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Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

For other uses, see Cherry (disambiguation).

The cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus. It is a fleshy fruit that contains 6 very rough seeds. The cherry fruits of commerce are usually obtained from a limited number of species, including especially cultivars of the wild cherry, Prunus avium.

The name 'cherry', often as the compound term 'cherry tree', may also be applied to many other members of the genus Prunus, or to all members of the genus as a collective term. The fruits of many of these are not cherries, and have other common names, including plum, apricot, peach, and others. The name 'cherry' is also frequently used in reference to cherry blossom.

Contents

Botany

True cherry fruits are borne by members of the subgenus Cerasus which is distinguished by having the flowers in small corymbs of several together (not singly, nor in racemes), and by having a smooth fruit with only a weak groove or none along one side. The subgenus is native to the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with two species in America, three in Europe, and the remainder in Asia.

The majority of eating cherries are derived from either Prunus avium, the wild cherry (sometimes called the sweet cherry), or from Prunus cerasus, the sour cherry.

Species

This list contains many Prunus species that bear the common name cherry; however they are mostly of little or no value for their fruit.[citation needed] For a complete list of these, see Prunus. Some common names listed here have historically been used for more than one species, e.g. "Rock cherry" is used as an alternative common name for both P. prostrata and P. mahaleb.

  • Prunus alabamensis C. Mohr - Alabama cherry
  • Prunus apetala (Siebold & Zucc.) Franch. & Sav. - Clove cherry
  • Prunus avium (L.) L. - Wild cherry, Sweet cherry, Mazzard or Gean
  • Prunus campanulata Maxim. - Taiwan cherry, Formosan cherry or Bell-flowered cherry
  • Prunus canescens Bois. - Greyleaf cherry
  • Prunus caroliniana Aiton - Carolina laurel cherry or Laurel cherry
  • Prunus cerasoides D. Don. - Wild Himalayan cherry
  • Prunus cerasus L. - Sour cherry
  • Prunus cistena Koehne - Purpleleaf sand cherry
  • Prunus cornuta (Wall. ex Royle) Steud. - Himalayan bird cherry
  • Prunus cuthbertii Small - Cuthbert cherry
  • Prunus cyclamina Koehne - Cyclamen cherry or Chinese flowering cherry
  • Prunus dawyckensis Sealy - Dawyck cherry
  • Prunus dielsiana C.K. Schneid. - Tailed-leaf cherry
  • Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hook.) Walp. - Oregon cherry or Bitter cherry
  • Prunus eminens Beck - German: mittlere Weichsel (Semi-sour cherry)
  • Prunus fruticosa Pall. - European dwarf cherry, Dwarf cherry, Mongolian cherry or Steppe cherry
  • Prunus gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin) Rehder - Duke cherry
  • Prunus grayana Maxim. - Japanese bird cherry or Gray's bird cherry
  • Prunus humilis Bunge - Chinese plum-cherry or Humble bush cherry
  • Prunus ilicifolia (Nutt. ex Hook. & Arn.) Walp. - Hollyleaf cherry, Evergreen cherry, Holly-leaved cherry or Islay
  • Prunus incisa Thunb. - Fuji cherry
  • Prunus jamasakura Siebold ex Koidz. - Japanese mountain cherry or Japanese hill cherry
  • Prunus japonica Thunb. - Korean cherry
  • Prunus laurocerasus L. - Cherry laurel
  • Prunus lyonii (Eastw.) Sarg. - Catalina Island cherry
  • Prunus maackii Rupr. - Manchurian cherry or Amur chokecherry
  • Prunus mahaleb L. - Saint Lucie cherry, Rock cherry, Perfumed cherry or Mahaleb cherry
  • Prunus maximowiczii Rupr. - Miyama cherry or Korean cherry
  • Prunus mume (Siebold & Zucc.) Ume, Japanese apricot, Chinese plum
  • Prunus myrtifolia (L.) Urb. - West Indian cherry
  • Prunus nepaulensis (Ser.) Steud. - Nepal bird cherry
  • Prunus nipponica Matsum. - Takane cherry, Peak cherry or Japanese Alpine cherry
  • Prunus occidentalis Sw. - Western cherry laurel
  • Prunus padus L. - Bird cherry or European bird cherry
  • Prunus pensylvanica L.f. - Pin cherry, Fire cherry, or Wild red cherry
  • Prunus pleuradenia Griseb. - Antilles cherry
  • Prunus prostrata Labill. - Mountain cherry, Rock cherry, Spreading cherry or Prostrate cherry
  • Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl. - Chinese sour cherry or False cherry
  • Prunus pumila L. - Sand cherry
  • Prunus rufa Wall ex Hook.f. - Himalayan cherry
  • Prunus salicifolia Kunth. - Capulin, Singapore cherry or Tropic cherry
  • Prunus sargentii Rehder - Sargent's cherry or Ezo Mountain cherry
  • Prunus serotina Ehrh. - Black cherry
  • Prunus serrula Franch. - Paperbark cherry, Birch bark cherry or Tibetan cherry
  • Prunus serrulata Lindl. - Japanese cherry, Hill cherry, Oriental cherry or East Asian cherry
  • Prunus speciosa (Koidz.) Ingram - Oshima cherry
  • Prunus ssiori Schmidt- Hokkaido bird cherry
  • Prunus stipulacea Maxim.
  • Prunus subhirtella Miq. - Higan cherry or Spring cherry
  • Prunus takesimensis Nakai - Takeshima flowering cherry
  • Prunus tomentosa Thunb. - Nanking cherry, Manchu cherry, Downy cherry, Shanghai cherry, Ando cherry, Mountain cherry, Chinese dwarf cherry, Chinese bush cherry or Hansen's bush cherry
  • Prunus verecunda (Koidz.) Koehne - Korean mountain cherry
  • Prunus virginiana L. - Chokecherry
  • Prunus x yedoensis Matsum. - Yoshino cherry or Tokyo cherry

History

Etymology and antiquity

The native range of the wild cherry extends through most of Europe, and the fruit has been consumed through its range since prehistoric times. A cultivated cherry is recorded as having been brought to Rome from northeastern Anatolia, also known as the Pontus region, in 72 BC.[1]

A form of cherry was introduced into England at Tyneham, near Sittingbourne in Kent by order of Henry VIII, who had tasted them in Flanders.[2][3][4]

The English word cherry, French cerise, Spanish cereza all come from the Classical Greek (κέρασος) through the Latin cerasum, thus the ancient Roman place name Cerasus, from which the cherry was first exported to Europe.[5]

Nutritional value

Cherries contain anthocyanins, the red pigment in berries. Cherry anthocyanins have been shown to reduce pain and inflammation in rats.[6] Anthocyanins are also potent antioxidants under active research for a variety of potential health benefits. According to a study funded by the Cherry Marketing Institute presented at the Experimental Biology 2008 meeting in San Diego, rats that received whole tart cherry powder mixed into a high-fat diet did not gain as much weight or build up as much body fat, and their blood showed much lower levels of inflammation indicators that have been linked to heart disease and diabetes. In addition, they had significantly lower blood levels of cholesterol and triglycerides than the other rats.[7]

Wildlife value

Cherry trees also provide food for the caterpillars of several Lepidoptera. See List of Lepidoptera which feed on Prunus.

Cultivation

The cultivated forms are of the species Wild Cherry (P. avium) to which most cherry cultivars belong, and the Sour Cherry (P. wanpiti), which is used mainly for cooking. Both species originate in Europe and western Asia; they do not cross-pollinate. Some other species, although having edible fruit, are not grown extensively for consumption, except in northern regions where the two main species will not grow. Irrigation, spraying, labor and their propensity to damage from rain and hail make cherries relatively expensive. Nonetheless, there is high demand for the fruit.

Growing season

Cherries have a very short growing season and can grow in most temperate latitudes. The peak season for cherries is in the summer. In Australia they are usually at their peak around Christmas time, in southern Europe in June, in North America in June, in south British Columbia (Canada) in July-mid August and in the UK in mid July. In many parts of North America they are among the first tree fruits to ripen.

Cherries (sweet, edible parts)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 263 kJ (63 kcal)
Carbohydrates 16 g
Sugars 13 g
Dietary fibre 2 g
Fat 0.2 g
Protein 1.1 g
Vitamin C 7 mg (12%)
Iron 0.4 mg (3%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Ornamental trees

See cherry blossom and Prunus.

Commercial production

Worldwide cherry yield

Annual world production (as of 2007) of cultivated cherry fruit is about two million tonnes. Around 40% of world production originates in Europe and around 13% in the United States.

Top Cherry Producing Nations - 2007
(in thousand metric tons)
 Turkey 398.1
 United States 310.7
 Iran 225.0
 Italy 145.1
 Russia 100.0
 Syria 75.0
 Spain 72.6
 Ukraine 68.2
 Romania 65.2
 Greece 62.8
World Total 2,083.1
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations[8]

Europe

Major commercial cherry orchards in Europe extend from the Iberian peninsula east to Asia Minor, and to a smaller extent may also be grown in the Baltic States and southern Scandinavia.

North America

In the United States, most sweet cherries are grown in Washington, California, Oregon, and Northern Michigan.[9] Important sweet cherry cultivars include "Bing", "Brooks", "Tulare", "King" and "Rainier". In addition, the Lambert variety is grown on the eastern side of Flathead Lake in northwestern Montana[10]. Both Oregon and Michigan provide light-colored "Royal Ann" ('Napoleon'; alternately "Queen Anne") cherries for the maraschino cherry process. Most sour (also called tart) cherries are grown in Michigan, followed by Utah, New York, and Washington[9]. Additionally, native and non-native cherries grow well in Canada (Ontario and British Columbia). Sour cherries include Nanking and Evans Cherry. Traverse City, Michigan claims to be the "Cherry Capital of the World", hosting a National Cherry Festival and making the world's largest cherry pie. The specific region of Northern Michigan that is known the world over for tart cherry production is referred to as the "Traverse Bay" region. Traverse Bay Farms is one Northern Michigan co-op supported organization in this region that helps to market Michigan-grown cherry products across the globe.

Australia

In Australia, the New South Wales town of Young is famous as the "Cherry Capital of Australia" and hosts the internationally famous National Cherry Festival. Popular varieties include the "Montmorency", "Morello", "North Star", "Early Richmond", "Titans", and "Lamberts". Cherries come in a variety of different colors, like red as well as yellow.

Gallery

See also

Notes

  1. ^  "Pontus". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Pontus. 
  2. ^ The curious antiquary John Aubrey (1626–1697) noted in his memoranda: "Cherries were first brought into Kent tempore H. viii, who being in Flanders, and likeing (sic) the Cherries, ordered his Gardener, brought them hence, and propagated them in England." Oliver Lawson Dick, ed. (1949). Aubrey's Brief Lives. Edited from the Original Manuscripts. p. xxxv. 
  3. ^ "All the cherry gardens and orchards of Kent are said to have been stocked with the Flemish cherry from a plantation of 105 acres in Teynham, made with foreign cherries, pippins, and golden rennets, done by the fruiterer of Henry VIII." (Kent On-line: Teynham Parish)
  4. ^ The civic coat of arms of Sittingbourne with the crest of a "cherry tree fructed proper" were only granted in 1949, however.
  5. ^ A History of the Vegetable Kingdom, Page 334.
  6. ^ Tall JM, Seeram NP, Zhao C, Nair MG, Meyer RA, Raja SN, JM (Aug 2004). "Tart cherry anthocyanins suppress inflammation-induced pain behavior in rat". Behav. Brain Res. 153 (1): 181�"8. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2003.11.011. ISSN 0166-4328. PMID 15219719. 
  7. ^ "Tart Cherries May Reduce Heart/Diabetes Risk Factors". Newswise, Retrieved on July 7, 2008.
  8. ^ "FAOSTAT: ProdSTAT: Crops". Food and Agriculture Organization. 2007. http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567. Retrieved 07-02-2009. 
  9. ^ a b Cherry Production National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA, Retrieved on August 19, 2008.
  10. ^ [1]Sweet Cherries Of Flathead Lake, Retrieved on August 28, 2009

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Cherry is a small town in the state of Illinois. In 1909 Cherry was the scene of one of the worst mining fires in US history.

Get in

Cherry is located just north of Interstate 80 on Highway 89 about 100 miles west of Chicago.

Get around

The small downtown area of Main Street and North Main Street can be seen on foot.

  • Holy Trinity Miners Cemetery Located on the south edge of town. Monument honoring the over 250 men and boys who died in the 1909 disaster.
  • Mine Disaster Commemorative Plaque in the Village Park (Main St. and North Ave),
  • St Paul Mine is located on private land
  • Town Library 815 894-2919 Archives of photos and documents related to the mine fire and other local history. Open Weds 5-7pm; Sat 9-11am

Eat

Cherry has very little in the way of restaurants. More options can be found in nearby Ladd and off Interstate 80.

  • Cherry Supper Club 110 N Main, 815 894-3520.
  • Cherry Bomb Inc 205 N Main St, 815 894-2944.
  • JT's Bar & Grill 101 S Main St,

Sleep

The nearest motels are located in Peru, about 15 minutes South. Alternatively, accommodations can be found near the intersection of Interstate 81 and Highway 51.

This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

CHERRY. As a cultivated fruit-tree the cherry is generally supposed to be of Asiatic origin, whence, according to Pliny, it was brought to Italy by Lucullus after his defeat of Mithradates, king of Pontus, 68 B.C. As with most plants which have been long and extensively cultivated, it is a matter of difficulty, if not an impossibility, to identify the parent stock of the numerous cultivated varieties of cherry; but they are generally referred to two species: Prunus Cerasus, the wild or dwarf cherry, the origin of the morello, duke and Kentish cherries, and Avium, the gean, the origin of the geans, hearts and bigarreaus. Both species grow wild through Europe and western Asia to the Himalayas, but the dwarf cherry has the more restricted range of the two in Britain, as it does not occur in Scotland and is rare in Ireland. The cherries form a section Cerasus of the genus Prunus; and they have sometimes been separated as a distinct genus from the plums proper; both have a stone-fruit or drupe, but the drupe of the cherry differs from that of the plum in not having a waxy bloom; further, the leaves of the plum are rolled (convolute) in the bud, while those of the cherry are folded (conduplicate).

The cherries are trees of moderate size and shrubs, having smooth, serrate leaves and white flowers. They are natives of the temperate regions of both hemispheres; and the cultivated varieties ripen their fruit in Norway as far as 63° N. The geans are generally distinguished from the common cherry by the greater size of the trees, and the deeper colour and comparative insipidity of the flesh in the ripe fruit, which adheres firmly to the "nut" or stone; but among the very numerous cultivated varieties specific distinctions shade away so that the fruit cannot be ranged under these two heads. The leading varieties are recognized as bigarreaus, dukes, morellos and geans. Several varieties are cultivated as ornamental trees and on account of their flowers.

The cherry is a well-flavoured sub-acid fruit, and is much esteemed for dessert. Some of the varieties are particularly selected for pies, tarts, &c., -and others for the preparation of preserves, and for making cherry brandy. The fruit is also very extensively employed in the preparation of the liqueurs known as kirschwasser, ratafia and maraschino. Kirschwasser is made chiefly on the upper Rhine from the wild black gean, and in the manufacture the entire fruit-flesh and kernels are pulped up and allowed to ferment. By distillation of the fermented pulp the liqueur is obtained in a pure, colourless condition. Ratafia is similarly manufactured, also by preference from a gean. Maraschino, a highly valued liqueur, the best of which is produced at Zara in Dalmatia, differs from these in being distilled from a cherry called marasca, the pulp of which is mixed with honey, honey or sugar being added to the distillate for sweetening. It is also said that the flavour is heightened by the use of the leaves of the perfumed cherry, Prunus Mahaleb, a native of central and southern Europe.

The wood of the cherry tree is valued by cabinetmakers, and that of the gean tree is largely used in the manufacture of tobacco pipes. The American wild cherry, Prunus serotina, is much sought after, its wood being compact, fine-grained, not liable to warp, and susceptible of receiving a brilliant polish. The kernels of the perfumed cherry, P. Mahaleb, are used in confectionery and for scent. A gum exudes from the stem of cherry trees similar in its properties to gum arabic.

The cherry is increased by budding on the wild gean, obtained by sowing the stones of the small black or red wild cherries. To secure very dwarf trees the Prunus Mahaleb has been used for the May duke, Kentish, morello and analogous sorts, but it is not adapted for strong-growing varieties like the bigarreaus. The stocks are budded, or, more rarely, grafted, at the usual seasons. The cherry prefers a free, loamy soil, with a welldrained subsoil. Stiff soils and dry gravelly subsoils are both unsuitable, though the trees require a large amount of moisture, particularly the large-leaved sorts, such as the bigarreaus. For standard trees, the bigarreau section should be planted 30 ft. apart, or more, in rich soil, and the May duke, morello and similar varieties 20 or 25 ft. apart; while, as trained trees against walls and espaliers, from 20 to 24 ft. should be allowed for the former, and from 15 to 20 ft. for the latter. In forming the stems of a standard tree the temporary side-shoots should not be allowed to attain too great a length, and should not be more than two years old when they are cut close to the stem. The first three shoots retained to form the head should be shortened to about 15 in., and two shoots from each encouraged, one at the end, and the other 3 or 4 in. lower down. When these have become established, very little pruning will be required, and that chiefly to keep the principal branches as nearly equal in strength as possible for the first few years. Espalier trees should have the branches about a foot apart, starting from the stem with an upward curve, and then being trained horizontally. In summer pruning the shoots on the upper branches must be shortened at least a week before those on the lower ones. After a year or two clusters of fruit buds will be developed on spurs along the branches, and those spurs will continue productive for an indefinite period. For wall trees any form of training may be adopted; but as the fruit is always finest on young spurs, fan-training is probably the most advantageous. A succession of young shoots should be laid in every year. The morello, which is of twiggy growth and bears on the young wood, must be trained in the fan form, and care should be taken to avoid the very common error of crowding its branches.

Forcing

The cherry will not endure a high temperature nor close atmosphere. A heat of 45° at night will be sufficient at starting, this being gradually increased during the first few weeks to 55°, but lowered again when the blossom buds are about to open. After stoning the temperature may be again gradually raised to 60°, and may go up to 70° by day, or 75° by sun heat, and 60 at night. The best forcing cherries are the May duke and the royal duke, the duke cherries being of more compact growth than the bigarreau tribe and generally setting better; nevertheless a few of the larger kinds, such as bigarreau Napoleon, black tartarian and St Margaret's, should be forced for variety. The trees may be either planted out in tolerably rich soil, or grown in large pots of good turfy friable calcareous loam mixed with rotten dung. If the plants are small, they may be put into 12-in. pots in the first instance, and after a year shifted into 1 5-in. pots early in autumn, and plunged in some loose or even very slightly fermenting material. The soil of the pots should be protected from snow-showers and cold rains. Occasionally trees have been taken up in autumn with balls, potted and forced in the following spring; but those which have been established a year in the pots are to be preferred. Such only as are well furnished with blossom-buds should be selected. The trees should be removed to the forcing house in the beginning of December, if fruit be required very early in the season. During the first and second weeks it may be kept nearly close; but, as vegetation advances, air becomes absolutely necessary during the day, and even at night when the weather will permit. If forcing is commenced about the middle or third week of December, the fruit ought to be ripe by about the end of March. After the fruit is gathered, the trees should be duly supplied with water at the root, and the foliage kept well syringed till the wood is mature. (See also FRUIT AND FLOWER FARMING.)


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also cherry

English

Proper noun

Singular
Cherry

Plural
-

Cherry

  1. A female given name, a pet form of Charity, also interpreted as a flower name.

Quotations

  • 1844 Charles Dickens, Martin Chuzzlewit, Chapter 26:
    'As you knows Mrs Chuzzlewit, you knows, p’raps, what her chris’en name is?' Mrs Gamp observed.
    'Charity,' said Bailey.
    'That it ain’t!' cried Mrs Gamp.
    'Cherry, then,' said Bailey. 'Cherry's short for it. It’s all the same.'

Simple English

Cherry;
File:Cherries
Cherries in an orchard in Summerland, British Columbia
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Prunoideae
Genus: Prunus

Cherry is a fruit that grows on a tree or a bush. It belongs to the genus Prunus. It is usually red, with a seed in the middle. It tastes slightly sour, and is often used to flavour cakes and ice cream, or is baked in a pie or cobbler. Cherries are also a good source of Vitamin B.

Look up Prunus in Wikispecies, a directory of species
mrj:Вишняву

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