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.This article contains Cherokee syllabic characters. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Cherokee syllabics.^ And other Cherokees may be forgot, .
  • Pictures of our Nobler Selves 11 September 2009 21:42 UTC cherokeehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ ABOVE AND BEYOND © 2007 Cherokee Cabins website owned by Above and Beyond Cabins, Whittier, NC May not be reproduced without permission.
  • CHEROKEE CABINS NC SMOKY MOUNTAINS BRYSON CITY - NORTH CAROLINA 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC abovebeyondcabin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You may also be interested in visiting our sections: Cherokee and the Qualla Boundary with Questions and Answers and Native Americans and American Indians: The 562 Federally Recognized Tribes: Frequently Asked Questions and Answers (FAQ) .
  • The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

Cherokee ᏣᎳᎩ
ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ
Cherokeenationalflag.png
Flag of the Cherokee Nation
Eastern Band Cherokee Flag.svg
Flag of the Eastern Band Cherokee
UKBflag (bordered).png
Flag of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians
Languages
Religion
Christianity, Kituhwa, Four Mother's Society
Related ethnic groups
.The Cherokee (ᏣᎳᎩ) are a Native American people historically settled in the Southeastern United States (principally Georgia, the Carolinas and Eastern Tennessee).^ Do the Cherokee people want to be referred to as Indians or Native Americans?
  • The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Origins controversies: Native American Origins, Cherokee origins .
  • Education - The Museum of the Cherokee Indian (www.cherokeemuseum.org) 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.cherokeemuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At one time, it covered 8 states including all or portions of the present day states of Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky, Alabama, Virginia and West Virginia.
  • Cherokee - Southeast Native Americans in Olden Times for Kids 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC nativeamericans.mrdonn.org [Source type: Original source]

.Linguistically, they are part of the Iroquoian-language family.^ William Choate: My family is from the Tennessee and Kentucky area and they tell me that we are part Cherokee.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.In the 19th century, historians and ethnographers recorded their oral tradition that told of the tribe having migrated south in ancient times from the Great Lakes region, where other Iroquoian-speaking peoples were located.^ Oral recordings of Cherokee storytellers (mostly speaking English) are listed in AppLit's Gayle Ross, Cherokee Storyteller and Appalachian Folktales in Film, Drama, and Storytelling Recordings .
  • Bibliography on Cherokee Language 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.ferrum.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During this time of peace and prosperity, the Ani-Yun-Wiya, Nanticokes and some other Nation whose name has been forgotten were envious of the Delaware, and came from the south with a great army and made war upon them.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Along with the Cherokee, several other tribes from the Southeastern United States also moved into this region of Texas.

[1]
.In the 19th century, people in the United States called the Cherokees one of the "Five Civilized Tribes", because they had assimilated numerous cultural and technological practices of European-American settlers.^ To the settlers they seemed very civilized and they were.

^ These tribes were called the five civilized tribes.

^ Do Cherokee people still practice their traditional culture?
  • The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

.According to the 2000 U.S. Census, with more than 300,000 members, today they are the largest of the 563 federally recognized Native American tribes in the United States.^ Awarded to Federally recognized tribal members.
  • American Indian Scholarships 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www6.miami.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Awarded to federally recognized tribal members.
  • American Indian Scholarships 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www6.miami.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, there are over 260,000 Cherokees in the United States.
  • Cherokee - Southeast Native Americans in Olden Times for Kids 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC nativeamericans.mrdonn.org [Source type: Original source]

[2]
.Of the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes, the Cherokee Nation and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians have headquarters in Tahlequah, Oklahoma.^ One of the top three Indian museums in the United States is the Museum of the Cherokee Indian.
  • The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The tribe also supervises the Lawrence County Title IV Indian Education Program, which has received national recognition by governmental review boards as an Exemplary Program.
  • Surveying Tribal Members About the Echota Cherokee Language 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Membership in the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is closed except to those who can prove that they have an ancestor on the Baker Roll of 1924 and who can prove that they are at least 1/16th Cherokee by blood.
  • The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

They were forcibly relocated there in the 1830s. .The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is located in Cherokee, North Carolina.^ History of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indian Nation .
  • The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Cherokee Rituals, Culture, Festivals, Government, Beliefs 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Keywords: cherokee language lesson Cherokee language learn cherokee CHEROKEE LANGUAGE Cherokee Language Lessons how to say give this basketball to your brother in Cherokee language study with emphasis on the Eastern dialect or the Giduwa dialect Eastern Band of Cherokee Indian AUTHOR: Bo Tayolor Cherokee language study with emphasis on the Eastern dialect or the Giduwa dialect.
  • -Native American Indian Tribes - Over 2,000 articles on native american indians, their culture & traditions. 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.aaanativearts.com [Source type: General]

^ Review from University of Tennessee Press : This volume presents the story of the Eastern Band of Cherokees during the nineteenth century.
  • The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Name

.The Cherokee refer to themselves as Tsalagi (ᏣᎳᎩ) or Aniyvwiyai (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯᎢ), which means "Principal People."^ Do the Cherokee people want to be referred to as Indians or Native Americans?
  • The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Petitions and orders for the initiative and for the referendum shall be filed with the Secretary-Treasurer and addressed to the Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation, who shall submit the same to the people.
  • Constitution of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thorpe.ou.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ All elections on measures referred to the people of the Cherokee Nation shall be had at the next regular general election except when the Council or the Principal Chief shall order a special election for the express purpose of making such reference.
  • Constitution of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thorpe.ou.edu [Source type: Original source]

The Iroquois called the Cherokee Oyata’ge'ronoñ (inhabitants of the cave country). .Many theories - though none proven - abound about the origin of the word Cherokee.^ Early in their marriage, Gloria and Epigmenio, while sharing family secrets, discovered that both families shared many of the same family stories - stories about the Cherokee and Sequoyah.

^ Move your mouse over the icons above for many interesting facts about the Cherokee People.
  • Education - The Museum of the Cherokee Indian (www.cherokeemuseum.org) 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.cherokeemuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It wasn’t that long ago that there had been many accusations about the relationship between the Texas Cherokees and the Mexicans, and there were still many people in Texas who thought the Cherokees were not to be trusted.

.It may have originally been derived from the Choctaw word Cha-la-kee, which means "those who live in the mountains", or Choctaw Chi-luk-ik-bi, meaning "those who live in the cave country".[3] The earliest Spanish rendering of Cherokee, from 1755, is Tchalaquei.^ Membership in the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians is closed except to those who can prove that they have an ancestor on the Baker Roll of 1924 and who can prove that they are at least 1/16th Cherokee by blood.
  • The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Thornton group is the best way for the Cherokee people to bring their language back to all those who care about their culture.
  • iTunes Store offers Cherokee language revitalization application 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.cherokeephoenix.org [Source type: General]

^ What is the mindset of someone who is 1/32 Cherokee living 2,000 miles away?
  • iTunes Store offers Cherokee language revitalization application 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.cherokeephoenix.org [Source type: General]

[4] Another theory is Cherokee derives from a Muscogee Creek word, meaning "those who live by Cherry Creek".

Origins

.There are two prevailing views about Cherokee origins.^ It wasn’t that long ago that there had been many accusations about the relationship between the Texas Cherokees and the Mexicans, and there were still many people in Texas who thought the Cherokees were not to be trusted.

^ In the meantime, Sequoyah sent Aujiya and two others to visit among the Indian villages to the west to see if there were any Cherokees there.

^ There were still arguments on every level whenever two or more Cherokees got together.

  • Migration from the North:
.One view is that the Cherokees are relative latecomers to Southern Appalachia, who likely migrated in late prehistoric times from northern areas, the traditional territory of the Iroquois and other Iroquoian-language people.^ In a couple of months-a tick of a second on a nation's clock-thousands of Cherokee people learned to read and write in their own language.
  • Pictures of our Nobler Selves 11 September 2009 21:42 UTC cherokeehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Cherokee were a large sedentary hunter/farmer nation which ranged over the southern end of the Appalachian chain.  They were probably driven south from the area of Pennsylvania about 3,000 B.P.  They apparently took over territories evacuated by Siouan ancestors.
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One such example is when Conley tells the story of Alexander Cuming, an Englishman who took seven Cherokee men with him to England in 1730.
  • The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

.Researchers in the 19th century talked to elders who recounted an oral tradition of the people's migrating south from the Great Lakes region in ancient times.^ They spent the next day in the village talking with the elders, who made them presents of tobacco and other small articles.

^ Around this time he began to encourage others to move westward as a means of protecting the people and preserving their ancient culture.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They settled for a while around the Great Lakes region, but they were not welcomed.
  • Cherokee - Southeast Native Americans in Olden Times for Kids 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC nativeamericans.mrdonn.org [Source type: Original source]

[1]
.Some historians and archaeologists believe evidence supports the view that Cherokees did not come to Appalachia until as late as the 13th -16th centuries.^ They found no Cherokee but did learn there were some living along the Washita River.

^ However, some oral historians contend that the written Cherokee language is much, much older.
  • Pictures of our Nobler Selves 11 September 2009 21:42 UTC cherokeehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the president of the Resident Council, I would like to invite some members of the Cherokee People to come and meet our residents.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.The scholars believe they originated near the Great Lakes, where they had been part of other Iroquoian-speaking peoples.^ I believe they were both part Cherokee.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ From time to time these were joined by other families from the east, where they numbered between two and three thousand people prior to the treaty of 1817.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But they don't know if we people don't speak the language and don't know the culture we are just a bunch of heritage cherokees.
  • iTunes Store offers Cherokee language revitalization application 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.cherokeephoenix.org [Source type: General]

The period of differentiation is when the Iroquois nations formed of the Haudenosaunee, as well as the St. Lawrence Iroquoians, for instance. .Over time, the Cherokee moved into Muscogee Creek territory and settled at the sites of mounds built by Muscogee ancestors.^ Sided with the British during the Revolutionary War eventually resulting in four major military incursions into Cherokee territories by Virginia and North Carolina generals .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Final peace between the British and Cherokee resulted in the influx of settler into Cherokee territories resulting in the ceding of land .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sequoya moved to Arkansas; Cherokee, Delaware, Kickapoo, Miami, and Illinois united against Osage to try to gain Oklahoma territories .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

[5]
.Initially, archeologists had mistakenly attributed several Mississippian culture sites to the Cherokee, including Moundville and Etowah Mounds.^ This site includes other pages on Cherokee history and language, including material on The Cherokee Phoenix and its editor.
  • Bibliography on Cherokee Language 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.ferrum.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parent's names: Father- Joe Brown and Mother- D. K. No luck any other sites further than getting Anna's Mother's initials; who was suppose to be Cherokee.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Because the field of Cherokee studies is interdisciplinary, this course will examine several different disciplines that contribute to our knowledge of Cherokee history and culture: archaeology, history, anthropology, and folklore.
  • Education - The Museum of the Cherokee Indian (www.cherokeemuseum.org) 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.cherokeemuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Late 20th-century studies have shown instead that the sites are unquestionably related to Creek ancestors. .At the same time, archeologists have found artifacts with iconography from the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex (SECC) in historical Cherokee villages dating from the time of European contact.^ Most conservative estimates agree that at least 1/2 of Tsalagi living at the time of the arrival of the Europeans died due to disease after contact with the Spanish.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cherokee Historical Sites Home Genealogy Ancient Village Archives Museum Adams Corner .

^ Cherokee Historic Village  http://www.wordlink.net/Cherokee/HistoricVillage.html .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

  • Longer in the South
.The other possibility is that Cherokee people have lived in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee for a far longer period of time.^ North Carolina speaker of Cherokee.
  • Surveying Tribal Members About the Echota Cherokee Language 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At one time, it covered 8 states including all or portions of the present day states of Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky, Alabama, Virginia and West Virginia.
  • Cherokee - Southeast Native Americans in Olden Times for Kids 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC nativeamericans.mrdonn.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Review from University of Tennessee Press : This volume presents the story of the Eastern Band of Cherokees during the nineteenth century.
  • The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

[6][7] During the late Archaic and Woodland Period, Indians in the region began to cultivate plants such as marsh elder, lambsquarters, pigweed, sunflowers and some native squash.[8] .People began building mounds, created new art forms like shell gorgets, adopted new technologies, and followed an elaborate cycle of religious ceremonies.^ The Cherokee Nation recently initiated a project to create a book illustrating the history of art of their people.

^ New types of baskets were made in elaborate form and pattern.

^ Where It All Began: Cherokee Creation Stories in Art .
  • Education - The Museum of the Cherokee Indian (www.cherokeemuseum.org) 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.cherokeemuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

During the Mississippian Culture period (800 to 1500 CE), which was distinct from the cultures of historic tribes, local women developed a new variety of maize (corn) called eastern flint. It closely resembled modern corn and produced larger crops. .The successful cultivation of corn surpluses allowed the rise of larger, more complex villages with concentrated populations during the Mississippian-culture period.^ From an economic point of view, larger lots are more expensive to provide with services, with service costs rising at half the rate of land use.

Because of its importance, corn was central to several religious ceremonies, especially the Green Corn Ceremony.

Early culture

.
Cherokee beadwork sampler, made by girls from the Cherokee Female Seminary, Oklahoma, ca.
^ Original site of the Cherokee Female Seminary.

^ Since Park Hill was decimated during the American Civil War, the Cherokees decided to rebuild the female seminary in Tahlequah.

^ Northeastern State University will celebrate the heritage of the Cherokee National Female Seminary as it looks forward to its 2009 centennial celebrations.

1840s, collection of the Oklahoma History Center
.Much of what is known about pre-18th-century Native American cultures, including the Cherokee, has come from records of Spanish expeditions.^ Native American Prophecy Narrated by the late Floyd RedCrow Westerman 6:36 minutes 7 Generations Elder Orin Lyons talks about preparing for the next 7 generations.
  • -Native American Indian Tribes - Over 2,000 articles on native american indians, their culture & traditions. 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.aaanativearts.com [Source type: General]

^ Learn about Cherokee Language History, Art, Music, Traditional games, crafts (marbles, stickball, basket weaving, cornhusk dolls and much more) .

^ Less widely known is the fact that many Native Americans also owned African slaves, and fathered children with African slave women.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

.Some of this work was not translated into English and more widely available to historians until the 20th century.^ Some nineteenth-century baskets are incorrectly identified as being made of honeysuckle, but the Japanese plant was not available to Cherokee women until the 1890s and only became popular as a weaving material in the twentieth century.

^ If we can recoup some money from selling the app and Nintendo DSi we will invest more money into Windows based phones such as Blackberry, etc.
  • iTunes Store offers Cherokee language revitalization application 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.cherokeephoenix.org [Source type: General]

^ In addition, until the middle of the 20th century, there were Black Indians - Freedmen who still lived and practiced the customs of the nations where they had been born.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, the dominance of English colonists over the Southeast led to a discounting of Spanish sources for some time.^ A peace then ensued where the English promised not to encroach on their lands, and the tribe for quite some time was left alone by the colonists, who no doubt never forgot receiving their stunning defeat at the hands of the The Principal People.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

.American writer John Howard Payne wrote about pre-19th century Cherokee culture and society.^ John Rollin Ridge was talking about poets and journalists when he wrote that Native Americans can use a pen, chisel or pencil "to give us pictures of our nobler selves."
  • Pictures of our Nobler Selves 11 September 2009 21:42 UTC cherokeehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cherokee planters allowed their slaves to establish the African Benevolent Society, affiliated with the American Colonization Society.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Thornton group is the best way for the Cherokee people to bring their language back to all those who care about their culture.
  • iTunes Store offers Cherokee language revitalization application 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.cherokeephoenix.org [Source type: General]

.The Payne papers describe the account by Cherokee elders of a traditional two-part societal structure.^ (Photo - Right) The Cherokee Nation of Mexico believes that children and elders are the most important part of any gathering.

.A "white" organization of elders represented the seven clans.^ Those white flowers jumped up everywhere their tears fell, its seven leaflets representing the seven Cherokee clans, and it had gold in the center like the gold the white men were looking for in Cherokee country.

As Payne recounted, this group, which was hereditary and priestly, was responsible for religious activities, such as healing, purification, and prayer. A second group of younger men, the "red" organization, was responsible for warfare. .The Cherokee considered warfare a polluting activity, and warriors required the purification of the priestly class before participants could reintegrate into normal village life.^ An additional 20 or so villages of unknown location are believed to have existed.  The Cherokee hunted at least into Arkansas, Kentucky, Virginia, and West Virginia .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

This hierarchy had disappeared long before the 18th century.
Researchers have debated the reasons for the change. .Some historians believe the decline in priestly power originated with a revolt by the Cherokee against the abuses of the priestly class known as the Ani-kutani.^ However, some oral historians contend that the written Cherokee language is much, much older.
  • Pictures of our Nobler Selves 11 September 2009 21:42 UTC cherokeehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some Cherokee chiefs ventured to Charleston to ask for protection against Catawba, Shawnee, and Congaree .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some permitted children of their slaves to attend the mission schools along with their own children, but that was against the law and the state of Georgia started enforcing its laws in the Cherokee Nation.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

[9] .Ethnographer James Mooney, who studied the Cherokee in the late 1880s, was the first to trace the decline of the former hierarchy to this revolt.^ Who My Father,( Who is now deceased )James Freeman Skaggs, said was part cherokee, After Her husband (Herman Skaggs ) death she married again to A ---- Harris.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ First, everyone who knows about the "Cherokee Freedmen Controversy" has a bad taste in their mouth over the issue.
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Members of the Echota Cherokee tribe trace their ancestry through the Chickamagua Cherokee, who seceded from the Cherokee Nation in 1777 over land cession issues.
  • Surveying Tribal Members About the Echota Cherokee Language 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: Original source]

[10] .By the time of Mooney, the structure of Cherokee religious practitioners was more informal, based more on individual knowledge and ability than upon heredity.^ Furthermore, this knowledge provides a base to build upon and suggests that these respondents may have a realistic idea of the effort that language reacquisition will involve.
  • Surveying Tribal Members About the Echota Cherokee Language 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ To provide a more descriptive measure of language ability, I included a section that asked the respondents to rank their ability to understand, speak, read, and write the Cherokee language.
  • Surveying Tribal Members About the Echota Cherokee Language 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If you look at me and my twin sister, you would see more Cherokee Indian in us than you would black.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

[9]
.Another major source of early cultural history comes from materials written in the 19th century by the didanvwisgi (Cherokee:ᏗᏓᏅᏫᏍᎩ), Cherokee medicine men, after Sequoyah's creation of the Cherokee syllabary in the 1820s.^ I contains material on Sequoyah, who developed the Cherokee syllabary.
  • Bibliography on Cherokee Language 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.ferrum.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sequoya created syllabary, Cherokee learned to read in their language; 300 mostly Cherokee killed 30-100 Osage in battle .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Traditional Double Walled Baskets have the image of the Water Spider woven into the basket bottom) source: James Mooney's History, Myths, and Sacred Fomulas of the Cherokees .

.Initially only the didanvwisgi adopted and used such materials, which were considered extremely powerful in a spiritual sense.^ When natural materials such as River Cane, Honeysuckle etc is used with natural dyes, then the basket is classified as a traditional Cherokee Basket.

^ The purpose of said meetings must be stated and the Council may consider only such matters as are specified in the call of the extraordinary meetings.
  • Constitution of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thorpe.ou.edu [Source type: Original source]

[9] .Later, the syllabary and writings were widely adopted by the Cherokee people.^ In a couple of months-a tick of a second on a nation's clock-thousands of Cherokee people learned to read and write in their own language.
  • Pictures of our Nobler Selves 11 September 2009 21:42 UTC cherokeehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cherokee Syllabary  http://www.omniglot.com/writing/cherokee.htm .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

.Unlike most other Indians in the American Southeast at the start of the historic era, the Cherokee spoke an Iroquoian language.^ Keywords: cherokee language lesson Cherokee language learn cherokee CHEROKEE LANGUAGE Cherokee Language Lessons how to say it fits in Cherokee language study with emphasis on the Eastern dialect or the Giduwa dialect Eastern Band of Cherokee Indian AUTHOR: Bo Tayolor Cherokee language study with emphasis on the Eastern dialect or the Giduwa dialect.
  • -Native American Indian Tribes - Over 2,000 articles on native american indians, their culture & traditions. 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.aaanativearts.com [Source type: General]

^ Keywords: cherokee language lesson Cherokee language learn cherokee CHEROKEE LANGUAGE Cherokee Language Lessons listen get up Cherokee language study with emphasis on the Eastern dialect or the Giduwa dialect Eastern Band of Cherokee Indian AUTHOR: Bo Tayolor Cherokee language study with emphasis on the Eastern dialect or the Giduwa dialect.
  • -Native American Indian Tribes - Over 2,000 articles on native american indians, their culture & traditions. 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.aaanativearts.com [Source type: General]

^ Keywords: cherokee language lesson Cherokee language learn cherokee CHEROKEE LANGUAGE Cherokee Language Lessons how to say stir it in Cherokee language study with emphasis on the Eastern dialect or the Giduwa dialect Eastern Band of Cherokee Indian AUTHOR: Bo Tayolor Cherokee language study with emphasis on the Eastern dialect or the Giduwa dialect.
  • -Native American Indian Tribes - Over 2,000 articles on native american indians, their culture & traditions. 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.aaanativearts.com [Source type: General]

.Since the Great Lakes region was the core of Iroquoian-language speakers, scholars have theorized that the Cherokee migrated South from that region.^ This book is also available at Amazon.com   Another wonderful book is the trade size volume by Prentice Robinson, a bilingual speaker of Cherokee, and teacher of the language.
  • A Small Lexicon of Tsalagi words 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC public.csusm.edu [Source type: General]

^ I would be able to talk to Cherokee speakers from other parts of the U.S. __ Cherokee is a beautiful language.
  • Surveying Tribal Members About the Echota Cherokee Language 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Three of the respondents knew someone who learned the Cherokee language in Alabama from another speaker of Cherokee.
  • Surveying Tribal Members About the Echota Cherokee Language 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: Original source]

This is supported by the Cherokee oral history tradition. But, other scholars argue that the Iroquois migrated North from the southeast..January 2010" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] According to their theory, the Tuscarora, another Iroquoian-speaking people inhabiting the Southeast in historic times, and the Cherokee broke off from the major group during its northern migration.^ Sided with the British during the Revolutionary War eventually resulting in four major military incursions into Cherokee territories by Virginia and North Carolina generals .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This stems from historical events that forced many people to move from one place to another to avoid problems that took place in the past.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There were many battles and wars that took place during these times, and the Tsalagi fought in the great majority of these fights.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

.Other historians hold that, judging from linguistic and cultural data, the Tuscarora people migrated South from other Iroquoian-speaking people in the Great Lakes region in ancient times.^ During this time of peace and prosperity, the Ani-Yun-Wiya, Nanticokes and some other Nation whose name has been forgotten were envious of the Delaware, and came from the south with a great army and made war upon them.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ From time to time these were joined by other families from the east, where they numbered between two and three thousand people prior to the treaty of 1817.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Around this time he began to encourage others to move westward as a means of protecting the people and preserving their ancient culture.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

Most "returned" to the New York area from the southeast by 1722 because of warfare in the southern region. The Tuscarora were admitted then by the Iroquois as the Sixth Nation of their confederacy.[11]
.Linguistic analysis shows a relatively large difference between Cherokee and the northern Iroquoian languages.^ A discussion on the difference between the Cherokee Nation and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians .

Scholars posit a split between the groups in the distant past, perhaps 3500–3800 years ago.[12] .Glottochronology studies suggest the split occurred between about 1,500 and 1,800 B.C.[13] The Cherokee have claimed the ancient settlement of Kituwa on the Tuckasegee River, formerly next to and now part of Qualla Boundary (the reservation of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians), as the original Cherokee settlement in the Southeast.^ Keywords: cherokee language lesson Cherokee language learn cherokee CHEROKEE LANGUAGE Cherokee Language Lessons how to say give this basketball to your brother in Cherokee language study with emphasis on the Eastern dialect or the Giduwa dialect Eastern Band of Cherokee Indian AUTHOR: Bo Tayolor Cherokee language study with emphasis on the Eastern dialect or the Giduwa dialect.
  • -Native American Indian Tribes - Over 2,000 articles on native american indians, their culture & traditions. 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.aaanativearts.com [Source type: General]

^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Keywords: cherokee language lesson Cherokee language learn cherokee CHEROKEE LANGUAGE Cherokee Language Lessons how to say it fits in Cherokee language study with emphasis on the Eastern dialect or the Giduwa dialect Eastern Band of Cherokee Indian AUTHOR: Bo Tayolor Cherokee language study with emphasis on the Eastern dialect or the Giduwa dialect.
  • -Native American Indian Tribes - Over 2,000 articles on native american indians, their culture & traditions. 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.aaanativearts.com [Source type: General]

[12]

History

16th century: Spanish contact

These Cherokee accompanied Sir Alexander Coming to England in 1730.
.The first known European-Native American contact was in 1540, when a Spanish expedition led by Hernando de Soto passed through Cherokee country.^ Only one Cherokee village mentioned in De Soto narratives near present Murphy NC, called "Chalaque" or "Xalaque" .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Less widely known is the fact that many Native Americans also owned African slaves, and fathered children with African slave women.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wheither we inherited more European genetic looks, or Native American, doesn't matter.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.De Soto's expedition visited many inland Georgia and Tennessee villages which they recorded as ruled by the Coosa chiefdom, of the Mississippian culture.^ Only one Cherokee village mentioned in De Soto narratives near present Murphy NC, called "Chalaque" or "Xalaque" .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

The Cherokee did not settle in this area until the early 1700s.[14] .The Spanish noted the Chalaque nation as living around the Keowee River where North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia meet.^ Timothy Tomko: I heard a segment on National Public Radio Yesterday speaking of the Lumbee Indians of North Carolina.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Ceded considerable land to South Carolina and Georgia in DeWitts Corners Treaty .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ HE was born in North Carolina in 1920 I think .His name was Wm.Harley Duke.He moved to Florida @ married a lady by the name of Roselena White around 1945.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

[15] .European diseases, introduced to natives by contact with the Spaniards and their animals, decimated many Eastern tribes because of their lack of immunity to the new diseases.^ I am proud of ALL my ancestors both Native American and European because of who they were as people regardless of their ethnicity.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Most conservative estimates agree that at least 1/2 of Tsalagi living at the time of the arrival of the Europeans died due to disease after contact with the Spanish.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was a true effort then, (and continues even today of the US government to culturely #cleanse# away many Native tribes.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

[16]
A second Spanish expedition came through the interior in 1567 led by Juan Pardo. Spanish troops built six forts in the interior Southeast, including at the Mississippian chiefdom of Joara, where they named their installation Fort San Juan. This was the first European settlement in the interior.[17] .They visited what were later Cherokee towns of Nikwasi, Estatoe, Tugaloo, Conasauga, and Kituwa.^ That evening they visited the house of the interpreter and to their surprise met a Cherokee man by the name of Anvya Tsidoga - Standing Rock.

.The indigenous people rose against the Spanish soldiers, killing all but one of the 120 stationed at the six forts, and burning all the forts.^ The trade in this region was coveted by all the Europeans, and often these countries would attempt to incite tribes one against another as a means to control commerce.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Loudoun on the Little Tennessee River and killed all stationed there.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These then began an all out offensive against the British and soon had taken the great majority of the Forts West of the Allegheny Mountains.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

[17] The Spanish retreated to the coast.[18]

17th century: English contact

.In 1654, there was a disturbance in Virginia Colony as the Rechahecrians or Rickahockans, as well as the Siouan Manahoac and Nahyssan, broke through the frontier and settled near the Falls of the James, near present-day Richmond, Virginia.^ Hostilities in the region reached the boiling point when a trader named James Needham was sent by the Colony of Virginia to conduct trade relations with the Tsalagi.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

.The following year, a combined force of English and Pamunkey drove the newcomers away.^ In the year 1654, the English at Jamestowne and some Pamunkey associated with the Powhatan attacked the Tsalagi of Virginia who were known as the Rickahocken or the "Round Town People."
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

The identity of the Rechahecrians has been much debated. Historians noted the name closely resembled that recorded for the Eriechronon or Erielhonan, commonly known as the Erie tribe. .They had been driven away from the southern shore of Lake Erie by the powerful Iroquois Five Nations in 1654. The anthropologist Martin Smith theorized some remnants of the tribe migrated to Virginia after the wars.^ The Cherokee were a large sedentary hunter/farmer nation which ranged over the southern end of the Appalachian chain.  They were probably driven south from the area of Pennsylvania about 3,000 B.P.  They apparently took over territories evacuated by Siouan ancestors.
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

(1986:131–32) Fewer historians suggest this tribe were Cherokee.[19]
.Virginian traders developed a small-scale trading system with the Cherokee before the end of the seventeenth century; the earliest recorded Virginia trader to visit the Cherokee was a certain Dority, in 1690.[20] The Cherokee sold them Indian slaves for use as laborers in Virginia and further north.^ Other sources used to complete this page are : The Cherokee Indian nation, a troubled history edited by Duane H. King Cherokee planters, the development of Plantation Slavery before removal", by Theda Perdue, The Cherokees: a population history by Russell Thornton, "Black Indians, a hidden heritage" by William Loren Katz.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some voices were raised against slavery: the Cherokee Phoenix and Indian advocate newspapers addressed the question of international trade slave and came out in solid opposition to its continuation.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hostilities in the region reached the boiling point when a trader named James Needham was sent by the Colony of Virginia to conduct trade relations with the Tsalagi.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

[21]

18th century history

Three Cherokee diplomats in London, 1765
.The Cherokees gave sanctuary to a band of Shawnee in the 1660s, but from 1710 to 1715 the Cherokee and Chickasaw, allied with the British, fought Shawnee, who were allied with the French, and forced them to move north.^ Today there are approximately 22,000 descendants of these Chickamagua and of the Cherokee refugees to whom they gave sanctuary living throughout the state.
  • Surveying Tribal Members About the Echota Cherokee Language 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Sided with the British during the Revolutionary War eventually resulting in four major military incursions into Cherokee territories by Virginia and North Carolina generals .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At first allied with the British in the French and Indian War assisting them in an attack on Fort Duquesne, but British treachery resulted in their changing sides in the conflict .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

[22] .Cherokees fought with the Yamasee, Catawba, and British in late 1712 and early 1713 against the Tuscarora in the Second Tuscarora War.^ Cherokee took part in Moore's expedition against the Tuscarora under Captains Harford and Thurston; 70 Cherokee originally joined Catawba and other northern Indians in the outbreak of the Yamasee War but soon withdrew and made peace with the British; Cherokee and Chickasaw expelled the Shawnee from the Cumberland Valley .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some Cherokee chiefs ventured to Charleston to ask for protection against Catawba, Shawnee, and Congaree .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the year 1712, Tsalagi Warriors numbering 218 accompanied Coloniel Barnwell and fought against the Tuscarora which resulted in defeat for their tribe.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Tuscarora War marked the beginning of an English-Cherokee relationship that, despite breaking down on occasion, remained strong for much of the 18th century.^ In the beginning, Cherokees regarded prisoners of war as commodities to be traded for other goods.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the growth of the deerskin trade, the Cherokee were valuable trading partners, since deer-skins from the cooler country of their mountain hunting-grounds were of a better-quality than those supplied by neighboring tribes.^ The trade in this region was coveted by all the Europeans, and often these countries would attempt to incite tribes one against another as a means to control commerce.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These lands in fact helped those who supported the British and were very valuable in the region for trade and commerce among the Ani-Yun-Wiya.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They think more money and looking better than other tribes is more important.
  • iTunes Store offers Cherokee language revitalization application 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.cherokeephoenix.org [Source type: General]

.In January 1716, Cherokee murdered a delegation of Muscogee Creek leaders at the town of Tugaloo, marking their entry into the Yamasee War.^ Sided with the British during the Revolutionary War eventually resulting in four major military incursions into Cherokee territories by Virginia and North Carolina generals .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1715, the Tsalagi allied with the Yamasee and also the Creeks and they declared war against the settlers of South Carolina.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Conflicts with Creeks culminated in victory of Taliwa after which the Creeks removed from the Tennessee Valley; settlers pushed the Cherokee from their northern towns .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

.It ended in 1717 with peace treaties between South Carolina and the Creek.^ Refugees from South Carolina and dissidents led by these young chiefs established a settlement at Chickamagua Creek, in Southeastern Tennessee.
  • Surveying Tribal Members About the Echota Cherokee Language 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Ceded considerable land to South Carolina and Georgia in DeWitts Corners Treaty .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Older chiefs in favor of peace signed a treaty ceding a vast tract of Cherokee land to the state of South Carolina.
  • Surveying Tribal Members About the Echota Cherokee Language 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Hostility and sporadic raids between the Cherokee and Creek continued for decades.^ This then resulted in hostilities between the Tsalagi and the Creek for lands that together they had traditionally shared.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

[23] .These raids came to a head at the Battle of Taliwa in 1755, present-day Ball Ground, Georgia, with the defeat of the Muscogee.^ These hostilities then led to the Battle of Taliwa in 1755 in which a small band of Ani-Yun-Wiya under the leadership of Oconostota defeated a much larger band of Muscogee and took possession of lands, including the region around Chickamauga Creek.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Soon after these battles, Oconostota and several other elder chiefs offered a bounty of 100 pounds on his head.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1721, the Cherokee ceded lands in South Carolina.^ Osage ceded Arkansas lands to Cherokee for Oklahoma lands; 3,500 Cherokee voluntarily migrated to Arkansas .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ceded considerable land to South Carolina and Georgia in DeWitts Corners Treaty .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ceded lands in Philadelphia treaty, 700 Creek and Cherokee warriors attacked Buchanan's Station near Nashville .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

In 1730, at Nikwasi, a Englishman, Sir Alexander Cumming convinced Cherokees to crown Moytoy of Tellico as "Emperor." Moytoy agreed to recognize King George II of Great Britain as the Cherokee protector. .Seven prominent Cherokee, including Attakullakulla, traveled with Sir Alexander Cuming back to London, England.^ After peace mission by Sir Alexander Cuming, seven Cherokee were taken to visit English court .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Cherokee delegation signed the Treaty of Whitehall with the British.^ Older chiefs in favor of peace signed a treaty ceding a vast tract of Cherokee land to the state of South Carolina.
  • Surveying Tribal Members About the Echota Cherokee Language 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ South Carolina government made treaty with the Cherokee signed by five chiefs of the Toxawa and three of the Keowa .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

.Moytoy's son, Amo-sgasite (Dreadful Water) attempted to succeed him as "Emperor" in 1741, but the Cherokees elected their own leader, Cunne Shote (Standing Turkey) of Chota.^ Raven in turn was the son of Caulunna leader of the Seven Clans, and Nancy Moytoy.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cherokee People, am I understanding this correctly that our tribal leaders spend $200 million on the Hard Rock brand so as to boost their own ego?
  • iTunes Store offers Cherokee language revitalization application 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.cherokeephoenix.org [Source type: General]

[5]
.Political power among Cherokees remained decentralized and towns acted autonomously.^ The idea is if all these organizations are prevented from accepting grants, the Cherokee Nation can have more money and the CNO picks up political power.
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

In 1735 the Cherokee were estimated to have sixty-four towns and villages, and 6000 fighting men. .In 1738 and 1739 smallpox epidemics broke out among the Cherokee, who had no natural immunity.^ This number drastically was decreased in the year 1738 due to a smallpox epidemic which decimated the Ani-Yun-Wiya.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fred Brown: I'm writing this comment for Ruth Brown who is trying to find out some information on her grandmother who was full or half cherokee and lived in Tenn.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I am trying to find this out for a friend who is supposedly Cherokee Indian but has also been told that her family may have followed the Lumbee Indian Ideas .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.Nearly half their population died within a year.^ At the time, it was sadly estimated that after the plague that year, the number of survivors was less then half of the population.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

Hundreds of other Cherokee committed suicide due to their losses and disfigurement from the disease.
.From 1753 to 1755, battles broke out between the Cherokee and Muscogee over disputed hunting grounds in North Georgia.^ In the event that no native Alabama speakers of Cherokee are identified, the Echota will have to choose between learning the North Carolina (Eastern Band) or the Oklahoma dialect of Cherokee.
  • Surveying Tribal Members About the Echota Cherokee Language 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Around the year 1714, the Tsalagi & Chickasaws expelled the Shawnee from the Cumberland Area and used their lands for hunting grounds and a buffer between their two tribes.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Soon after arriving in the Arkansas Territory, disputes broke out in an all out war with the Osage and the Quapaw.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

.Cherokees were victorious in the Battle of Taliwa.^ Conflicts with Creeks culminated in victory of Taliwa after which the Creeks removed from the Tennessee Valley; settlers pushed the Cherokee from their northern towns .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

.British soldiers built forts in Cherokee country to defend against the French, including Fort Loudoun near Chota.^ At first allied with the British in the French and Indian War assisting them in an attack on Fort Duquesne, but British treachery resulted in their changing sides in the conflict .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These then began an all out offensive against the British and soon had taken the great majority of the Forts West of the Allegheny Mountains.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A part of five French Canadians penetrated Cherokee country .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1756 the Cherokees fought with the British in the French and Indian War.^ Sided with the British during the Revolutionary War eventually resulting in four major military incursions into Cherokee territories by Virginia and North Carolina generals .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At first allied with the British in the French and Indian War assisting them in an attack on Fort Duquesne, but British treachery resulted in their changing sides in the conflict .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cherokee Indians used to enslave prisoners of war.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

.Serious misunderstandings arose quickly between the two allies, resulting in the 1760 Anglo-Cherokee War.^ This resulted in a very powerful Confederacy of Tribes under his leadership and he quickly became the most deadly enemy of the Anglo-Americans that they ever encountered on this continent.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Several generations before the families had disputed over some land that ended in a feud that resulted in years of silence between the two families.

^ The reason there was this unique relationship with the English was a result of several illegal treaties made by those colonists who favored revolution, which prompted them to quickly seek allies as a war looming with the colonies was clearly imminent.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

.King George III's Royal Proclamation of 1763 forbade British settlements west of the Appalachian crest, as his government tried to afford some protection from colonial encroachment to the Cherokee.^ In order to keep peace between the Natives and the settlers, King George III issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763, prohibiting settlement west of the Allegheny Mountains.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A treaty made with the United States government in 1866 further cemented their place as Cherokee citizens and gave Freedmen descendants federally protected rights to citizenship.
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Fred Brown: I'm writing this comment for Ruth Brown who is trying to find out some information on her grandmother who was full or half cherokee and lived in Tenn.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

The ruling was difficult to enforce.[24]
.In 1771-2, North Carolinian settlers squatted on Cherokee lands in Tennessee, forming the Watauga Association.^ This agreement was supposed to protect the people from further encroachments on their lands by settlers by fixing permanant boundries in the region of the North Fork of the Holston River and the headwaters of the Kanawha.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result of this lease, a deed was then drafted up by the settlers for this land in which an additional two thousand dollars was paid by the Watauga Settlers Association in the year 1775.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sabrina E. North: To Whom It May Concern, February 23,2007 My Grant Grand Father may been a Cherokee Indian from Tennessee.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

[25] .Daniel Boone and his party tried to settle in Kentucky, but the Shawnee, Delaware, Mingo, and some Cherokee attacked a scouting and forage party that included Boone’s son.^ They are also tried to pass an amendment, according to which, those who appear on the Dawes Commission Rolls or their descendants, including the Delaware Cherokees of Article II of the Delaware Agreement of May 1967 and the Shawnee Cherokees as of Article III of the Shawnee Agreement of June 1869 and their descendants who can prove a certified degree of Indian blood could be citizens.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The rolls included degrees of Indian blood for the native Cherokee including adopted Delaware Indians with no Cherokee blood, but not the Freedmen with Cherokee blood.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In return, some Shawnees including the famous Tecumseh and the Prophet came to learn the art of war from Tsi'ui-Gunsin'ni.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

.The American Indians used this territory as a hunting ground; it had hardly been inhabited for years.^ Indian Territory, where the Cherokee Nation is now located in Oklahoma, was where the American government had forced them to go and where the government wanted to keep them.

The conflict sparked the beginning of what was known as Dunmore's War (1773–1774).
.In 1776, allied with the Shawnee led by Cornstalk, Cherokee attacked settlers in South Carolina, Georgia, Virginia, and North Carolina in the Second Cherokee War.^ KING , b ca 1831 in South Carolina, m ca 1855 in Cleburne County, Alabama to Mary Evelyn BROWN. She was born ca 1836 in Georgia and died 1911 in Franklin County, Alabama.

^ Eastern Cherokee, Southern Iroquois & United Tribes of South Carolina, Inc .
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cherokees of South Carolina (Columbia, SC) .
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

Overhill Cherokee Nancy Ward, Dragging Canoe's niece, warned settlers of impending attacks. Provincial militias retaliated, destroying over 50 Cherokee towns. Invasions by North Carolina in 1776 and 1780 destroyed the Overhill towns. In 1777 surviving Cherokee town leaders signed treaties with the states.
.Dragging Canoe and his band moved near present-day Chattanooga, Tennessee, where they established 11 new towns.^ He was from a town located near Newport News, Tennessee.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ They must of moved to Tennessee where my grandma was born.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

Chickamauga was his headquarters and his entire band became known as the Chickamaugas. .From here he fought a guerrilla war against settlers, the Chickamauga Wars (1776-1794).^ We fought to protect our rights, our freedom and our land but to no avail it was a useless battle against the incoming settlers.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

The first Treaty of Tellico Blockhouse, signed 7 November 1794, ended the Chickamauga Wars. In 1805, the Cherokee ceded their lands between the Cumberland and Duck Rivers (i.e. the Cumberland Plateau) to Tennessee.

19th century

Acculturation

This portrait of Major Ridge was painted by Charles Bird King in 1834
The Cherokee lands between the Tennessee and Chattahoochee Rivers were remote enough from white settlers to remain independent after the Chickamauga Wars. .The deerskin trade was no longer feasible on their greatly reduced lands, and over the next several decades the Cherokee built a new society modeled on the white Southern United States.^ In the decades that followed, the freedmen established lives for themselves and made ecomomic gains for themselves faster than the freedmen in the United States.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A treaty made with the United States government in 1866 further cemented their place as Cherokee citizens and gave Freedmen descendants federally protected rights to citizenship.
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Eastern Cherokee, Southern Iroquois & United Tribes of South Carolina, Inc .
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

.George Washington sought to 'civilize' friendly Southeastern American Indians, through programs overseen by Indian Agent Benjamin Hawkins.^ At the end of American Revolution, George Washington encouraged the Cherokees to grow cotton and flax to relieve the economical crisis.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

.U.S. agents convinced them to abandon their communal land-tenure and settle on isolated farmsteads, facilitated by the destruction of many American Indian towns during the American Revolutionary War.^ Indian Community Development Block Grant Program under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 .

^ I would like to know about the Indians that settled on annacco creek in Louisiana and around the town of Call Texas, near by communities.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

The deerskin trade brought white-tailed deer to the brink of extinction, and as pigs and cattle were introduced, they became the principle sources of meat. .The tribes were supplied with spinning wheels and cotton-seed, men were taught to fence and plow the land, in contrast with traditional division where farming was woman's labor, women were instructed in weaving; blacksmiths, gristmills and eventually cotton plantations were established.^ His agents sent them looms, spinning wheels, plows and other implements.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Cherokees organized a national government under Principal Chiefs Little Turkey (1788–1801), Black Fox (1801–1811), Pathkiller (1811–1827), all former warriors of Dragging Canoe.^ The Forum piece " 'Black' Cherokees fight for heritage" wrongly accused the Cherokee Nation of racism because it voted to require all citizens to have an Indian ancestor on the federally authorized base roll of our people (Oct.

^ Organizations like that gave slaves in the Cherokee Nation an opportunity for an organized social existence apart from the plantion.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

^ News from Cherokee Nation Washington Office: Cherokee Nation Principal Chief Chad Smith testifies to a U.S. Congress Sub-committee regarding budgetary issues affecting Indian tribes.

The 'Cherokee triumvirate' of James Vann and his protégés The Ridge and Charles R. Hicks advocated acculturation, formal education, and modern methods of farming. In 1801 they invited Moravian missionaries from North Carolina to teach Christianity and the 'arts of civilized life.' .The Moravians and later Congregationalist missionaries ran boarding schools, and a select few students were educated at the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions school in Connecticut.^ Moravians were followed by the American Board.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Moravians located their mission close to the home of James Vann, who offered them assistance in building an school.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1806 a Federal Road from Savannah, Georgia to Knoxville, Tennessee was built through Cherokee land.^ Monica Ortegon-Hernandez: Is there anyone who knows about the land in Georgia that was given back to the Cherokee right before the trail of tears?
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

Chief James Vann opened a tavern, inn and ferry across the Chattahoochee and built a cotton-plantation on a spur of the road from Athens, Georgia to Nashville. .His son 'Rich Joe' Vann grew the plantation to 800 acres and 150 slaves, exporting cotton to England, and owning a steamboat on the Tennessee River.^ The missionaries held their first service for slaves on Vanns plantation.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lucinda Vann tells an unusual story of plantation life from the perspective of a house slave who was born with privileges.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I'se born across the river in the plantation of old Jim Vann in Webbers Falls.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

[26] The Cherokee allied with the U.S. against the nativist and pro-British Red Stick faction of the Upper Creeks in the Creek War during the War of 1812, and Cherokee warriors led by Major Ridge played a major role in General Andrew Jackson's victory at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. Major Ride built a plantation and ran a ferry on the Oostanaula River, and, although he never learned English, educated his son and nephews in New England mission schools. .His translator and protégé Chief John Ross, descendant of several generations of Scottish fur-traders, built a plantation and operated a trading firm and a ferry at Ross' Landing (Chattanooga, Tennessee).^ I remember Chief John Ross.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

.During this period, divisions arose between the acculturated elite and the great majority of Cherokee, who clung to traditional ways of life.^ Also, for those who were asking, the Lumbee are not considered part of the Cherokee in any way.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ My great grandfather would not let her put her name on the record of Of Cherokee Indian because He feared for her life.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Janet Minter: I am looking for information on my great, great great grand mother who was said to be cherokee.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

Ca.1809 Sequoyah began developing a written form the Cherokee language. He spoke no English, but his experiences as a silversmith dealing regularly with white settlers and a warrior at Horseshoe Bend convinced him the Cherokee needed to develop writing. In 1821, he introduced Cherokee syllabary, the first alphabetic form of an American Indian language, although this innovation met with initial opposition from both Cherokee traditionalists and white missionaries who sought to encourage the use of English
Cherokee National Council building, New Echota
.In 1819, the Cherokee began holding council meetings at New Town, at the headwaters of the Oostanaula (near present-day Calhoun, Georgia).^ As the president of the Resident Council, I would like to invite some members of the Cherokee People to come and meet our residents.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ He was from a town located near Newport News, Tennessee.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.In November 1825, New Town became the capital of the Cherokee Nation, and was renamed New Echota, after the Overhill Cherokee principle town of Chota.^ Cherokee Nation of New Jersey .
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Eastern Cherokee Nation, Overhill Band (Columbus, OH) .
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

[27] .Sequoyah's syllabic alphabet was adopted, and, in 1827, the Cherokee Nation drafted a Constitution modeled on the United States, with executive, legislative and judicial branches and a system of checks and balances.^ According to the 1999 Cherokee Constitution, which has been implemented as the Supreme Law of the Cherokee Nation, the Tribal Council shall consist of seventeen (17) members.

^ Cherokee Nation’s State of Sequoyah Commission is sponsoring an educational conference in Tahlequah on August 30 & 31, 2007.

^ A discussion on the difference between the Cherokee Nation and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians .

The two-tiered legislature was led by Major Ridge and his son John Ridge. .Convinced the tribes survival required English-speaking leaders who could negotiate with the U.S., the legislature appointed John Ross as Principle Chief.^ Most of the Freedmen of Indian Territory who were adults when freed, were bilingual, speaking both English and the language of their Indian slave owners.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I remember Chief John Ross.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

A printing press was established at New Echota by Vermont missionary Samuel Worcester and Major Ridge's nephew Elias Boudinot, who had taken the name of his white benefactor, a leader of the Continental Congress and New Jersey Congressman. The Bible was translated into Cherokee syllabary and the first edition of the bilingual 'Cherokee Phoenix,' the first American Indian newspaper, was published in February 1828.[28]

Removal era

Tah-Chee (Dutch), A Cherokee Chief, 1837
.Before the final removal to present day Oklahoma many Cherokees relocated to present-day Arkansas, Missouri and Texas.^ Peggy Ann Nichols: Does any one know any thing about the cherokee tribe in the oklahoma, arkansas territory, 1940's .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.Between 1775 and 1786 the Cherokee, along with people of other nations such as the Choctaws and Chickasaws, began voluntarily settling along the Arkansas and Red Rivers.^ The Cherokee Nation recently initiated a project to create a book illustrating the history of art of their people.

^ A discussion on the difference between the Cherokee Nation and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians .

^ Other Red-Blacks are the result of mixtures of Cherokees with black and often white ancestry ( tricolor ).
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

[29]
.In 1802, the federal government promised to extinguish Indian titles to lands claimed by Georgia in return for Georgia's cession of the western lands that became Alabama and Mississippi.^ Opposing Legislation Introduced in the United States Congress Terminating the Government-to-Government Relationship of Federally Recognized Indian Tribes and Nations .

To convince the Cherokee to move voluntarily in 1815, the US government established a Cherokee Reservation in Arkansas.[30] The reservation boundaries extended from north of the Arkansas River to the southern bank of the White River. Di'wali (The Bowl), Sequoyah, Spring Frog and Tatsi (Dutch) and their bands settled there. These Cherokees became known as "Old Settlers."
.The Cherokee eventually migrated as far north as the Missouri Bootheel by 1816 and they lived interspersed among the Delawares and Shawnees of that area.^ Their language, burial customs, and diet were formulated by the native culture into which they had been born, lived and eventually died.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

[31] The Cherokee in Missouri Territory increased rapidly in population, from 1,000 to 6,000 over the next year (1816–1817) according to reports by Governor William Clark.[32] .Increased conflicts with the Osage Nation lead to the Battle of Claremore Mound and the eventual establishment of Fort Smith between Cherokee and Osage communities.^ Smith claimed the issue was not motivated by racial or monetary reasons, but was done to protect the Cherokee Nation sovereignty.
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Chadwick Smith Principal Chief Cherokee Nation Michell Hicks Principal Chief Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians .
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

[33] In the Treaty of St. Louis (1825) the Osage were made to "cede and relinquish to the United States, all their right, title, interest, and claim, to lands lying within the State of Missouri and Territory of Arkansas..." to make room for the .Cherokees and the Mashcoux who were Muscogee Creeks.^ The WPA Slave Narratives contained more than 25 interviews of Black Indians, who spoke of their lives as Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws and Chickasaws.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

[34] .As late as the winter of 1838 there were still Cherokees and Creeks living in the Missouri and Arkansas areas petitioning to the War Department to remove the Osage from the area.^ I was wondering if you knew where i could find information on the cherokee trip that lived there?
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I was born in Paducah, KY, and all of my family is still in that area, (Paducah, Cadiz, Mayfield, Hardmoney, Symsonia) but I live in Wisconsin with my German husband who wishes he was Cherokee!
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ The WPA Slave Narratives contained more than 25 interviews of Black Indians, who spoke of their lives as Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws and Chickasaws.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

[35]
.A group of Cherokee traditionalists led by Di'wali moved to Spanish Texas in 1819. They settled near Nacogdoches, and were welcomed by Mexican authorities as potential allies against Anglo-American colonists.^ They then moved to Texas where John was a circuit riding Baptist minister.

^ I would like to know about the Indians that settled on annacco creek in Louisiana and around the town of Call Texas, near by communities.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I was told very little about her other than that my grandparents were cherokee and that they died when my mother was young.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.The Tsalagiyi nvdagi were mostly neutral during the Texas War of Independence, and in 1836, signed a treaty with Texas President Sam Houston, an adopted member of the Cherokee tribe.^ After the American Civil War, the Cherokee Freedmen were made citizens of the tribe in accordance with an act of the Cherokee National Council in 1863.
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As the president of the Resident Council, I would like to invite some members of the Cherokee People to come and meet our residents.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ American Cherokee Tribe of Texas (Lumberton, TX) .
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

.His successor Mirabeau Lamar sent militia to evict them in 1839, the survivors fled north across the Red River and rejoined Cherokee in Indian Territory or south to Coahuila, Mexico, although a few remained in Texas, passing for Black Dutch.^ He was from the cherokee indians that chose to slip into east Texas from the trail of tears.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Other Red-Blacks are the result of mixtures of Cherokees with black and often white ancestry ( tricolor ).
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The so called Red-Black Cherokees represent a truly unique Cherokee population, they are the descendants of former slaves of the Cherokees, the freedmen.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

[36][citation needed]

Trail of Tears

Chief John Ross, ca. 1840
During the first decades of the 19th century, Georgia was focused on removing the Cherokee's neighbors, the Lower Creeks. .After first cousins Georgia Governor George Troup and Lower Creek Chief William McIntosh signed the Treaty of Indian Springs (1825), ceding the last Muscogee (Creek) lands claimed by Georgia, the state's northwestern border reached the Chattahoochee, the border of the Cherokee Nation.^ Cherokee Nation’s State of Sequoyah Commission is sponsoring an educational conference in Tahlequah on August 30 & 31, 2007.

^ News from Cherokee Nation Washington Office: Cherokee Nation Principal Chief Chad Smith testifies to a U.S. Congress Sub-committee regarding budgetary issues affecting Indian tribes.

^ A discussion on the difference between the Cherokee Nation and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians .

.In 1829, gold was discovered at Dahlonega, on Cherokee land claimed by Georgia.^ Monica Ortegon-Hernandez: Is there anyone who knows about the land in Georgia that was given back to the Cherokee right before the trail of tears?
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokee (2nd) Dahlonega,GA .
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

The Georgia Gold Rush was the first in U.S. history, and state officials demanded that the federal government expel the Cherokee. When Andrew Jackson was inaugurated as President in 1829, Georgia's position gained the upper-hand in Washington. .In 1830 the Indian Removal Act authorized the forcible relocation of American Indians east of the Missisippi to a new Indian Territory.^ Indian Community Development Block Grant Program under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 .

.Andrew Jackson said removal policy was an effort to prevent the Cherokee from facing the fate of "the Mohegan, the Narragansett, and the Delaware".[37] However there is ample evidence that the Cherokee were adapting modern farming techniques, and a modern analysis shows that the area was in general in a state of economic surplus.^ There were some Cherokee slaves that were taken to Mexico, however, she makes vivid references to Seminole leaders John Horse, and Wild Cat.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The purpose of this announcement is to inform Cherokee Nation citizens and other residents of the Cherokee Nation Tribal Jurisdictional area of the availability of funds for which the Nation can apply for housing, economic development, or other community development purposes.

^ The purpose of this announcement is to inform Cherokee Nation citizens and other residents of the Cherokee Nation Tribal Jurisdictional area of the availability of funds for which the Cherokee Nation can apply for housing, economic development, or other community development purposes.

[38]
.The Cherokee brought their grievances to US judicial review that set a precedent in Indian Country.^ If you look at me and my twin sister, you would see more Cherokee Indian in us than you would black.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Thanks for posting such important information for those of us wanted to read about how the Cherokee Indians lived and had to survive after the people from other countries came and took our land.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

John Ross traveled to Washington, D.C. and won support from National Republican Party leaders Henry Clay and Daniel Webster. Samuel Worcester campaigned on the Cherokee's behalf in New England, where their cause was taken up by Ralph Waldo Emerson. In June 1830, a delegation led by Chief Ross defended Cherokee rights before the U.S. Supreme Court in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia. .In 1831 Georgia militia arrested Samuel Worcester for residing on Indian lands without a state permit, imprisoning him in Milledgeville.^ Some permitted children of their slaves to attend the mission schools along with their own children, but that was against the law and the state of Georgia started enforcing its laws in the Cherokee Nation.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

In Worcester v. .Georgia (1832) Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that American Indian nations were 'distinct, independent political communities retaining their original natural rights,' entitled to federal protection from the actions of state governments that infringed on their sovereignty.^ In 1990 President George H. W. Bush approved a joint resolution designating November 1990 "National American Indian Heritage Month."

^ The purpose of these proposed rules is to establish requirements for public water supply facilities and operators in Indian Country that are subject to the jurisdiction of the Cherokee Nation Environmental Protection Commission.

^ Indian Community Development Block Grant Program under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 .

[39] Worcester v. .Georgia is considered one of the most important decisions in law dealing with Native Americans.^ Most of the white kids always made fun of Native Americans, so I found not motivation to dicover my heritage.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ My mother has old pictures on metal backers of several native americans, one in full head dress.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.Jackson ignored the Supreme Court's ruling, needing to conciliate Southern sectionalism during the era of the Nullification Crisis.^ I saw a PBS special that said the local government enforced vigilanty action in forcing the Cherokee out even after this Supreme Court ruling.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

His landslide reelection in 1832 emboldened calls for Cherokee removal. .Georgia sold Cherokee lands to its citizens in a Land Lottery, and state militia occupied New Echota.^ Monica Ortegon-Hernandez: Is there anyone who knows about the land in Georgia that was given back to the Cherokee right before the trail of tears?
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Some permitted children of their slaves to attend the mission schools along with their own children, but that was against the law and the state of Georgia started enforcing its laws in the Cherokee Nation.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A treaty made with the United States government in 1866 further cemented their place as Cherokee citizens and gave Freedmen descendants federally protected rights to citizenship.
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Cherokee National Council, led by John Ross, fled to Red Clay, a remote valley north of Georgia's land claim.^ I support the Red Nation of Cherokee in this fight.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ According to the 1999 Cherokee Constitution, which has been implemented as the Supreme Law of the Cherokee Nation, the Tribal Council shall consist of seventeen (17) members.

^ THE CHEROKEE NATION HISTORY COURSE, sponsored by the Cherokee Nation, is being offered to residents of the San Fernando Valley and surrounding areas.

.Ross had the support of Cherokee traditionalists, who could not imagine removal from their ancestral lands, but a small group known as the "Ridge Party" or the "Treaty Party" saw relocation as inevitable.^ This later group is a small segment of the Cherokee population, but unique and important.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Monica Ortegon-Hernandez: Is there anyone who knows about the land in Georgia that was given back to the Cherokee right before the trail of tears?
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ A group called the Cherokee Nation (Fraudulent Indian) Task Force supported by the CNO is behind the political campaign.
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

.Led by Major Ridge, John Ridge and Elias Boudinot, they represented the Cherokee elite, whose homes, plantations and businesses were confiscated, or under threat of being taken by white squatters with Georgia land-titles.^ Monica Ortegon-Hernandez: Is there anyone who knows about the land in Georgia that was given back to the Cherokee right before the trail of tears?
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ The so called Red-Black Cherokees represent a truly unique Cherokee population, they are the descendants of former slaves of the Cherokees, the freedmen.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

.With capital to acquire new lands, they were more inclined to accept relocation.^ Their indianness has typically not been accepted to the same degree as that of Indians with white ancestry, even though they might have more Indian Blood.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

.On December 29, 1835, the "Ridge Party" signed the Treaty of New Echota, stipulating terms and conditions for the removal of the Cherokee Nation.^ Cherokee Nation of New Jersey .
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

In return for their lands, the Cherokee were promised a large tract in the Indian Territory, $5 million, and $300,000 for improvements on their new lands.[40] John Ross gathered over 15,000 signatures for a petition to the U.S. Senate insisting that the treaty was invalid because it did not have the support of the majority of the Cherokee people, but the Treaty of New Echota passed by a one-vote margin, and was enacted into law in May 1836.[41]
Two years later President Martin Van Buren ordered 7,000 Federal troops and state militia under General Winfield Scott into Cherokee lands to evict the tribe. .Over 16,000 Cherokee were forcibly relocated westward to Indian Territory in 1838-1839, a migration known as the Trail of Tears or in Cherokee ᏅᎾ ᏓᎤᎳ ᏨᏱ or Nvna Daula Tsvyi (Cherokee: The Trail Where They Cried), although it is described by another word Tlo-va-sa (Cherokee: The Removal).^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ He was from the cherokee indians that chose to slip into east Texas from the trail of tears.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Monica Ortegon-Hernandez: Is there anyone who knows about the land in Georgia that was given back to the Cherokee right before the trail of tears?
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

Marched over 800 miles, across Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri and Arkansas, as many as 4,000 died of disease, exposure and starvation.[42] .As some Cherokees were slaveholders, they took enslaved African-Americans with them west of the Mississippi.^ Cherokee planters allowed their slaves to establish the African Benevolent Society, affiliated with the American Colonization Society.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, since my Grandfather George S Johnson(so-called African American) have not been able to find out anything else on my Grandmother’s Cherokee history.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

Intermarried European-Americans and missionaries also walked the Trail of Tears. John Ross preserved a vestige of independence by negotiating for the Cherokee to conduct their own removal under U.S. supervision. .In keeping with the 'blood law' that prescribed the death penalty for Cherokee who sold lands, his son arranged the murder of the leaders of the "Treaty Party". On June 22, 1839, Major Ridge, John Ridge and Elias Boudinot were assassinated by a party of twenty-five Ross supporters that included Daniel Colston, John Vann, Archibald, James and Joseph Spear.^ We have not been able to identify his parents yet, but he did name his 1st son: William Perry, 2nd: John Henry, 3rd: James David, 4th: Benjamin Avery.

^ Monica Ortegon-Hernandez: Is there anyone who knows about the land in Georgia that was given back to the Cherokee right before the trail of tears?
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Who My Father,( Who is now deceased )James Freeman Skaggs, said was part cherokee, After Her husband (Herman Skaggs ) death she married again to A ---- Harris.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

Elias Boudinot's brother Stand Watie fought off the attempt on his life that day and escaped to Arkansas.
In 1827, Sequoyah led a delegation of Old Settlers to Washington, D.C. to negotiate for the exchange of Arkansas land for land in Indian Territory. After the Trail of Tears, he helped mediate divisions between the Old Settlers and the rival factions of the more recent arrivals. In 1839, as President of the Western Cherokee, he and John Ross signed an Act of Union that reunited the two groups of the Cherokee Nation.

Eastern Band

Cól-lee, a Band Chief, painted by George Catlin, 1834.
.The Oconaluftee Cherokee of the Great Smoky Mountains were the most conservative and isolated from white American civilization.^ Most of the white kids always made fun of Native Americans, so I found not motivation to dicover my heritage.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ So from the white blood that is in me, I apologize for what my ancesters did to the Great Cherokee Nation.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ We do have a great selection of information on the Smoky Mountain Mall site about Cherokee Indian History.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.They rejected the reforms of the Cherokee Nation, and, when the Cherokee government ceded all territory east of the Little Tennessee River to North Carolina in 1819, they withdrew from the Nation.^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Timothy Tomko: I heard a segment on National Public Radio Yesterday speaking of the Lumbee Indians of North Carolina.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ The idea is if all these organizations are prevented from accepting grants, the Cherokee Nation can have more money and the CNO picks up political power.
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

[43] .William Holland Thomas, a white store owner and state legislator from Jackson County, North Carolina, helped over 600 Cherokee from Qualla Town obtain North Carolina citizenship, which exempted them from forced removal.^ HE was born in North Carolina in 1920 I think .His name was Wm.Harley Duke.He moved to Florida @ married a lady by the name of Roselena White around 1945.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I believe the family was from Kentucky or somewhere in North Carolina and ended up in Tennessee If anyone has any information and is able to help that would be great!
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ STEPHEN BAIRD CAMPBELL: LOOKING FOR CHEROKEE ANCESTORS. FRANKLIN NORTH CAROLINA .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.Over 400 Cherokee either hid from Federal troops in the remote Snowbird Mountains, under the leadership of Tsali (ᏣᎵ),[44] or belonged to the former Valley Towns area around the Cheoah River who negotiated to stay in North Carolina with the state government.^ It is the plan of the CNO to convince elected officials, federal and state government agencies, and corporate foundations to stop giving grants for education, healthcare, social and administrative to nonprofit Cherokee organizations.
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

^ BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, that the federal and state governments should stringently apply a federal definition of "Indian" that includes only citizens of federally recognized Indian tribes, to prevent non-Indians from selling membership in 'Cherokee' tribes for the purpose of exploiting the Indian Arts and Crafts Act.
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I sat under the kitchen table when we were in North Carolina listening to my elders talk of the old days.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.An additional 400 Cherokee stayed on reserves in Southeast Tennessee, North Georgia, and Northeast Alabama, as citizens of their respective states, mostly mixed-bloods and Cherokee women married to white men.^ At one point she talked about two Irish brothers who came to America on a boat and one of them married a princess cherokee which was the daughter of Chief White Horse.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Peggy Ann Nichols: my grandmother was full blooded cherokee, gave birth to norma and francis on the reservation.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ So from the white blood that is in me, I apologize for what my ancesters did to the Great Cherokee Nation.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.Together, these groups were the basis for what is now known as the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians.^ Augusl II, 1992 in Cherokee, North Carolina; and WHEREAS, the Cherokee Nation has been aware of a growing number of non-Indian groups claiming to be Cherokee tribes or bands and that these groups have been organizing and attempting to gain federal recognition, this problem being acknowledged by the Joint Council in Resolution No.
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ BE IT FINALLY RESOLVED, that this Resolution shall be the policy of the Joint Council of the Cherokee Nation and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians until it is withdrawn or modified by subsequent resolution.
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

Civil War

The American Civil War was devastating for both East and Western Cherokees. .The Eastern Band, aided by William Thomas, became the Thomas Legion of Cherokee Indians and Highlanders, fighting for the Confederacy in the American Civil War.^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ After the American Civil War, the Cherokee Freedmen were made citizens of the tribe in accordance with an act of the Cherokee National Council in 1863.
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cane Break Band of East Cherokees (rejoined Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokee, Inc.
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

[45] .Cherokees in Indian Territory were divided, into Union and Confederate factions.^ He was from the cherokee indians that chose to slip into east Texas from the trail of tears.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.Stand Watie, the leader of the Ridge Party, raised a regiment for Confederate service in 1861. John Ross, who had reluctantly agreed to ally with the Confederacy, was captured by Federal troops in 1862. He lived in self-imposed exile in Philadelphia, supporting the Union, and Watie was elected Principle Chief.^ Family stories say that John was orphaned at a young age and went to live with an uncle who ran a gambling house.

.A master of hit-and-run cavalry tactics, he fought Cherokee loyal to John Ross-who issued declarations abolishing slavery and rejoining the Union-and Federal troops in Indian Territory and Arkansas, capturing Union supply trains and steamboats and saving the Confederates from collapse by covering their retreat after the Battle of Pea Ridge in March 1862. He became a Brigadier General of the Confederate States, the only American Indian to hold the rank in the American Civil War.^ Peggy Ann Nichols: Does any one know any thing about the cherokee tribe in the oklahoma, arkansas territory, 1940's .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I was told that according to statistics 85% of A+ blood in the united states is the American Indian.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Patrick Herrington was my gggrandfather, was born in 1821 in Ireland, fought twice in the Civil War and lived in Blount County, Alabama.

On June 25, 1865, two months after Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox, he became the last Confederate General to stand down.

Reconstruction and late 19th century

Group of Cherokee, Yankton, and Sisseton 1909.
The pro-Union faction of Cherokee Nation issued the Cherokee Emancipation Proclamation in 1863.[46] After the Civil War, the US government and the Cherokee Nation signed the 1866 Treaty, which among other clauses, says that all Cherokee freedman and all free African-Americans living within tribal lands "shall have all the rights of native Cherokees."[47] Both before and after the Civil War, some Cherokee intermarried or had relationships with African Americans, just as they had with whites. .Many Cherokee Freedmen were active politically within the tribe.^ Karen Gardiner: I have enjoyed reading many of the Cherokee websites from the Eastern and Western Tribe.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.The US government also acquired easement rights to the western part of the territory, which became the Oklahoma Territory, for the construction of railroads.^ It is possible that he is a pastor of a very large Native American Pentecostal church somewhere out in the western part of the US. I know a couple of his brother's first names.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

Development and settlers followed the railroads. .By the late 19th century, the government believed that Native Americans would be better off if each family owned its own land.^ Government to decendants of Native Americans.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Remember that "white" (I hate that word) people had tribes centuries ago and fought among themselves too as did Native Americans.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I believe the family was from Kentucky or somewhere in North Carolina and ended up in Tennessee If anyone has any information and is able to help that would be great!
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

The Dawes Act of 1887 provided for the break up of commonly held tribal land. .Native Americans were registered on the Dawes Rolls and allotted land from the common reserve.^ Many of their beliefs and traditions shared common elements with Native Americans.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

This also opened up later sales of land by individuals to people outside the tribe.
Map of the present-day Cherokee Nation Tribal Jurisdiction Area (dark blue)
The Curtis Act of 1898 dismantled tribal governments, courts, schools, and other civic institutions. .For Indian Territory, this meant abolition of the Cherokee courts and governmental systems by the U.S. Federal Government.^ I saw a PBS special that said the local government enforced vigilanty action in forcing the Cherokee out even after this Supreme Court ruling.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

This was seen as necessary before the Oklahoma and Indian territories could be admitted as states. In 1905, the Five Civilized Tribes of the Indian Territory proposed the creation of the State of Sequoyah, but failed to gain support in Washington, D.C.. In 1907, the Oklahoma and Indian Territories entered the union as the state of Oklahoma.
.By the late 19th century, the Eastern Band of Cherokees were laboring under the constraints of a segregated society.^ Amanda: I am 20 years old from Texas, and my great-great grandma was a full-blood Cherokee from the eastern band, I think.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Would this make them a non - eastern band of the Cherokee or would they still be considered to be Cherokee after all ?
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.In the aftermath of Reconstruction, conservative white Democrats regained power in North Carolina and other southern states.^ HE was born in North Carolina in 1920 I think .His name was Wm.Harley Duke.He moved to Florida @ married a lady by the name of Roselena White around 1945.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

They proceeded to effectively disfranchise all blacks and many poor whites by new constitutions and laws related to voter registration and elections. .They passed Jim Crow laws that divided society into "white" and "colored", mostly to control freedmen, but the Native Americans were included on the colored side and suffered the same racial segregation and disfranchisement as former slaves.^ Most of the white kids always made fun of Native Americans, so I found not motivation to dicover my heritage.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Remember that "white" (I hate that word) people had tribes centuries ago and fought among themselves too as did Native Americans.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I am proud of ALL my ancestors both Native American and European because of who they were as people regardless of their ethnicity.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.Blacks and Native Americans would not regain their rights as US citizens until the Civil Rights Movement and passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s.^ It is possible that he is a pastor of a very large Native American Pentecostal church somewhere out in the western part of the US. I know a couple of his brother's first names.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ If you look at me and my twin sister, you would see more Cherokee Indian in us than you would black.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

Culture

Marriage

Cherokee attitudes towards marriage are flexible. Before the 19th century, polygamy was common.[48] Traditionally, couples, particularly women, can divorce freely.[49]
In the 19th century in Indian Territory, marriage between Cherokees and non-Cherokees was common but complicated. .A European-American could legally marry a Cherokee woman by petitioning the federal court with approval of ten of her blood relatives.^ Our family also has ancestors that were Cherokee married to people of European descent.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ DNA blood test my grandfather was told best know relative in the cherokee world would have been a morning star, mookn glow and a sakari.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ The Cherokee do not/have never used quantum blood pedigree.If a white man/woman marries a Cherokee,an is accepted an loved by the Cherokee,then that person becomes Cherokee!
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.Once married, the man became an "Intermarried White" member of the Cherokee tribe with restricted rights; for instance, he could not hold any tribal office.^ All tribes were taught that the white man could not be trusted.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ We believe that he and our mother, Doris Lee Pittman were together before she became a Kippers by marrying a black man.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ The Cherokee do not/have never used quantum blood pedigree.If a white man/woman marries a Cherokee,an is accepted an loved by the Cherokee,then that person becomes Cherokee!
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.He also remained a citizen of and under the laws of the United States.^ A treaty made with the United States government in 1866 further cemented their place as Cherokee citizens and gave Freedmen descendants federally protected rights to citizenship.
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

Common law marriages were more popular.
.If a European-American woman married a Cherokee man, the children of such a union would not have a clan and traditionally not be considered Cherokee; however, this has legally changed under current tribal enrollment laws among the three Cherokee tribes.^ After the American Civil War, the Cherokee Freedmen were made citizens of the tribe in accordance with an act of the Cherokee National Council in 1863.
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It’s possible that Stephen J's name had been forged on some legal adoption papers so that it would look as though he had willfully given up his own children.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I would think there were other children born earlier from this marriage, if they were in fact married about 1868 which is what the 1910 census indicates.

These stem from the matrilineal and matrilocal aspects of Cherokee culture.[48]

Cultural institutions

.The Qualla Arts and Crafts Mutual, Inc., of Cherokee, North Carolina is the oldest continuing Native American art co-operative.^ Eastern Cherokee, Southern Iroquois & United Tribes of South Carolina, Inc .
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

^ STEPHEN BAIRD CAMPBELL: LOOKING FOR CHEROKEE ANCESTORS. FRANKLIN NORTH CAROLINA .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ According to Chief James Billy Chance of the Chickamauga Cherokee in Florida, "...the Cherokee in Oklahoma forgot what it is to be a Native American.
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

.They were founded in 1940 to provide a venue for traditional Eastern Band Cherokee artists.^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ BE IT FINALLY RESOLVED, that this Resolution shall be the policy of the Joint Council of the Cherokee Nation and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians until it is withdrawn or modified by subsequent resolution.
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Amanda: I am 20 years old from Texas, and my great-great grandma was a full-blood Cherokee from the eastern band, I think.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

[50] .The Museum of the Cherokee Indian, also in Cherokee, displays permanent and changing exhibits, houses archives and collections important to Cherokee history, and sponsors cultural groups, such as the Warriors of the AniKituhwa dance group.^ The older I get it seems the more important the Cherokee Indian history becomes to me.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I am having a cultural fair in Los Angeles and would like some background on my Cherokee Indian heritage.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ A group called the Cherokee Nation (Fraudulent Indian) Task Force supported by the CNO is behind the political campaign.
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

[51]
The Cherokee Heritage Center, of Park Hill, Oklahoma hosts a reproduction of an ancient Cherokee Village, Adams Rural Village (including 19th century buildings), Nofire Farms, and the Cherokee Family Research Center for genealogy.[52] .The Cherokee Heritage Center also houses the Cherokee National Archives.^ Cherokee: Cherokee Nation Cultural Resource Center .
  • Free Online Language Courses 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.word2word.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Both the CN and UKB, as well as other tribes contribute funding the CHC.

Language and writing system

Sequoyah, the inventor of the Cherokee syllabary.
The Cherokee speak a Southern Iroquoian language, which is polysynthetic and is written in a syllabary invented by Sequoyah (ᏍᏏᏉᏯ).[53] For years, many people wrote transliterated Cherokee or used poorly intercompatible fonts to type out the syllabary. .However, since the fairly recent addition of the Cherokee syllables to Unicode, the Cherokee language is experiencing a renaissance in its use on the Internet.^ However, since my Grandfather George S Johnson(so-called African American) have not been able to find out anything else on my Grandmother’s Cherokee history.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

Sequoyah's syllabary in the order that he originally arranged the characters.
.Because of the polysynthetic nature of the Cherokee language, new and descriptive words in Cherokee are easily constructed to reflect or express modern concepts.^ I would really like to learn their language, but it's really hard for me to learn because I don't know exactly what the words wold look or sound.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I was wondering if there is a Cherokee language word for someone that; communicates with animals or talks to horses.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

Examples include ditiyohihi (Cherokee: ᏗᏘᏲᎯᎯ), which means "he argues repeatedly and on purpose with a purpose," meaning "attorney." Another example is didaniyisgi (Cherokee: ᏗᏓᏂᏱᏍᎩ) which means "the final catcher" or "he catches them finally and conclusively," meaning "policeman."
.Many words, however, have been borrowed from the English Language, such as gasoline, which in Cherokee is ga-so-li-ne (Cherokee: ᎦᏐᎵᏁ).^ I was wondering if there is a Cherokee language word for someone that; communicates with animals or talks to horses.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.Many other words were borrowed from the languages of tribes who settled in Oklahoma in the early twentieth century.^ Remember that "white" (I hate that word) people had tribes centuries ago and fought among themselves too as did Native Americans.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

One example relates to a town in Oklahoma named "Nowata". The word nowata is a Delaware Indian word for "welcome" (more precisely the Delaware word is nu-wi-ta which can mean "welcome" or "friend" in the Delaware Language). The white settlers of the area used the name "nowata" for the township, and local Cherokees, being unaware the word had its origins in the Delaware Language, called the town Amadikanigvnagvna (Cherokee: ᎠᎹᏗᎧᏂᎬᎾᎬᎾ) which means "the water is all gone from here", i.e. "no water".
Other examples of borrowed words are kawi (Cherokee: ᎧᏫ) for coffee and watsi (Cherokee: ᏩᏥ) for watch (which led to utana watsi (Cherokee: ᎤᏔᎾ ᏩᏥ) or "big watch" for clock).
The following table is an example of Cherokee text and its translation:
Chereokee Text Example.png[54]
Tsalagi: Nigada aniyvwi nigeguda'lvna ale unihloyi unadehna duyukdv gesv'i. Gejinela unadanvtehdi ale unohlisdi ale sagwu gesv junilvwisdanedi anahldinvdlv adanvdo gvhdi.[54]
English: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. .They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.^ No one should be authomatically discriminated against because of their genetics, which they cannot help.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)[54]

Treaties and government

Treaties

.The Cherokee have participated in at least thirty-six treaties in the past three hundred years.^ Cherokee people have spoken English fluently for the past 150 years.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

Government

1794 Establishment of the Cherokee National Council and officers over the whole nation
1808 Establishment of the Cherokee Lighthorse Guard, a national police force
1809 Establishment of the National Committee
1810 End of separate regional councils and abolition of blood vengeance
1820 Establishment of courts in eight districts to handle civil disputes
1822 Cherokee Supreme Court established
1823 National Committee given power to review acts of the National Council
1827 Constitution of the Cherokee Nation East
1828 Constitution of the Cherokee Nation West
1832 Suspension of elections in the Cherokee Nation East
1839 Constitution of the reunited Cherokee Nation
1868 Constitution of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians
1888 Charter of Incorporation issued by the State of North Carolina to the Eastern Band
1950 Constitution and federal charter of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians
1975 Constitution of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma
1999 Constitution of the Cherokee Nation drafted[55]
After being ravaged by smallpox, and pressed by increasingly violent land-hungry settlers, the Cherokee adopted a European-American Representative democracy form of government in an effort to retain their lands. They established a governmental system modeled on that of the United States, with an elected principal chief, senate, and house of representatives. .On April 10, 1810 the seven Cherokee clans met and began the abolition of blood vengeance by giving the sacred duty to the new Cherokee National government.^ I would like to know which of the seven clans she belonged and what her cherokee name would of been.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ So from the white blood that is in me, I apologize for what my ancesters did to the Great Cherokee Nation.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.Clans formally relinquished judicial responsibilities by the 1820s when the Cherokee Supreme Court was established.^ I saw a PBS special that said the local government enforced vigilanty action in forcing the Cherokee out even after this Supreme Court ruling.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.In 1825, the National Council extended citizenship to the children of Cherokee men married to white women.^ At one point she talked about two Irish brothers who came to America on a boat and one of them married a princess cherokee which was the daughter of Chief White Horse.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ So from the white blood that is in me, I apologize for what my ancesters did to the Great Cherokee Nation.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ The Cherokee do not/have never used quantum blood pedigree.If a white man/woman marries a Cherokee,an is accepted an loved by the Cherokee,then that person becomes Cherokee!
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

These ideas were largely incorporated into the 1827 Cherokee constitution.[56] The constitution stated that "No person who is of negro or mulatlo [sic] parentage, either by the father or mother side, shall be eligible to hold any office of profit, honor or trust under this Government," with an exception for, "negroes and descendants of white and Indian men by negro women who may have been set free."[57] This definition to limit rights of multiracial descendants, may have been more widely held among the elite than the general population.[58]

Modern Cherokee tribes

Cherokee Nation

Cherokee Nation Historic Courthouse in Tahlequah, Oklahoma.
The Cherokee Female Seminary was built in 1889 by the Oklahoma Cherokees.
.During 1898-1906 the federal government dissolved the former Cherokee Nation, to make way for the incorporation of Indian Territory into the new state of Oklahoma.^ He was from the cherokee indians that chose to slip into east Texas from the trail of tears.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ JL Hubbard: Yesterday I just found out that my Great Grandmother Laura (Warden) Roberts was a full-blood Cherokee Indian, making me 1/8 Cherokee.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

From 1906 to 1975, structure and function of the tribal government were not clearly defined. In 1975 the tribe drafted a constitution, which they ratified on June 26, 1976,[59] and the tribe received federal recognition. .In 1999, the CNO changed or added several provisions to its constitution, among them the designation of the tribe to be "Cherokee Nation," dropping "of Oklahoma."^ Peggy Ann Nichols: Does any one know any thing about the cherokee tribe in the oklahoma, arkansas territory, 1940's .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ My sister and I have been looking for several years for people in the Cherokee nation that may be of relation to us.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

According to a statement by BIA head Larry Echohawk the Cherokee Nation is not the historical Cherokee tribe but instead a "successor in interest." The attorney of the Cherokee Nation has stated that they intend to appeal this decision.[60]
The modern Cherokee Nation, in recent times, has experienced an almost unprecedented expansion in economic growth, equality, and prosperity for its citizens. The Cherokee Nation, under the leadership of Principal Chief Chad Smith, has significant business, corporate, real estate, and agricultural interests, including numerous highly profitable casino operations. The CN controls Cherokee Nation Entertainment, Cherokee Nation Industries, and Cherokee Nation Businesses. CNI is a very large defense contractor that creates thousands of jobs in eastern Oklahoma for Cherokee citizens.
The CN has constructed health clinics throughout Oklahoma, contributed to community development programs, built roads and bridges, constructed learning facilities and universities for its citizens, instilled the practice of Gadugi and self-reliance in its citizens, revitalized language immersion programs for its children and youth, and is a powerful and positive economic and political force in Eastern Oklahoma.
.The CN hosts the Cherokee National Holiday on Labor Day weekend each year, and 80,000 to 90,000 Cherokee Citizens travel to Tahlequah, Oklahoma, for the festivities.^ My sister and I have been looking for several years for people in the Cherokee nation that may be of relation to us.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

It also publishes the Cherokee Phoenix, the tribal newspaper, published in both English and the Sequoyah syllabary. The Cherokee Nation council appropriates money for historic foundations concerned with the preservation of Cherokee Culture.
.The Cherokee Nation also supports the Cherokee Nation Film Festivals in Tahlequah, Oklahoma and participates in the Sundance Film Festival in Park City, Utah.^ I support the Red Nation of Cherokee in this fight.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians

.The Eastern Band of the Cherokee Indians in North Carolina, led by Chief Michell Hicks, hosts over a million visitors a year to cultural attractions of the 100-square-mile (260 km2) sovereign nation.^ The comment was made by a Michelle Hicks of the Eastern Cherokee people.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Rachel Loggins Pressley: My 7th great-mother was named Dicie East she was an Indian priness (Cherokee) her father was a chief Steven or Steve East.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

The reservation, the "Qualla Boundary", has a population of over 8000 Cherokee, primarily direct descendants of Indians who managed to avoid “The Trail of Tears”.
Attractions include the Oconaluftee Indian Village, Museum of the Cherokee Indian, and the country’s oldest and foremost Native American crafts cooperative. The outdoor drama Unto These Hills, which debuted in 1950, recently broke record attendance sales. Together with Harrah’s Cherokee Casino and Hotel, Cherokee Indian Hospital and Cherokee Boys Club, the tribe generated $78 million dollars in the local economy in 2005.

United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians

.The United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians formed their government under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 and gained federal recognition in 1946. Enrollment into the tribe is limited to people with a quarter or more of Cherokee blood.^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Nancy Grider: I am cherokee indian decent, I am looking for my grandmothers people.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I would like to know more about my bloodline with the Cherokee & which tribe.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.Many members of the UKB are descended from Old Settlers — Cherokees who moved to Arkansas and Indian Territory before the Trail of Tears.^ He was from the cherokee indians that chose to slip into east Texas from the trail of tears.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Monica Ortegon-Hernandez: Is there anyone who knows about the land in Georgia that was given back to the Cherokee right before the trail of tears?
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Peggy Ann Nichols: Does any one know any thing about the cherokee tribe in the oklahoma, arkansas territory, 1940's .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

[61] Of the 12,000 people enrolled in the tribe, 11,000 live in Oklahoma. Their chief is George G. Wickliffe. The UKB operate a tribal casino, bingo hall, smokeshop, fuel outlets, truck stop, and gallery that showcases art and crafts made by tribal members. The tribe also issues their own tribal vehicle tags.[62]

Relations between the three federally recognized Cherokee tribes

.The Cherokee Nation participates in numerous joint programs with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians.^ Amanda: I am 20 years old from Texas, and my great-great grandma was a full-blood Cherokee from the eastern band, I think.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Would this make them a non - eastern band of the Cherokee or would they still be considered to be Cherokee after all ?
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.It also participates in cultural exchange programs and joint Tribal Council meetings involving councilors from both Cherokee Tribes.^ As the president of the Resident Council, I would like to invite some members of the Cherokee People to come and meet our residents.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.These are held to address issues affecting all of the Cherokee People.^ Inwardly, I always held a sense of pride and connection to the Cherokee people.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ It's ridiculous when the cherokee are sitting pretty all around us but fell to share any of the Harrahs money to the people who can't prove it.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.The administrations of the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians and the Cherokee Nation have a somewhat adversarial relationship.^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians interacts with the Cherokee Nation in a unified spirit of Gadugi.^ Amanda: I am 20 years old from Texas, and my great-great grandma was a full-blood Cherokee from the eastern band, I think.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Would this make them a non - eastern band of the Cherokee or would they still be considered to be Cherokee after all ?
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
.The United Keetoowah Band tribal council unanimously passed a resolution to approach the Cherokee Nation for a joint council meeting between the two Nations, as a means of "offering the olive branch", in the words of the UKB Council.^ As the president of the Resident Council, I would like to invite some members of the Cherokee People to come and meet our residents.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.While a date was set for the meeting between members of the Cherokee Nation Council and UKB representative, Chief Smith vetoed the meeting.^ As the president of the Resident Council, I would like to invite some members of the Cherokee People to come and meet our residents.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

Membership Controversies

Tribal recognition and membership

Cherokee people from the turn of the 20th century.
.In 2000 the U.S. census report 729,533 people self identified as Cherokee Indian, more than twice the population of the second most populous American Indian group, the Navajo people, who numbered 298,197.[63] This figure is also more than twice the population of current estimates of all three federally recognized tribes combined.^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Nancy Grider: I am cherokee indian decent, I am looking for my grandmothers people.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I would like to know more about my bloodline with the Cherokee & which tribe.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.The three federally recognized Cherokees tribes have differing requirements for enrollment.^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.The Cherokee Nation determines enrollment by lineal descent from Cherokees listed on the Dawes Rolls and has no minimum blood quantum requirement.^ The Enrollment Law is uses quantum blood pedigree to define the existance of "True" Cherokees.The same method used to trace the bloodlines of show dog,horses,an other animals.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Gahaw called me Lily Whiteflower and I am proud to be of Cherokee blood, no matter how much or how little .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ So from the white blood that is in me, I apologize for what my ancesters did to the Great Cherokee Nation.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

[64] Currently, descendents of the Dawes Cherokee Freedman rolls are members of the tribe, pending court decisions. CN has numerous members who also have African-American, Latino, Asian, white and other ancestry. .The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians requires a minimum one-sixteenth Cherokee blood quantum (genealogical descent, equivalent to one great-great-grandparent) and an ancestor on the Baker Roll.^ JL Hubbard: Yesterday I just found out that my Great Grandmother Laura (Warden) Roberts was a full-blood Cherokee Indian, making me 1/8 Cherokee.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Jennifer Neighbours: My great grand parents were full blooded cherokee Indians im wanting to know if they were on the rolls the last names are Glenn, Triplett, or Southards, if any one has info please email me at jenneighbs@hotmail.com.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Amanda: I am 20 years old from Texas, and my great-great grandma was a full-blood Cherokee from the eastern band, I think.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

The United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians requires a minimum one-quarter Keetoowah Cherokee blood quantum (equivalent to one grandparent), and the UKB does not allow members that have relinquished their membership to re-enroll in the UKB.[65]
.Over 200 groups claim to be Cherokee nations, tribes, or bands.^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

[66] .Cherokee Nation spokesman Mike Miller has suggested that some groups, which he calls Cherokee Heritage Groups, are encouraged.^ I am having a cultural fair in Los Angeles and would like some background on my Cherokee Indian heritage.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I think the fact that I resemble a Cherokee more than most of my family made some feel uncomfortable about the fact that I am so interested in that part of our heritage.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

[67] Others, however, are controversial for their attempts to gain economically through their claims to be Cherokee. .The three federally recognized groups assert themselves as the only groups having the legal right to present themselves as Cherokee Indian Tribes and only their enrolled members as Cherokee.^ I am having a cultural fair in Los Angeles and would like some background on my Cherokee Indian heritage.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Also, I would like to know how to become a member of the Indian, Cherokee society.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

[68]
.One exception to this may be the Texas Cherokees and Associate Bands (TCAB).^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Amanda: I am 20 years old from Texas, and my great-great grandma was a full-blood Cherokee from the eastern band, I think.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.Prior to 1975, they were considered a part of the Cherokee Nation, as reflected in briefs filed before the Indian Claims Commission.^ I believe they were both part Cherokee.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Also, for those who were asking, the Lumbee are not considered part of the Cherokee in any way.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.At one time W.W. Keeler served not only as Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation, but at the same time held the position as Chairman of the TCAB Executive Committee.^ At one point she talked about two Irish brothers who came to America on a boat and one of them married a princess cherokee which was the daughter of Chief White Horse.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Mobert.I had only ment my dad one time before his passing.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

Following the adoption of the Cherokee constitution in 1976, TCAB descendants whose ancestors had remained a part of the physical Mount Tabor Community in Rusk County, Texas were excluded from citizenship. Their ancestors did not appear on the Final Rolls of the Five Civilized Tribes, registered under the Dawes Commission. .However, most if not all TCAB descendants did have an ancestor listed on the Guion Miller or Old Settler rolls.^ However, their actions did not reflect the beliefs of all people.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.While most Mount Tabor residents returned to the Cherokee Nation following the death of John Ross in 1866, today there is a sizable group that is well documented but outside that body.^ It is still there, long since sold, about a mile up the hill from the John Ross house, which by the way is in need of some tlc.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

It is not actively seeking a status clarification. They do have treaty rights going back to the Treaty of Bird’s Fort. From the end of the Civil War until 1975, they were associated with the Cherokee Nation. The TCAB formed as a political organization in 1871 led by William Penn Adair and Clement Neely Vann. .Descendants of the Texas Cherokees and the Mount Tabor Community joined together to try to gain redress from treaty violations, stemming from the Treaty of Bowles Village in 1836. Today, most Mount Tabor descendants are in fact members of the Cherokee Nation.^ Daphne James: My name is Daphne James and I am trying to find out about my great grandmother whom family members say was a full blooded Cherokee.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I think the fact that I resemble a Cherokee more than most of my family made some feel uncomfortable about the fact that I am so interested in that part of our heritage.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

Only some 800 are stuck in limbo without status as Cherokees. Many of them still reside in Rusk and Smith counties of east Texas.

New resolution

.The Councils of the Cherokee Nation and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians at the Joint Council Meeting held in Catoosa, Oklahoma on April 9, 2008 passed a resolution "Opposing Fabricated Cherokee 'Tribes' and 'Indians'.[69] It denounced state or federal recognition of any new "Cherokee" tribes or bands.^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Peggy Ann Nichols: Does any one know any thing about the cherokee tribe in the oklahoma, arkansas territory, 1940's .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Rico Lloyd: Please email me info about the cherokee and blackfoot indian tribes as I come from this heritage.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

The bands committed themselves to assisting state and federal authorities in exposing and ending any group, which attempted or claimed to operate as a government of the Cherokee people.
.In addition, they passed a resolution requesting that no federal or state government spend public funds on behalf of non-federally recognized 'Cherokee' tribes or bands.^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ People listen to what Little Cricket said, There has never ever been a Cherokee Princes, They DO NOT EXIST. Little Cricket I join you in your decission NOT to apply for Federal membership, If the Public only new the truth neither would they.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Would this make them a non - eastern band of the Cherokee or would they still be considered to be Cherokee after all ?
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

The Nation called for a full accounting of all federal monies given to state-recognized, unrecognized or 501(c)(3) charitable organizations that claimed any Cherokee affiliation. .It called for federal and state governments to stringently apply a federal definition of "Indian" that included only citizens of federally recognized Indian tribes, to prevent non-Indians from selling membership in "Cherokee" tribes for the purpose of exploiting the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990.^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ People listen to what Little Cricket said, There has never ever been a Cherokee Princes, They DO NOT EXIST. Little Cricket I join you in your decission NOT to apply for Federal membership, If the Public only new the truth neither would they.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Rico Lloyd: Please email me info about the cherokee and blackfoot indian tribes as I come from this heritage.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

In a controversial segment that could affect Cherokee Baptist churches and charitable organizations, the resolution stated that no 501(c)(3) organization, state-recognized or unrecognized groups shall be acknowledged as Cherokee.
.Celebrities who claim to be Cherokee, such as those listed in the associated article of self-identified Cherokee, are also addressed by resolution.^ Also, for those who were asking, the Lumbee are not considered part of the Cherokee in any way.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.Any individual who is not a member of a federally recognized Cherokee tribe, in academia or otherwise, is hereby discouraged from claiming to speak as a Cherokee, or on behalf of Cherokee citizens, or using claims of Cherokee heritage to advance his or her career or credentials. – Joint Council of the Cherokee Nation and the Eastern Band of the Cherokee Indians.^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I am having a cultural fair in Los Angeles and would like some background on my Cherokee Indian heritage.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Also, I would like to know how to become a member of the Indian, Cherokee society.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

[70]
This declaration was not signed or approved by the federally recognized United Keetoowah Band. .The Cherokee Nation acknowledges there are people of Cherokee descent "...in states such as Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Texas," who are Cherokee by blood but are not members of the Cherokee Nation.^ I know there is cherokee in our blood, but finding proof is becoming harder that I thought it would be.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Monica Ortegon-Hernandez: Is there anyone who knows about the land in Georgia that was given back to the Cherokee right before the trail of tears?
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ So from the white blood that is in me, I apologize for what my ancesters did to the Great Cherokee Nation.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

[71]

Cherokee Freedmen

.The Cherokee freedmen, descendants of African American slaves owned by citizens of the Cherokee Nation during the Antebellum Period, were first guaranteed Cherokee citizenship under a treaty with the United States in 1866. This was in the wake of the American Civil War, when the US emancipated slaves and passed US constitutional amendments granting freedmen citizenship in the United States.^ It is possible that he is a pastor of a very large Native American Pentecostal church somewhere out in the western part of the US. I know a couple of his brother's first names.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I was told that according to statistics 85% of A+ blood in the united states is the American Indian.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ My sister and I have been looking for several years for people in the Cherokee nation that may be of relation to us.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

In 1988, the federal court in the Freedmen case of Nero v. Cherokee Nation held that Cherokees could decide citizenship requirements and exclude freedmen. On March 7, 2006, the Cherokee Nation Judicial Appeal Tribunal ruled that the Cherokee Freedmen were eligible for Cherokee citizenship. .This ruling proved controversial; while the Cherokee Freedman had historically been recorded as "citizens" of the Cherokee Nation at least since 1866 and the later Dawes Commission Land Rolls, the ruling "did not limit membership to people possessing Cherokee blood".[72] This ruling was consistent with the 1975 Constitution of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, in its acceptance of the Cherokee Freedmen on the basis of historical citizenship, rather than documented blood relation.^ My mother's father's mother was full blooded Cherokee, but I can't prove it.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ So from the white blood that is in me, I apologize for what my ancesters did to the Great Cherokee Nation.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ My sister and I have been looking for several years for people in the Cherokee nation that may be of relation to us.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

On March 3, 2007 a Constitutional Amendment was passed by a Cherokee vote limiting citizenship to Cherokees on the Dawes Rolls for those listed as Cherokee by blood, Shawnee and Delaware.[73] The Cherokee Freedmen had 90 days to appeal this amendment vote which disenfranchised them from Cherokee citizenship and file appeal within the Cherokee Nation Tribal Council, which is currently pending in Nash, et al. v. Cherokee Nation Registrar. On May 14, 2007, the Cherokee Freedmen were reinstated as citizens of the Cherokee Nation by the Cherokee Nation Tribal Courts through a temporary order and temporary injunction until the court reached its final decision.[74]

Notable Cherokees in history

(This includes only documented Cherokees in history. Contemporary notable Cherokee people are listed on their tribe's articles.) (For self-identified people of Cherokee heritage, see List of Self-identified people of Cherokee ancestry)
  • Attakullakulla (ca. 1708-ca. 1777), diplomat to Britain, headman of Chota, chief
  • Bob Benge (ca. .1762-1794), warrior of the Lower Cherokee during the Chickamauga wars
  • Elias Boudinot, Galagina (1802–1839), statesman, orator, and editor, founded first Cherokee newspaper, Cherokee Phoenix
  • Ned Christie (1852–1892), statesman, Cherokee Nation senator, infamous outlaw[75]
  • Rear Admiral Joseph J. Clark (1893–1971), United States Navy, highest ranking Native American in the US military.
  • Doublehead, Taltsuska (d.^ It is possible that he is a pastor of a very large Native American Pentecostal church somewhere out in the western part of the US. I know a couple of his brother's first names.
    • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Most of the white kids always made fun of Native Americans, so I found not motivation to dicover my heritage.
    • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I was told that according to statistics 85% of A+ blood in the united states is the American Indian.
    • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

    1807), war leader during the Chickamauga wars, led the Lower Cherokee, signed land deals with US
  • Dragging Canoe, Tsiyugunsini (1738–1792), general the 2nd Cherokee War, principal chief of the Chickamauga or Lower Cherokee
  • Franklin Gritts, Cherokee artist taught at Haskell Institute and served on the USS Franklin
  • Charles R. Hicks (d. 1927), Second Principal Chief to Pathkiller in early 17th century, de facto Principal Chief from 1813–1827
  • Junaluska (ca. 1775-1868), veteran of the Creek War, who saved President Andrew Jackson's life
  • Oconostota, Aganstata (ca. 1710-1783), war chief during the Anglo-Cherokee War, Beloved Man
  • Ostenaco, Ustanakwa (ca. .1703-1780), war chief, diplomat to Britain, founded the town of Ultiwa
  • Major Ridge Ganundalegi or "Pathkiller" (ca.1771-1839), veteran of the Chickamauga wars, signer of the Treaty of New Echota
  • John Ridge, Skatlelohski (1792–1839), son of Major Ridge, statesman, New Echota Treaty signer
  • John Rollin Ridge, Cheesquatalawny, or "Yellow Bird" (1827–1867), granson of Major Ridge, first Native American novelist
  • Clement V. Rogers (1839–1911), Cherokee senator, judge, cattleman, member of the Oklahoma Constitutional Convention
  • Will Rogers, Cherokee entertainer, roper, journalist, and author[76]
  • John Ross, Guwisguwi (1790–1866), Principal Chief in the east, during Removal, and in the west
  • Sequoyah (ca.^ Most of the white kids always made fun of Native Americans, so I found not motivation to dicover my heritage.
    • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Rachel Loggins Pressley: My 7th great-mother was named Dicie East she was an Indian priness (Cherokee) her father was a chief Steven or Steve East.
    • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

    ^ It is possible that he is a pastor of a very large Native American Pentecostal church somewhere out in the western part of the US. I know a couple of his brother's first names.
    • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

    .1767-1843), inventor of the Cherokee syllabary[77]
  • Nimrod Jarrett Smith, Tsaladihi (1837–1893), Principal Chief of the Eastern Band, Civil War veteran
  • William Holland Thomas, Wil' Usdi (1805–1893), non-Native but adopted into tribe, founding Principal Chief of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians
  • James Vann (ca.^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
    • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Rachel Loggins Pressley: My 7th great-mother was named Dicie East she was an Indian priness (Cherokee) her father was a chief Steven or Steve East.
    • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

    ^ He was from the cherokee indians that chose to slip into east Texas from the trail of tears.
    • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

    1765-1809), Scottish-Cherokee, highly successful businessman and veteran
  • Stand Watie, Degataga (1806–1871), signer of the Treaty of New Echota, last Confederate general to surrender in the American Civil War

See also

Concentrations of Cherokee

.Cherokees are most concentrated in the Southeastern United States, but more reside in the state of Oklahoma and the U.S. West Coast (Over 2 percent of population of 3 largely rural communities in California - Covelo, Hayfork and San Miguel, one town in Oregon and one town in Arizona).^ Peggy Ann Nichols: Does any one know any thing about the cherokee tribe in the oklahoma, arkansas territory, 1940's .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ I think the fact that I resemble a Cherokee more than most of my family made some feel uncomfortable about the fact that I am so interested in that part of our heritage.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

There has been some Cherokee settlement occurred in the Western United States during the late 19th century, another wave occurred during the dust bowl era in the 1930's into multi-ethnic/racial urban centers of California (i.e. the Greater Los Angeles and SF Bay areas), and they usually lived in farming communities, by military bases and other Indian reservations. Source [1]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Mooney, James (2006) [1900]. Myths of the Cherokee and Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees. Kessinger Publishing. p. 393. ISBN 9781428648647. http://books.google.com/books?id=9HDbWUX71joC. 
  2. ^ "The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2000" (PDF). Census 2000 Brief. 2002-02-01. http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/c2kbr01-15.pdf. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  3. ^ Cherokee Indian Tribe. Access Genealogy. (21 Sept 2009)
  4. ^ Charles A. Hanna, The Wilderness Trail, (New York: 1911).
  5. ^ a b Brown, John P. "Eastern Cherokee Chiefs", Chronicles of Oklahoma Vol. 16, No. 1, March 1938. (retrieved 21 Sept 2009)
  6. ^ Finger, 6-7
  7. ^ Youngblood, 34
  8. ^ "Archaic Period", Museum of the Cherokee Indian. (retrieved 5 Oct 2009)
  9. ^ a b c Irwin 1992.
  10. ^ Mooney, p. 392.
  11. ^ David Landy, "Tuscarora", Encyclopedia of North American Indians, Cengage Learning Website, Houghton Mifflin Company, accessed 12 Jan 2010
  12. ^ a b Mooney, James (1995) [1900]. Myths of the Cherokee. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-28907-9. 
  13. ^ Glottochronology from: Lounsbury, Floyd (1961), and Mithun, Marianne (1981), cited in Nicholas A. Hopkins, The Native Languages of the Southeastern United States.
  14. ^ Fagan, Brian. Ancient North America. London: Thames and Hudson, 2005, pp. 487–488.
  15. ^ Mooney
  16. ^ Hill, 65
  17. ^ a b David G. Moore, Robin A. Beck, Jr., and Christopher B. Rodning, "Joara and Fort San Juan: culture contact at the edge of the world", Antiquity, Vol.78, No.229, Mar. 2004, accessed 26 Jun 2008
  18. ^ Hill, 66-67
  19. ^ Conley, A Cherokee Encyclopedia, p. 3
  20. ^ Lewis Preston Summers, 1903, History of Southwest Virginia, 1746-1786, p. 40
  21. ^ Gallay, Alan (2002). The Indian Slave Trade: The Rise of the English Empire in the American South 1670-1717. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10193-7. 
  22. ^ Vicki Rozema, Footsteps of the Cherokees (1995), p. 14.
  23. ^ Oatis, Steven J. A Colonial Complex: South Carolina's Frontiers in the Era of the Yamasee War, 1680-1730, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004. ISBN 0-8032-3575-5.
  24. ^ Rozema, pp. 17-23.
  25. ^ "Watauga Association", North Carolina History Project. (retrieved 21 Sept 2009)
  26. ^ http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2726&hl=y
  27. ^ http://ngeorgia.com/ang/New_Echota_Historic_Site
  28. ^ http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-611&hl=y
  29. ^ Rollings (1992) pp. 187, 236.
  30. ^ Logan, Charles Russell. "The Promised Land: The Cherokees, Arkansas, and Removal, 1794-1839." Arkansas Historic Preservation Program. 1997 (retrieved 21 Sept 2009)
  31. ^ Doublass (1912) pp. 40-2
  32. ^ Rollings (1992) p. 235.
  33. ^ Rollings (1992) pp. 239-40.
  34. ^ Rollings (1992) pp. 254-5, Doublass (1912) p. 44.
  35. ^ Rollings (1992) pp. 280-1
  36. ^ http://www.texascherokees.org/history1.html
  37. ^ Wishart, p. 120.
  38. ^ Wishart 1995.
  39. ^ http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2720
  40. ^ http://ourgeorgiahistory.com/documents/treaty_of_new_echota.html
  41. ^ http://ngeorgia.com/history/cherokeehistory7.html
  42. ^ Georgia Historic Marker, New Echota, 1958
  43. ^ Theda Purdue,Native Carolinians: The Indians of North Carolina, Pg. 40
  44. ^ "Tsali." History and culture of the Cherokee (North Carolina Indians). (2007-03-10)
  45. ^ "Will Thomas." History and culture of the Cherokee (North Carolina Indians). (2007-03-10)
  46. ^ Taylor, Quintard. "Cherokee Emancipation Proclamation (1863)." The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed. (retrieved 10 Jan 2010)
  47. ^ "Treaty with the Cherokee, 1866." Oklahoma Historical Society: Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Vol. 2, Treaties. (retrieved 10 Jan 2010)
  48. ^ a b Perdue (1999), p. 176
  49. ^ Perdue (1999), pp. 44, 57-8
  50. ^ Qualla History. (retrieved 15 Sept 09)
  51. ^ The Museum of the Cherokee Indian. (retrieved 15 Sept 09)
  52. ^ "Cherokee Heritage Center". http://www.cherokeeheritage.org. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  53. ^ Morand, Ann, Kevin Smith, Daniel C. Swan, and Sarah Erwin. Treasures of Gilcrease: Selections from the Permanent Collection. Tulsa, OK: Gilcrease Museum,2003. ISBN 097256571X
  54. ^ a b c "Cherokee syllabary". 1998-2009. http://www.omniglot.com/writing/cherokee.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-14. 
  55. ^ This constitution was approved by Cherokee Nation voters in 2003 but was not approved by the BIA. The Cherokee Nation then amended their 1975 constitution to not require BIA approval. The 1999 constitution has been ratified but the Cherokee Nation Supreme Court is currently deciding what year the 1999 constitution officially went into effect. Constitution of the Cherokee Nation. (pdf file). Cherokee Nation. (retrieved 5 March 2009).
  56. ^ Perdue, p. 564.
  57. ^ Perdue, pp. 564-565.
  58. ^ Perdue, p. 566.
  59. ^ "Constitution of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma." University of Oklahoma Law Center. (retrieved 16 Jan 2010)
  60. ^ http://www.indiancountrytoday.com/archive/50644002.html
  61. ^ Leeds, George R. United Keetoowah Band. Oklahoma Historical Society's Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. (retrieved 5 Oct 2009)
  62. ^ Oklahoma Office of Indian Affairs. Oklahoma Indian Nations Pocket Pictorial Directory. 2008:36
  63. ^ http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/tables/09s0036.pdf
  64. ^ Cherokee Nation Registration.
  65. ^ Enrollment. United Keetoowah Band of Cherokees. (retrieved 5 Oct 2009)
  66. ^ Glenn, Eddie. "A League of Nations?" Tahlequah Daily Press. 6 Jan 2006 (retrieved 5 Oct 2009)
  67. ^ Glenn 2006.
  68. ^ Official Statement Cherokee Nation 2000, Pierpoint 2000.
  69. ^ A RESOLUTION OPPOSING FABRICATED CHEROKEE "TRIBES" AND "INDIANS".
  70. ^ Joint Council of the Cherokee Nation and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Resolution #00-08. A Resolution Opposing Fabricated Cherokee "Tribes" and "Indians."
  71. ^ Information on Registration with Cherokee Nation.
  72. ^ "Freedman Decision" (PDF). http://www.cherokee.org/docs/news/Freedman-Decision.pdf. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  73. ^ Cherokee Constitutional Amendment March 3, 2007.
  74. ^ "Nash, et al v. Cherokee Nation Registrar" (PDF). http://www.cherokeecourts.com/Portal/5/44%20-%20Motion%20for%20Summary%20Judgment%20and%20Brief%20in%20Support.pdf. 
  75. ^ "The Case of Ned Christie", Fort Smith Historic Site, National Park Service, accessed 3 February 2009.
  76. ^ Carter JH. "Father and Cherokee Tradition Molded Will Rogers". http://www.willrogers.com/stories/stories/molded/Molded.html. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  77. ^ "Sequoyah", New Georgia Encyclopedia, accessed 3 January 2009.

References

  • Evans, E. Raymond. "Notable Persons in Cherokee History: Dragging Canoe". Journal of Cherokee Studies, Vol. 2, No. .2, pp. 176–189. (Cherokee: Museum of the Cherokee Indian, 1977).
  • Finger, John R. Cherokee Americans: The Eastern Band of Cherokees in the 20th Century.^ Amanda: I am 20 years old from Texas, and my great-great grandma was a full-blood Cherokee from the eastern band, I think.
    • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

    ^ My great-grand father John T. Bass was a cherokee indian on the Oklahoma Reservation.
    • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I want to know if the Lumbee are recognized as one of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians or are they a seperate tribe all together and have no Cherokee Hertiage in them what so ever .
    • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

    Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1991. ISBN 0-8032-6879-3.
  • Glenn, Eddie. "A league of nations?" Tahlequah Daily Press. .January 6, 2006 (Accessed May 24, 2007)
  • Irwin, L, "Cherokee Healing: Myth, Dreams, and Medicine."^ Sabrina E. North: To Whom It May Concern, February 23,2007 My Grant Grand Father may been a Cherokee Indian from Tennessee.
    • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

    American Indian Quarterly. Vol. 16, 2, 1992, p. 237.
  • McLoughlin, William G. Cherokee Renascence in the New Republic. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992).
  • Mooney, James. "Myths of the Cherokees." Bureau of American Ethnology, Nineteenth Annual Report, 1900, Part I. pp. 1–576. Washington: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Perdue, Theda. "Clan and Court: Another Look at the Early Cherokee Republic." American Indian Quarterly. Vol. 24, 4, 2000, p. 562.
  • Perdue, Theda. Cherokee women: gender and culture change, 1700-1835. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999. ISBN 978-0803287600.
  • Pierpoint, Mary. "Unrecognized Cherokee claims cause problems for nation." Indian Country Today. August 16, 2000 (Accessed May 16, 2007).
  • Wishart, David M. "Evidence of Surplus Production in the Cherokee Nation Prior to Removal." Journal of Economic History. Vol. 55, 1, 1995, p. 120.
  • Youngblood, Wayne L. Cherokee: People of the Written Word. Edison, NJ: Chartwell Books, 2008. ISBN 978-0-7858-2398-8.
  • Doublass, Robert Sydney. "History of Southeast Missouri", 1992, pp. 32–45
  • Rollings, Willard H. "The Osage: An Ethnohistorical Study of Hegemony on the Prairie-Plains." (University of Missouri Press, 1992)

External links

.
Cherokee edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

.Cherokee [1] is a town in Swain County, North Carolina within the Qualla Boundary, the proper name of the Cherokee Indian (Eastern Band) Reservation.^ It is a Cherokee Indian last name.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Best deals: Cherokee Indian Reservation .
  • Cherokee Indian Reservation - Cherokee - Reviews of Cherokee Indian Reservation - TripAdvisor 11 September 2009 21:42 UTC www.tripadvisor.com [Source type: General]

^ The Eastern Band of Cherokees 1819-1900 .
  • Surveying Tribal Members About the Echota Cherokee Language 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: Original source]

Understand

.This is the center of Cherokee culture in North Carolina (and indeed the eastern United States).^ In 1865 the State of North Carolina assured the permanent residence of the Cherokees.
  • Cherokee Indians - Great Smoky Mountains National Park 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC mysmokymountainvacation.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Cherokee Rituals, Culture, Festivals, Government, Beliefs 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Cherokee remaining in North Carolina after removal.
  • Cherokee Rolls, First People of Tennessee, Indian, NativeAmerican, Cherokee, Chickasaw. 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.tngenweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ North Carolina speaker of Cherokee.
  • Surveying Tribal Members About the Echota Cherokee Language 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Many natives call this area home, the Cherokee language is also spoken by many in this area.^ With the discovery of gold on Cherokee lands in 1828 and Andrew Jackson's 1830 Removal Act, calling for the relocation of all native peoples east of the Mississippi River to Oklahoma, the U. S. government forced the Cherokees from their homes in 1838.
  • Cherokee Indian history, Cherokee Indians Smoky Mountains, Tennessee Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.allsmokymountainvacations.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of all the Semitic languages Arabic spread from its home in the Arabian Peninsula and over the centuries throughout the Arabian Empire and is now spoken across North Africa to the Atlantic coast.

^ While the prehistoric origin of the Cherokee is shrouded in mystery, we know that their language is Iroquoian and that they shared many traditions with these northern cousins.

.The town was established by the Cherokee who stayed behind while the US Government forced them west in the Trail of Tears.^ To the Cherokee Nation the journey west was a bitter pill forced upon them by a state and federal government that cared little for their culture or society, and even less about justice.

^ As he and other Cherokee leaders grappled with the issue of moving, the land-hungry Georgia legislators, with the aid of Jackson, succeeded in ousting the Cherokee from their land, forcing them to make the arduous journey West on the infamous "Trail of Tears."
  • The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • History of the Cherokee Indians 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the winter of 1838, some 14,000 Cherokees were marched from Georgia to the new lands on the Trail of Tears.
  • Pictures of our Nobler Selves 11 September 2009 21:42 UTC cherokeehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

.Those who stayed behind hid in the mountains that now make up the Great Smokey Mountains National Park [2].^ Cabin views overlook Great Smoky Mountains National Park !
  • CHEROKEE CABINS NC SMOKY MOUNTAINS BRYSON CITY - NORTH CAROLINA 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC abovebeyondcabin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most scholars, like most Cherokees, have tended to follow the Trail of Tears west with scarcely a backward glance at the more than 1,000 Indians who stayed behind in the North Carolina mountains.
  • History of the Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • History of the Cherokee Indians 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Mountain Farm Museum, situated on the banks of the Oconaluftee River just inside Great Smoky Mountains National Park, is a collection of southern Appalachian farm buildings assembled from different locations throughout the Park.

.The Cherokee people are eastern Native Americans, do not ask them where the tipis are.^ Do the Cherokee people want to be referred to as Indians or Native Americans?
  • The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Origins controversies: Native American Origins, Cherokee origins .
  • Education - The Museum of the Cherokee Indian (www.cherokeemuseum.org) 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.cherokeemuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Eastern Cherokee people live on a reservation .
  • Facts for Kids: Cherokee Indians (Cherokees) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.bigorrin.org [Source type: Original source]

.Tipis were made by western Native Americans.^ It is possible that he is a pastor of a very large Native American Pentecostal church somewhere out in the western part of the US. I know a couple of his brother's first names.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Native Americans have made significant contributions to journalism for nearly two centuries.
  • Pictures of our Nobler Selves 11 September 2009 21:42 UTC cherokeehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of the white kids always made fun of Native Americans, so I found not motivation to dicover my heritage.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.The Cherokee people lived in houses made of woven grass covered with mud, and after the European settlers arrived, log cabins.^ Later many of them lived in the same kind of houses the European settlers lived in -- log cabins and wooden houses.

^ In later years, many Cherokee, lived in the same kind of houses the European settlers lived in -- log cabins and wooden houses.

^ All the slaves lived in a log house.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

.Cherokee is one of the gateways to the [Great Smokey Mountains National Park], and it's economy is mainly tourism based.^ Cabin views overlook Great Smoky Mountains National Park !
  • CHEROKEE CABINS NC SMOKY MOUNTAINS BRYSON CITY - NORTH CAROLINA 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC abovebeyondcabin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Substantial economic relief came only when the New Deal programs of the mid-1930s provided jobs and the opening of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park near Cherokee land brought large numbers of visitors to the area.
  • UNC Press :: The Encyclopedia of North Carolina 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC uncpress.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Mountain Farm Museum, situated on the banks of the Oconaluftee River just inside Great Smoky Mountains National Park, is a collection of southern Appalachian farm buildings assembled from different locations throughout the Park.

.There is no "downtown" to Cherokee; the entire built up area is mainly composed of hotels and tourist shops selling "Indian" themed junk.^ There is Harrah's casino on the edge of town and downtown Cherokee has alot of tourist shops.
  • Cherokee Indian Reservation (Raleigh, Asheville, Murphy: apartments, hotels, houses) - Western North Carolina - North Carolina (NC) - The Mountain Region including Asheville - City-Data Forum 11 September 2009 21:42 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: General]

^ There are three federally recognized Cherokee tribes: the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, the United Keetoowah Band in Oklahoma, and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina.
  • Facts for Kids: Cherokee Indians (Cherokees) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.bigorrin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When Georgia moved to enforce state laws on tribal lands, the Cherokee fought them in the U.S. Supreme Court; where the court ruled that while Indian tribes were not sovereign nations, state laws had no force on tribal lands.
  • Cherokee - Forced From Their Homeland on the Trail of Tears 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.legendsofamerica.com [Source type: Original source]

Get in

.Cherokee is only accessible by mountain roads.^ Maggie Valley is Only A Few Miles from Cherokee Deep within the Smoky Mountains is a valley unlike you've ever seen.

^ Only spectacular can convey the grandeur of this Cherokee North Carolina cabin rental and the incredible panoramic Smoky Mountains views.
  • CHEROKEE CABINS NC SMOKY MOUNTAINS BRYSON CITY - NORTH CAROLINA 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC abovebeyondcabin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Most visitors will come from the direction of Knoxville or Asheville.

Get around

The only way to "get around" is with your own vehicle. .There might be a taxi service in town, but it would be mainly for locals use.^ The local people had been told there were spirits here and they might not like any intrusion.

Many of the larger hotels have a shuttle service.

See

.Sadly, there isn't much to see in Cherokee.^ In the meantime, Sequoyah sent Aujiya and two others to visit among the Indian villages to the west to see if there were any Cherokees there.

^ Anonymous: im looking to see how much cherokee my children have from each side of there greatgrandfathers alvin foster and donald hinton thank you dupuis534@yahoo.com .
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ So i figure that there is so much left to learn about my cherokee heritage but so little resources to learn from.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.The town mainly exists because of its proximity to the Smokey Mountains National Park, and its only other attraction is it's the traditional homeland of the Cherokee people.^ Maggie Valley is Only A Few Miles from Cherokee Deep within the Smoky Mountains is a valley unlike you've ever seen.

^ Substantial economic relief came only when the New Deal programs of the mid-1930s provided jobs and the opening of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park near Cherokee land brought large numbers of visitors to the area.
  • UNC Press :: The Encyclopedia of North Carolina 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC uncpress.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Forum piece " 'Black' Cherokees fight for heritage" wrongly accused the Cherokee Nation of racism because it voted to require all citizens to have an Indian ancestor on the federally authorized base roll of our people (Oct.

.See the "Do" section below for other attractions.^ (Summer 2000), with articles by Michael Montgomery, Anita Puckett, and others, including an article on efforts to keep the Cherokee language alive (see Duncan & Taylor, below).
  • Bibliography on Cherokee Language 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.ferrum.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Do

.Visit the Oconaluftee Indian Village [3] ($15) and learn about Cherokee Native American culture.^ Do the Cherokee people want to be referred to as Indians or Native Americans?
  • The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

^ You can visit this site to learn more about Cherokee ceremonies or this site about American Indian spirituality in general.
  • Facts for Kids: Cherokee Indians (Cherokees) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.bigorrin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Origins controversies: Native American Origins, Cherokee origins .
  • Education - The Museum of the Cherokee Indian (www.cherokeemuseum.org) 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.cherokeemuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The tour takes you through various live demonstrations of Cherokee life, including two educational and informative talks.^ Village Life: The Cherokee lived in villages.
  • Cherokee - Southeast Native Americans in Olden Times for Kids 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC nativeamericans.mrdonn.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Where Did the Cherokee Indians Live - Dogpile Web Search 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.dogpile.com [Source type: General]

^ If you want to know more about the Trail of Tears and Cherokee history, two good books for kids are Only the Names Remain and Soft Rain .
  • Facts for Kids: Cherokee Indians (Cherokees) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.bigorrin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ INTERMEDIATE CHEROKEE PROGRAM MOD Intermediate Cherokee Program - $99.95           CD version - $105.95 This five audio cassettes (or CD's) program takes you from the Introduction to Cherokee program through five intermediate programs in one.

.The description says it shows a "typical day in a Cherokee village", but that's stretching it.^ Description: Conley's book, "The Cherokee Nation: A History" is an eminently readable, concise but thoughtful account of the Cherokee people from prehistoric times to the present day.
  • The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • History of the Cherokee Indians 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this lesson you will learn about the Cherokee words for ways to say be happy and a sentence for Valentine's Day.
  • -Native American Indian Tribes - Over 2,000 articles on native american indians, their culture & traditions. 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.aaanativearts.com [Source type: General]

.There are several small stands when you walk in, one shows a person forming clay pots, another weaving baskets, and another displaying arrowheads.^ Her poems are incredibly powerful; I hope that at least one of you out there is as moved by her poetry as I was.
  • Joan Sarah Touzet - Freeware Cherokee Font Information 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.atypical.net [Source type: General]

^ I'd like to know more about the Gibsons side and more about where she is buried, there are two little plots one you have to walk the other is a road close to the Terry Club road, down a peace up on top of a hill.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ The eighteenth-century basket is one of the oldest surviving examples of Cherokee double-weave basketry.

.There is a man burning wood to hollow out of log for a canoe.^ They hollowed out the log by using burning coals from the fire.
  • Cherokee - Southeast Native Americans in Olden Times for Kids 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC nativeamericans.mrdonn.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Dugout canoes were made by burning out the centers of fallen trees with embers and then chopping out the charred wood with stone axes.

^ Yes--the Cherokee Indians used to make long dugout canoes from hollowed-out logs.
  • Facts for Kids: Cherokee Indians (Cherokees) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.bigorrin.org [Source type: Original source]

But to say this is an accurate description of a typical village is a lie. .There are no children running around, no one is cooking food.^ She can run on top of the water or dive to the bottom, so there would be no trouble to get over to the island, but the question was, How could she bring back the fire?

^ No one stated a preference for the Oklahoma dialect, which would be the cheapest and easiest route because there are instructional materials already available in that dialect.
  • Surveying Tribal Members About the Echota Cherokee Language 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC jan.ucc.nau.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Raven Mocker is the most dreaded of Cherokee witches A Raven Mocker can be of either sex, and there is no real way to know one.

.You could easily see everything in 30 minutes, and it isn't really worth the cost of entry.^ As you will see below, in the great real world example, that it is very difficult to think on your own if someone is constantly on you!
  • Cherokee Soccer Association - News 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeeimpact.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They wrote everything down, all their legends and stories and customs, so they could more easily teach their children the old ways.
  • Cherokee - Southeast Native Americans in Olden Times for Kids 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC nativeamericans.mrdonn.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Everyone was just taken aback; you could see it on their faces,” Pastor Negiel Bigpond tells the station’s Jeffrey Smith.
  • The Buffalo Post » Cherokee 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC buffalopost.net [Source type: General]

.There is also The Museum of the Cherokee Indian [4] ($9), which is a small, dimly lit affair mainly filled with arrow heads and pottery shards.^ (Cherokee: Museum of the Cherokee Indian Press, 2001.
  • Education - The Museum of the Cherokee Indian (www.cherokeemuseum.org) 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.cherokeemuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are three federally recognized Cherokee tribes: the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, the United Keetoowah Band in Oklahoma, and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina.
  • Facts for Kids: Cherokee Indians (Cherokees) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.bigorrin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Cherokee Indian Museum of Western NC  http://www.westernncattractions.com/museum.htm .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

Some of the displays are so poorly lit people were using mobile phones to read the descriptions.
.A popular attraction in Cherokee is Harrah's Casino, which is owned by the local Cherokee tribe.^ Ride the Great Smoky Mountains Railroad, visit Harrah's Casino in Cherokee and the historic Biltmore House in Asheville.
  • CHEROKEE CABINS NC SMOKY MOUNTAINS BRYSON CITY - NORTH CAROLINA 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC abovebeyondcabin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each Cherokee tribe has its own government, laws, police, and services, just like a small country.
  • Facts for Kids: Cherokee Indians (Cherokees) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.bigorrin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When I read how CN members feel "sick and disgusted" about how their own tribal leaders spend the tribe's casino funds, I feel my tribe is lucky.
  • iTunes Store offers Cherokee language revitalization application 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.cherokeephoenix.org [Source type: General]

.There are a limited number of other attractions in the area, most of which are related either to Indian culture or natural landmarks.^ The mound-building cultures included many other Indian tribes or nations.

^ As in other aspects of Cherokee culture, there was a balance of power between men and women.
  • The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The Raven Mocker is the most dreaded of Cherokee witches A Raven Mocker can be of either sex, and there is no real way to know one.

Buy

.The entire built-up area of Cherokee is tourist stores, almost all of which sell Indian-themed merchandise.^ About that same time the Georgia legislature passed an act annexing all Cherokee lands in Georgia and white settlers descended upon the Indian lands of Georgia.
  • Cherokee Indians - Great Smoky Mountains National Park 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC mysmokymountainvacation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Trombonist Slide Hampton does a great job of arranging the song for a group that is almost entirely made up of trombones.
  • Jazz Standards Songs and Instrumentals (Cherokee (Indian Love Song)) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.jazzstandards.com [Source type: General]

^ Since the Indians did not have the immune system the Europeans had built up after centuries of contact with these diseases, simple contact could set off an epidemic.
  • UNC Press :: The Encyclopedia of North Carolina 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC uncpress.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

There is a grocery store on the outskirts of town. .If you stop at one of these tourist stores, you've pretty much stopped at all of them.^ ALGenWeb is part of the USGenWeb Project All of the information provided at these sites is contributed by researchers like you, and posted by a group of very dedicated volunteers.
  • Cherokee County, Alabama USGenWeb 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.algenweb.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The trade in this region was coveted by all the Europeans, and often these countries would attempt to incite tribes one against another as a means to control commerce.
  • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I am lucky, my grandmother Gahaw (Hattie Storey Bunn) told me much about her family, I've reconised some of the family names in these posts.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.One stand-out is the Talking Leaves Native American Bookstore [5] (Highway 441 & Highway 19 Intersection) which has a huge inventory of Native American books which would make any university library proud.^ Native American Prophecy Narrated by the late Floyd RedCrow Westerman 6:36 minutes 7 Generations Elder Orin Lyons talks about preparing for the next 7 generations.
  • -Native American Indian Tribes - Over 2,000 articles on native american indians, their culture & traditions. 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.aaanativearts.com [Source type: General]

^ Here are some pictures of Native American houses like the ones Cherokee Indians used.
  • Facts for Kids: Cherokee Indians (Cherokees) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.bigorrin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The slaves anticipated making out enough to carry one emigrant to Liberia but never realized their goal.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

.They also sell clothing and Native American-made jewelry.^ They focus on Native American health, education, government, organizations, service, etc.
  • Cherokee Messenger January 1999 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.powersource.com [Source type: General]

^ Native Americans have made significant contributions to journalism for nearly two centuries.
  • Pictures of our Nobler Selves 11 September 2009 21:42 UTC cherokeehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They spun the cottons and wool, weaved it and made cloth.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bookstore is owned and operated by a Native American woman.^ Less widely known is the fact that many Native Americans also owned African slaves, and fathered children with African slave women.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The media has, for its own purposes, created a false image of the Native American.
  • Pictures of our Nobler Selves 11 September 2009 21:42 UTC cherokeehistory.com [Source type: Original source]

^ American Indian and Alaska Native owned firms, percent, 2002 .
  • Cherokee County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC quickfacts.census.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If you really want to learn about the Cherokee people and other Native Americans, stop here and buy a few books.^ In this lesson you will learn about the Cherokee words for Where Did You Get?
  • -Native American Indian Tribes - Over 2,000 articles on native american indians, their culture & traditions. 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.aaanativearts.com [Source type: General]

^ In this lesson you will learn about the Cherokee words for stop what you're doing and come here , and other related phrases.
  • -Native American Indian Tribes - Over 2,000 articles on native american indians, their culture & traditions. 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.aaanativearts.com [Source type: General]

^ In this lesson you will learn about the Cherokee words for "What are you going to do today?"
  • -Native American Indian Tribes - Over 2,000 articles on native american indians, their culture & traditions. 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.aaanativearts.com [Source type: General]

.All you'll get in the tourist shops is cheap trinkets and fudge.^ All the things you'd say when shopping for something.
  • Cherokee Language programs, historical and cultural materials: books and videos. Various Indian Peoples Publishing Co. 1-800-776-0842 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.nativelanguages.com [Source type: General]

Eat

.There are several locally owned restaurants offering typical American food, but sadly no Native American food.^ Less widely known is the fact that many Native Americans also owned African slaves, and fathered children with African slave women.
  • Black Indians and Cherokee Freedmen 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Originally Posted by WANDERLUST My husband is native american and has several friends on the res.
  • Cherokee Indian Reservation (Raleigh, Asheville, Murphy: apartments, hotels, houses) - Western North Carolina - North Carolina (NC) - The Mountain Region including Asheville - City-Data Forum 11 September 2009 21:42 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: General]

^ This is by no means an exhaustive bibliography of Native American material found in the Tennessee State Library and Archives.
  • Tennessee Department of State: Tennessee State Library and Archives 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tennessee.gov [Source type: Academic]

The town panders to it's primary tourist base who tend to be Southern Americans. .There are also some franchises such as McDonald's or Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), of course.^ Cherokee language lesson: Is it possible you could bring some fried chicken toni .
  • -Native American Indian Tribes - Over 2,000 articles on native american indians, their culture & traditions. 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.aaanativearts.com [Source type: General]

^ In this lesson you will learn about the Cherokee words for Is it possible you could bring some fried chicken tonight?
  • -Native American Indian Tribes - Over 2,000 articles on native american indians, their culture & traditions. 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.aaanativearts.com [Source type: General]

Drink

There are several biker bars in the town, and several hotels have bars. You can also drink at the casino.

Sleep

Cherokee has no shortage of hotels, motels and Inns. .Best you just drive around and look before you leap, as quite a few appear to be on the verge of collapsing.^ (If you haven't left a comment here before, you may need to be approved by the site owner before your comment will appear.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.If you want to support the locals, stay in a local-owned motel, not one of the large chains.^ We owe you a debt of gratitude for your continued support and encourage you to stay involved in the years ahead.
  • Cherokee High School Alumni (Marlton, New Jersey): Official Alumni Website by the Lenape Regional High School District 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC cherokeealumni.org [Source type: General]

.
  • Best Western Great Smokies Inn, Highway 441 N & Aquoni Road, +1 828 497-2020, Fax: +1 828 497-3903, [6].
  • Cherokee Microtel Inn & Suites, 674 Casino Trail, +1 828 497-7800, Fax: +1 828 497-7803, [7].
  • Fairfield Inn & Suites Cherokee, 568 Painttown Road, +1 828 497-0400, Fax: +1 828 497-4040, [8].
  • Holiday Inn, 37 Tsalagi Road, +1 828 497-9181, [9].
  • Holiday Inn Express Hotel & Suites, 376 Painttown Road, +1 828 497-3113, [10].
  • Cherokee Lodge, 1593 Acquoni Road, 8284972226, [11].^ Ride the Great Smoky Mountains Railroad, visit Harrah's Casino in Cherokee and the historic Biltmore House in Asheville.
    • CHEROKEE CABINS NC SMOKY MOUNTAINS BRYSON CITY - NORTH CAROLINA 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC abovebeyondcabin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cherokee Indians - Great Smoky Mountains National Park .
    • Cherokee Indians - Great Smoky Mountains National Park 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC mysmokymountainvacation.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The legality of gaming on Indian land, established by the Indian Gaming Act of 1988, has had a huge economic impact on the Cherokee, as thousands of people from around the country visit the Harrah's Cherokee Great Smoky Mountains Casino and other establishments in Cherokee every year.
    • UNC Press :: The Encyclopedia of North Carolina 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC uncpress.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

     edit
  • Raccoon Ridge Properties, 162 Everett Street, 828.399.9765, [12]. .Offering several privately owned cabins for rent.^ High on a private mountain in the Smoky Mountains with soaring celestial mountain views, this rare Smoky Mountains NC mountain cabin has so much to offer.
    • CHEROKEE CABINS NC SMOKY MOUNTAINS BRYSON CITY - NORTH CAROLINA 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC abovebeyondcabin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Raccoon Ridge Properties has owned and managed luxury cabins in the Bryson City/Cherokee area since 2005. They pride themselves in providing the highest quality and comfort at an affordable price.^ The 2 bedroom cabin rental which sleeps 2-6 guests overlooks the North Carolina Mountains of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Cherokee and Bryson City side.
    • CHEROKEE CABINS NC SMOKY MOUNTAINS BRYSON CITY - NORTH CAROLINA 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC abovebeyondcabin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ABOVE AND BEYOND © 2007 Cherokee Cabins website owned by Above and Beyond Cabins, Whittier, NC May not be reproduced without permission.
    • CHEROKEE CABINS NC SMOKY MOUNTAINS BRYSON CITY - NORTH CAROLINA 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC abovebeyondcabin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As their population grew, and as they conquered other tribes in the area, the Cherokee Nation grew.
    • Cherokee - Southeast Native Americans in Olden Times for Kids 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC nativeamericans.mrdonn.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Raccoon Ridge Properties strives to make your next vacation to the mountains a memorable one.^ Thank you for making this a very memorable vacation.
    • CHEROKEE CABINS NC SMOKY MOUNTAINS BRYSON CITY - NORTH CAROLINA 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC abovebeyondcabin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Gather your deed, everyone listed on the property and make sure they all have government issued identification.
    • WEBSITES\Cherokee County Sheriff's Dept\Headquarters\hq 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.cherokeega-sheriff.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Needham was in fact murdered by his Occaneechi guide after returning from making a treaty with those Ani-Yun-Wiya who were living over the Blue Ridge Mountains.
    • Cherokee Indians - Arkansas Genealogy Family History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.comanchelodge.com [Source type: Original source]

    Their selection includes waterfront and mountain view cabins.
     edit
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.CHEROKEE (native Tsalagi," cave people"), a tribe of North American Indians of Iroquoian stock.^ Celebrating native american indian tribes of the US and Canada .
  • -Native American Indian Tribes - Over 2,000 articles on native american indians, their culture & traditions. 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.aaanativearts.com [Source type: General]

^ Ross, also known as Kooweskoowe, was a leader of the Cherokee Native American tribe.

^ Do the Cherokee people want to be referred to as Indians or Native Americans?
  • The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

.Next to the Navaho they are the largest tribe in the United States and live mostly in Oklahoma (formerly Indian territory).^ Indian and Oklahoma territories are combined by Oklahoma statehood.

^ The Cherokee tribe has always been one of the largest in the United States.
  • Cherokee Tribe Faces Decision on Freedmen : NPR 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ What did the cherokee indian tribe live in?
  • WikiAnswers - Where was the first Cherokee Indian tribe 11 September 2009 21:42 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

.Before their removal they possessed a large tract of country now distributed among the states of Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, Tennessee and the west of Florida.^ At one time, it covered 8 states including all or portions of the present day states of Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky, Alabama, Virginia and West Virginia.
  • Cherokee - Southeast Native Americans in Olden Times for Kids 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC nativeamericans.mrdonn.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the time when the Cherokees came into first contact with the white man (DeSoto in 1540), they claimed 135,000 square miles of territory covering parts of eight states; North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia.
  • Cherokee Roots ~ About Us - The History of the Cherokees 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.cherokeeroots.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Let it be recollected that the region of country in Arkansas, on which those Cherokees who have removed are now settled, was once a portion or this State, and that the result of the legislation of Congress, and of the particular States interested, has been, and will be, to remove to it all the Indians but those inhabiting her territory.
  • North Carolina. General Assembly. North Carolina - Cherokee Indians. Report and Resolution of a Joint Committee of the Legislature of North Carolina, Relative to the Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC docsouth.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Their chief divisions were then settled around the head-waters of the Savannah and Tennessee rivers, and were distinguished as the Elati Tsalagi or Lower Cherokees, i.e. those in the plains, and Atali Tsalagi or Upper Cherokees, i.e. those on the mountains.^ They have passed the mountains, and have settled upon Tsalagi (Cherokee) land.
  • Tsalagi (Cherokee) Literature 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.indians.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sequoyah, also spelled Sequoya, was born between 1760 and 1776, in the Cherokee village of Tuskeegee on the Tennessee River.
  • Cherokee language, sillabary, Sequoyah 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.cherokeebyblood.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A small group of Cherokees, for example, fled north from South Carolina and Georgia near the Tugaloo River (approximately 30 miles north) to the mountains of North Carolina.

.They were further divided into seven exogamous clans.^ Clans: The Cherokee Nation was divided into seven clans.
  • Cherokee - Southeast Native Americans in Olden Times for Kids 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC nativeamericans.mrdonn.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This meant they were to settle in one place, farm the land, divide communal land into private property, and adopt democracy.
  • Cherokee - Forced From Their Homeland on the Trail of Tears 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.legendsofamerica.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Cherokee were divided into seven matrilineal clans who lived in numerous permanent villages, typically placed along rivers and streams.
  • Cherokee - Forced From Their Homeland on the Trail of Tears 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.legendsofamerica.com [Source type: Original source]

.Fernando de Soto travelled through their country in 1540, and during the next three centuries they were important factors in the history of the south.^ It progresses from the earliest days, through de Soto, the Indian wars, Tecumseh, the Trail of Tears, the Civil War and ultimately to 1900.
  • History of the Cherokee Indians 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Native American Medicine Treatment Indian Medical Treatments 11 September 2009 21:42 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • History of the Cherokee Indians 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Cherokee Rituals, Culture, Festivals, Government, Beliefs 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: Original source]

^ They continued to grow and flourish well after Columbus discovered America, but when Hernando de Soto followed their roads into their villages in 1540 everything changed.

^ The history of the Cherokees begins with De Soto , who passed within their territory in 1540.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Cherokee Indians 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They attached themselves to the English in the disputes and contests which arose between the European colonizers, formally recognized the English king in 1730, and in 1755 ceded a part of their territory and permitted the erection of English forts.^ For a long time the Cherokees and the Five Nations had bloody contests; but the English effected a reconciliation between them about 1750, when the Cherokees became the allies of the British against the French, and allowed the former to build forts on their domain.

^ Settlers of European ancestry began moving into Cherokee territory in the early eighteenth century; from that point forward, the colonial governments in the area began demanding that the Cherokees cede their territory.

^ They lived on a reservation in the Indian Territory in the eastern part of what is now the state of Oklahoma.

.Unfortunately this amity was interrupted not long after; but peace was again restored in 1761. When the revolutionary war broke out they sided with the royalist party.^ War Parties: They did not have armies.
  • Cherokee - Southeast Native Americans in Olden Times for Kids 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC nativeamericans.mrdonn.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She advocated for peace during the Revolutionary War era, and because of her decisions would forever become a prominent figure in Cherokee history.

^ Sided with the British during the Revolutionary War eventually resulting in four major military incursions into Cherokee territories by Virginia and North Carolina generals .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

.This led to their subjugation by the new republic, and they had to surrender that part of their lands which lay to the south of the Savannah and east of the Chattahoochee.^ The Cherokee Indians originally came from the middle-eastern parts of the asia continent.They passed through the Bering strait AKA: the land bridge.
  • Questions about Cherokee Indians - Ask.com 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ Final cession of land in Georgia, and part of a much larger cession, the Cherokee give up claims to all land east of the Chattahoochee River.

^ Never Get off the Ground Dear Editor, Reviewing the new proposed Land Use Map it looks as if we have a population of less that 50 thousand and south east Cherokee is nothing but horse farms.

.Peace was made in 1781, and in 1785 they recognized the supremacy of the United States and were confirmed in their possessions.^ Shortly after 1800, missionary and educational work was established among theme, and in 1820 they adopted a regular form of government modeled on that of the United States.

^ Several Cherokee Nations and Bands are recognized by the U.S. government, and as of the 2000 census, the Cherokee tribe had the most enrolled members of any tribe in the United States.

^ As evidence, Cherokee leaders pointed to the Treaty of Hopewell (1785), which established borders between the United States and the Cherokee Nation, offered the Cherokees the right to send a "deputy" to Congress, and made American settlers in Cherokee territory subject to Cherokee law.

.In 1820 they adopted a civilized form of government, and in 1827, as a "Nation," a formal constitution.^ In 1827 the Tsalagi (Cherokee) established a constitutional form of government.
  • Tsalagi (Cherokee) Literature 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.indians.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The tribe adopted a constitution and organized a modern government in 1827.
  • Cherokee Indians - Great Smoky Mountains National Park 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC mysmokymountainvacation.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first Cherokee Constitution was adopted in 1827.
  • South Carolina SC - Indians, Native Americans - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.sciway.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The gradual advance of white immigration soon led to disputes with the settlers, who desired their removal, and exodus after exodus took place; a small part of the tribe agreed (1835) to remove to another district, but the main body remained.^ The Emigrants and the Treaty Party are basically the same group, although the Treaty Group (re: New Echota Treaty of 1835), are the active political group who were blamed for Removal.
  • Cherokee Rolls, First People of Tennessee, Indian, NativeAmerican, Cherokee, Chickasaw. 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.tngenweb.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the main body of the tribe was removed to the west, several hundred fugitives escaped to the mountains, where they lived as refugees for a time, until, in 1842, through the efforts of William H. Thomas, an influential trader, they received permission to remain on lands set apart for their use in western North Carolina.

^ However, white Americans continued to desire Indian lands, and in 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act.

.An appeal was made by them to the United States government; but President Andrew Jackson refused to interfere.^ Cherokee appeals for federal protection were rejected by President Andrew Jackson.
  • Cherokee - Forced From Their Homeland on the Trail of Tears 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.legendsofamerica.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Several Cherokee Nations and Bands are recognized by the U.S. government, and as of the 2000 census, the Cherokee tribe had the most enrolled members of any tribe in the United States.

^ The Cherokee Nation is the direct, lineal descendant of the sovereign tribal government that presided over much of the southeastern United States before European colonization.

.A force of 2000 men, under the command of General Winfield Scott, was sent in 1838, and the Cherokees were compelled to emigrate to their present position.^ In 1838, General Winfield Scott and 7,000 troops invaded Cherokee land.
  • www.mrnussbaum.com - Cherokee 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.mrnussbaum.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Southern Cherokee reunited with their relatives who managed to evade the U.S. Army - while the rest were forced to march on the Trail of Tears through western Kentucky in 1838.

^ Winfield SCOTT, most remaining Tsalagi (Cherokee) were driven from their land and forcibly marched to Arkansas and Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) in 1838-39.
  • Tsalagi (Cherokee) Literature 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.indians.org [Source type: Original source]

.After the settlement various disagreements between the eastern and western Cherokees continued for some time, but in 1839 a union was effected.^ Some of these similarities are due to the fact that the sustained contact between the whites and Cherokees since the mid 1700s allowed many western ideas to filter into the Cherokee stories.
  • Cherokee Myths And Legends 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.telliquah.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cherokee county was established in 1897 and named for the Cherokee Indians, who lived in the region at the time of early colonial settlement.
  • Cherokee (county, South Carolina, United States) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First joint council meeting in 146 years between Eastern Band of Cherokees and Cherokee Nation held at Red Clay, TN. Council meetings now held bi-annually.
  • Cherokee History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.powersource.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the Civil War they all at first sided with the South; but before long a strong party joined the North, and this led to a disastrous internecine struggle.^ War Parties: They did not have armies.
  • Cherokee - Southeast Native Americans in Olden Times for Kids 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC nativeamericans.mrdonn.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At one time, it covered 8 states including all or portions of the present day states of Georgia, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky, Alabama, Virginia and West Virginia.
  • Cherokee - Southeast Native Americans in Olden Times for Kids 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC nativeamericans.mrdonn.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the Civil War (1860-1865) the Cherokee were again divided, and whilst formally siding with the Confederacy factions fought in both Confederate and Union armies.
  • Cherokee Religion 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC philtar.ucsm.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.On the close of the contest they were confirmed in the possession of their territory, but were forced to give a portion of their lands to their emancipated slaves.^ They occupy a territory to which we assert a title independent of their will, which must take effect in point of possession when their right of possession ceases; meanwhile, they are in a state of pupilage.
  • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tourolaw.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1828, they are forced to move into Indian territory.
  • Cherokee History 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.powersource.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They were so absolutely divided in sentiment that in 1818 a portion of the nation emigrated to wild land assigned to them west of the Mississippi.

.Their later history is mainly a story of hopeless struggle to maintain their tribal independence against the white man.^ Though the Cherokee were by nature a peaceful people, they were nevertheless trained and prepared for protecting themselves from surrounding tribes and, later, from the white man.
  • Cherokee Indians: Weapons and Warfare 11 September 2009 21:42 UTC thomaslegion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the outbreak of the Revolution, the Cherokee received requests from the Mohawk, Shawnee, and Ottawa to join them against the Americans, but the majority of the Cherokee decided to remain neutral in the white man's war.
  • Cherokee History 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.tolatsga.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Booger Dance of the eastern Cherokee has been interpreted as "...a record of the anxieties of a people, their reactions against the symbol of the invader, and their insecurity in their dealings with the white man".
  • Cherokee Religion 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC philtar.ucsm.ac.uk [Source type: Original source]

.In 1892 they sold their western territory known as the "Cherokee outlet."^ Scholars estimate that 4,000-5,000 Cherokees, including Ross's wife, Quatie, died on this "trail where they cried," commonly known as the Trail of Tears.

^ By the time gold was discovered the trickle had become a flood and a county known as Cherokee was formed on December 26, 1831 with 6900 square miles of territory.
  • Cherokee County, Georgia, History, Resources, Links, and Events 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC roadsidegeorgia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cherokee are well known in Tennessee River and the Great Smoky Mountain area, having traveled on foot from the Appalachian Mountains to the Iroquois territory.

.Until 1906, when tribal government virtually ceased, the "nation" had an elected chief, a senate and house of representatives.^ The Truth About the Political Context MYTH : The March 2007 amendment was orchestrated by Cherokee Nation Chief Chad Smith and tribal leadership.
  • The Truth About Cherokee Citizenship 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC freedmen.cherokee.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Principal Cherokee Chief John Ross collected more than 15,000 signatures, representing almost the entire Cherokee Nation, on a petition requesting the U.S. Senate to withhold ratification of this illicit treaty.
  • UNC Press :: The Encyclopedia of North Carolina 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC uncpress.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Cherokee established a republican governmental system modeled on that of the United States, with an elected principal chief, namely John Ross , a senate, and a house of representatives.
  • Cherokee - Forced From Their Homeland on the Trail of Tears 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.legendsofamerica.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many of them have become Christians, schools have been established and there is a tribal press.^ Within their newly established boundaries, the Cherokee took the lead in adopting Euro-American ways in the early nineteenth century, establishing schools and a bicameral tribal legislature.
  • UNC Press :: The Encyclopedia of North Carolina 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC uncpress.unc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ So in order to sell “Indian Art,” a person only has to find a state recognized tribe with loose enrollment requirements, and there are many, and become a member.
  • Cherokee Registry - Home 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC cherokeeregistry.com [Source type: Original source]

.Those in Oklahoma still number some 26,000, though most are of mixed blood.^ Most of the Cherokees still live in Oklahoma.

^ Many researchers are finding that their families in the North Georgia area may have had Cherokee blood, and some of those relations may have traveled on the now infamous 'Trail of Tears' to Arkansas and Oklahoma in the late 1830's.
  • Cherokee County Historical Society 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.rockbarn.org [Source type: General]

^ This party contained mostly mixed-blood Cherokee who had been successful in business and could afford to move to present-day Oklahoma on their own.

.A group, known as the Eastern Band, some 1400 strong, are on a reservation in North Carolina.^ There are three federally recognized Cherokee tribes: the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, the United Keetoowah Band in Oklahoma, and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians in North Carolina.
  • Facts for Kids: Cherokee Indians (Cherokees) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.bigorrin.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A small group of Cherokees, for example, fled north from South Carolina and Georgia near the Tugaloo River (approximately 30 miles north) to the mountains of North Carolina.

^ Welcome to Cherokee, North Carolina: The home of the Eastern Band of the Cherokee Indian tribe, Cherokee, NC has a long history--that's putting it mildly!--of being a small town surrounded by the beautiful Smoky Mountains.
  • Cherokee, NC - Cherokee Indian Reservation, Swain / Jackson County, North Carolina 11 September 2009 21:42 UTC www.mountainshops.com [Source type: General]

.Their language consists of two dialects - a third, that of the "Lower" branch, having been lost.^ "Learning two languages confuses a child and lowers his intelligence."
  • Native American - Languages, Languages, Native American, 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.studysphere.com [Source type: General]

.The syllabic alphabet invented in 1821 by George Guess (Sequoyah) is the character employed.^ Sequoyah (George Gist), is credited with inventing the Cherokee writing system, although Cherokee oral history suggests he may have borrowed from an earlier writing system used only by Cherokee priests.

^ It is said to have been created by a Cherokee named Sequoyah, American name John Gist or Guess and presented to the Cherokee people in 1821.
  • Sequoyah and the Cherokee Language 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC hubpages.com [Source type: General]

^ Sequoyah, ( aka   Sequaya, Se Quo Yah, or George Guess) with his syllabary and a silver Indian Peace Medal.
  • Cherokee Rolls, First People of Tennessee, Indian, NativeAmerican, Cherokee, Chickasaw. 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.tngenweb.org [Source type: Original source]

.See also Handbook of American Indians (Washington, 1907); T. V. Parker, Cherokee Indians (N. Y., 1909); and North American Indians.^ Welcome to the North American Grand Cherokee Association.
  • North American Grand Cherokee Association - Powered by vBulletin 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nagca.com [Source type: General]
  • North American Grand Cherokee Association - Powered by vBulletin 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.nagca.com [Source type: General]

^ South Carolina SC - Indians, Native Americans - Cherokee .
  • South Carolina SC - Indians, Native Americans - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.sciway.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here are some pictures of Native American houses like the ones Cherokee Indians used.
  • Facts for Kids: Cherokee Indians (Cherokees) 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.bigorrin.org [Source type: Original source]



Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also cherokee

Contents

English

Proper noun

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:
Singular
Cherokee
Plural
Cherokees
Cherokee (plural Cherokees)
  1. An indigenous North American people; a member.
  2. Its Iroquoian language, still spoken in Oklahoma and North Carolina.
  3. A syllabary for the Cherokee language invented by Sequoyah.

Translations

.The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers.^ Thirteen Moons: Removal translated into Cherokee by Myrtle Driver Johnson from the best-selling novel by Charles Frazier.

^ The table of contents at the beginning of Reel 1 will then tell you which microfilm reel you need for that card number.
  • Newberry Library | Cherokee Genealogy Genealogy 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.newberry.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

See also

External links


Dutch

Proper noun

Cherokee
  1. The Cherokee people; a member
  2. Its language

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Introduction

Welcome to the Cherokee Wikibook! This book is in progress. .If you know Cherokee (ᏣᎳᎩ) please help make this a great textbook for learning the Cherokee language.^ Please respone if you can help.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ If you could help that would be great.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

^ Please email me if you can help.
  • Cherokee Indians (Smoky Mountain Blog) 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.smokymtnmall.com [Source type: General]

.Note: You must be using Cherokee Unicode Supported Fonts to view this site.^ If you do not have the Cherokee true type font you will not be able to read the Cherokee.
  • The Cherokee Observer Language Editor Home Page 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.cherokeeobserver.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If you have a question of that sort, please go to The Cherokee Nation site, and write to someone in their language or education department.
  • A Small Lexicon of Tsalagi words 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC public.csusm.edu [Source type: General]

^ You will not like being near us, or our web-site, much less our Cherokee ways of honesty, brotherhood and spirit.

.Information on obtaining and installing Cherokee Unicode Fonts for Windows 2000 and Windows XP is available on the Cherokee Unicode page.^ This page will be updated as information on actions by each side of the controversy and news reports become available.
  • Who Is Cherokee? 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.manataka.org [Source type: Original source]

^ SELECT PASSAGES FROM THE HOLY SCRIPTURES. [no printing information included]; [printed in Cherokee language]; 24 pages; 3" x 5"; .

.Mac OS X from version 10.3 (Panther), Windows Vista and some Linux Operating System's include default support for displaying the Cherokee Language in syllabary.^ Web site includes a page displaying the Cherokee syllabary.
  • Bibliography on Cherokee Language 19 January 2010 9:53 UTC www.ferrum.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sequoya created syllabary, Cherokee learned to read in their language; 300 mostly Cherokee killed 30-100 Osage in battle .
  • FDI - Cherokee 11 September 2009 3:03 UTC www.fourdir.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cherokee language lesson: Is it possible you could bring some fried chicken toni .
  • -Native American Indian Tribes - Over 2,000 articles on native american indians, their culture & traditions. 11 September 2009 21:43 UTC www.aaanativearts.com [Source type: General]

Lessons

Cherokee Seal

External Resources


Simple English

Cherokee is also a brand of clothing sold in Tesco stores
The Cherokee is also a model of the Jeep.


The Cherokee (ah-ni-yv-wi-ya in Cherokee) are Native Americans who at the time of European contact in the 16th century lived in the area that is now the eastern and southeastern United States before most were forcefully moved to the Ozark hills. They were one of the tribes referred to as the Five Civilized Tribes.

Cherokee people did not live in tepees. They lived in houses made from wood. In the 19th Century, a man named Sequoyah introduced a form of writing the Cherokee language. For this, he was awarded a medal.

Chief John Ross was the leader of the Cherokee tribe from 1818 until 1867. He lived in Georgia before being forced to move to the place now called Oklahoma.

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Wikimedia Commons has images, video, and/or sound related to:

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 17, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Cherokee, which are similar to those in the above article.








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