potentially also withdraw control rods from the core.^ This destroyed fuel elements and ruptured the channels in which these elements located.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Increased energy output caused the deformation of control rod channels.

^ The extensions of the fuel channels penetrate the lower plate and the cover plate of the core and are welded to each.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] The containment was designed to handle failures of the downcomers, pumps, and distribution and inlet of the feedwater. The leaktight compartments around the pumps can withstand overpressure of 0.45 MPa. The distribution headers and inlets enclosures can handle 0.08 MPa and are vented via check valves to the leaktight compartment. The reactor cavity can handle overpressure of 0.18 MPa and is vented via check valves to the leaktight compartment. .The pressure suppression system can handle a failure of one reactor channel, a pump pressure header, or a distribution header.^ Electrical equipment (4) [ 42 ] A bubbler pool beneath the reactor served as a large water reservoir from the emergency cooling pumps and as a pressure suppression system capable of condensing steam from a (small) broken steam pipe.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coolant pumps, servo motors and control systems must be kept running for hours afterwards until the reactor has completely shut down.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Next to reactors one and two was a truly immense electrical power distribution system.
  • A trip to Chernobyl and the USSR | Samizdata.net 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]
  • A trip to Chernobyl and the USSR | Samizdata.net 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

.Leaks in the steam piping and separators are not handled, except for maintaining slightly lower pressure in the riser pipe gallery and the steam drum compartment than in the reactor hall.^ This reduces the steam pressure and water levels in the steam separator drums.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It reads for example: "The operators attempted manually to sustain the main parameters of the system - steam pressure and the water level in the drum separators - but they did not entirely succeed in doing so.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org.nz [Source type: Original source]

^ Grigori Medvedev, former Deputy Chief Engineer, Reactor 1, Chernobyl NPP 01:19 - to address the problems of water levels and steam pressure in the separator drums, Toptunov withdraws more control rods to increase power.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

These spaces are also not designed to withstand overpressure. The steam distribution corridor contains surface condensers. .The sprinkler systems, operating during both accident and normal operation, are fed from the pressure suppression pools through heat exchangers cooled by the plant service water, and cool the air above the pools.^ The Chernobyl plant reached 150 times its normal power level before its water turned to high pressure steam and blew the plant apart, thus extinguishing the nuclear reaction.
  • Nuclear Energy is the most certain future source. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-formal.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nearly unbelievable story is that the operators of the plant deliberately turned off three separate safety systems to conduct - ironically - a safety experiment.
  • InfoUkes: Ukrainian History -- Chornobyl Nuclear Catastrophe 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.infoukes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this mixture had melted through the floor into the pool of water, it would have created a massive steam explosion which would eject more radioactive material from the reactor.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Jet coolers are located in the topmost parts of the compartments; their role is to cool the air and remove the steam and radioactive aerosol particles.^ In fact, it would have been very helpful even if attention had been paid to cleaning the exposed parts of their bodies to remove radioactive materials that were sticking to their skin.
  • THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT — CAN IT HAPPEN HERE? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.phyast.pitt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This method keeps radioactive steam separate from the power-generation side of the plant, and is also the way nuclear plants cooled by substances like sodium operate.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This effect is exacerbated if the top portion turns completely to steam, since the topmost part of the core is no longer being properly cooled and reactivity greatly increases.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
.Hydrogen removal from the leaktight compartment is performed by removal of 800 m3/hour of air, its filtration, and discharge into the atmosphere.^ "Discharge of radioactive products into the atmosphere continued through the end of August at the rate of a few curies per day."

^ I was distilled out of the soil back into the atmosphere during daylight hours."

.The air removal is stopped automatically in case of a coolant leak and has to be reinstated manually.^ With the manual and automatic control rods removed, nothing prevented a runaway reaction.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hydrogen is present during normal operation due to leaks of coolant (assumed to be up to 2 tons/hour).^ In this case, the reactor shut down automatically and although coolant was lost and a build-up of hydrogen exposed the core, it was fully contained within the surrounding building.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second, with so many cooling pumps operating at such low reactor power, coolant flow exceeds normal levels by about 30%.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is a strange thing, but during those truly weird hours, the overwhelming majority of the operational staff, including me, believed what they wanted to believe, and not what was really happening.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[10]

Electrical systems

.The power plant is connected to the 330 kV and 750 kV electrical grid.^ The power was due to be lowered further; however, the controller of the electricity grid in Kiev requested the reactor operator to keep supplying electricity to enable demand to be met.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A nuclear power station consumes electricity from the grid as well as producing it; if there is a power cut it doesn't just turn off like a light.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition to baseload electrical power, nuclear power plants provide three valuable byproducts.
  • Why the world may turn to nuclear power: demand for fossil fuels may decline, but demand for electric power will soar. Nuclear power, resisted by many, may provide a long-term solution, and it has come a long way since Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. | Energy & Utilities > Utilities Industry from AllBusiness.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: News]

.The block has two electrical generators connected to the 750 kV grid by a single generator transformer.^ Arco,_Idaho All power companies in the nation no matter where they are at, or how they generated the electricity put the power into regional and national grids.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

The generators are connected to their common transformer by two switches in series. .Between them, the unit transformers are connected to supply power to the power plant's own systems; each generator can therefore be connected to the unit transformer to power the plant, or to the unit transformer and the generator transformer to also feed power to the grid.^ Green Building Technologies 3: Power Generation For much of our industrial history power generation was provided by a mammoth, centrally located, power plant dependent upon a massive grid distribution system.
  • Why the world may turn to nuclear power: demand for fossil fuels may decline, but demand for electric power will soar. Nuclear power, resisted by many, may provide a long-term solution, and it has come a long way since Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. | Energy & Utilities > Utilities Industry from AllBusiness.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: News]

^ The power was due to be lowered further; however, the controller of the electricity grid in Kiev requested the reactor operator to keep supplying electricity to enable demand to be met.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In Japan, for example, 10 desalination facilities are connected to nuclear power plants to produce 3,000 cubic meters per day of potable water.
  • Why the world may turn to nuclear power: demand for fossil fuels may decline, but demand for electric power will soar. Nuclear power, resisted by many, may provide a long-term solution, and it has come a long way since Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. | Energy & Utilities > Utilities Industry from AllBusiness.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: News]

.The 330 kV line is normally not used, and serves as an external power supply, connected by a station transformer to the power plant's electrical systems.^ The power was due to be lowered further; however, the controller of the electricity grid in Kiev requested the reactor operator to keep supplying electricity to enable demand to be met.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rajasthan Atomic Power Plant, which was built in the 1970s using the Canadian Douglas Point design is in trouble and many repairs have been carried out.
  • Russia to build up to 8 nuclear reactors in Ind... 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.allvoices.com [Source type: General]

^ A nuclear power station consumes electricity from the grid as well as producing it; if there is a power cut it doesn't just turn off like a light.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The plant can be powered by its own generators, or get power from the 750 kV grid through the generator transformer, or from the 330 kV grid via the station transformer, or from the other power plant block via two reserve busbars.^ Green Building Technologies 3: Power Generation For much of our industrial history power generation was provided by a mammoth, centrally located, power plant dependent upon a massive grid distribution system.
  • Why the world may turn to nuclear power: demand for fossil fuels may decline, but demand for electric power will soar. Nuclear power, resisted by many, may provide a long-term solution, and it has come a long way since Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. | Energy & Utilities > Utilities Industry from AllBusiness.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: News]

^ Despite worries over fossil fuel reserves and global warming that would appear to favour nuclear power, its contribution to the global grid is decreasing.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A2922103 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A nuclear power station consumes electricity from the grid as well as producing it; if there is a power cut it doesn't just turn off like a light.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.In case of total external power loss, the essential systems can be powered by diesel generators.^ Total lifetime costs have yet to be fully determined for using a wind farm for large scale power generation while for nuclear we have reliable lifetime figures to base cost expectations.
  • Nuclear Power: Too Costly to Revive : Greentech Media 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.greentechmedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Emergency Core Cooling System is disabled before continuing, as some of the test conditions would trigger it (the reduction in power to the coolant pumps from the slowing turbine, or the triggering of the diesel generators).
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As far as nuclear power in general, the pressurized water systems used here in the US are fare safer than the sodium cooled ones in Russia.
  • The Mystery of Chernobyl | CommonDreams.org 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

Each unit transformer is connected to two 6 kV main power boards, A and B (e.g. 7A, 7B, 8A, 8B for generators 7 and 8), powering principal non-essential drivers and connected to transformers for the 4 kV main power and the 4 kV reserve busbar. .The 7A, 7B, and 8B boards are also connected to the three essential power lines (namely for the coolant pumps), each also having its own diesel generator.^ Second, with so many cooling pumps operating at such low reactor power, coolant flow exceeds normal levels by about 30%.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So, having a general idea of the phrase, at least knowing how to pronounce it, he says, "ok what's the name of the dog on tv always saving Timmy when he falls in the well?"
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The Emergency Core Cooling System is disabled before continuing, as some of the test conditions would trigger it (the reduction in power to the coolant pumps from the slowing turbine, or the triggering of the diesel generators).
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.In case of a coolant circuit failure with simultaneous loss of external power, the essential power can be supplied by the spinning down turbogenerators for about 45–50 seconds, during which time the diesel generators should start up.^ Chernobyl's reactors had a pair of backup diesel generators, but because there was a 40-second delay before they could attain full speed, the reactor was going to be used to spin up the reactor's turbine generator.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 25 April, prior to a routine shutdown, the reactor crew at Chernobyl 4 began preparing for a test to determine how long turbines would spin and supply power to the main circulating pumps following a loss of main electrical power supply.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chernobyl's reactors have a pair of diesel generators available as standby, but these do not activate instantaneously—the reactor was, therefore, to be used to spin up the turbine, at which point the turbine would be disconnected from the reactor and allowed to spin under its own rotational momentum , and the aim of the test was to determine whether the turbines in the rundown phase could power the pumps while the generators were starting up.

.The generators are started automatically within 15 seconds at loss of off-site power.^ There is a Web site (searchforamundsen.com) with a digital clock slowly ticking off the seconds till the search begins.
  • History News Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

^ Posted by senior lady on Mon, Dec 15, 2008, at 12:46 PM Wow SL Your week sure is off to a bad start.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ A decision was made to test the ability of the reactor's turbine generator to generate sufficient electricity to power the reactor's safety systems (in particular, the water pumps), in the event of a loss of external electric power.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]

Turbogenerators

.The electrical energy is generated by a pair of 500 MW hydrogen-cooled turbogenerators.^ In April 1986, it was decided to use the Chernobyl power plant for an electrical engineering experiment on its turbine-generator, the machinery used to convert the energy of steam into electricity.
  • THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT — CAN IT HAPPEN HERE? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.phyast.pitt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The peer-reviewed study found that a combination of low-carbon energy polices would economically reduce carbon emissions from electricity generation 84 percent by 2030.
  • Nuclear Power: Too Costly to Revive : Greentech Media 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.greentechmedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This one-minute power gap was considered unacceptable and it was suggested that the mechanical energy (rotational momentum ) of the steam turbine could be used to generate electricity to run the main cooling water pumps, while it was spinning down.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These are located in the 600-meter-long machine hall, adjacent to the reactor building.^ Contrary to safety regulations, a combustible material ( bitumen ) had been used in the construction of the roof of the reactor building and the turbine hall.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Excellent descriptions and photographs of the sarcophagus which was built over the ruined reactor after the accident, with a detailed analysis of the location of the melted and resolidified fuel in the lower regions of the reactor building.

^ Three different lavas are present in the basement of the reactor building, these are black, brown and a porous ceramic.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The turbines, the venerable five-cylinder K-500-65/3000, are supplied by the Kharkiv turbine plant; the electrical generators are the TBB-500. The turbine and the generator rotors are mounted on the same shaft; the combined weight of the rotors is almost 200 t and their nominal rotational speed is 3000 rpm.^ A large plant generates about a million kilowatts of electricity - some more, some less.
  • Nuclear Energy is the most certain future source. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-formal.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The heat from the fuel rods is absorbed by water which is used to generate steam to drive the turbines that generate the electricity.
  • Nuclear Energy is the most certain future source. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-formal.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once at full speed, the turbine would be disconnected from the reactor and allowed to spin under its own rotational momentum.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The turbogenerator is 39 m long and its total weight is 1200 t. .The coolant flow for each turbine is 82,880 tons/hour.^ The reactor consisted of about 1,600 individual fuel channels and each operational channel required a flow of 28 metric tons of water per hour.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The steam to the turbines was shut off and, as the momentum of the turbine generator drove the water pumps, the water flow rate decreased, decreasing the absorption of neutrons by the coolant.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The generator produces 20 kV 50 Hz AC power.^ Interestingly O.M. , when you cited the Reuters article you failed to mention that the only confirmed damage to their power generating infrastructure was at their hydro electricity producing power plants.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ In principle, nuclear power is quite similar to other common power generation techniques: water is heated to create steam , which drives turbine generators to produce power.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A molten salt thorium reactor can also run at about 50% efficiency in producing electrical power, a 50% improvement over current reactors which again reduces the amount of fuel used and waste produced.
  • DailyTech - Obama Calls on U.S. to Embrace Clean Nuclear Energy, Defies Opponents 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.The generator's stator is cooled by water while its rotor is cooled by hydrogen.^ It is likely that intense alpha radiation hydrolyzed the water generating a hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) solution with a low pH, akin to an oxidizing acid.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Like all forms of power generation using steam turbines, Nuclear power plants use large amounts of water for cooling.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Limited Water Useage advanced third-generation reactors consume as little as 100,000 gallons of water per day to cool the reactor.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

The hydrogen for the generators is manufactured on-site by electrolysis.[8] The design and reliability of the turbines earned them the State Prize of Ukraine for 1979.
.The Kharkiv turbine plant (now Turboatom) later developed a new version of the turbine, K-500-65/3000-2, in an attempt to reduce use of valuable metal.^ When exposure-rate meters were used, the background was observed to vary from 5 to 500 µR h –1 depending on location and time after the accident, the average value being approximately 40 µR h –1 .
  • A Cohort Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases After the Chornobyl Accident: Thyroid Cancer in Ukraine Detected During First Screening -- Tronko et al. 98 (13): 897 -- JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC jnci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I hope more people check into your blog site using the address that you left for all of us to save for use now or later.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition, we shall provide some new estimates which use the Cancer-Yields developed in this book, as well as the Cancer-Yields published in 1987 and 1988 by RERF analysts.
  • CHAPTER 24, Chernobyl: A Crossroad in the Radiation Health Sciences, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ratical.com [Source type: Academic]

.The Chernobyl plant was equipped with both types of turbines; Block 4 had the newer ones.^ If the atomic age has a history that can't be ignored, then Chernobyl is undoubtedly one of the major events in that history, and we must try to comprehend that event both in its uniqueness and in its paradigmatic character.
  • Eurozine - Commemorating the Chernobyl disaster: Remembering the future - Guillaume Grandazzi 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.eurozine.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chernobyl nuclear power plant lies next to the Prypiat River which feeds into the Dnipro River reservoir system, one of the largest surface water systems in Europe.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the Chernobyl plant were to collapse, a large release of radioactive dust would occur, but it would likely be a one-time event.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The newer turbines, however, turned out to be more sensitive to their operating parameters, and their bearings had frequent problems with vibrations.^ However, for the "big" things in the County people do turn out.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ More problems came out sooner, so I hope that is the case.
  • Damn Interesting • In Soviet Russia, Lake Contaminates You 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since the heat is generated in the uranium fuel, there is still the problem of transferring this heat out of the reactor to make the steam which drives the turbine to produce electricity.
  • THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT — CAN IT HAPPEN HERE? 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.phyast.pitt.edu [Source type: Original source]

[19]

Accident

.On 26 April 1986 at 1:23 a.m., reactor 4 suffered a massive, catastrophic power excursion.^ On 26 April 1986 at 01:23:40 a.m.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Meltdown at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant : Greg Laden's Blog 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On April 26 ,1986 at 01:23 a.m.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 26 April 1986 at 1:23 a.m., reactor 4 suffered a massive, catastrophic power excursion (the chain reaction grew out of control, similar to the initial stage in the detonation of a nuclear weapon ).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This caused a steam explosion, followed by a second (chemical, not nuclear) explosion from the ignition of generated hydrogen mixed with air, which tore the top from the reactor and its building and exposed the reactor core.^ Even Chernobly was not a nuclear explosion, but a steam explosion.
  • The Answer Ain't Nuclear | Mother Jones 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This caused a steam explosion, followed by a second (chemical, not nuclear) explosion from the ignition of generated hydrogen mixed with air, which tore the top from the reactor and its building, and exposed the reactor core.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1999 Japanese technicians mixing up fuel for an experimental reactor violated the safety procedures and created a critical mass of uranium which caused an increasing nuclear reaction until the container with the mixture boiled over and stopped the reaction.
  • Nuclear Energy is the most certain future source. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-formal.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This dispersed large amounts of radioactive particulate and gaseous debris containing fission products including cesium-137, strontium-90, and other highly radioactive reactor waste products.^ A. The waste consists of the fission products.
  • Nuclear Energy is the most certain future source. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-formal.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This dispersed large amounts of radioactive particulate and gaseous debris containing cesium-137 and strontium-90 which are highly radioactive reactor waste products .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The heavier debris in the plume was deposited close to the site, but lighter components, including fission products and virtually all of the noble gas inventory were blown by the prevailing wind to the northwest of the plant.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .The open core also allowed atmospheric oxygen to contact the super-hot core containing 1,700 tonnes[21] of combustible graphite moderator.^ The open core also allowed air (oxygen) to contact the super-hot core containing 1,700 tonnes [ 8 ] of combustible graphite moderator .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lumps of graphite moderator ejected from the core.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Burning graphite and hot reactor-core material ejected by the explosions started numerous other fires, including some on the combustible tar roof of the adjacent reactor unit.
  • Kiev Ukraine News Blog: Chernobyl Nuclear Accident - April 26, 1986 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC blog.kievukraine.info [Source type: Original source]

.The burning graphite moderator increased the emission of radioactive particles, carried by the smoke.^ The burning graphite moderator increased the emission of radioactive particles, carried by the smoke.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Smoke from burning would be radioactive.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The graphite moderator began to burn.
  • Chernobyl: The true scale of the accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The reactor was not contained by any kind of hard containment vessel (unlike all Western plants, Soviet reactors often did not have them).^ The reactor was not contained by any kind of hard containment vessel (unlike all Western plants , Soviet reactors often did not have them).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The April 1986 disaster at the Chernobyl a nuclear power plant in the Ukraine was the product of a flawed Soviet reactor design coupled with serious mistakes made by the plant operators b .
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contrary to what was immediately claimed by the U.S. media, Ukrainian and Russian reactors DO have containment shields - often stronger than U.S. reactor shields.

[22] .Radioactive particles were carried by wind across international borders.^ Radioactive particles were carried by wind across international borders.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The radiation was not contained and radioactive particles were carried by wind across international borders.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ International Spread of Radioactivity: The Chernobyl nuclear accident discharged & dispersed radionuclides Across many parts of Europe & later the entire Northern hemisphere.
  • Apology To The Earth For Nuclear Bombs And War 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.countercurrents.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Planning the test of a potential safety feature

A rotor of a modern day steam turbine.
.During the daytime of 25 April 1986, reactor 4 was scheduled to be shut down for maintenance as it was near the end of its first fuel cycle.^ During the daytime of 25 April 1986, reactor 4 was scheduled to be shut down for maintenance as it was near the end of its first fuel cycle .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ April 25, 1986 .
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On April 25, 1986 it was planned to shut down reactor 4 of the Chernobyl for maintenance and refuelling.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.An experiment was scheduled to test a potential safety emergency core cooling feature during the shutdown procedure.^ An experiment was scheduled to test a potential safety emergency core cooling feature during the shutdown procedure.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Planning the test of a potential safety feature .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although subsequent events were not greatly affected by this, the exclusion of this system for the whole duration of the test reflected a lax attitude towards the implementation of safety procedures.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Following an emergency shutdown (scram), cooling is required to keep the temperature in the reactor core low enough to avoid fuel damage.^ Following an emergency shutdown (scram), cooling is required to maintain the temperature in the reactor core low enough to avoid fuel damage.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 1:23:40 the operators pressed the AZ-5 ("Rapid Emergency Defense 5") button that ordered a " SCRAM" — a shutdown of the reactor, fully inserting all control rods, including the manual control rods that had been incautiously withdrawn earlier.

^ At 1:23:40 the operators pressed the AZ-5 ("Rapid Emergency Defense 5") button that ordered a "SCRAM" – a shutdown of the reactor, fully inserting all control rods, including the manual control rods that had been incautiously withdrawn earlier.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The reactor consisted of about 1,600 individual fuel channels and each operational channel required a flow of 28 metric tons (28,000 litres (7,400 USgal)) of water per hour.^ The reactor consisted of about 1,600 individual fuel channels and each operational channel required a flow of 28 metric tons of water per hour.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 200-300 tonnes of water per hour was injected into the intact half of the reactor using the auxiliary feedwater pumps but this was stopped after half a day owing to the danger of it flowing into and flooding units 1 and 2.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Soviet-designed RBMK-type reactor unit of 925 MWe such as at Chernobyl uses a large mass of graphite (some 1200 tonnes of it) to moderate the reaction and water flowing through channels holding the fuel elements to cool it.
  • Early Soviet Reactors and EU Accession 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There was concern that in case of an external power failure the Chernobyl power station would overload, leading to an automated safety shut down, in which case there would be no external power to run the plant's cooling water pumps.^ When there is enough leakage, the plant shuts down.
  • The Mystery of Chernobyl | CommonDreams.org 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ There was concern that in case of an external power failure the Chernobyl power station would overload, leading to an automated safety shut down in which case there would be no external power to run the plant's cooling water pumps.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chernobyl nuclear power plant .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chernobyl's reactors had three backup diesel generators.^ Chernobyl's reactors had three backup diesel generators.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chernobyl's reactors had a pair of backup diesel generators, but because there was a 40-second delay before they could attain full speed, the reactor was going to be used to spin up the reactor's turbine generator.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unbelievably, the last of the remaining three reactors was shut down in Chernobyl in December 2000.

.The generators required 15 seconds to start up but took 60–75 seconds to attain full speed and reach the capacity of 5.5 MW required to run one main cooling water pump.^ The generator required 15 seconds to start up but took 60–75 seconds to attain full speed and reach its capacity of 5.5 MW required to run one main cooling water pump.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chernobyl's reactors had a pair of backup diesel generators, but because there was a 40-second delay before they could attain full speed, the reactor was going to be used to spin up the reactor's turbine generator.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The risk of leukaemia in the general population, one of the main concerns owing to its short latency time, does not appear to be elevated.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nuclear power reactors require cooling flow to remove decay heat, even when not actively generating power.^ World Nuclear Power Reactors 2008-10 and Uranium Requirements .
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Early Soviet Reactors and EU Accession 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nuclear power reactors require cooling flow to remove decay heat , even when not actively generating power.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, the waste heat from nuclear power reactors is used for desalination.
  • Why the world may turn to nuclear power: demand for fossil fuels may decline, but demand for electric power will soar. Nuclear power, resisted by many, may provide a long-term solution, and it has come a long way since Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. | Energy & Utilities > Utilities Industry from AllBusiness.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: News]

.In case of an external power failure, the reactor would automatically scram: control rods would be inserted and stop the nuclear fission process (and hence steam generation).^ Current nuclear power generation uses nuclear fission.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In case of an external power failure, the reactor would automatically scram ; control rods would be inserted and stop the nuclear fission process (and hence steam generation).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Normally the reactor would have started to insert all of the control rods .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, in the spent fuel, the fission products themselves are radioactive and continue to produce heat as they decay.^ Xenon-135 is produced in the reactor by the decay of the fission product iodine-135 (I-135).
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, in the spent fuel, the fission products themselves are radioactive, and continue to produce heat as they decay.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fuel elements ruptured and the resultant explosive force of steam lifted off the cover plate of the reactor, releasing fission products to the atmosphere.
  • Chernobyl 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This could amount to 1-2 percent of the normal output of the plant.^ This could amount to 1-2 percent of the normal output of the plant.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If not immediately removed by coolant systems, the heat could lead to core damage.^ If not immediately removed by coolant systems, the heat could lead to core damage .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dry-type cooling system is analogous to a very large auto radiator, a closed system where coolant is circulated among fans and heat-sinks to dissipate heat.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ There will be much more coolant in the core; much less steam is being produced because the fuel is producing less heat.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.This one-minute power gap was considered unacceptable and it was suggested that the mechanical energy (rotational momentum) of the steam turbine could be used to generate electricity to run the main cooling water pumps while it was spinning down.^ Steam rotates the turbine, which then drives a .
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nuclear power is one of many methods we should be using to get energy.
  • ksl.com - Group rallies against nuclear waste headed to Utah 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.ksl.com [Source type: General]

^ The heat from the fuel rods is absorbed by water which is used to generate steam to drive the turbines that generate the electricity.
  • Nuclear Energy is the most certain future source. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-formal.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In theory, analyses indicated that the residual momentum had the potential to provide power for 45 seconds, which would bridge the power gap between the onset of the external power failure and the full availability of electric power from the emergency diesel generators, but this capability needed to be confirmed experimentally.^ In theory, Analyses indicated that the residual momentum had the potentential to provide power for 45 seconds, which would bridge the power gap between the onset of the external power failure and the full availability of electric power from the emergency diesel generators, but this capability needed to be confirmed by test.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chernobyl's reactors had a pair of backup diesel generators, but because there was a 40-second delay before they could attain full speed, the reactor was going to be used to spin up the reactor's turbine generator.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to baseload electrical power, nuclear power plants provide three valuable byproducts.
  • Why the world may turn to nuclear power: demand for fossil fuels may decline, but demand for electric power will soar. Nuclear power, resisted by many, may provide a long-term solution, and it has come a long way since Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. | Energy & Utilities > Utilities Industry from AllBusiness.com 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: News]

.Previous tests had ended unsuccessfully.^ Previous tests had ended unsuccessfully.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An initial test in 1982 showed that the excitation voltage of the turbine-generator was insufficient; it did not maintain the desired magnetic field during the generator spin-down.^ An initial test in 1982 showed that the excitation voltage of the turbine-generator was insufficient; it did not maintain the desired magnetic field during the generator spin-down.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During preparation and testing of the turbine generator under run-down conditions using the auxiliary load, personnel disconnected a series of technical protection systems and breached the most important operational safety provisions for conducting a technical exercise ".
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 25 April, prior to a routine shut-down, the reactor crew at Chernobyl-4 began preparing for a test to determine how long turbines would spin and supply power following a loss of main electrical power supply.
  • Chernobyl 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The system was modified, and in 1984 the test was repeated, but the retest proved unsuccessful.^ The system was modified, and in 1984 the test was repeated, but the retest proved unsuccessful.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 1985 the test was attempted a third time, but it also yielded negative results. This test procedure was to be repeated again in 1986.[23]
.The test was focused on the switching sequences of the electrical supplies for the reactor.^ The test was focused on the switching sequences of the electrical supplies for the reactor.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 25 April, prior to a routine shutdown, the reactor crew at Chernobyl 4 began preparing for a test to determine how long turbines would spin and supply power to the main circulating pumps following a loss of main electrical power supply.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 25 April, prior to a routine shut-down, the reactor crew at Chernobyl-4 began preparing for a test to determine how long turbines would spin and supply power following a loss of main electrical power supply.
  • Chernobyl 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since the test procedure was to begin when the reactor was scrammed automatically at the very beginning of the experiment, the experiment was not anticipated to have any detrimental effect on the safety of the reactor.^ Since the test procedure was to begin when the reactor was scrammed automatically at the very beginning of the experiment the experiment was not anticipated to have any detrimental effect on the safety of the reactor.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although subsequent events were not greatly affected by this, the exclusion of this system for the whole duration of the test reflected a lax attitude towards the implementation of safety procedures.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The magnitude of this 'positive scram' effect depended on the spatial distribution of the power density and the operating regime of the reactor."
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore, the test program was not formally coordinated with either the chief designer of the reactor (NIKIET) nor the scientific manager.^ Therefore, the test program was not formally coordinated with either the chief designer of the reactor (NIKIET), nor with the scientific manager.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Neglect by the scientific management and the designers was everywhere with no attention being paid to the condition of instruments or of equipment...
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, the new advanced design reactors still have not yet seen the end of development and testing costs.
  • WORLD OF NUKES: CHERNOBYL 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC dansher.com [Source type: General]

.Instead, it was approved only by the director of the plant (and even this approval was not consistent with established procedures).^ Instead, it was approved only by the director of the plant (and even this was not done consistent with established procedures).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Catastrophic breakdowns of these systems pose serious threats not only for those within the plant, but also for the neighboring public, and even the whole region and the country.
  • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ All signs regarding operating and safety procedures were written in English, even though many of the operators spoke only Hindi.
  • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.According to the test parameters, at the start of the experiment, the thermal output of the reactor should have been no lower than 700 MW. If conditions had been as planned, the test almost certainly would have proceeded safely; the eventual disaster resulted from attempts to boost the reactor output once the experiment had started, inconsistent with the approved procedure.^ The power output of this reactor is 3200 MW thermal, or 1000 MWe.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The test plan called for the power output of reactor 4 to be reduced from its nominal 3200 MW thermal to 700–1000 MW thermal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the test parameters, at the start of the experiment, the thermal output of the reactor should have been no lower than 700 MW. If the conditions of the reactor had been as planned, the test almost certainly would have proceeded safely; the eventual disaster resulted from attempts to boost the reactor output once the experiment had started, inconsistent with the approved procedure.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]
.The Chernobyl power plant had been in operation for two years without the capability to ride through the first 60–75 seconds of a total loss of electric power – an important safety feature.^ The Chernobyl power plant had been in operation for two years without the capability to ride through the first 60-75 seconds of a total loss of electric power – an important safety feature.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chernobyl nuclear power plant .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First is safety, and the second is disposal.
  • DailyTech - Obama Calls on U.S. to Embrace Clean Nuclear Energy, Defies Opponents 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.dailytech.com [Source type: General]

.The station managers presumably wished to correct this at the first opportunity.^ The station managers presumably wished to correct this at the first opportunity.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This may explain why they continued the test even when serious problems arose, and why the requisite approval for the test was not sought from the Soviet nuclear oversight regulator (even though there was a representative at the complex of 4 reactors).^ This may explain why they continued the test, even when serious problems arose, and why the requisite approval for the test was not sought from the Soviet nuclear oversight regulator (even though there was a representative at the complex of 4 reactors).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There have been more serious accidents at Soviet nuclear power planu.
  • THE CHERNOBYL' ACCIDENT SOCIAL AND POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS (SOV 87-10078X) - CIA document 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The nuclear reactor accident, occurred on 26 April 1986 in Ukraine (then part of the Soviet Union) was: .
  • Improve Your General Knowledge in Leisure Time! 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC gklt.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25]
The experimental procedure was intended to run as follows:
  • the reactor was to be running at a low power, but >700 MW
  • the steam turbine was to be run up to full speed
  • when these conditions were achieved, the steam supply was to be closed off
  • the turbines would be allowed to freewheel down
  • generator performance was to be recorded to determine whether it could provide the bridging power for coolant pumps

Turbogenerator vibrations measurement

Block 4 was equipped with the newer generation of the turbogenerators. .These turned out to be prone to vibrations, and required periodic readjustment and balancing.^ Some of these changes will take the required zoning hearing out of the process and go directly to the CUP. When does representation of or for the people start in Elmore County?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ It is also about what the district has represented as "required" and what has turned out NOT to be "required" but yet another "nicety."
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ There are not any background checks, registration, or waiting periods required in order to purchase one of these items.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

For that purpose, the Kharkiv plant dispatched specialist technicians. .In late 1985, the plant bought a mobile vibration analysis laboratory, a highly sophisticated, expensive, and unique electronics system mounted in a two-seat Mercedes-Benz van, from the Swiss company Vibro-meter.^ Of the two major safety devices at the Bhopal plant, one was the vent-gas scrubber, a system that was designed to pour caustic soda on the MIC so that it would decompose.
  • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The laboratory was almost the only one in the entire Soviet Union.^ Let us take a look at the facts using only one cancer incidence in the (former Soviet) Chernobyl fallout area as an example: thyroid cancer .
  • The Mystery of Chernobyl | CommonDreams.org 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: General]

^ All you have to do is listen to a scanner to hear that more and more often there is only one deputy on duty for the entire county.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Kasparov, only 21 at the time, was cast as the face of reform while Karpov played the role of the old Soviet Union.
  • History News Network 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

.Its availability was an important reason against cancelling the test; it was not certain when it would be available again.^ More important, what would be the right reasons?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The reasoning was that if the ECCS was triggered during the test it would shut down the reactor; it would be impossible to repeat the test, as the next scheduled shutdown was not for another year.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lord help us if emotionalism and mistaken sentimentality are the reason for voting either for or against something this important.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.So the testing had to proceed despite the known unfavorable conditions of the reactor, similar to the 1975 partial meltdown incident in the Leningrad plant.^ When an American reactor at Three Mile Island had a partial meltdown in 1979, the radioactivity was successfully sealed from the atmosphere, and the disaster was fully contained.
  • A trip to Chernobyl and the USSR | Samizdata.net 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]
  • A trip to Chernobyl and the USSR | Samizdata.net 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.samizdata.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Most reprehensibly, unapproved changes in the test procedure were deliberately made on the spot, although the plant was known to be in a very different condition from that intended for the test.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This dangerous phenomenon was noted by Soviet authorities in 1983 - three years before the Chernobyl incident - in a reactor at the Ignalina power plant in Lithuania.
  • Chernobyl Was Not An Accident 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.spiritoftruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]
.Parallel to the safety test, analysis of the turbogenerator vibrations was planned.^ Planning the test of a potential safety feature .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The vibrolaboratory with a driver and three vibration specialists was dispatched from the Kharkiv plant, with Savenkov and Strelkov (the driver) going by car and Popov and Kabanov by train.^ As we're talking they told me that not only did no one stop to help them but that they had three different cars go by and either laugh at them or flip them off.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.On arrival at the plant, the laboratory was parked directly inside the machine hall, on Level 0; the normal procedure was to park outside and connect sensors by remote cables; however, that would have required making a hole in the wall.^ The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) asked utility executives what would make them start ordering nuclear plants again.
  • Nuclear Energy is the most certain future source. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-formal.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both Wall Street and the industry would consider it, however, if taxpayers assumed the risk -- in the form of federal loan guarantees.
  • Nuclear Power: Too Costly to Revive : Greentech Media 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.greentechmedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, in this instance the Park Service determined that it in order to keep the original foundation safe, it would be better to build a new foundation on top of the old one.
  • History News Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

.Particular attention had to be paid to bearing number 12 of turbogenerator 8. The Leningrad-based supplier of the generators, Электросила, attempted to integrate an emergency lubricant reservoir into the bearing housing, but such bearings were found to produce high vibrations.^ Students are prompted think about what everyday products—such as bottles, cans, cartons, plastic, and food—are made of and how they are generally produced.
  • Earth Day web sites 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact most facts are based upon opinion that has been adopted into facts, such as the theory of evolution.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ A decrease in supplying radiocontaminated food-stuffs is reported and the attention is paid to the necessity for continuation of active procedures for rehabilitation of contaminated areas.

.Numerous attempts by the power plant and Львовэнергоремонт technicians to suppress the vibrations failed to get them below the limits allowed by GOST.^ Also not mentioned is the promised "dry" technology that will allow this plant to operate without consuming huge amounts of water (nuclear plants comprise the "thirstiest" form of power generation).
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Interestingly O.M. , when you cited the Reuters article you failed to mention that the only confirmed damage to their power generating infrastructure was at their hydro electricity producing power plants.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ They are now attempting to figure out IF the nuclear power plants have been damaged.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

Despite repeated urging, Elektrosila did not dispatch technicians to attend to the problem. Meanwhile, the vibrations resulted in a fatigue crack of the bearing oil line and leak of combustible oil. The problem was temporarily fixed by the turbine shop servicemen. .Kharkiv Turbine Works specialists were willing to not only measure the vibration characteristics of the turbines, but also perform detailed investigation of the bearing.^ "Not only does this woeful performance lead to unnecessary litigation, but the Bureau apparently uses the same searches in its criminal investigations as well."
  • History News Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

^ They plan on seeking input from not only the workers performing the work but citizens as well.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ As for convictions, the prosecutor can only work with the facts given her from the investigation.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

During the night of April 26, the vibrolaboratory was parked on Level 0 at the end of the machine hall, in the compartment of turbogenerator 8.[27]
.At the moment of the explosion, Popov was in the control room, Savenkov and Kabanov were in the vibrolaboratory, and Strelkov, the driver, was in the Pripyat hotel.^ We got a tour of the Chernobyl Plant (including the Reactor 4 control room), several of the abandoned villages, and Pripyat.
  • English Russia » Lost City of Chernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nuclear Winter in Chernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.stuckincustoms.com [Source type: General]

The specialists attempted to save the laboratory buried in debris, but did not succeed. .The radiation at Level 0 was too high and they received a high dose that for Popov and Savenkov proved to be lethal.^ The fires were extinguished by 5 a.m., but many firefighters received high doses of radiation.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They received high doses of radiation, average around 100 millisieverts.
  • Chernobyl 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They received high doses of radiation, averaging around 100 millisieverts.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At Popov's burial, the Kharkiv plant general designer promised to name the vibrolaboratory after the two fallen specialists.^ Also not mentioned is the promised "dry" technology that will allow this plant to operate without consuming huge amounts of water (nuclear plants comprise the "thirstiest" form of power generation).
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition, I understand there were at least two small Chernobyl design nuclear plants at universities in the U.S. where students trained in the wonders of nuclear power.
  • The Answer Ain't Nuclear | Mother Jones 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Two risk perceptions were also considered, namely, whether participants thought that Chornobyl affected their health and whether they thought that the accident would adversely affect the health of future generations.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Subjective health legacy of the Chernobyl accident: A comparative study of 19-year olds in Kyiv 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

However that did not happen, as after the vehicle was recovered in 1987, its decontamination proved impossible.[19]

Conditions prior to the accident

.The conditions to run the test were established prior to the day shift of 25 April 1986. The day shift workers had been instructed in advance about the test and were familiar with procedures.^ April 25, 1986 .
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This test procedure was to be repeated again in 1986.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The conditions to run the test were established prior to the day shift of 25 April 1986.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A special team of electrical engineers was present to test the new voltage regulating system.^ A special team of electrical engineers was present to test the new voltage regulating system.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New voltage regulators had since been fitted to the generators and it was these that were to be tested.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ III. Human Factors The present complex, large-scale technological systems pose additional demands and new requirements on the human operators.
  • http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~meshkati/humanfactors.html 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-bcf.usc.edu [Source type: Academic]

[28] .As planned, on 25 April a gradual reduction in the output of the power unit was begun at 01:06 a.m., and by the beginning of the day shift the power level had reached 50%.^ As planned, on 25 April a gradual reduction in the output of the power unit was begun at 01:06 a.m., and by the beginning of the day shift the power level had reached 50%.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gradual lowering of the power level began.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A LOOK AT THE POPULATION DENSITY OF THE UNITED STATES – LESSON PLAN NEW! http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/lessons/01/g912/density.html A lesson plan on population density for grades 9-12.
  • Earth Day web sites 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another regional power station unexpectedly went off-line, and the Kiev electrical grid controller requested that the further reduction of Chernobyl's output be postponed, as power was needed to satisfy the peak evening demand.^ The Kiev grid controller requested that the further reduction of output be postponed, as electricity was needed to satisfy the evening peak demand.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where will the power lines needed be located?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The power was due to be lowered further; however, the controller of the electricity grid in Kiev requested the reactor operator to keep supplying electricity to enable demand to be met.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Chernobyl plant director agreed and postponed the test.^ The plant director agreed and postponed the test to comply.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chernobyl plant director agreed and postponed the test.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similar tests had already been carried out at Chernobyl and other plants, despite the fact that these reactors were known to be very unstable at low power settings.
  • Chernobyl 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At 11:04 p.m., the Kiev grid controller allowed the reactor shut-down to resume.^ At 11:00 p.m., April 25, the grid controller allowed the reactor shut-down to continue.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 11:04 p.m., the Kiev grid controller allowed the reactor shut-down to resume.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The power was due to be lowered further; however, the controller of the electricity grid in Kiev requested the reactor operator to keep supplying electricity to enable demand to be met.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This delay had some serious consequences: the day shift had long since departed, the evening shift was also preparing to leave, and the night shift would not take over until midnight, well into the job.^ This delay had some serious consequences: the day shift had long since departed, the evening shift was also preparing to leave, and the night shift wouldn't take over until 12:00 midnight, well into the job.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then who would take her seriously???
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Without this delay, the test would have been conducted during the day shift.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Further rapid reduction in the power level from 50% was actually executed during the shift change-over.^ Further rapid reduction in the power level from 50% was actually executed during the shift change-over.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was not until about 23:00 on 25 April that the grid controller agreed to a further reduction in power.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A further three inquiries, also established under the peace process during negotiations over power-sharing, are estimated to have cost 117 million.
  • History News Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

.According to plan, the test should have been finalized during the daytime and the night shift would only have had to maintain decay heat cooling systems in an otherwise shut-down plant; the night shift had very limited time to prepare for and carry out the experiment.^ The U.S. shut down its reprocessing plant during the 1970s and hasn't replaced it.
  • Nuclear Energy is the most certain future source. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-formal.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to plan, the test should have been finalized during the daytime and the night shift would only have had to maintain decay heat cooling systems in an otherwise shut down plant; the night shift had very limited time to prepare for and carry out the experiment.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During preparation and testing of the turbine generator under run-down conditions using the auxiliary load, personnel disconnected a series of technical protection systems and breached the most important operational safety provisions for conducting a technical exercise ".
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alexander Akimov was chief of the night shift, and Leonid Toptunov was the operator responsible for the reactor's operational regime, including the movement of the control rods.^ Alexander Akimov was chief of the night shift and Leonid Toptunov was the operator responsible for the reactor's operational regime, including the movement of the control rods.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grigori Medvedev, former Deputy Chief Engineer, Reactor 1, Chernobyl NPP 01:19 - to address the problems of water levels and steam pressure in the separator drums, Toptunov withdraws more control rods to increase power.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At 1:23:40 the operators pressed the AZ-5 ("Rapid Emergency Defense 5") button that ordered a "SCRAM" – a shutdown of the reactor, fully inserting all control rods, including the manual control rods that had been incautiously withdrawn earlier.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Toptunov was a young engineer who had worked independently as a senior engineer for approximately three months.^ Toptunov was a young engineer who had worked independently as a senior engineer for approximately three months.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Latimer, who was appointed in the last months of Mr Bush's presidency, had intimate access to the workings of the administration.
  • History News Network 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

^ They compared the rates of leukemia for those first employed in 1986 with those for workers employed in 1987, when doses were lower; they found that the rate of leukemia had approximately doubled among those who first worked in 1986.
  • The Chernobyl Disaster: Cancer following the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant -- Hatch et al. 27 (1): 56 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[29]
.The test plan called for the power output of reactor 4 to be reduced from its nominal 3200 MW thermal to 700–1000 MW thermal.^ The power output of this reactor is 3200 MW thermal, or 1000 MWe.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The test plan called for the power output of reactor 4 to be reduced from its nominal 3200 MW thermal to 700–1000 MW thermal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Power output is usually about one third of the reactor's thermal output.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[30] .The power level established in the test program (700 MW) was achieved at 00:05 a.m.^ The power level established in the test program (700 MW) was achieved at 00:05 a.m.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The decision was made to carry out the turbogenerator rundown tests at a power level of about 200 MWt.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 01:03, the reactor was stabilised at about 200 MWt and it was decided that the test would be carried out at this power level.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

on .26 April; however, because of the natural production in the core of a neutron absorber, xenon-135, reactor power continued to decrease, even without operator action.^ Xenon-135 is produced in the reactor by the decay of the fission product iodine-135 (I-135).
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ April; however, because of the natural production of a neutron absorber in the core, Xenon -135, reactor power continued to decrease, even without operator action.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the positive void coefficient of the RBMK reactor at low reactor power levels, it was now primed to embark on a positive feedback loop, in which the formation of steam voids decreased the ability of the liquid water coolant to absorb neutrons, which increased the reactor's power output, causing yet more water to flash into steam, and yet a further power increase.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the power reached approximately 500 MW, Toptunov committed an error and inserted the control rods too far, bringing the reactor to a near-shutdown state.^ Normally the reactor would have started to insert all of the control rods .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the power reached approximately 500 MW, Toptunov committed an error and inserted the control rods too far, bringing the reactor to a near shutdown state.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grigori Medvedev, former Deputy Chief Engineer, Reactor 1, Chernobyl NPP 01:19 - to address the problems of water levels and steam pressure in the separator drums, Toptunov withdraws more control rods to increase power.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The exact circumstances will probably never be known, as both Akimov and Toptunov died from radiation sickness.^ The exact circumstances will probably never be known as both Akimov and Toptunov died from radiation sickness.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of them, including Akimov, died from radiation exposure within three weeks.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite their good condition after the task completion, all of them suffered from radiation sickness, and at least two of them - Ananenko and Bezpalov - died in the process.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The reactor power dropped to 30 MW thermal (or less) - an almost completely shutdown power level that was approximately 5 percent of the minimum initial power level established as safe for the test.^ The power output of this reactor is 3200 MW thermal, or 1000 MWe.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lowering of reactor power halted at 1600 MW(thermal).
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The power level established in the test program (700 MW) was achieved at 00:05 a.m.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31] .Control-room personnel made a decision to restore the power and extracted the reactor control rods,[32] though several minutes elapsed after their extraction until the power output began to increase and subsequently stabilize at 160-200 MW (thermal).^ The power output of this reactor is 3200 MW thermal, or 1000 MWe.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Power output is usually about one third of the reactor's thermal output.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lowering of reactor power halted at 1600 MW(thermal).
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this case the majority of control rods were withdrawn to their upper limits, but the low value of the operational reactivity margin restricted further rise of reactor power.^ In this case the majority of control rods were withdrawn to their upper limits, but the low value of the operational reactivity margin restricted further rise of reactor power.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This prompted the operators to remove the manual control rods further to maintain power.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The power was due to be lowered further; however, the controller of the electricity grid in Kiev requested the reactor operator to keep supplying electricity to enable demand to be met.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rapid reduction in the power and subsequent operation at the level of less than 200 MW led to increased poisoning of the reactor core by the accumulation of xenon-135, which made it necessary to extract additional control rods from the reactor core.^ Control rods started to enter the core, increasing the reactivity at the bottom of the core.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The turbine was disconnected from the reactor, increasing the level of steam in the reactor core.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rapid reduction in the power and subsequent operation at the level of less than 200 MW led to that increased poisoning reactor core by the accumulation of xenon-135, which made it necessary to extract additional control rods from the reactor core.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The operation of the reactor at the low power level with a small reactivity margin was accompanied by unstable temperature and flow and possibly by instability of neutron flux.^ The operation of the reactor at the low power level with a small reactivity margin was accompanied by unstable temperature and flow and possibly by instability of neutron flux [ 20 ] .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the positive void coefficient of the RBMK reactor at low reactor power levels, it was now primed to embark on a positive feedback loop, in which the formation of steam voids decreased the ability of the liquid water coolant to absorb neutrons, which increased the reactor's power output, causing yet more water to flash into steam, and yet a further power increase.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The power was due to be lowered further; however, the controller of the electricity grid in Kiev requested the reactor operator to keep supplying electricity to enable demand to be met.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] .The control room received repeated emergency signals of the levels in the steam/water separator drums, of relief valves opened to relieve excess steam into a turbine condenser, of large excursions in the flow rate of feed water, and from the neutron power controller.^ The steam drum level was still near the emergency level.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The steam withdrawn and run through the turbines controls the power level of the reactor.
  • Nuclear Energy is the most certain future source. 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www-formal.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Power excursion rate emergency protection system signals on; power exceeded 530 MWt.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the period between 00:35 a.m and 00:45 a.m., apparently to preserve the reactor power level, emergency alarm signals concerning thermal-hydraulic parameters were ignored.^ In the period from 00:35 a.m to 00:45 p.m.,apparently, in order to preserve the reactor power level, thermal-hydraulic parameters emergency alarm signals were ignored.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unfortunately, this test, which was considered essentially to concern the non-nuclear part of the power plant, was carried out without a proper exchange of information and coordination between the team in charge of the test and the personnel in charge of the safety of the nuclear reactor.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emergency signals from the Reactor Emergency Protection System (EPS-5) triggered a trip, turning off both turbine-generators.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Emergency signals from the Reactor Emergency Protection System (EPS-5) triggered a trip, turning off both turbine-generators.^ Emergency signals from the Reactor Emergency Protection System (EPS-5) triggered a trip, turning off both turbine-generators.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Turning off the emergency system designed to protect against the stopping of the two turbine generators was not a breach of regulations.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The shutdown of both turbines would normally trigger an automatic scram of the reactor but this trip signal, too, is overridden.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[34]
.After a more or less stable state at a power level of 200 MW was achieved, preparation for the experiment continued.^ After reaching a more or less stable state at a power level of 200 MW the preparation for the experiment was continued.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And I didn't get back for about a year or so, until my parents thought the radiation levels were more or less acceptable .
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, more control rods have to be withdrawn to stop power levels dropping.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.As part of the test plan, at 1:05 a.m.^ As part of the test plan, at 1:05 a.m.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

on .26 April extra water pumps were activated, increasing the water flow.^ April extra water pumps were activated, increasing the water flow.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the exp-rlment began, the rate tf coollng-waier flow decreased, leading to Incrtailng water temperature In Ihe core and Increased tltam formation.
  • THE CHERNOBYL' ACCIDENT SOCIAL AND POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS (SOV 87-10078X) - CIA document 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also, the low power levels of the reactor make the hydraulic resistance of the core low, which increases the flow of water through it.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The increased coolant flow rate through the reactor produced an increase in the inlet coolant temperature of the reactor core, which now more closely approached the nucleate boiling temperature of water, reducing the safety margin.^ Also, the low power levels of the reactor make the hydraulic resistance of the core low, which increases the flow of water through it.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As flow of coolant water diminished, power output increased.
  • Chernobyl 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Toptunov reduces coolant flow rate.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The flow exceeded the allowed limit at 1:19 a.m.^ The flow exceeded the allowed limit at 1:19 a.m.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pumps delivered excessive flow to the point where they exceeded their allowed limits.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the same time the extra water flow lowered the overall core temperature and reduced the existing steam voids in the core.^ At the same time the extra water flow lowered the overall core temperature and reduced the existing steam voids in the core.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The steam to the turbines was shut off and, as the momentum of the turbine generator drove the water pumps, the water flow rate decreased, decreasing the absorption of neutrons by the coolant.
  • Chernobyl - Russia 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC safetycouncil.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So nobody, nobody considered – even after all this time – that water might flow that way ?
  • Damn Interesting • In Soviet Russia, Lake Contaminates You 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

[35] .Since water also absorbs neutrons (and the higher density of liquid water makes it a better absorber than steam), turning on additional pumps decreased the reactor power.^ Again, steam does not absorb or slow neutrons well compared to water.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since water also absorbs neutrons (and the higher density of liquid water makes it a better absorber than steam), turning on additional pumps decreased the reactor power.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the positive void coefficient of the RBMK reactor at low reactor power levels, it was now primed to embark on a positive feedback loop, in which the formation of steam voids decreased the ability of the liquid water coolant to absorb neutrons, which increased the reactor's power output, causing yet more water to flash into steam, and yet a further power increase.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This prompted the operators to remove the manual control rods further to maintain power.^ This prompted the operators to remove the manual control rods further to maintain power.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The power was due to be lowered further; however, the controller of the electricity grid in Kiev requested the reactor operator to keep supplying electricity to enable demand to be met.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It shows power as 0.2GW and an operating reactivity reserve of eight rods, just over half the mandatory minimum value.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[36]
.All these actions led to an extremely unstable reactor configuration.^ All these actions led to an extremely unstable reactor configuration.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One would think after all of these months that 2 people could have supported their own CP. Inability to act should NOT be confused with action.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ However, at the time of the accident at Chernobyl 4, the reactor's fuel burn-up, control rod configuration and power level led to a positive void coefficient large enough to overwhelm all other influences on the power coefficient.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Nearly all of the control rods were removed, which limited the value of the safety rods when initially inserted in a scram.^ Normally the reactor would have started to insert all of the control rods .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nearly all of the control rods were removed, which limited the value of the safety rods when initially inserted in a scram.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this case the majority of control rods were withdrawn to their upper limits, but the low value of the operational reactivity margin restricted further rise of reactor power.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Further, the reactor coolant had limited boiling, but had limited margin to boiling, so any power excursion would produce boiling, reducing neutron absorption by the water.^ "What is an economic simplified boiling water reactor?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Further, the reactor coolant had limited boiling, but had limited margin to boiling, so any power excursion would produce boiling, reducing neutron absorption by the water.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the positive void coefficient of the RBMK reactor at low reactor power levels, it was now primed to embark on a positive feedback loop, in which the formation of steam voids decreased the ability of the liquid water coolant to absorb neutrons, which increased the reactor's power output, causing yet more water to flash into steam, and yet a further power increase.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This left the reactor in an unstable configuration that was clearly outside the safe operating envelope established by the designers.^ This left the reactor in an unstable configuration which was clearly outside of the safe operating envelope established by the designers.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The April 1986 disaster at the Chernobyl a nuclear power plant in the Ukraine was the product of a flawed Soviet reactor design coupled with serious mistakes made by the plant operators b .
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reactor design was poor from the point of view of safety and unforgiving for the operators, both of which provoked a dangerous operating state.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Experiment and explosion

.
Aerial view of the damaged core.
^ Aerial view of the damaged core.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Roof of the turbine hall is damaged (image center).^ Roof of the turbine hall is damaged (image center).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contrary to safety regulations, a combustible material ( bitumen ) had been used in the construction of the roof of the reactor building and the turbine hall.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Roof of the adjacent reactor 3 (image lower left) shows minor fire damage.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Roof of the adjacent reactor 3 (image lower left) shows minor fire damage.
.
Lumps of graphite moderator ejected from the core.
^ Lumps of graphite moderator ejected from the core.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Core - a cylinder 12 metres in diameter and seven metres high, built from blocks of graphite , which also serves as a moderator .
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A second explosion threw out fragments of burning fuel and graphite from the core and allowed air to rush in, causing the graphite moderator to burst into flames.
  • Chernobyl 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The largest lump shows an intact control rod channel.
At 1:23:04 a.m. the experiment began. .The steam to the turbines was shut off, and a run down of the turbine generator began, together with four (of the total eight) Main Circulating Pumps (MCP).^ Steam Turbine - this is run by steam generated by the heating of coolant.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On 25 April, prior to a routine shutdown, the reactor crew at Chernobyl 4 began preparing for a test to determine how long turbines would spin and supply power to the main circulating pumps following a loss of main electrical power supply.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 25 April, prior to a routine shut-down, the reactor crew at Chernobyl-4 began preparing for a test to determine how long turbines would spin and supply power following a loss of main electrical power supply.
  • Chernobyl 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The diesel generator started and sequentially picked up loads, which was complete by 01:23:43; during this period the power for these four MCPs was supplied by the coasting down turbine generator.^ The turbine starts to coast down, monitored by the Donenergo representatives.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On 25 April, prior to a routine shut-down, the reactor crew at Chernobyl-4 began preparing for a test to determine how long turbines would spin and supply power following a loss of main electrical power supply.
  • Chernobyl 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The test proposal seemed very simple: the reactor would be run at low power, then the valves to the turbines would be closed and the reactor shut down.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.As the momentum of the turbine generator that powered the water pumps decreased, the water flow rate decreased, leading to increased formation of steam voids in the core.^ April extra water pumps were activated, increasing the water flow.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As flow of coolant water diminished, power output increased.
  • Chernobyl 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the momentum of the turbine generator that powered the water pumps decreased, the water flow rate decreased, leading to increased formation of steam voids in the core.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because of the positive void coefficient of the RBMK reactor at low reactor power levels, it was now primed to embark on a positive feedback loop, in which the formation of steam voids decreased the ability of the liquid water coolant to absorb neutrons, which increased the reactor's power output, causing yet more water to flash into steam, and yet a further power increase.^ A "void" is a pocket of steam in reactor coolant.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fuel elements ruptured, leading to increased steam generation, which in turn further increased power owing to the large positive void coefficient.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The RBMK is a boiling water reactor, so in-core boiling is normal at higher power levels.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, during almost the entire period of the experiment the automatic control system successfully counteracted this positive feedback, continuously inserting control rods into the reactor core to limit the power rise.^ Normally the reactor would have started to insert all of the control rods .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, during almost the entire period of the experiment the automatic control system successfully counteracted this positive feedback, continuously inserting control rods into the reactor core to limit the power rise.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Core - this is the vessel for the fuel, coolant and control rods of the reactor.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.At 1:23:40, as recorded by the SKALA centralized control system, the EPS-5 button (also known as the AZ-5 button) of the reactor emergency protection system was pressed, which initiated a scram — a shutdown of the reactor, fully inserting all control rods, including the manual control rods that had been incautiously withdrawn earlier.^ Normally the reactor would have started to insert all of the control rods .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has alternately been asserted that the signal was not from the button but was automatically produced by the emergency protection system; however the SKALA clearly registered a manual scram signal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 1:23:40, as recorded by the SKALA centralized control system, the EPS-5 button of the reactor emergency protection system was pressed, which initiated a scram —- a shutdown of the reactor, fully inserting all control rods, including the manual control rods that had been incautiously withdrawn earlier.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The reason the EPS-5 button was pressed is not known, whether it was done as an emergency measure or simply as a routine method of shutting down the reactor upon completion of the experiment.^ The reactor was simply being shut down upon the completion of the experiment.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The emergency button (AZ-5) was pressed by the operator.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dyatlov later claimed in his book that this was simply shutting down the reactor on completion of the experiment.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.There is a view that the scram may have been ordered as a response to the unexpected rapid power increase, although there is no recorded data convincingly testifying to this.^ On Tuesday morning several European governments asked Moscow for more information but there was no response.
  • InfoUkes: Ukrainian History -- Chornobyl Nuclear Catastrophe 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.infoukes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a resolution dated May 8, 1986, the [Soviet] politburo ordered allowable radiation doses increased by factors ranging from 10 to 50.
  • Inside The Chernobyl Nuclear Exclusion Zone 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.btinternet.com [Source type: News]

^ During fiscal year 2008, the FBI gave "no records" responses to 57% of the requests it processed, more than any other major agency.
  • History News Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

.Some have suggested that the button was not pressed but rather that the signal was automatically produced by the emergency protection system; however, the SKALA clearly registered a manual scram signal.^ It has alternately been asserted that the signal was not from the button but was automatically produced by the emergency protection system; however the SKALA clearly registered a manual scram signal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The emergency button (AZ-5) was pressed by the operator.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 1:23:40, as recorded by the SKALA centralized control system, the EPS-5 button of the reactor emergency protection system was pressed, which initiated a scram —- a shutdown of the reactor, fully inserting all control rods, including the manual control rods that had been incautiously withdrawn earlier.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In spite of this, the question as to when or even whether the EPS-5 button was pressed was the subject of debate.^ In spite of this, the question as to when or even whether the EPS-5 button was pressed was the subject of debate.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even if your side of the debate still has yet to answer even ONE question and can ONLY attack on a personal level.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The reason why the EPS-5 button was pressed is not known, whether it was done as an emergency measure, or simply as a routine method of shutting down the reactor upon the completion of the experiment.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are assertions that the pressure was caused by the rapid power acceleration at the start, and allegations that the button was not pressed until the reactor began to self-destruct.^ There are assertions that the pressure was caused by the rapid power acceleration at the start.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is alleged furthermore that the button was pressed during the time of the destruction of the reactor.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a general understanding that it was steam from the wrecked channels entering the reactor inner structure that caused the destruction of the reactor casing, tearing off and lifting by force the 2,000 ton upper plate (to which entire reactor assembly is fastened).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37] .Others assert that it happened earlier and in calm conditions.^ According to other assertions, it happened earlier and was performed in calm conditions.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Dyatlov writes in his book:
.Prior to 01:23:40, systems of centralized control … did not register any parameter changes that could justify the scram.^ An alternative view is that the power excursion was triggered by the insertion of the control rods e after the scram button was pressed (at 01:23:40) f .
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has not been established why the scram button (EPS-5, also referred to as AZ-5) was pressed at 1:23:40.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At 01:23:43, the power excursion rate emergency protection system signals came on and power exceeded 530 MWt and continued to rise.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Commission … gathered and analyzed large amounts of material and, as stated in its report, failed to determine the reason why the scram was ordered.^ The Commission … gathered and analyzed large amounts of material and, as stated in its report, failed to determine the reason why the scram was ordered.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If they got the report on or about October 10, 2008 from GreenPlay why when we asked about it and asked for a copy, why did the WECRD state that they did not have it and it would not be available until after the election?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ According to urban historians, this view is largely a phenomenon of the Enlightenment and Romantic period, which gathered particular strength in the new United States following the American Revolution.
  • Earth Day web sites 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There was no need to look for the reason.^ There was no need to look for the reason.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There's no reason to not be an army of one.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ There is no need for all of the defensivness.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.The reactor was simply being shut down upon the completion of the experiment.^ The reactor was simply being shut down upon the completion of the experiment.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dyatlov later claimed in his book that this was simply shutting down the reactor on completion of the experiment.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The reason why the EPS-5 button was pressed is not known, whether it was done as an emergency measure, or simply as a routine method of shutting down the reactor upon the completion of the experiment.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38]
.For whatever reason the EPS-5 button was pressed, insertion of control rods into the reactor core began.^ Core - this is the vessel for the fuel, coolant and control rods of the reactor.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For whatever reason the EPS-5 button was pressed, insertion of control rods into the reactor core began.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MWt to 530Mwt, Akimov presses the 'AZ' button on his control panel to insert all control rods into the core and "shut down" the reactor.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The control rod insertion mechanism operated at a relatively slow speed (0.4 m/s) taking 18–20 seconds to travel the full approximately 7-meter core length (height).^ The control rod insertion mechanism operated at a relatively slow speed (0.4 m/s) taking 18–20 seconds to travel the full approximately 7 meter core-length (height).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The core is threaded with about 1700 3.5" pressure channels for fuel, coolant and control rods.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The two men cave and Toptunov starts withdrawing control rods from the core.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.A bigger problem was a flawed graphite-tip control rod design, which initially displaced coolant before neutron-absorbing material was inserted and the reaction slowed.^ A bigger problem was a flawed graphite-tip control rod design, which initially displaced coolant, before neutron absorbing material was inserted and the reaction slowed.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With this design, when the rods are inserted into the reactor from the uppermost position, initially the graphite parts displace some coolant.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A more significant flaw was in the design of the control rods that are inserted into the reactor to slow down the reaction.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, the scram actually increased the reaction rate in the lower half of the core.^ In this way, the scram actually increased the reaction rate in the lower half of the core.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Instead, they ask the world to accept their speculation and conjecture that low doses and dose-rates are safe -- a notion which would surely result in increased exposures.
  • CHAPTER 24, Chernobyl: A Crossroad in the Radiation Health Sciences, RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER FROM LOW-DOSE EXPOSURE 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ratical.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As the momentum of the turbine generator that powered the water pumps decreased, the water flow rate decreased, leading to increased formation of steam voids in the core.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At this point a massive power spike occurred, and the core overheated.^ At this point a massive power spike occurred, and the core overheated.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although boron is beginning to enter the top of the core as this occurs, the event can sometimes concentrate power generation in the bottom of the core.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some of the fuel rods fractured, blocking the control rod columns and causing the control rods to become stuck after being inserted only one-third of the way.^ Some of the fuel rods fractured, blocking the control rod columns, and causing the control rods to become stuck after being inserted only one-third of the way.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I'm not the only one feeling this way.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The core is threaded with about 1700 3.5" pressure channels for fuel, coolant and control rods.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Within three seconds the reactor output rose above 530 MW.[39] The subsequent course of events was not registered by instruments: it is known only as a result of mathematical simulation.^ Within three seconds the reactor output rose above 530 MW. [ 26 ] The subsequent course of events was not registered by instruments: it is known only as the result of mathematical simulation.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The power output of this reactor is 3200 MW thermal, or 1000 MWe.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A second, more powerful explosion occurred about two or three seconds after the first; evidence indicates that the second explosion resulted from a nuclear excursion.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to some estimations, the reactor jumped to around 30 GW thermal, ten times the normal operational output, but not immediately.^ According to some estimations, the reactor jumped to around 30 GW thermal, ten times the normal operational output but not immediately.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We believe that it will be impossible to live in the restricted 30-kilometer zone around Chernobyl and its immediate borders for the rest of this century and into the next as well.
  • Position PaperGIS and Geostatistics: Spatial Analysis of Chernobyl Consequences in Belarus 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.ncgia.ucsb.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Second, with so many cooling pumps operating at such low reactor power, coolant flow exceeds normal levels by about 30%.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.First a great rise in power caused an increase in fuel temperature and massive steam buildup with rapid increase in steam pressure.^ There are assertions that the pressure was caused by the rapid power acceleration at the start.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First a great rise in power caused the rise of fuel temperature and massive steam buildup with rapid increasing in steam pressure.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While there’s little doubt that temperatures are increasing on average, the causes, effects, and significance of those increases are very much in debate.
  • Martin Andrade Blogs Here No More: 05/01/2005 - 06/01/2005 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC martinandrade.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.This destroyed fuel elements and ruptured the channels in which these elements were located.^ This destroyed fuel elements and ruptured the channels in which these elements located.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fuel elements ruptured and the resultant explosive force of steam lifted off the cover plate of the reactor, releasing fission products to the atmosphere.
  • Chernobyl 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fuel elements ruptured, leading to increased steam generation, which in turn further increased power owing to the large positive void coefficient.
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40]
.It was not possible to reconstruct the precise sequence of the processes that led to the destruction of the reactor and the power unit building.^ The damaged Chernobyl unit 4 reactor building .
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Chernobyl 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was not possible to reconstruct the precise sequence of the processes that led to the destruction of the reactor and the power unit building.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ THE SARCOPHAGUS is a containment structure built on top of the destroyed nuclear reactor unit 4 at the Chornobyl Power Station.
  • InfoUkes: Ukrainian History -- Chornobyl Nuclear Catastrophe 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.infoukes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is a general understanding that it was steam from the wrecked channels entering the reactor inner structure that caused the destruction of the reactor casing, tearing off and lifting by force the 2,000 ton upper plate (to which the entire reactor assembly is fastened).^ There is a general understanding that it was steam from the wrecked channels entering the reactor inner structure that caused the destruction of the reactor casing, tearing off and lifting by force the 2,000 ton upper plate (to which entire reactor assembly is fastened).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fuel elements ruptured and the resultant explosive force of steam lifted off the cover plate of the reactor, releasing fission products to the atmosphere.
  • Chernobyl 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emergency signals from the Reactor Emergency Protection System (EPS-5) triggered a trip, turning off both turbine-generators.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Apparently this was the first explosion that many heard.^ Apparently this was the first explosion which many heard.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] .This was a steam explosion like the explosion of a steam boiler from the excess pressure of vapor.^ This was a steam explosion like the explosion of a steam boiler from the excess pressure of vapour.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With the bubbler pool gone, a meltdown was less likely to produce a powerful steam explosion.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was a steam explosion much like if you never vented the pressure out of you hot water heater.
  • ksl.com - Group rallies against nuclear waste headed to Utah 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.ksl.com [Source type: General]

.This ruptured further fuel channels – as a result the remaining coolant flashed to steam and escaped the reactor core.^ This ruptured further fuel channels – as a result the remaining coolant flashed to steam and escaped the reactor core.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fuel elements ruptured and the resultant explosive force of steam lifted off the cover plate of the reactor, releasing fission products to the atmosphere.
  • Chernobyl 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the positive void coefficient of the RBMK reactor at low reactor power levels, it was now primed to embark on a positive feedback loop, in which the formation of steam voids decreased the ability of the liquid water coolant to absorb neutrons, which increased the reactor's power output, causing yet more water to flash into steam, and yet a further power increase.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The total water loss combined with a high positive void coefficient to increase the reactor power.^ A reactor with a negative void coefficient—i.e.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This coincides with the rise in power already occurring from increased steam generation and the reactor's positive void coefficient.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The reactor had a dangerously large positive void coefficient .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A second, more powerful explosion occurred about two or three seconds after the first; evidence indicates that the second explosion resulted from a nuclear excursion.^ A second, more powerful explosion occurred about two or three seconds after the first; evidence indicates that the second explosion resulted from a nuclear excursion.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "How about nuclear power?"
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The first is for Nuclear Power and the second is not.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

[42]
.There were initially several hypotheses about the nature of the second explosion.^ There were initially several hypotheses about the nature of the second explosion.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About two to three seconds later, a second explosion threw out fragments from the fuel channels and hot graphite.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A second, more powerful explosion occurred about two or three seconds after the first; evidence indicates that the second explosion resulted from a nuclear excursion.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

One view was that "the second explosion was caused by the hydrogen which had been produced either by the overheated steam-zirconium reaction or by the reaction of red-hot graphite with steam that produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide." According to another hypothesis, this explosion was of a nuclear nature,[43] i.e., the thermal explosion of the reactor as a result of the uncontrollable escape of fast neutrons caused by the complete water loss in the reactor core. .A third hypothesis was that the explosion was caused, exceptionally, by steam.^ Finally, there is a version that the explosion was caused, exceptionally, by steam.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One view was that " the second explosion was caused by the hydrogen which had been produced either by the overheated steam-zirconium reaction or by the reaction of red-hot graphite with steam that produce hydrogen and oxygen ".
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is some dispute among experts about the character of this second explosion, but it is likely to have been caused by the production of hydrogen from zirconium-steam reactions.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to this version, the flow of steam and the steam pressure caused all the destruction following the ejection from the shaft of a substantial part of the graphite and fuel.^ According to this version, the flow of steam and the steam pressure caused all the destruction following the ejection from the shaft of the substantial part of the graphite and fuel.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fuel melted, causing at least two explosions that partially destroyed the reactor building and set the graphite stacks of the core on fire .
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The interaction of very hot fuel with the cooling water led to fuel fragmentation along with rapid steam production and an increase in pressure.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to observers outside Unit 4, burning lumps of material and sparks shot into the air above the reactor.^ According to observers outside Unit 4, burning lumps of material and sparks shot into the air above the reactor.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apparently the government wanted to emphasize that all was "normal" although the reactor was still burning and invisible, deadly radioactivity was pouring into the air.
  • InfoUkes: Ukrainian History -- Chornobyl Nuclear Catastrophe 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.infoukes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this mixture had melted through the floor into the pool of water, it would have created a massive steam explosion which would eject more radioactive material from the reactor.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of them fell onto the roof of the machine hall and started a fire.^ Some of them fell onto the roof of the machine hall and started a fire.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fires started in what remained of the unit 4 building, giving rise to clouds of steam and dust, and fires also broke out on the adjacent turbine hall roof (bitumen, a flammable material, had been used in its construction).
  • Chernobyl Appendix 1: Sequence of Events 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sitnikov went around the unit, as close to the central hall as he could get and up onto the roof of the neighbouring water treatment plant to get a better view.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.About 25 per cent of the red-hot graphite blocks and overheated material from the fuel channels was ejected.^ About 25 per cent of the red-hot graphite blocks and overheated material from the fuel channels was ejected.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even when the exasperated Smagin pointed out the holes bored through the graphite it for the fuel channels, Lyutov remained unconvinced it was core material.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We’re talking about a bomb that disperses radioactive material for blocks or miles in the heart of a big city.

... .Parts of the graphite blocks and fuel channels were out of the reactor building.^ Parts of the graphite blocks and fuel channels were blown out of the reactor building.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A mixture of nitrogen and helium is circulated between the graphite blocks to prevent oxidation of the graphite and to improve the transmission of the heat produced by neutron interactions in the graphite to the fuel channel.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reactor consisted of about 1,600 individual fuel channels and each operational channel required a flow of 28 metric tons of water per hour.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

... .As a result of the damage to the building an airflow through the core was established by the high temperature of the core.^ As a result of the damage to the building an airflow through the core was established by the high temperature of the core.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following an emergency shutdown (scram), cooling is required to maintain the temperature in the reactor core low enough to avoid fuel damage.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Uranium melts at 2900°C and at that temperature could burn through the two metre-thick concrete base of the core.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.The air ignited the hot graphite and started a graphite fire.^ The air ignited the hot graphite and started a graphite fire .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Air rushes into the remains of the central hall and sets the graphite remaining in the core on fire .
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The open core also allowed air (oxygen) to contact the super-hot core containing 1,700 tonnes [ 8 ] of combustible graphite moderator .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44]
.However, the ratio of xenon radioisotopes released during the event provides compelling evidence that the second explosion was a nuclear power transient.^ However the ratio of Xenon radioisotopes released during the event provides compelling evidence that the second explosion was a nuclear power transient.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first is for Nuclear Power and the second is not.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The study was conducted in Kyiv, Ukraine, where thousands of people were relocated after the explosion at the Chornobyl nuclear power station in April 1986.
  • BioMed Central | Full text | Subjective health legacy of the Chernobyl accident: A comparative study of 19-year olds in Kyiv 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.biomedcentral.com [Source type: Academic]

.This nuclear transient released ~0.01 kilotons of energy; the analysis indicates that the nuclear excursion was limited to a small portion of the core.^ This nuclear transient released ~0.01 kilotons of energy; the analysis indicates that the nuclear excursion was limited to a small portion of the core.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A second, more powerful explosion occurred about two or three seconds after the first; evidence indicates that the second explosion resulted from a nuclear excursion.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With nuclear fission, atoms of fuel are split (fissioned) to release energy.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

[42]
.The nuclear excursion dispersed the core and effectively terminated that phase of the event.^ The nuclear excursion dispersed the core and effectively terminated that phase of the event.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These can be inserted into the core to inhibit or stop the nuclear reaction, absorbing neutrons that would otherwise cause fission events.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This nuclear transient released ~0.01 kilotons of energy; the analysis indicates that the nuclear excursion was limited to a small portion of the core.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the graphite fire continued, greatly contributing to the spread of radioactive material and the contamination of outlying areas.^ However the graphite fire continued, greatly contributing to the spread of radioactive material and the contamination of outlying areas.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No, the real damage was done by the radioactive emissions of the graphite fire which burned for ten days afterwards.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, in the spent fuel, the fission products themselves are radioactive, and continue to produce heat as they decay.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45]
.Contrary to safety regulations, a combustible material (bitumen) had been used in the construction of the roof of the reactor building and the turbine hall.^ Piers Paul Read The sarcophagus was constructed very hastily and mostly by remote control due to the dangerous environment, in some cases using the remaining structure of the reactor building for support.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The casualties included firefighters who attended the initial fires on the roof of the turbine building.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of them vanished long ago their material re-used in other building projects.
  • History News Network 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

.Ejected material ignited at least five fires on the roof of the (still operating) adjacent reactor 3. It was imperative to put those fires out and protect the cooling systems of reactor 3.[46] Inside reactor 3, the chief of the night shift, Yuri Bagdasarov, wanted to shut down the reactor immediately, but chief engineer Nikolai Fomin would not allow this.^ The fire inside Reactor No.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The shift foreman of unit 3 asked Fomin for permission to shut his reactor down, but Fomin refused.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ejected material ignited at least five fires on the roof of the (still operating) adjacent reactor 3.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The operators were given respirators and potassium iodide tablets and told to continue working.^ William Walker holds a pack of potassium iodide tablets tablets in 2002.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Enlarge image Enlarge By H. Darr Beiser, USA TODAY file photo William Walker holds a pack of potassium iodide tablets tablets in 2002.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Nicole Ungaro, head auditor for a Fortune 500 company, told me that "given the current state of the economy, it is not surprising that a startup company would have operating losses.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.At 05:00, however, Bagdasarov made his own decision to shut down the reactor, leaving only those operators there who had to work the emergency cooling systems.^ Even those who worked there had no idea.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the voting public made their decision and we have what we have.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ At 05:00, however, Bagdasarov made his own decision to shut down the reactor, leaving only those operators there who had to work the emergency cooling systems.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47]

Radiation levels

Approximate radiation levels at different locations shortly after the explosion:[48]
location radiation (roentgens/hour)
vicinity of the reactor core 30,000
fuel fragments 15,000-20,000
debris heap at the place of circulation pumps 10,000
debris near the electrolyzers 5,000-15,000
water in the Level +25 feedwater room 5,000
level 0 of the turbine hall 500-15,000
area of the affected unit 1,000-1,500
water in Room 712 1,000
control room, shortly after explosion 3-5
Gidroelektromontazh depot 30
nearby concrete mixing unit 10-15

Plant layout

based on the image of the plant[49]
level objects
49.6 roof of the reactor building, gallery of the refueling mechanism
39.9 roof of the deaerator gallery
35.5 floor of the main reactor hall
31.6 upper side of the upper biological shield, floor of the space for pipes to steam separators
28.3 lower side of the turbine hall roof
24.0 deaerator floor, measurement and control instruments room
16.4 floor of the pipe aisle in the deaerator gallery
12.0 main floor of the turbine hall, floor of the main circulation pump motor compartments
10.0 control room, floor under the reactor lower biological shield, main circulation pumps
6.0 steam distribution corridor
2.2 upper pressure suppression pool
0.0 ground level; house switchgear, turbine hall level
-0.5 lower pressure suppression pool
-5.2, -4.2 other turbine hall levels
-6.5 basement floor of the turbine hall

Individual involvement

Khodemchuk memorial, located outside the control room 4 where the observation gallery was
File:Chernobyl firemens memorial.jpg
Chernobyl firemen memorial
Model of the reactor and turbine hall
Most of the information here is based on Grigoriy Medvedev's work[48]
.In the night from 25 to 26 April, in the two power plant complexes there were 160 people on duty, including technicians and maintenance personnel of the various departments.^ A nuclear power plant has not been located there, ever.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ At 1:23 in the morning on April 26, 1986, there was a disastrous chain reaction in the core of reactor No.4.
  • 'Voices of Chernobyl': Survivors' Stories : NPR 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ On April 26, 1986, two violent explosions destroyed the core of unit 4 of the power plant and the roof of the building, resulting in a series of fires and in massive releases of radioactive materials into the atmosphere.
  • The Chernobyl Disaster: Cancer following the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant -- Hatch et al. 27 (1): 56 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Three hundred more workers were present at the building site of the third complex of the blocks 5 and 6.
.Nikolai Gorbachenko, a radiation monitoring technician, at the beginning of his shift checked Unit 3; he skipped the check of Unit 4 as it was being shut down, so at the moment of the accident he was located in the duty room.^ You're welcome to your opinion and to question us, but don't try and shut us down by labeling us with the generization of being against everything.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The reactor was simply being shut down upon the completion of the experiment.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Posted by AtomicDog on Mon, Mar 16, 2009, at 7:58 PM Who said the BB was at risk of being shut down?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.A flat and powerful thud shook the building; he and his assistant Pshenichnikov thought it was a water hammer occurring during a turbine shutdown.^ The intention was to use the power produced by the reactor's own turbines as they spun down; this had actually been attempted during a previous shutdown but had been unsuccessful, because the power produced by the generator dropped too quickly.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One such test was on the plant's turbines, intended to test whether they would work as a temporary source of electricity during a power failure.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Another flat thud followed, accompanied by lights going out, the control panel of Unit 4 losing signal, latched double doors being blown apart by the blast, and black and red powder falling from the ventilation vent; emergency lights then switched on.^ I for one am not going to go thru all their files to see just what all as been taken in from taxes and what is being paid out.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Who is willing to help 4 people (that is all we have at this point and 2 are seniors that cannot be out in the cold) to go door to door and obtain signatures?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ And for the record when we go door-to-door with the Petition out of 30 homes asked to sign, on average, 2 do not sign.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

Telephone connection with Unit 4 was cut. The corridor to the deaerator galleries was full of steam and white dust. .The radiation counters went off-scale, and the high-range one burned out when switched on; the portable instruments were capable of showing at most 4 roentgens/hour, while the radiation on the roof ranged between 2000 and 15000 roentgens/hour.^ True Compass, one of the year's most anticipated books, is scheduled to come out next week.
  • History News Network 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

^ The graphite in the core of unit 4 was burning at a rate of about one ton per hour and with a core weighing 2500 tons (some of which had been thrown out by the explosion) would probably take months to burn out.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I know it has been said it will be a low water plant, but this was one of the reasons this company has been ran out of other states, they couldnt show how it was going to be a lower water plant.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.He went to the turbine hall to survey the damage, saw scattered pieces of concrete, and returned to the duty room.^ Roof of the turbine hall is damaged (image center).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Meeting two men there, together with them he went to search for Shashenok, found him unconscious in a damaged instrument room, and carried him down.^ When he reported what he had seen to Fomin and plant director Brukhanov, retching and carrying a fresh nuclear tan , the two men angrily dismissed and ignored his report.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There was a journalist there, after the meeting, who had been there early and said that nothing had gone on and he went into the building with the TF foor doctor.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ It is not like the naysayers are a group of 10 people...there was an entire room of us at meeting after meeting.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

He returned to his post and changed clothes and shoes. He was then ordered to look for Khodemchuk, but the search was unsuccessful. .He went to the control room and with Dyatlov went outside to survey the reactor building.^ Late one night, some guys down at the control room, who were in charge of shutting down the reactor (for routine maintenance ), decided to perform a " test ."
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dyatlov then calls Perevozchenko, the Shift Foreman of the maintenance department to the control room .
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We got a tour of the Chernobyl Plant (including the Reactor 4 control room), several of the abandoned villages, and Pripyat.
  • English Russia » Lost City of Chernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Nuclear Winter in Chernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.stuckincustoms.com [Source type: General]

At 5 am he began feeling weak and vomiting and was transported to hospital, from where he was released on October 27.
.The night shift main circulating pump operator, Valery Khodemchuk, was likely killed immediately; he was located in the collapsed part of the building, in the far end of the southern main circulating pumps engine room at level +10. His body was never recovered and is entombed in the reactor debris.^ On 25 April, prior to a routine shutdown, the reactor crew at Chernobyl 4 began preparing for a test to determine how long turbines would spin and supply power to the main circulating pumps following a loss of main electrical power supply.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not like the naysayers are a group of 10 people...there was an entire room of us at meeting after meeting.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Second, with so many cooling pumps operating at such low reactor power, coolant flow exceeds normal levels by about 30%.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Vladimir Sashenok, the automatic systems adjuster from Atomenergonaladka(the Chernobyl startup and adjustment enterprise), was supposed to be in Room 604, the location of the measurement and control instruments, on the upper landing across the turbine room, on level +24, under the reactor feedwater unit; he was reporting the states of the pressure gauges of the profile of the multiple forced circulation circuit to the computer room by telephone.^ The damaged Chernobyl unit 4 reactor building .
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Grigori Medvedev, former Deputy Chief Engineer, Reactor 1, Chernobyl NPP 01:19 - to address the problems of water levels and steam pressure in the separator drums, Toptunov withdraws more control rods to increase power.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The point is that even in the United States we give the power to use nuclear weapons to a single individual, contrary to your claim that “people don’t single-handedly have control of or access to a nuclear warhead.” And I didn’t say “low-level” contractor.

The communication lines were cut during the explosion. .Shashenok received deep thermal and radiation burns over his entire body when the overpressure spike destroyed the isolation membranes and the impulse pipes of the manometers in his instrument room just before the explosion, which then demolished the room itself.^ Bush's executive policy additionally had limited researchers receiving federal aid to just 21 stem cell lines created before August 2001.
  • History News Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

.The landing was found damaged, covered with ankle-deep water, and there were leaks of boiling water and radioactive steam.^ Water damage: Not covered.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ If this mixture had melted through the floor into the pool of water, it would have created a massive steam explosion which would eject more radioactive material from the reactor.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The water leaked at TEPCO's Fukushima Daini plant from a pool in a warehouse which keeps disposal materials of radioactive waste, an official at Fukushima Daini said.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.Sashenok was found unconscious in Room 604, pinned under a fallen beam, with bloody foam coming out of his mouth.^ The last two days in the hospitalpieces of his lungs, of his liver, were coming out of his mouth.
  • The Paris Review - Voices from Chernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.theparisreview.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Come out from under your rock PLEASE!!
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ As the anonamous worker whispered, they had found 3 bolts from the earthquake support beams had fallen off onto the floor!
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.His body was severely contaminated by radioactive water.^ Radioactive contamination of water ecosystems and sources of drinking water.

^ They will look at a list of the Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels for drinking water, and sketch the water cycle of a fictitious town that is affected by several pollutants.
  • Earth Day web sites 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was carried out by Gorbachenko and Palamarchuk and died at 6 am in the Pripyat hospital under care of the chief physician, Leonenko Vitaliy, without regaining consciousness.^ The commentator asks the chief -physician why he did not warn ihe people of Pripyat'.
  • THE CHERNOBYL' ACCIDENT SOCIAL AND POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS (SOV 87-10078X) - CIA document 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When may we expect the people who designed, ordered and carried out torture under the Bush Administration to be put on trial for their “crimes” in the Netherlands, or anywhere else for that matter?

^ Daniel A. Ruge, the White House physician who made crucial decisions in the care of President Ronald Reagan after he was shot in 1981, died Aug.
  • History News Network 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hnn.us [Source type: General]

.Gorbachenko suffered a radiation burn on his back where Sashenok's hand was located when he helped carry him out.^ The radio-controlled machines they used often failed to carry out commands or did the opposite of what they were supposed to do, because their electronics were disrupted by the high radiation.
  • 'Voices of Chernobyl': Survivors' Stories : NPR 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ SRA had the good judgement to back away to the sidewalk to hand out their literature and did not get arrested.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ According to a report in Herald Scotland, the team of archaeologists, backed by volunteers from Renfrewshire Local History Forum, is carrying out a 12-day excavation of the drain.
  • History News Network 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

Khodemchuk and Sashenok were the first two victims of the disaster.
Oleg Genrikh, an operator of the control room on Level +36, was taking a nap in a windowless room adjacent to the control room. .The window in the control room was broken and the lights went out.^ To the window that danced with a warm fire's light Then he sighed and he said "Its really all right, I'm out here by choice.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.His colleague, Anatoly Kurguz, was in the control room with three open doors between him and the reactor room; at the moment of the explosion, he suffered severe burns from steam entering the control room.^ If this mixture had melted through the floor into the pool of water, it would have created a massive steam explosion which would eject more radioactive material from the reactor.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Late one night, some guys down at the control room, who were in charge of shutting down the reactor (for routine maintenance ), decided to perform a " test ."
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The explosion would have been between three and five megatons.
  • 'Voices of Chernobyl': Survivors' Stories : NPR 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

Genrikh received less serious burns as he was protected by the windowless room. .The stairs on the right side were damaged; he managed to escape by the stairs on the left.^ You have to develop both the left and right sides of your brain to be a well rounded person.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ And for a well rounded person using left & right sides of the brain - well having some common sense would be good too, and that's what this bond does not have.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

[50] .On the way back they were joined by Simeonov and Simonenko, the gas loop operators, all four heading to the control room.^ When plant conditions exceeded test parameters, he threatened control room personnel with a trip to Siberia if they did not continue.
  • The Answer Ain't Nuclear | Mother Jones 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The late Professor Izhar Hirshfeld and Yossi Stefanski, the archeologists heading the excavation, initially assessed the remains to belong to the 2nd or 3rd century CE, but quickly realized that they go all the way back to the beginning of the 1st century CE, closer to the founding of Tiberias.
  • History News Network 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

^ Based on the average recoveries of the past, the Dow may not make it all the way back to its peak of 14,164 until late 2014.
  • History News Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

.Kurguz was shortly afterwards evacuated by an ambulance; aware of dangers of radiation contamination, Genrikh took a shower and changed his clothes.^ Shortly afterward, a high incidence of thyroid cancer in children also was observed in Belarus (27 –30 ) and later in the contaminated area of Russia (31 , 32 ).
  • The Chernobyl Disaster: Cancer following the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant -- Hatch et al. 27 (1): 56 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Most of these were fire and rescue workers trying to bring the accident under control, who were not fully aware of how dangerous the radiation exposure (from the smoke) was.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alexander Yuvchenko was located in his office between reactors 3 and 4, on Level 12.5; he described the event as a shock wave that buckled walls, blew doors in, and brought a cloud of milky grey radioactive dust and steam.^ The downside to the 'bombing' was every bag of sand dropped threw a cloud of radioactive dust into the air, but the net release of radioactivity was dropping.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If this mixture had melted through the floor into the pool of water, it would have created a massive steam explosion which would eject more radioactive material from the reactor.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since it's situated between two ravines, the location of the facility would almost certainly guarantee contamination of the Snake River in the event of a leak from simple runoff.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

The lights went out. .He met a badly burned, drenched and shocked pump operator, who asked him to rescue Khodemchuk; that quickly proved impossible as that part of the building did not exist anymore.^ Who did you ask?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The United States is a major donor to an international project to build a new shelter to replace the existing one, which is badly deteriorating.
  • http://www.lrc.fema.gov/starweb/lrcweb/servlet.starweb?path=lrcweb/STARLibraries1.web&search=SUB%3Dchernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.lrc.fema.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Why did it take him so long to ask for a paper statement if he needed one?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.Yuvchenko, together with the foreman Yuri Tregub, ran out of the building and saw half of the building gone and the reactor emitting a blue glow of ionized air.^ Becauseeilgn characteristic of tht Chernabyl'-lype reactors, ihe Increased steam conttnl in tht coreower increase that euitkly ran out af control.
  • THE CHERNOBYL' ACCIDENT SOCIAL AND POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS (SOV 87-10078X) - CIA document 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A fire broke out in the turbine building of reactor 2 in 1991; [ 83 ] the authorities subsequently declared the reactor damaged beyond repair and had it taken offline.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parts of the graphite blocks and fuel channels were blown out of the reactor building.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They returned to the building and met Valeri Perevozchenko and two junior technicians, Kudryavtsev and Proskuryakov, ordered by Dyatlov to manually lower the presumably seized control rods.^ People really think they are building two swimming pools.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The two men cave and Toptunov starts withdrawing control rods from the core.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The reactivity or power of the reactor is controlled by raising or lowering 211 control rods, which, when lowered into the moderator, absorb neutrons and reduce the fission rate.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tregub went to report the extent of damage to the control room.^ The extent of the damage emerged from a report submitted to the Chilean government by the National Monuments Council in early July.
  • History News Network 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

^ The wording of the reports was mild, but he clearly went psycho, but details were never revealed of the extent.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.Despite Yuvchenko's explanation that there were no control rods left, the four climbed a stairwell to level 35 to survey the damage; Yuvchenko held open the massive door into the reactor room and the other three proceeded in to locate the control rod mechanism; after no more than a minute of surveying the reactor debris, enough for all three to sustain fatal doses of radiation, they returned, their skin darkened with "nuclear tan" in reaction to the high radiation dose.^ All we hear is that there is no money.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Me and my mother were dosed with extremely high levels of radiation and we had to go to this center when I was four .
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "Gillispie said there had been no correspondence other than e-mails.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.The three were the first to die in the Moscow hospital.^ I know first hand how difficult infections are to cure, having spent weeks in hospital on three different occasions and have had numerous different antibiotics.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.Yuvchenko meanwhile suffered serious beta burns and gamma burns to his left shoulder, hip and calf as he kept the radioactive-dust-covered door open.^ Now, the doors of the elevator open, and he is in the middle of a barren land covered with waste and garbage.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.It was later estimated he received a dose of 4.1 Sv.^ Studies are continuing to provide estimates of the doses which will be received in subsequent years.
  • http://www.lrc.fema.gov/starweb/lrcweb/servlet.starweb?path=lrcweb/STARLibraries1.web&search=SUB%3Dchernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.lrc.fema.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Estimates are presented of the individual and collective doses received ty the Irish public during the first six months and the first year after the accident.
  • http://www.lrc.fema.gov/starweb/lrcweb/servlet.starweb?path=lrcweb/STARLibraries1.web&search=SUB%3Dchernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.lrc.fema.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A very tentative estimate of the collective dose commitment is 10 000 man.Sv.
  • http://www.lrc.fema.gov/starweb/lrcweb/servlet.starweb?path=lrcweb/STARLibraries1.web&search=SUB%3Dchernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.lrc.fema.gov [Source type: Academic]

.At 3 am he began vomiting, at 6 am he could not walk anymore; he later spent a year in the Moscow hospital receiving blood and plasma transfusions and received numerous skin grafts.^ In fact, Mayor Nelson began to change his stance a year later.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ I know first hand how difficult infections are to cure, having spent weeks in hospital on three different occasions and have had numerous different antibiotics.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Some 140 years later the extensive dig for the foundation of the boyhood home began.
  • History News Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

[51][52]
.Valeriy Ivanovich Perevozchenko, the reactor section foreman, was present on the open platform at level +50 shortly before the explosion.^ After hazardous missions under the reactor to discover the amounts of water present, divers were sent into the radioactive bubbler pools to open the valves and let out the water.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Shortly before the trial, Soviet Foreign Ministry officials described it as open and Indicated Western reporters could attend.
  • THE CHERNOBYL' ACCIDENT SOCIAL AND POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS (SOV 87-10078X) - CIA document 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He witnessed the 350 kg blocks atop the fuel channels of the Upper Biological Shield jumping up and down and felt the shock waves through the building structure; the rupture of the pressure channels was in progress.^ A build up of pressure inside the drum caused it to bulge.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ A mixture of nitrogen and helium is circulated between the graphite blocks to prevent oxidation of the graphite and to improve the transmission of the heat produced by neutron interactions in the graphite to the fuel channel.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The buildings at Chelyabinsk-40 shuddered as they were buffeted by the shock wave.
  • Damn Interesting • In Soviet Russia, Lake Contaminates You 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

.He ran down the spiral staircase to Level +10, through the deaerator gallery and the corridor to the control room, to report his observations, arriving shortly after the explosions, then returned to search for his comrades.^ Elevated rates were also reported for those born in regions of Greece with higher levels of radioactive fallout ( <6 kBq/m 2 , 6–10 kBq/m 2 , > 10 kBq/m 2 ).
  • The Chernobyl Disaster: Cancer following the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant -- Hatch et al. 27 (1): 56 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Late one night, some guys down at the control room, who were in charge of shutting down the reactor (for routine maintenance ), decided to perform a " test ."
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Many firemen who arrived at the scene were soon cut down by the huge levels of radiation they were unwittingly exposing themselves to.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.He witnessed the destruction of the reactor building from the broken windows of the deaerator gallery.^ It was not possible to reconstruct the precise sequence of the processes that led to the destruction of the reactor and the power unit building.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With his face already tanned by the radiation, he went to the dosimetry room and asked Gorbachenko for radiation levels; Gorbachenko left with Palamarchuk to rescue Shashenok while Perevozchenko went through the graphite and fuel containing radioactive rubble on Level 10 to the remains of Room 306 in an unsuccessful attempt to locate Khodemchuk, close to debris emitting over 10,000 roentgens/hour.^ But have you ever considered the amount of radiation that your body is already being subjected to on a 24 hour / lifetime basis from radio and microwaves?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The radiation levels in the worst-hit areas of the reactor building have been estimated to be 5.6 röntgen per second (R/s) (0.056 Grays per second, or Gy/s), which is equivalent to 20,000 röntgen per hour (R/hr) (200 Gy per hour, or Gy/hr).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Elevated rates were also reported for those born in regions of Greece with higher levels of radioactive fallout ( <6 kBq/m 2 , 6–10 kBq/m 2 , > 10 kBq/m 2 ).
  • The Chernobyl Disaster: Cancer following the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant -- Hatch et al. 27 (1): 56 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.He then went to the control room of Genrikh and Kurguz and found it empty; vomiting and losing consciousness, he returned to the control room to report on the situation.^ This one reporter said we didnt just return home, we went back a hundred years.
  • The Paris Review - Voices from Chernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.theparisreview.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Similarly, Perevozchenko (who had gone to find two trainees sent to manually lower the control rods) found his report that the reactor was destroyed ignored by Akimov.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Vyacheslav Brazhnik, the senior turbine machinist operator, ran into the control room to report fire in the turbine hall.^ Air rushes into the remains of the central hall and sets the graphite remaining in the core on fire .
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (Unit 2 was shut down after a turbine hall fire in 1991, and unit 1 at the end of 1997.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Immediately after Akimov presses the AZ button Perevozchenko runs into the control room, reporting that as he walked across the catwalk at the top of the central hall (about 20 metres above the top of the reactor) he saw the heavy caps to the fuel channels jumping in their sockets.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Pyotr Palamarchuk, the Chernobyl enterprise group supervisor, together with Razim Davletbayev, followed him back to the turbine room.^ Health hazards from radiocesium following the Chernobyl nuclear accident: Report on a WHO working group.

^ Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident and Special Health Care Programmes , Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum, Expert Group "Health", World Health Organization, 2006 (ISBN: 9789241594172) [ Back ] .
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They witnessed fires on levels 0 and +12, broken oil and water pipes, roof debris on top of turbine 7, and scattered pieces of reactor graphite and fuel, with the linoleum on the floor burning around them.^ On the roof they gathered fuel and graphite from the reactor, shards of concrete and metal.
  • 'Voices of Chernobyl': Survivors' Stories : NPR 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ There was a moment when there existed the danger of a nuclear explosion, and they had to get the water out from under the reactor, so that a mixture of uranium and graphite wouldn't get into it -- with the water they would have formed a critical mass.
  • 'Voices of Chernobyl': Survivors' Stories : NPR 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ However, at the time of the accident at Chernobyl 4, the reactor's fuel burn-up, control rod configuration and power level led to a positive void coefficient large enough to overwhelm all other influences on the power coefficient.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Palamarchuk unsuccessfully attempted to contact Sashenok in Room 604, then ran around the turbogenerator 8, down to Level 0 and urged the two men from the Kharkov mobile laboratory, assigned to record the turbine 8 vibrations, to leave; they, however, had both already received a lethal radiation dose.^ They received high doses of radiation, averaging around 100 millisieverts.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, these workers - where high doses may have been received - remain at increased risk of cancer in the long term.
  • Chernobyl | Chernobyl Accident | Chernobyl Disaster 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.world-nuclear.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Me and my mother were dosed with extremely high levels of radiation and we had to go to this center when I was four .
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

Akimov asked Palamarchuk to look for Gorbachenko and then rescue Sashenok as the communication with the dosimetry room was cut. .Palamarchuk met Gorbachenko by the staircase on Level +27, then they together found and recovered Shashenok's unconscious body.^ They have put together a form letter that friends and family members can send to their Congressional representatives, encouraging the government to recover the remains.
  • History News Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

[48]
Aleksandr Kudryavtsev and Viktor Proskuryakov, the SIUR trainees from other shifts, were present to watch Toptunov and learn. .After the explosion they were sent by Akimov to the central hall to turn the handles of the system for manual lowering of the presumably seized control rods.^ Operating manually, one step at a time, they should have lowered reactor power until the reactor was completely shut down, while taking great care not to press the [emergency shutdown] button, which would have been the equivalent of an explosion.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The volume will change little when the control rods are lowered, and won't significantly affect the running of the reactor.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If you were to do it with all of the manual control rods at once, you could get quite a nasty power spike.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.They ran through the deaerator gallery to the right to the VRSO unit elevator, found it destroyed, so climbed up the staircase instead, towards Level 36; they missed Kurguz and Genrikh, who used another stairwell.^ Maybe just maybe if there were more activites for them to participate at a level they can compete they might just do that instead.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ She has done so well (not really) in P & Z and working toward all of our futures that they gave Ms. Sharp another job...that of the "library lady."
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Bryce found more evidence of fraud at McKinley by digging up the previously unseen diary of Cooks climbing companion.
  • History News Network 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

Level 36 was destroyed, covered with rubble. .They went through a narrow corridor towards the central hall, entered the reactor hall, and found it blocked with rubble and fragments; dangling fire hoses were pouring water into the remains of the reactor core, the firemen not there anymore.^ Air rushes into the remains of the central hall and sets the graphite remaining in the core on fire .
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Theres a fire at the reactor.
  • The Paris Review - Voices from Chernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.theparisreview.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They were digging right into the water.
  • The Paris Review - Voices from Chernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.theparisreview.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Upper Biological Shield was slanted, jammed into the reactor shaft; a blue and red fire raged in the hole.^ The solidified, ceramic-like corium indicates this rapid cooling once the corium penetrated the lower biological shield and flowed into the lower regions of the reactor building.

^ A further threat to the shelter is the concrete slab that formed the "Upper Biological Shield" (UBS), situated above the reactor prior to the accident.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Detailed analysis of the release dynamics of the accident; as the graphite component of the core (corium) burned, it allowed the remaining fuel to eat away the lower biological shield (LBS) and flow into the lower regions of the reactor building.

.The minute the two stood above the reactor was enough to darken their bodies with "nuclear tan" and give them a fatal radiation dose.^ When he reported what he had seen to Fomin and plant director Brukhanov, retching and carrying a fresh nuclear tan , the two men angrily dismissed and ignored his report.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Distribution of doses from external radiation to cleanup workers, as recorded in national registries, following the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident * .
  • The Chernobyl Disaster: Cancer following the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant -- Hatch et al. 27 (1): 56 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A lethal dose is around 500 röntgen (5 Gy) over 5 hours, so in some areas, unprotected workers received fatal doses within several minutes.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They returned back to Level 10 and to the control room, reporting the situation; Dyatlov insisted they were wrong, the explosion had been caused by hydrogen-oxygen mixture in the 110 m3 emergency tank and the reactor itself was intact.^ There was a moment when there existed the danger of a nuclear explosion, and they had to get the water out from under the reactor, so that a mixture of uranium and graphite wouldn't get into it -- with the water they would have formed a critical mass.
  • 'Voices of Chernobyl': Survivors' Stories : NPR 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ When plant conditions exceeded test parameters, he threatened control room personnel with a trip to Siberia if they did not continue.
  • The Answer Ain't Nuclear | Mother Jones 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A robot sent into the reactor itself has returned with samples of black, melanin -rich fungi that are growing on the reactor's walls.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Anatoliy Dyatlov, the deputy chief engineer, supervised the test.^ Mikhail Lyutov, Scientific Deputy Chief Engineer responsible for matters of nuclear safety and who was supposed to have been consulted, was away having a medical check at the time.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All safety measures could also be overridden by the Deputy Chief Engineer (Dyatlov), who intended to be present for the test.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The report of Andreyevich Sitnikov (Deputy Chief Engineer of units 1 & 2), sent by Fomin to make an impartial assessment of the damage also fell on willfully deaf ears.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the moment reactor power slipped to 30 MW thermal, he insisted the operators continue the test.^ The test proposal seemed very simple: the reactor would be run at low power, then the valves to the turbines would be closed and the reactor shut down.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, with so many cooling pumps operating at such low reactor power, coolant flow exceeds normal levels by about 30%.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Chernobyl reactor is now enclosed in a large concrete sarcophagus which was built quickly to allow continuing operation of the other reactors at the plant.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He overrode Akimov's and Toptunov's objections, threatening to hand the shift to Tregub (the previous shift operator who had remained on-site), intimidating them into attempting to increase the reactor power.^ He threatens to replace Akimov with Tregub if he does not increase the reactor's power.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Toptunov evidently understands this because when Dyatlov—very angry at this development—orders him to immediately increase reactor power, he refuses.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Akimov orders Toptunov to disable the Local Automatic Control (LAC) system to give the operators more precise control of the reactor.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

The power stabilized at 200 MWt at around 1:00 a.m. and did not rise further, due to continued xenon poisoning of the core. .Later the test was commenced, then the reactor showed power excursion and was scrammed; the control rods seized and the explosion occurred shortly afterwards.^ The test proposal seemed very simple: the reactor would be run at low power, then the valves to the turbines would be closed and the reactor shut down.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Vladimir Repik / Reuters An aerial view of the fourth reactor of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant after its explosion is seen in this 1986 file photo.
  • 'Voices of Chernobyl': Survivors' Stories : NPR 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ It shows power as 0.2GW and an operating reactivity reserve of eight rods, just over half the mandatory minimum value.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Dyatlov ordered reactor cooling with emergency speed, assuming the reactor was intact and the explosion had been caused by hydrogen accumulating in the emergency tank of the safety control system.^ Emergency signals from the Reactor Emergency Protection System (EPS-5) triggered a trip, turning off both turbine-generators.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Akimov orders Toptunov to disable the Local Automatic Control (LAC) system to give the operators more precise control of the reactor.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The proposal also required the reactor's Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) to be disabled.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Other employees went to the control room, reporting damage.^ The Officer also admitted his report contradicted is court room testimony in 2 other important ways.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Foot Dr., the bank/credit union employees, the young man who just went to trial (for vehicular manslaughter I believe) and others.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.Dyatlov went to the backup control room, pressing the AZ-5 button there and disconnecting power to the control rod servodrives; despite seeing the graphite blocks scattered on the ground outside the plant, he still believed the reactor was intact.^ I still believe that there is a right and a wrong.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ A nuclear power plant has not been located there, ever.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ When plant conditions exceeded test parameters, he threatened control room personnel with a trip to Siberia if they did not continue.
  • The Answer Ain't Nuclear | Mother Jones 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

.Kudryavtsev and Proskuryakov returned to report the reactor damage they had seen, but Dyatlov insisted what they had seen was the results of an explosion of the emergency tank, claiming the explosion of the 110 m3 tank at Level +71 was sufficient to destroy the central hall roof.^ On April 26, 1986, two violent explosions destroyed the core of unit 4 of the power plant and the roof of the building, resulting in a series of fires and in massive releases of radioactive materials into the atmosphere.
  • The Chernobyl Disaster: Cancer following the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant -- Hatch et al. 27 (1): 56 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sitnikov went around the unit, as close to the central hall as he could get and up onto the roof of the neighbouring water treatment plant to get a better view.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Operating manually, one step at a time, they should have lowered reactor power until the reactor was completely shut down, while taking great care not to press the [emergency shutdown] button, which would have been the equivalent of an explosion.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Dyatlov reported his assumptions as reality to Bryukhanov and Fomin, the higher-level managers.^ Elevated rates were also reported for those born in regions of Greece with higher levels of radioactive fallout ( <6 kBq/m 2 , 6–10 kBq/m 2 , > 10 kBq/m 2 ).
  • The Chernobyl Disaster: Cancer following the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant -- Hatch et al. 27 (1): 56 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ According to a 2005 U.N. report, wildlife has returned despite radiation levels that are presently 10 to 100 times higher than normal background.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the corridor, he met Genrikh and Kurguz and sent them to the medical station. .He ran to the control room of Block 3, ordered Bagdasarov to shut reactor 3 down, then returned to control room 4 and ordered Akimov to call the daytime shift and get people to the affected unit; namely Lelechenko, whose crew had to remove hydrogen from the Generator 8 electrolyzer.^ What names did I call people on here?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The shift foreman of unit 3 asked Fomin for permission to shut his reactor down, but Fomin refused.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The test should have been aborted here: the reactor shut down, the fission products allowed to decay and the reactor restarted.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.At 2:00, Dyatlov ordered Akimov to feed water to the reactor, and together with Gorbachenko went to survey the plant from the outside.^ Toptunov evidently understands this because when Dyatlov—very angry at this development—orders him to immediately increase reactor power, he refuses.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Akimov orders Toptunov to disable the Local Automatic Control (LAC) system to give the operators more precise control of the reactor.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sitnikov went around the unit, as close to the central hall as he could get and up onto the roof of the neighbouring water treatment plant to get a better view.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Despite seeing the fuel and graphite scattered around, he still believed the reactor was intact.^ The graphite had burned out and the temperature in the core had declined to about 270°C, but the fuel was still there in an unknown condition.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The fuel melted, causing at least two explosions that partially destroyed the reactor building and set the graphite stacks of the core on fire .
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The evidence of pieces of graphite and reactor fuel lying around the building was ignored, and the readings of another dosimeter brought in by 4:30 a.m.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They then returned to the control room. At 5 am, he got sick and together with Gorbachenko went to the medical unit. Fomin replaced him on his post with Sitnikov.
.Aleksandr Akimov, the unit shift chief, was in charge of the test itself.^ Alexander Akimov was chief of the night shift and Leonid Toptunov was the operator responsible for the reactor's operational regime, including the movement of the control rods.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He took over the shift at midnight from Tregub, who stayed on-site. .The drop in reactor power from 1500 MWt to 30 MWt was disconcerting; he wanted to abort the test.^ The test proposal seemed very simple: the reactor would be run at low power, then the valves to the turbines would be closed and the reactor shut down.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, with so many cooling pumps operating at such low reactor power, coolant flow exceeds normal levels by about 30%.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The test plan called for the power output of reactor 4 to be reduced from its nominal 3200 MW thermal to 700–1000 MW thermal.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He supported Toptunov's decision to shut down the poisoned reactor, but was overriden by Dyatlov and forced to continue.^ During the daytime of 25 April 1986, reactor 4 was scheduled to be shut down for maintenance as it was near the end of its first fuel cycle .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The test proposal seemed very simple: the reactor would be run at low power, then the valves to the turbines would be closed and the reactor shut down.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Coolant pumps, servo motors and control systems must be kept running for hours afterwards until the reactor has completely shut down.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.At 1:23:04 the test began, and the main circulation pumps started cavitating due to the too high temperature of inlet water.^ Posted by lovemthome on Tue, Oct 21, 2008, at 3:23 PM The banter box is starting to sound like the Jr. High school.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ All students are welcome to participate, however, it is recommended for high school students (ages 14-18) due to the nature of the tests required for the project.
  • Earth Day web sites 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC www.cumbavac.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ News alert for Ms. Shipley: Farming in Idaho is largely constrained by the high cost of water, because pumping that water is becoming increasingly expensive.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.The coolant started boiling in the reactor, and the reactor power slowly increased.^ Second, with so many cooling pumps operating at such low reactor power, coolant flow exceeds normal levels by about 30%.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, when the reactor is running at low power, particularly with high coolant flow, the situation is different.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Toptunov evidently understands this because when Dyatlov—very angry at this development—orders him to immediately increase reactor power, he refuses.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Toptunov reported a power excursion to Akimov.^ Dyatlov, by ordering the Akimov and Toptunov to bring the power of the reactor back up after it had dropped to 30MWt was probably the last straw .
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Toptunov reports this to Akimov and Dyatlov just as the test is about to start.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.At 1:23:40 Akimov pressed the AZ-5 button, class-5 emergency.^ At 1:23:40, as recorded by the SKALA centralized control system, the EPS-5 button of the reactor emergency protection system was pressed, which initiated a scram —- a shutdown of the reactor, fully inserting all control rods, including the manual control rods that had been incautiously withdrawn earlier.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MWt to 530Mwt, Akimov presses the 'AZ' button on his control panel to insert all control rods into the core and "shut down" the reactor.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The reason why the EPS-5 button was pressed is not known, whether it was done as an emergency measure, or simply as a routine method of shutting down the reactor upon the completion of the experiment.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The control rods, according to the synchro indicators, seized at a depth of between 2 and 2.5 meters instead of the entire core depth of 7 meters.^ The core is threaded with about 1700 3.5" pressure channels for fuel, coolant and control rods.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The two men cave and Toptunov starts withdrawing control rods from the core.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As well as confiscating about a third of the material used for the book, the officers seized Memorial's entire St Petersburg archive, according to Prof Figes.
  • History News Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

.Akimov disconnected the clutches of the control rod servos to let the rods descend into the core by their own weight, but the rods did not move.^ Akimov disconnects the control rods from their servo motors so that they will fall into the reactor under their own weight, but they don't move.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The core is threaded with about 1700 3.5" pressure channels for fuel, coolant and control rods.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The two men cave and Toptunov starts withdrawing control rods from the core.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

The reactor was now making rumbling noises. Akimov was confused. .The reactor control panel indicated no water flow and failure of pumps.^ Further, those that irrigate from the Snake have several months where no water can be pumped from the Snake.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Second, with so many cooling pumps operating at such low reactor power, coolant flow exceeds normal levels by about 30%.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The reactor consisted of about 1,600 individual fuel channels and each operational channel required a flow of 28 metric tons of water per hour.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The explosion occurred, the air filled with dust, power went out, and only battery-powered emergency lights stayed in operation.^ Operating manually, one step at a time, they should have lowered reactor power until the reactor was completely shut down, while taking great care not to press the [emergency shutdown] button, which would have been the equivalent of an explosion.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The operation was only completed by 8 May, after having pumped out 20,000 tonnes of highly radioactive water.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A second, more powerful explosion occurred about two or three seconds after the first; evidence indicates that the second explosion resulted from a nuclear excursion.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Perevozchenko ran into the control room, reporting the collapse of the reactor top.^ Becauseeilgn characteristic of tht Chernabyl'-lype reactors, ihe Increased steam conttnl in tht coreower increase that euitkly ran out af control.
  • THE CHERNOBYL' ACCIDENT SOCIAL AND POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS (SOV 87-10078X) - CIA document 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A more significant flaw was in the design of the control rods that are inserted into the reactor to slow down the reaction.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We got a tour of the Chernobyl Plant (including the Reactor 4 control room), several of the abandoned villages, and Pripyat.
  • English Russia » Lost City of Chernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Brazhnik ran in from the turbine hall, reporting fire there.^ On Saturday, there was a report that the Sri Lankan navy was assaulted with grenades, injuring three, and responded by opening fire in a civilian area, killing eight.
  • http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Newsletters/2006/051406.html 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC www.terrorismcentral.com [Source type: News]

.Brazhki, Akimov, Davletbayev, and Palamarchuk ran into the turbine hall, having seen scattered debris and multiple fires on Levels 0 and +12. Akimov called the fire station and the chiefs of electrical and other departments, asking for electrical power for coolant pumps, removal of hydrogen from hydrogen generators, and other emergency procedures to stabilize the plant and contain the damage.^ I have asked her for information on the power plants and she has provided it.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Interestingly O.M. , when you cited the Reuters article you failed to mention that the only confirmed damage to their power generating infrastructure was at their hydro electricity producing power plants.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Second, with so many cooling pumps operating at such low reactor power, coolant flow exceeds normal levels by about 30%.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

Internal telephone lines were disabled; Akimov sent Palamarchuk to contact Gorbachenko. .Assuming the reactor was intact, he sent Kudryavtsev and Proskuryakov to the central hall to lower the reactor control rods manually.^ The largest lump shows an intact control rod channel.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the inaccurate low readings, the reactor crew chief Oleksandr Akimov assumed that the reactor was intact.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this case the majority of control rods were withdrawn to their upper limits, but the low value of the operational reactivity margin restricted further rise of reactor power.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Kudryavtsev and Proskuryakov returned from the reactor and reported its state to Akimov and Dyatlov. .Insisting the reactor was intact, Akimov ordered Stolyarchuk and Busygin to turn on the emergency feedwater pumps.^ Emergency signals from the Reactor Emergency Protection System (EPS-5) triggered a trip, turning off both turbine-generators.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Akimov orders Toptunov to disable the Local Automatic Control (LAC) system to give the operators more precise control of the reactor.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because of the inaccurate low readings, the reactor crew chief Oleksandr Akimov assumed that the reactor was intact.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Davletbayev reported loss of electrical power, torn cables, and electric arcs. .Akimov sent Metlenko to help in the turbine hall with manual opening of the cooling system valves, which was expected to take at least 4 hours per valve.^ Rome is calling for international sponsors to help fund the restoration of the 2,000-year-old amphitheatre's crumbling facade, with the project expected to cost at least 4.5 million.
  • History News Network 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

^ Unfortunately, as they'd turned off primary power and disabled the emergency cooling system, the reactor's turbines were powering its own cooling pumps.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If they had daytime/evening hours 5 days a week and stayed open at least until midnight on Friday and Saturdays I think they would do well in this town.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.Perevozchenko returned and reported that the reactor was destroyed, but Akimov insisted it was intact.^ Because of the inaccurate low readings, the reactor crew chief Oleksandr Akimov assumed that the reactor was intact.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This CBS video report is on the status of the 10 year and running project to safely contain the destroyed nuclear reactor at Chernobyl.
  • Chernobyl Children's Project International 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC chernobyl.typepad.com [Source type: General]

.At 3:30, Telyatnikov contacted Akimov, asking what was happening to his firemen; Akimov sent him a dosimetrist.^ Ask AtomicDog; it's happened to him before.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

Akimov, already nauseous, was replaced at 6:00 by the unit chief Vladimir Alekseyevich Babychev, but together with Toptunov stayed in the plant. .Believing the water flow to the reactor to be blocked by a closed valve somewhere, they went to the half-destroyed feedwater room on Level +24. Together with Nekhayev, Orlov, and Uskov, they opened the valves on the two feedwater lines, then climbed over to Level +27 and almost knee-deep in a mixture of fuel and water, opened two valves on the 300 line; due to advancing radiation poisoning, they did not have the strength to open the valves on the sides.^ I did not mean they were two agencies.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ When plant conditions exceeded test parameters, he threatened control room personnel with a trip to Siberia if they did not continue.
  • The Answer Ain't Nuclear | Mother Jones 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If this mixture had melted through the floor into the pool of water, it would have created a massive steam explosion which would eject more radioactive material from the reactor.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Akimov and Toptunov spent several hours turning valves; the radioactive water in Room 712 was half submerging the pipeline.^ Over several months the water dwindled considerably, leaving the lake about half-empty (or half-full, if you’re more upbeat).
  • Damn Interesting • In Soviet Russia, Lake Contaminates You 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After hazardous missions under the reactor to discover the amounts of water present, divers were sent into the radioactive bubbler pools to open the valves and let out the water.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

Smagin went in to open the third valves, spent 20 minutes in the room, and received 280 rads. Akimov was evacuated to hospital. Until his death, he insisted he had done everything correctly.
.Bryukhanov, the plant manager, arrived at 2:30. Akimov reported a serious radiation accident but intact reactor, fires in the process of being extinguished, and a second emergency water pump being readied to cool the reactor.^ Other sources have reported fires and other accidents at plant facilities: .
  • THE CHERNOBYL' ACCIDENT SOCIAL AND POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS (SOV 87-10078X) - CIA document 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This draft report issued for comment was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff to assess the implications of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant as they relate to reactor safety regulation for commercial nuclear power plants in the United States.
  • http://www.lrc.fema.gov/starweb/lrcweb/servlet.starweb?path=lrcweb/STARLibraries1.web&search=SUB%3Dchernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.lrc.fema.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Distribution of doses from external radiation to cleanup workers, as recorded in national registries, following the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident * .
  • The Chernobyl Disaster: Cancer following the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant -- Hatch et al. 27 (1): 56 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Due to limitations of available instruments, they seriously underestimated the radiation level.^ On April 29, 1986, instruments recorded high levels of radiation in Poland, Germany, Austria, and Romania.
  • The Paris Review - Voices from Chernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.theparisreview.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One of the guys got up the courage and asked: Why arent they telling us the radiation levels?
  • The Paris Review - Voices from Chernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.theparisreview.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many firemen who arrived at the scene were soon cut down by the huge levels of radiation they were unwittingly exposing themselves to.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.At 3 am, Bryukhanov called Maryin, the deputy secretary for the nuclear power industry, reporting Akimov's version of the situation.^ Considering how active he is on the topic, he must be a PR agent (paid or volunteer) for the nuclear power industry.
  • The Answer Ain't Nuclear | Mother Jones 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreestern press account reported that an uncAcial club called Svetlitca was gathering signatures in Kiev protesting the presence of nuclear power planu in hesarilypopu-latcd areas.
  • THE CHERNOBYL' ACCIDENT SOCIAL AND POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS (SOV 87-10078X) - CIA document 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What better spokesman for the nuclear power industry than someone who has lived off that industry, such as yourself?
  • The Answer Ain't Nuclear | Mother Jones 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

.Maryin sent the message further up the chain of command, to Frolyshev, who then called Dolgikh, who called Gorbachev and other members of the Politburo.^ Other commanders are relying on local intelligence sources, who tout "junk" information to various coalition officials, the report found.
  • History News Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

^ At one point, he called several of the university administrators and faculty members who faulted his scholarship pathetic, the Dailys account says.
  • History News Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

^ I will try to understand them and stand up for them when others who do not appreciate them, what they do or are going through, will not.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.At 4 am, Moscow ordered feeding of water to the reactor.^ In order to do so, the molten core would now have to reach the water table below the reactor.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chief engineer Fomin arrived in the Block 4 control room at 4:30. Akimov reported an intact reactor and explosion of the emergency water feed tank.^ Grigori Medvedev, former Deputy Chief Engineer, Reactor 1, Chernobyl NPP 01:19 - to address the problems of water levels and steam pressure in the separator drums, Toptunov withdraws more control rods to increase power.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Akimov orders Toptunov to disable the Local Automatic Control (LAC) system to give the operators more precise control of the reactor.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Late one night, some guys down at the control room, who were in charge of shutting down the reactor (for routine maintenance ), decided to perform a " test ."
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Fomin ordered continuous feeding of water into the reactor, which was already in progress by emergency pump 2 from the deaerators.^ If this mixture had melted through the floor into the pool of water, it would have created a massive steam explosion which would eject more radioactive material from the reactor.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since water also absorbs neutrons (and the higher density of liquid water makes it a better absorber than steam), turning on additional pumps decreased the reactor power.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At first the idea was floated to build a heat exchanger underneath the reactor building and use water pumped from the emergency core cooling systems of units 1-3 to remove heat, but this was too long-term a solution for the majority staffing the government commission.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.Fomin kept pressing the staff to feed water to the reactor and transferred more people to Unit 4 to replace those being disabled by radiation.^ So, what about those reactors and water use?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ But those two areas have many more people than we do.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Only those who foster secrets and beleive "appearances" are more important than people use that kind of language (langueage IS a value expression).
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.After Dyatlov left, Fomin ordered Sitnikov, his replacement, to climb to the roof of Unit C and survey the reactor; Sitnikov obeyed and received a fatal radiation dose there; at 10 am he returned and reported to Fomin and Bryukhanov that the reactor was destroyed.^ Even now people there work, they build a special cover on top of the blown up reactor, so that radiation could not spread further.
  • English Russia » Lost City of Chernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC englishrussia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There was a suggestion of an association with radiation dose that was not significant either in an internal analysis or in comparison with Russian population rates.
  • The Chernobyl Disaster: Cancer following the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant -- Hatch et al. 27 (1): 56 -- Epidemiologic Reviews 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC epirev.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A lethal dose is around 500 röntgen (5 Gy) over 5 hours, so in some areas, unprotected workers received fatal doses within several minutes.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The managers refused to believe him and ordered continued feeding of water into the reactor; the water, however, flowed through the severed pipes into the lower levels of the plant, carrying radioactive debris and causing short circuits in the cableways common to all four blocks.^ Posted by Old guy on Fri, Jun 19, 2009, at 6:49 AM I can't believe you all kept replying to him!
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Second, with so many cooling pumps operating at such low reactor power, coolant flow exceeds normal levels by about 30%.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, when the reactor is running at low power, particularly with high coolant flow, the situation is different.
  • Chernobyl@Everything2.com 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

Deaths and survivors

(survivors, unless date of death is specified)[19][27][51][53][54][55][56][57][58]
Name Cyrillic name Date of birth Date of death Cause of death/injury Role
Akimov, Aleksandr Fyodorovich Акимов, Александр (Саша) Фёдорович 1953-05-06 1986-05-11 radiation burns on 100% of body Unit #4 shift leader in the control room at the reactor control panel at the moment of explosion, with Toptunov; received fatal dose during attempts to restart feedwater flow into the reactor; posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree[55]
Badaev, Yuri Yurievich Бадаев, Юрий Юрьевич SKALA computer operator, electromechanic (DES), block 4 at the moment of the explosion in the SKALA room[59]
Bagdasarov, Yuri Eduardovich Багдасаров, Юрий Эдуардович survivor shift leader, block 3
Baranov, Anatoly Ivanovich Баранов, Анатолий Иванович 1953-06-13 1986-05-20 electrical engineer, senior electrician posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree[55]
Bondarenko, Nikolai Sergeevich Бондаренко, Николай Сергеевич oxygen-nitrogen station, operator at the moment of the explosion stationed in the nitrogen-oxygen station, 200 meters from the Block 4 [59]
Borec, V.I.  ? former Leningrad power plant block shift leader; in charge of preparation of the test, would supervise it according to the original schedule, asked Dyatlov to cancel it due to the state of the reactor. Went home for the night, was called on-site to assist with post-accident situation.[26]
Brazhnik, Vyacheslav (Slava) Stefanovych Бражник, Вячеслав Степанович 1957-05-03 1986-05-14 turbine operator, senior turbine machinist operator in the turbine hall at the moment of explosion; received fatal dose (over 1000 rad) during firefighting and stabilizing the turbine hall, died in Moscow hospital; posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree[55]; irradiated by a piece of fuel lodged on a nearby transformer of turbogenerator 7 during manual opening of the turbine emergency oil drain valves
Bryukhanov, Viktor Брюханов, Виктор 1936? plant director former director of the Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant; after the disaster stripped of Communist party membership, arrested in August 1986, spent a year in Kiev prison awaiting trial[60]; found guilty of gross violation of safety regulations, sentenced to 10 years of labor camp plus concurrent 5 years for abuse of power[61]
Busygin, Herman Viktorovich Бусыгин, Герман Викторович 1993 survivor turbine shop shift leader received about 350 roentgens during firefighting and stabilizing the turbine hall
Chugunov, Vladimir Aleksandrovich Чугунов, Владимир Александрович reactor shop 1 deputy director radiation burn on right side, right hand, received sublethal radiation dose during post-accident site survey[26]
Davletbayev, Razim I. Давлетбаев, Разим survivor turbine shop deputy chief in control room at desk T at the moment of explosion; received about 350 roentgens during firefighting and stabilizing the turbine hall
Degtyarenko, Viktor Mykhaylovych Дегтяренко, Виктор Михайлович 1954-08-10 1986-05-19 reactor operator at the moment of explosion close to the pumps; posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree[55][62], face scalded by steam or hot water[63]
Dik, G.A. Дик, Г.А. plant employee morning shift[63]
Dyatlov, Anatoly Stepanovich Дятлов, Анатолий Степанович 1931-03-03 1995-12-13 survivor; heart failure due to 390 rem dose plant vice chief engineer Fomin's assistant; supervised the test, present in the control room at the moment of explosion; received about 400 rads when surveying the reactor damage from the outside with Gorbachenko; radiation burns on face, right hand, legs; after the disaster stripped of Communist party membership, arrested in August 1986, spent a year in Kiev prison awaiting trial[60]; found guilty of gross violation of safety regulations, sentenced to 10 years of labor camp[61]
Dzyubak, Aleksei Дзюбак, Алексей survivor, radiation exposure est. 300 rad construction worker, Block 5 exposed to fallout about 300 meters from Block 4 during return from night shift; spent half year in the Moscow clinic[64]
Elshin, M.A. Ельшин, М.А. thermal plant automation and measurement, shift leader present in the control room when the reactor power dropped; returned to his office when power was stabilized, where he was in the moment of explosion[59]
Fomin, Nikolai Maksimovich Фомин, Николай Максимович 1937? chief engineer arrived at 4:30; spent a month in the Moscow clinic; after the disaster stripped of Communist party membership, arrested in August 1986, spent a year in Kiev prison awaiting trial[60]; cleared of charges of abuse of power, found guilty of gross violation of safety regulations, sentenced to 10 years of labor camp[61], released soon afterwards because of a nervous breakdown
Gazin, Sergei Nikolaevich Газин, Сергей Николаевич turbogenerator chief engineer from shift 16:00-24:00, stayed to watch the test, in control room at desk T with Kirchenbaum at the moment of explosion
Genrykh, Oleg Генрих, Олег survivor operator, central hall scalded by radioactive steam entering his control room; his colleague, Anatoly Kurguz, did not survive
Golovnenko, Mikhail Головненко, Миша firefighter, driver
Gorbachenko, Nikolai Feodosyevkh Горбаченко, Николай Феодосьевич 1954? survivor dosimetrist received about 300 or 400 rads when surveying the reactor damage from the outside with Dyatlov; received radiation burns during recovery of Shashenok; released from hospital on 27 October
Hanzhuk, Mykola Oleksandrovych Ганжук, Николай Александрович 1960-06-26 1986-10-02 helicopter crash helicopter pilot died in a helicopter accident
Ignatenko, Vasyli Ivanovych Игнатенко, Василий Иванович 1961-03-13 1986-05-13 fireman senior sergeant, first crew on the reactor roof, received fatal dose during attempt to extinguish the roof and the reactor core, died two weeks later in Moscow Hospital 6[65]
Ivanenko, Yakaterina Alexandrovna Иваненко, Екатерина Александровна 1932-09-11 1986-05-26 Pripyat city police guard guarded a gate opposite to the Block 4, stayed on duty for the entire night until morning[64]
Kabanov, Aleksander F. Кабанов, Александр Ф. acute radiation syndrome, survivor Kharkov turbine plant vibration specialist, mobile laboratory in the car at Turbine 8; treated in Moscow hospital, survived with 2nd degree of disability[19]
Kavuntz, Aleksander Adamovich Кавунец, Александр Адамович turbine repair department chief
Khmel, Grigori Matvyevich Хмель, Григорий Матвеевич fireman firefighting car driver, Chernobyl region firefighting area
Khodemchuk, Valery Ilyich Ходемчук, Валерий Ильич 1951-03-24 1986-04-26 initial explosion main circulating pumps, senior operator stationed in the southern main circulating pumps engine room, likely killed immediately; body never found, likely buried under the wreckage of the steam separator drums; has a memorial sign in the Reactor 4 building; posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree[55]
Khrystych, Leonid Ivanovych Христич, Леонид Иванович 1953-02-28 1986-10-02 helicopter crash helicopter pilot died in a helicopter accident
Kibenok, Viktor Mykolayovych Кибенок, Виктор Николаевич 1963-02-17 1986-05-11 fireman lieutnant, leader of the second unit, fighting fires in the reactor department, separator room, and the central hall; in 1987 posthumously named a Hero of the Soviet Union
Kirshenbaum, Igor Киршенбаум, Игорь turbine control senior engineer (SIUT), deputy head of unit 4 turbine section present in the control room, desk T, at the moment of explosion; in charge of switching off the Turbogenerator 8 and starting its spindown
Konoval, Yuriy Ivanovych Коновал, Юрий Иванович 1942-01-01 1986-05-28 electrician posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree[55]
Korneyev, , Yuri Корнеев, Юрий Владимирович 1957? survivor turbine operator, turbine 8 engineer received about 350 (or 710[66]) roentgens during firefighting and stabilizing the turbine hall
Kovalenko, A.P. Коваленко, А.П. 1942?  ? fatal? radiation dose reactor shop 2, chief // reactor 4 supervisor former Tomsk-7 worker; received radiation dose during the post-accident site survey the next day[26]; after the disaster demoted, allowed to continue working in the plant while awaiting trial[60]; found guilty of violating safety regulations, sentenced to 3 years of labor camp[61]
Kudryavtsev, Aleksandr Hennadiyovych Кудрявцев, Александр (Саша) Геннадиевич 1957-12-11 1986-05-14 SIUR trainee present in the control room at the moment of explosion; received fatal dose of radiation during attempt to manually lower the control rods as he looked directly to the open reactor core; posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree[55]
Kukhar, A.A. Кухар, А.А. electrical laboratory, chief at the central control room with Lelechenko; at the moment of explosion just arrived to the block 4 control room[59]
Kurguz, Anatoly Kharlampiyovych Кургуз, Анатолий Харлампиевич 1957-06-12 1986-05-12 operator, central hall scalded by radioactive steam entering his control room; his colleague, Oleg Genrikh, was spared the worst and survived
Kuryavchenko, Nikolai Gordeevich Курявченко, Николай Гордеевич SKALA computer operator, electromechanic (DES), block 3 in block 3[59]
Lelechenko, Aleksandr Grigoryevich Лелеченко, Александр Григорьевич 1938-07-26 1986-05-07 fatal radiation exposure, 2500 rads plant worker, deputy chief of the electrical shop former Leningrad power plant electrical shop shift leader.[26]; at the central control room with Kukhar; at the moment of explosion just arrived to the block 4 control room[59]; in order to spare his younger colleagues a radiation exposition he himself went through radioactive water and debris three times to switch off the electrolyzers and the feed of hydrogen to the generators, then tried to supply voltage to feedwater pumps; after receiving first aid, returned to the plant and worked for several more hours.^ I had tried several times to click on your link, but it wouldn't work.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ When plant conditions exceeded test parameters, he threatened control room personnel with a trip to Siberia if they did not continue.
  • The Answer Ain't Nuclear | Mother Jones 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is likely that intense alpha radiation hydrolyzed the water generating a hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) solution with a low pH, akin to an oxidizing acid.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Died in Kiev hospital.
Lopatyuk, Viktor Ivanovich Лопатюк, Виктор Иванович 1960-08-22 1986-05-17 electrician received fatal dose during switching off the electrolyzer[67]
Luzganova, Klavdia Ivanovna Лузганова, Клавдия Ивановна 1927-05-09 1986-07-31 radiation exposure, est. 600 rad Pripyat city police guard[57] guarded the construction site of the spent fuel storage building about 200 meters from Block 4[64]
Lysyuk, G.V. Лысюк, Г.В. electrician, shop chief at the moment of the explosion in the control room; in charge of issuing the simulated Maximum Projected Accident signal on Metlenko's command[59]
Metlenko, Gennady Petrovich Метленко, Геннадий Петрович Dontechenergo, senior brigade electroengineer at the moment of explosion present with two assistants in the N area of the control room, at the oscillographs; supposed to monitor the slowdown rate of the spinning down turbogenerator, and its electrical characteristics, worked together with Kirchenbaum; after the explosion sent to help in the turbine hall but sent back from there[59]
Miruzhenko, Daniel Terentyevich Мируженко, Данила Терентьевич survivor, radiation exposure security guard Gidroelektromontazh construction site about 300 meters from Block 4[64]
Nekhaev, Aleksandr A. Нехаев, Александр А. morning shift, helped Akimov and Toptunov opening the valves to feed water to the reactor through steam separator drums and main circulation pumps[68]
Novyk, Oleksandr Vasylyovych Новик, Александр Васильевич 1961-08-11 1986-07-26 turbine equipment machinist-inspector received fatal dose (over 1000 rad) during firefighting and stabilizing the turbine hall, died in Moscow hospital; posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree[55]; irradiated by a piece of fuel lodged on a nearby transformer of the turbogenerator 7 during attempts to call the control room
Orlov, Vyacheslav/Vladimir (Slava) Alekseyevich Орлов, Вячеслав/Владимир (Слава) Алексеевич radiation sickness reactor department deputy chief got non-lethal dose of radiation during post-accident site survey the next day, became disabled[26][69]
Orlov, Ivan Lukych Орлов, Иван Лукич 1945-01-10 1986-05-13 physicist received fatal dose during attempts to restart feedwater flow into the reactor
Palamarchuk, Pyotr (Petya) Паламарчук, (Петя) 1951? survivor[70] survived dose of 800 rad Atomenergonaladka, group supervisor, laboratory director (Chernobyl startup and adjustment enterprise)
Perchuk, Kostyantyn Hryhorovich Перчук, Константин Григорьевич 1952-11-23 1986-05-20 turbine operator, senior engineer in the turbine hall at the moment of explosion; received fatal dose (over 1000 rad) during firefighting and stabilizing the turbine hall, died in Moscow hospital; posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree[55]; irradiated by a piece of fuel lodged on a nearby transformer of the turbogenerator 7 during manual opening of the turbine emergency oil drain valves
Perevozchenko, Valery Ivanovich (Valera) Перевозченко, Валерий Иванович 1947-05-06 1986-06-13 foreman, reactor section received fatal dose of radiation during attempt to locate and rescue Khodemchuk and others, and manually lower the control rods; together with Kudryavtsev and Proskuryakov he looked directly to the open reactor core; posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree[55]; radiation burns on side and back
Petrovskiy fireman watched the fire spread from the roof of Unit C until 6 am as ordered by Teliatnikov
Popov, Georgi Illiaronovich Попов, Георгий Илларионович 1940-02-21 1986-06-13 acute radiation sickness Kharkov turbine plant vibration specialist, mobile laboratory in the car at Turbine 8; buried in Mitinskoe Cemetery[19]
Pravik, Vladimir Pavlovych Правик, Владимир (Володя) Павлович 1962-06-13 1986-05-11 radiation burns fireman lieutenant, first crew on the reactor roof, repeatedly visited the reactor and the roof of Unit C at Level 71 to supervise the firefighting; received fatal dose during attempt to extinguish the roof and the reactor core, died two weeks later in Moscow Hospital 6; his eyes are said to have been turned from brown to blue by the intensity of the radiation[51]; in 1987 posthumously named a Hero of the Soviet Union
Prishchepa, V.A. Прищепа, В.А. fireman Pravik's unit, watched the fire spread from the roof of Unit C until 6 am as ordered by Teliatnikov
Proskuryakov, Viktor Vasilyevich Проскуряков, Виктор (Витя) Васильович 1955-04-09 1986-05-17 SIUR trainee present in the control room at the moment of explosion; received fatal dose of radiation during attempt to manually lower the control rods as he looked directly to the open reactor core; posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree[55]; 100% radiation burns
Rogozhkin, Boris V. Рогожкин 1935? block shift leader supervisor of the 0:00-8:00 shift; after the disaster demoted, allowed to continue working in the plant while awaiting trial[60]; found guilty of gross violation of safety regulations, sentenced to 5 years of labor camp plus two years concurrently for negligence and unfaithful execution of duty[61]
Rysin, Aleksei Vladimirovich Рысин, Алексей Владимирович turbine operation senior engineer
Savenkov, Volodomyr Ivanovych Савенков, Владимир Иванович 1958-02-15 1986-05-21 acute radiation sickness Kharkov turbine plant vibration specialist, mobile laboratory in the car at Turbine 8; first one to become sick; buried in Kharkov in a lead coffin[19]
Shapovalov, Anatoliy Ivanovych Шаповалов, Анатолий Иванович 1941-04-06 1986-05-19 electrician posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree[55]
Shashenok, Vladimir (Volodya) Nikolaevich Шашенок, Владимир Николаевич 1951-04-21 1986-04-26 thermal and radiation burns, trauma Atomenergonaladka, adjuster of automatic systems (Chernobyl startup and adjustment enterprise) stationed in Room 604, found pinned down under a fallen beam, with broken spine, broken ribs, deep thermal and radiation burns, and unconscious; died in hospital without regaining consciousness
Shavrey, Leonid Mikhailovich Шаврей, Леонид Михайлович 1952? survivor fireman, squad commander Pravik's unit, watched the fire spread from the roof of Unit C until 6 am as ordered by Teliatnikov; he received about 600 roentgens; checked in hospital on April 29, received bone marrow transplant, released on June 11; served as a fireman in Vyzhgorod until 1994[66]
Shlelyayn, Anatoly Vladislavovich Шлеляйн, Анатолий Владиславович SKALA computer operator, senior officer (SDIVT), block 3 in block 3[59]
Sitnikov, Anatoly Andreyevich (Tolya) Ситников, Анатолий Андреевич 1940-01-20 1986-05-30 deputy chief operational engineer, physicist received fatal dose (about 1500 roentgens), mostly to head, after being sent by Fomin to survey the reactor hall and look at the reactor from the roof of Unit C
Smagin, Viktor Grigoryevich Смагин, Виктор shift foreman, reactor 4
Strelkov, V.D. Стрелков, В.Д. radiation exposition, survivor Kharkov turbine plant vibration mobile laboratory driver, in Pripyat hotel at the time of the explosion; low radiation exposition resulting in later 3rd degree disability[19]
Stolyarchuk, Boris Столярчук senior unit 4 control engineer present in the control room, desk P, at the moment of the explosion, controlling the feedwater and deaerator mechanisms
Telyatnikov, Leonid Petrovich Телятников, Леонид Петрович 1951-01-25 2004-12-02 survivor, received est. 4 Gy firefighter head of the plant fire department; in 1987 named a Hero of the Soviet Union; according to Shavrey, arrived on the scene drunk[66], as he was called from a birthday celebration for his brother
Tishchura, Volodymyr Ivanovych Тищура, Владимир Иванович 1959-12-15 1986-05-10 radiation burns fireman sergeant, Kibenok's unit, fighting fires in the reactor department, separator room, and the central hall
Titenok, Nikolai Ivanovych Титенок, Николай Иванович 1962-12-05 1986-05-16 radiation burns external and internal, incl. blistered heart fireman senior sergeant, Kibenok's unit, fighting fires in the reactor department, separator room, and the central hall; received fatal dose during attempt to extinguish the roof and the reactor core, died two weeks later in Moscow Hospital 6
Tolstiakov, Petr was fishing at the shore of the cooling water channel, witnessed the explosion
Toptunov, Leonid (Lenya) Fedorovych Топтунов, Леонид (Леня) Федорович 1960-08-16 1986-05-14 SIUR, senior engineer for management of the reactor (reactor operator) in the control room at the reactor control panel at the moment of explosion, with Akimov; received fatal dose during attempts to restart feedwater flow into the reactor; posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree[55]
Tormozin, Andrei Тормозин, Андрей survivor turbine equipment machinist-inspector in the turbine hall at the moment of explosion; received about 350 (or 860[66]) roentgens during firefighting and stabilizing the turbine hall; received contact burn on his buttocks from sitting on a hot oil line
Tregub, Yuri Yurievich Трегуб, Юрий Юрьевич survivor shift leader, previous shift present in the control room at the moment of explosion[71], received non-lethal dose of radiation when manually opening cooling system valves[63]
Uskov, Arkadiy Gennadievich Усков, Аркадий Геннадиевич reactor operator, senior engineer, block 1 received non-fatal radiation dose when helping Orlov, Akimov and Toptunov to manually open cooling system valves[63][69]
Vashchuk, Mykola Vasylyovych Ващук, Николай Васильевич 1959-06-05 1986-05-14 fireman sergeant, Kibenok's unit, fighting fires in the reactor department, separator room, and the central hall
Verkhovod, V.F. Верховод, В.Ф. SKALA computer operator, senior officer (SDIVT), block 4 at the moment of the explosion in the SKALA room[59]
Vershynin, Yuriy Anatoliyovych Вершинин, Юрий Анатольевич 1959-05-22 1986-07-21 turbine equipment machinist-inspector in the turbine hall at the moment of explosion; received fatal dose (over 1000 rad) during firefighting and stabilizing the turbine hall, died in Moscow hospital; posthumously awarded the Order "For Courage" of third degree[55]; irradiated by a piece of fuel lodged on a nearby transformer of the turbogenerator 7 during attempts to call the control room
Vorobyov, Volodymyr Kostyantynovych Воробьев, Владимир Константинович 1956-03-21 1986-10-02 helicopter crash helicopter pilot died in a helicopter accident
Yunhkind, Oleksandr Yevhenovych Юнгкинд, Александр Евгеньевич 1958-04-15 1986-10-02 helicopter crash helicopter pilot died in a helicopter accident
Yuvchenko, Aleksander Юрченко, Александр 1962? 2009?[72] beta and gamma radiation burns, about 410 rem maintenance department at the moment of the explosion in his office; received burns from radioactive dust on reactor room door he held open for Kudryavtsev and Proskuryakov, started feeling sick at about 3 am, at 6 am too weak to walk, taken by an ambulance to the hospital[51][73]
Zakharov, Anatoliy 1953? survivor firefighter, brigade commander one of the first on the scene, remained until 2pm, cycled home; assumed to receive 300 rem dose, spent 2 months in Kiev hospital; awarded Order of the Red Star for bravery in 1986, declared total invalid in 1992[51][74]
Zapyoklij Запёклый survivor, radiation exposure est. 300 rad construction worker, Block 5, foreman exposed to fallout about 300 meters from Block 4 during return from night shift; spent half year in the Moscow clinic[64]

Immediate crisis management

Radiation levels

.The radiation levels in the worst-hit areas of the reactor building have been estimated to be 5.6 röntgen per second (R/s) (0.056 Grays per second, or Gy/s), which is equivalent to 20,000 röntgen per hour (R/hr) (200 Gy per hour, or Gy/hr).^ The radiation levels in the worst-hit areas of the reactor building have been estimated to be 5.6 röntgen per second (R/s) (0.056 Grays per second, or Gy/s), which is equivalent to 20,000 röntgen per hour (R/hr) (200 Gy per hour, or Gy/hr).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Building costs are at least $200.00 per sq.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ As for the #4 reactor where the meltdown occurred, we estimate it will be 20,000 years before the real estate will be fully safe."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A lethal dose is around 500 röntgen (5 Gy) over 5 hours, so in some areas, unprotected workers received fatal doses within several minutes.^ A lethal dose is around 500 röntgen (5 Gy) over 5 hours, so in some areas, unprotected workers received fatal doses within several minutes.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The radiation levels in the worst-hit areas of the reactor building have been estimated to be 5.6 röntgen per second (R/s) (0.056 Grays per second, or Gy/s), which is equivalent to 20,000 röntgen per hour (R/hr) (200 Gy per hour, or Gy/hr).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact in about 30 minutes, I found several towns in this area that have a written plan.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.However, a dosimeter capable of measuring up to 1,000 R/s (10 Gy/s) was inaccessible because of the explosion, and another one failed when turned on.^ The earth has been warming for the last 10,000 years, ever since the last Ice Age and we had better hope it continues to warm, because we are surely less able and prepared to deal with a new Ice Age.
  • The Answer Ain't Nuclear | Mother Jones 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ LogicalUS Says: January 5th, 2010 at 10:54 am Ah, another terrorist-lover jumps ups to add a nonsensical post.

^ I don't have a lot of interest anymore, I wish I did, but most of the guys being put up on KSTP are radio professionals of one type or another.
  • Martin Andrade Blogs Here No More: 05/01/2005 - 06/01/2005 11 October 2009 9:52 UTC martinandrade.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.All remaining dosimeters had limits of 0.001 R/s (0.00001 Gy/s) and therefore read "off scale."^ All remaining dosimeters had limits of 0.001 R/s (0.00001 Gy/s) and therefore read "off scale".
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and certain limited areas remain off limits, the majority of affected areas are now considered safe for settlement and economic activity.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, the reactor crew could ascertain only that the radiation levels were somewhere above 0.001 R/s (3.6 R/hr, or 0.036 Gy/hr), while the true levels were much higher in some areas.^ Thus, the reactor crew could ascertain only that the radiation levels were somewhere above 0.001 R/s (3.6 R/hr, or 0.036 Gy/hr), while the true levels were much higher in some areas.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If that price is not correct and it is much higher, such as $150.00, how will they deal with that since they still only have 1 million dollars to work with?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The radiation levels in the worst-hit areas of the reactor building have been estimated to be 5.6 röntgen per second (R/s) (0.056 Grays per second, or Gy/s), which is equivalent to 20,000 röntgen per hour (R/hr) (200 Gy per hour, or Gy/hr).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[75]
Because of the inaccurate low readings, the reactor crew chief Alexander Akimov assumed that the reactor was intact. .The evidence of pieces of graphite and reactor fuel lying around the building was ignored, and the readings of another dosimeter brought in by 4:30 a.m.^ The evidence of pieces of graphite and reactor fuel lying around the building was ignored, and the readings of another dosimeter brought in by 4:30 a.m.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The immediate priority was to extinguish fires on the roof of the station and the area around the building containing Reactor No.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The power excursion ruptured fuel channels, and the pressure af the escaping iieom blew opart ikecore and caused severe damage to the reactor building.
  • THE CHERNOBYL' ACCIDENT SOCIAL AND POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS (SOV 87-10078X) - CIA document 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

were dismissed under the assumption that the new dosimeter must have been defective.[75] .Akimov stayed with his crew in the reactor building until morning, trying to pump water into the reactor.^ Akimov stayed with his crew in the reactor building until morning, trying to pump water into the reactor.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the inaccurate low readings, the reactor crew chief Oleksandr Akimov assumed that the reactor was intact.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this mixture had melted through the floor into the pool of water, it would have created a massive steam explosion which would eject more radioactive material from the reactor.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.None of them wore any protective gear.^ None of them wore any protective gear.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most of them, including Akimov, died from radiation exposure within three weeks.^ Most of them, including Akimov, died from radiation exposure within three weeks.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The exact circumstances will probably never be known as both Akimov and Toptunov died from radiation sickness.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But within the last three years - particularly the last year - justice has sped up, including dozens of convictions and hundreds of indictments.
  • History News Network 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

[76]

Fire containment

Firefighter Leonid Telyatnikov, being decorated for bravery.
.Shortly after the accident, firefighters arrived to try to extinguish the fires.^ Shortly after the accident, firefighters arrived to try to extinguish the fires.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fires were extinguished by 5 a.m., but many firefighters received high doses of radiation.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of these were fire and rescue workers trying to bring the accident under control, who were not fully aware of how dangerous the radiation exposure (from the smoke) was.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.First on the scene was a Chernobyl Power Station firefighter brigade under the command of Lieutenant Volodymyr Pravik, who died on 9 May 1986 of acute radiation sickness.^ Fatalities are identified with the occurrence of acute radiation sickness (ARS) syndromes.
  • http://www.lrc.fema.gov/starweb/lrcweb/servlet.starweb?path=lrcweb/STARLibraries1.web&search=SUB%3Dchernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.lrc.fema.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Ne Insisted lhat Soviet authorities covered up the deaths in Kiev hospitals of0 persons from the town of Pripyat' who died thonly after the accident from radiation sickness.
  • THE CHERNOBYL' ACCIDENT SOCIAL AND POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS (SOV 87-10078X) - CIA document 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1986, an explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the Ukraine destroyed the reactor building and released massive amounts of radioactive contamination.
  • http://www.lrc.fema.gov/starweb/lrcweb/servlet.starweb?path=lrcweb/STARLibraries1.web&search=SUB%3Dchernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.lrc.fema.gov [Source type: Academic]

.They were not told how dangerously radioactive the smoke and the debris were, and may not even have known that the accident was anything more than a regular electrical fire: "We didn't know it was the reactor.^ "How could they even consider it?"
  • History News Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

^ They didn't know that danger at first Avannavon.
  • The Answer Ain't Nuclear | Mother Jones 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Obviously you know it’s more than that.

.No one had told us."^ No one had told us."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No one told them.
  • The Paris Review - Voices from Chernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.theparisreview.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For two years no one will receive any textbooks, workbooks, computers, etc., or so I've been told.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

[77]
Grigorii Khmel, the driver of one of the fire-engines, later described what happened:
.We arrived there at 10 or 15 minutes to two in the morning ...^ He was there longer than 10 minutes and was only there to listen to Mollie and questions.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Downtown will look as it does now in 10 years and there will still be no place nice to eat (without a 40-45 minute ride).
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ I have taken my kids there in aug and their is like 10-15 ins the whole pool.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

We saw graphite scattered about. .Misha asked: "What is graphite?"^ Misha asked: What is graphite?
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

I kicked it away. .But one of the fighters on the other truck picked it up.^ At that point, all the other nuclear power plants must pony up an equal share to cover any claims above that up to something over $10B for one event.
  • The Answer Ain't Nuclear | Mother Jones 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The one up near the Pilot Truck Stop, but across Hyway 20 past the Jack in the Box I'm thinking?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ No one (not even masochists or other feishists) would, given the choice, pick the daisy cutter on his head over the water up his nose.

"It's hot," he said. .The pieces of graphite were of different sizes, some big, some small enough to pick up ...^ The pieces of graphite were of different sizes, some big, some small enough to pick up ...
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some of us have spouses in the military and cannot just pick up and move---not that easy.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Our Government, on some levels, expects us to be smart enough to follow-up on the small bits of information they provide in short news clips, articles, etc.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]


.We didn't know much about radiation.^ We didn't know much about radiation.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I don't know about you, but I sure don't like anyone else speaking for me about how much I am willing to pay for something.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Still trying to find out about Korey Hall's condition; went to the Packer website again, but they didn't know yet either.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.Even those who worked there had no idea.^ Even those who worked there had no idea.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Talk to the teachers who work there.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ I had no idea there were problems in the county.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.There was no water left in the trucks.^ There was no one left in the place.
  • The Paris Review - Voices from Chernobyl 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.theparisreview.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There are now just two 1825 vintage bottles left - and Perrier-Jouet has no plans to open them soon.
  • History News Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

Misha filled the cistern and we aimed the water at the top. .Then those boys who died went up to the roof - Vashchik Kolya and others, and Volodya Pravik ...^ I am positive that those who communicate in "riddles" and "clever" statements on the BB will soon say exactly what they mean and not leave their thoughts up to my imagination or the imagination of others.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ But some who complain about others surprize me by their seeming lack of compassion -- especially by those who have indeed "been there"...If you are well now, good.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Those who knowingly disseminate false information with the intention of keeping others from voting would face up to five years in prison under the legislation.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.They went up the ladder ...^ They went up the ladder ...
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was 1998 (or so) when this went on last time and in another 10 years they will be at it again because the gym will not measure up or the classrooms are too small.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

and I never saw them again.[78]
However, Anatoli Zakharov, a fireman stationed in Chernobyl since 1980, offers a different description:
.I remember joking to the others, "There must be an incredible amount of radiation here.^ One of the letters was mine and there were also 1 or 2 from a nurse and 1 other person (from what I remember).
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ And no amount of (stable) magnesium at all could liberate the gamma radiation that killed or sickened many Japanese there.
  • Damn Interesting • In Soviet Russia, Lake Contaminates You 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Other communities have made better proposals and there is no reason I can see that something similar can't be done here.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.We'll be lucky if we're all still alive in the morning."^ Posted by MrMister on Fri, Apr 3, 2009, at 4:22 AM OM, Re: your Wed morning tirade-- I am not worried at all about my image.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.20 years after the disaster, he claimed the firefighters from the Fire Station No 2 were aware of the risks.^ The immediate priority was to extinguish fires on the roof of the station and the area around the building containing Reactor No.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ No more 8,10,15,20 year seats.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The publication's editor-in-chief, 41-year-old Cigdem Atakuman, claims she was fired as a result of the incident.
  • History News Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

Of course we knew! If we'd followed regulations, we would never have gone near the reactor. But it was a moral obligation - our duty. We were like kamikaze.[51]
.The immediate priority was to extinguish fires on the roof of the station and the area around the building containing Reactor No. 4 to protect No. 3 and keep its core cooling systems intact.^ The immediate priority was to extinguish fires on the roof of the station and the area around the building containing Reactor No.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fire inside Reactor No.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was imperative to put those fires out and protect the cooling systems of reactor 3.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fires were extinguished by 5 a.m., but many firefighters received high doses of radiation.^ The fires were extinguished by 5 a.m., but many firefighters received high doses of radiation.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shortly after the accident, firefighters arrived to try to extinguish the fires.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fire inside Reactor No.^ The fire inside Reactor No.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The immediate priority was to extinguish fires on the roof of the station and the area around the building containing Reactor No.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.4 continued to burn until 10 May 1986; it is possible that well over half of the graphite burned out.^ May 1986; it is possible that well over half of the graphite burned out.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have continually pointed out that if there are so many people against the WRECD then there must be a problem and yet WRECD board fiddles,(or potlucks), while our WRECD burns.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ A cheerleader won't drop out because the practice at an elementary school, but I bet the parent wishes they didn't have to practice until 10:00pm.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

[21] .The fire was extinguished by a combined effort of helicopters dropping over 5,000 tonnes of materials like sand, lead, clay, and boron onto the burning reactor and injection of liquid nitrogen.^ The fire was extinguished by a combined effort of helicopters dropping over 5,000 tonnes of materials like sand, lead, clay and boron onto the burning reactor and injection of liquid nitrogen.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The immediate priority was to extinguish fires on the roof of the station and the area around the building containing Reactor No.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using oil drilling equipment , injection of liquid nitrogen began on 4 May.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ukrainian filmmaker Vladimir Shevchenko captured film footage of a Mi-8 helicopter as it collided with a nearby construction crane, causing the helicopter to fall near the damaged reactor building and kill its four-man crew.^ Ukrainian filmmaker Vladimir Shevchenko captured film footage of a Mi-8 helicopter as it collided with a nearby construction crane, causing the helicopter to fall near the damaged reactor building and kill its two-man crew.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The damaged reactor was sealed off and 200 metres (660 ft) of concrete was placed between the disaster site and the operational buildings.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contrary to safety regulations, a combustible material ( bitumen ) had been used in the construction of the roof of the reactor building and the turbine hall.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[79]
.From eyewitness accounts of the firefighters involved before they died (as reported on the CBC television series Witness), one described his experience of the radiation as "tasting like metal," and feeling a sensation similar to that of pins and needles all over his face.^ From eyewitness accounts of the firefighters involved before they died (as reported on the CBC television series Witness ), one described his experience of the radiation as "tasting like metal", and feeling a sensation similar to that of pins and needles all over his face.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are you, OM, going to make it a requirement for people 'involved' in the community to 'fess up all the blogs they follow or comment on?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Anyone not on the no call list this is where to go www.donotcall.gov to register on it which you can report all scams and telemarkers if you have the number they called from .
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.(This is similar to the description given by Louis Slotin, a Manhattan Project physicist who died days after a fatal radiation overdose from a criticality accident.^ (This is similar to the description given by Louis Slotin , a Manhattan Project physicist who died days after a fatal radiation overdose from a criticality accident .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Demonstration on Chernobyl day near WHO in Geneva An international assessment of the health effects of the Chernobyl accident is contained in a series of reports by the United Nations Scientific Committee of the Effects of Atomic Radiation ( UNSCEAR ).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the aftermath of the accident, 237 people suffered from acute radiation sickness, of whom 31 died within the first three months.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

)[80]
.The explosion and fire threw hot particles of the nuclear fuel and also far more dangerous fission products, radioactive elements like caesium-137, iodine-131, strontium-90 and other radionuclides, into the air: the residents of the surrounding area observed the radioactive cloud on the night of the explosion.^ Is nuclear fuel is dangerous?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ What does nuclear fuel look like?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ The explosion and fire threw particles of the nuclear fuel and also far more dangerous radioactive elements like caesium-137 , iodine-131 , strontium-90 and other radionuclides into the air: the residents of the surrounding area observed the radioactive cloud on the night of the explosion.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Timeline
  • 1:26:03 - fire alarm activated
  • 1:28 - arrival of local firefighters, Pravik's guard
  • 1:35 - arrival of firefighters from Pripyat, Kibenok's guard
  • 1:40 - arrival of Telyatnikov
  • 2:10 - turbine hall roof fire extinguished
  • 2:30 - main reactor hall roof fires suppressed
  • 3:30 - arrival of Kiev firefighters[81]
  • 4:50 - fires mostly localized
  • 6:35 - all fires extinguished[82]

Evacuation of Pripyat

.The nearby city of Pripyat was not immediately evacuated.^ The nearby city of Prypiat was not immediately evacuated.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To evacuate the city of Pripyat, the following warning message was reported on local radio: "An accident has occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Evacuation of Pripyat.
.Only after radiation levels set off alarms at the Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant in Sweden[83] did the Soviet Union admit that an accident had occurred, but authorities attempted to conceal the scale of the disaster.^ Not a good thing for a nuclear power plant.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Chernobyl nuclear power plant .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chernobyl disaster was a nuclear reactor accident that occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine (then part of the Soviet Union ).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To evacuate the city of Pripyat, the following warning message was reported on local radio: "An accident has occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.^ Not a good thing for a nuclear power plant.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ As for the nuclear power plant.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Not nuclear power plants.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

One of the atomic reactors has been damaged. .Aid will be given to those affected and a committee of government inquiry has been set up."^ Aid will be given to those affected and a committee of government inquiry has been set up."
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A public inquiry was launched in April 2004 to consider plans to set up a plant to incorporate the 5,500 tonnes of sodium coolant in 70,000 tonnes of concrete.
  • The Answer Ain't Nuclear | Mother Jones 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Just could be a wake up call for all those in government the public is getting mad.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.This message gave the false impression that any damage or radiation was localized.^ This message gave the false impression that any damage or radiation was localized.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The government committee formed to investigate the accident, led by Valeri Legasov, arrived at Chernobyl in the evening of 26 April.^ The government committee formed to investigate the accident, led by Valeri Legasov , arrived at Chernobyl in the evening of 26 April.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Chernobyl disaster was a nuclear reactor accident that occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine (then part of the Soviet Union ).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Chernobyl Interinform Agency, Kiev und", and "Chernobyl Committee: MailTable of official data on the reactor accident") ^ Kagarlitsky, Boris (1989).
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By that time two people were dead and 52 were in the hospital.^ By that time two people were dead and 52 were in the hospital.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here's some of the stat's from the LAST hospital bond that I cut/pasted: *Emergency Room: "Emergency room physicians will be able to treat more people, reducing ER wait times.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ According to city officials, two people are officially missing and believed dead.
  • History News Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

.During the night of 26–27 April - more than 24 hours after the explosion - the committee, faced with ample evidence of extremely high levels of radiation and a number of cases of radiation exposure, had to acknowledge the destruction of the reactor and order the evacuation of Pripyat.^ During the night of 26 April / 27 April—more than 24 hours after the explosion—the committee, faced with ample evidence of extremely high levels of radiation and a number of cases of radiation exposure, had to acknowledge the destruction of the reactor and order the evacuation of the nearby city of Prypiat .
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You might be right that the invasion cost more lives than it saved, but your case is weak.

^ During fiscal year 2008, the FBI gave "no records" responses to 57% of the requests it processed, more than any other major agency.
  • History News Network 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

The evacuation began at 2 p.m. on 27 April. .To reduce baggage, the residents were told the evacuation would be temporary, lasting approximately three days.^ Lincoln commuted three miles daily by horseback or coach to the White House, last visiting the Cottage the day before his assassination.
  • History News Network 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC hnn.us [Source type: News]

^ It is very unlikely that we would have gained and lost so many kids in (approximately) the last 30 days.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ He also told me he wondered where I would be living the next day if I tryed to kick his butt.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.As a result, Pripyat still contains personal belongings.^ As a result, Pripyat still contains personal belongings.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An exclusion zone of 30 km/19 mi remains in place today.^ An exclusion zone of 30 km/19 mi remains in place today.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1986 a series of fires destroyed 23.36 km 2 (5,772 acres) of forest, and several other fires have since burned within the 30 km (19 mi) zone.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and certain limited areas remain off limits, the majority of affected areas are now considered safe for settlement and economic activity.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Steam explosion risk

.
Chernobyl Corium lava flows formed by fuel-containing mass in the basement of the plant.
^ Rods or plates containing uranium are formed into fuel assemblies that are used in nuclear reactors to provide energy.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Fuel rods or plates (elements) are bundled together and structurally reinforced to form a fuel assembly, typically containing 50-300 fuel elements.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

Lava flow (1). Concrete (2). Steam pipe (3). Electrical equipment (4).[84]
.Two floors of bubbler pools beneath the reactor served as a large water reservoir from the emergency cooling pumps and as a pressure suppression system capable of condensing steam from a (small) broken steam pipe; the third floor above them, below the reactor, served as a steam tunnel.^ The Idaho Energy Complex (www.idahoenergycomplex.com) will be a large advanced nuclear reactor with low cooling water requirements located about 65 miles southeast of Boise, in Elmore County.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ "Like all forms of power generation using steam turbines, Nuclear power plants use large amounts of water for cooling.
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

^ Wouldn't your reactor use a huge amount of water for cooling?
  • Mountain Home News: Miscellaneous: Banter Box archive 3 February 2010 15:015 UTC www.mountainhomenews.com [Source type: General]

.The steam released from a broken pipe was supposed to enter the steam tunnel and be led into the pools to bubble through a layer of water.^ Electrical equipment (4) [ 42 ] A bubbler pool beneath the reactor served as a large water reservoir from the emergency cooling pumps and as a pressure suppression system capable of condensing steam from a (small) broken steam pipe.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this mixture had melted through the floor into the pool of water, it would have created a massive steam explosion which would eject more radioactive material from the reactor.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus neutrons are slowed down even if steam bubbles form in the water.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The pools and the basement were flooded because of ruptured cooling water pipes and accumulated fire water.^ The pool and the basement were flooded because of ruptured cooling water pipes and accumulated fire water.
  • Boston University School of Theology Archives 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]