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Cheyenne
Cheyenne-portraits.jpg
Cheyenne portraits
Total population
15,672

(Northern: 3,542[1] – Southern: 12,130[2])

Languages

Cheyenne, English

Religion

Christianity, Traditional Ceremonial Ways

Related ethnic groups

Arapaho, Blackfoot, and other Algonquian peoples

Cheyenne are a Native American people of the Great Plains, who are of the Algonquian-language family. The Cheyenne Nation is composed of two united tribes, the Só'taa'e (more commonly as Sutai) and the Tsé-tsêhéstâhese.

The Cheyenne are thought to have branched off other tribes of Algonquian stock around the Great Lakes in present-day Minnesota, perhaps ca. 1500. In historic times they moved west, migrating across the Mississippi River and into North and South Dakota. During the early 19th century, the Cheyenne formed a unified tribe, with more centralized authority through ritual ceremonies and structure than other Plains Indians. Having settled the Black Hills of South Dakota and the Powder River Country of present-day Montana, they introduced the horse culture to Lakota bands about 1730. Allied with the Arapaho, they pushed the Kiowa to the South. In turn they were pushed west by the more numerous Lakota.

In the centuries before European contact, the Cheyenne were at times allied with bands of the Lakota (Sioux) and Arapaho. In the 18th century, they migrated west away from Lakota warriors, but by the next century, bands of Lakota had followed them into the Black Hills and Powder River Country. By the mid-nineteenth century, they were sometimes allied with other Plains tribes.

The Cheyenne are one of the best known of the Plains tribes. The Cheyenne Nation formed into ten bands, spread across the Great Plains, from southern Colorado to the Black Hills in South Dakota. At the same time, they created a centralized structure through ritual ceremonies, such as the Sun Dance. When gathered, the bands leaders met in formal council. Alone among the Plains tribes, they waged war at the tribal level, first against their traditional enemy, the Crow, and later (1856–1879) against US forces. In the mid-19th century, the bands began to split, with some bands choosing to remain near the Black Hills, while others chose to remain near the Platte Rivers of central Colorado.

The Northern Cheyenne, known in Cheyenne either as Notameohmésêhese meaning "Northern Eaters" or simply as Ohmésêhese meaning "Eaters", live in southeast Montana on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation. In the 2000 census, the reservation had a total population of 4,400, with 72.8%, or about 3,250 people, identifying as Cheyenne.

The Southern Cheyenne, known in Cheyenne as Heévâhetane meaning "Roped People", together with the Southern Arapaho, form the federally recognized tribe, the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes, situated in western Oklahoma. Their combined population is 12,130, as of 2008.[2] In 2003, about 8,000 of these identified as Cheyenne. With continued intermarriage, it is difficult to separate the tribes administratively.[3]

Cheyenne lodges with buffalo meat drying, 1870

Contents

Name

The Cheyenne Nation is composed of two united tribes, the Só'taa'e (more commonly as Sutai) and the Tsé-tsêhéstâhese (singular: Tsêhéstáno; more commonly as the Tsitsistas), which translates to "those like us". These two tribes had always traveled together, becoming fully merged sometime after 1831, when they were still noted as having separate camps. The Suhtai were said to have originally had slightly different speech and customs from their traveling companions.[4]

The name "Cheyenne" derives from Dakota Sioux exonym for them, Šahíyena (meaning "little Šahíya"). Though the identity of the Šahíya is not known, many Great Plains tribes assume it means Cree or some other people who spoke an Algonquian language related to Cree and Cheyenne.[5] The Cheyenne word for Ojibwa is "Sáhea'eo'o," a word that sounds similar to the Dakota word Šahíya.

One of the most common etymologies for Cheyenne is "a bit like the [people of an] alien speech" (literally, "red-talker").[6] According to George Bird Grinnell, the Dakota had referred to themselves and fellow Siouan-language bands as "white talkers", and those of other language families, such as the Algonquian Cheyenne, as "red talkers" (Šahíyena).[4]

Language

The Cheyenne of Montana and Oklahoma speak the Cheyenne language, known as tsêhésenêstsestôtse. Only a handful of vocabulary differs between the two locations. The Cheyenne alphabet contains fourteen letters. The Cheyenne language is one of the larger Algonquian-language group.

History

Cheyenne maiden photographed by Edward S. Curtis in 1930.

The earliest known historical record of the Cheyenne comes from the mid-seventeenth century, when a group of Cheyenne visited the French Fort Crevecoeur, near present-day Chicago, Illinois. According to tribal tradition, during the 17th century the Cheyenne were driven by the Ho hé (Assiniboine) from the Great Lakes region to present-day Minnesota and North Dakota, where they established villages. The most prominent of the ancient Cheyenne villages is Biesterfeldt Village, in eastern North Dakota along the Sheyenne River. Tradition tells that they first reached the Missouri River in 1676.[7]

On the Missouri, the Cheyenne came into contact with the neighboring Mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara nations, and they adopted many of their cultural characteristics. They were first of the later Plains tribes into the Black Hills and Powder River Country. About 1730 they introduced the horse to Lakota bands. Conflict with migrating Lakota and Ojibwa nations forced the Cheyenne further west, and they in turn pushed the Kiowa to the south. By 1776 the Lakota had overwhelmed the Cheyenne and taken over much of their territory near the Black Hills. In 1804, the Lewis and Clark visited a surviving Cheyenne village in North Dakota. Such European American explorers learned many different names for the Cheyenne, and did not realize how the different sections were forming a unified tribe.[8]

Despite being an oral culture, the Cheyenne developed a complex centralized authority and ritual ceremonialism that united the tribe. The ten bands had four leaders each, and the forty-four men (Council of Forty-Four) met to deliberate at regular tribal gatherings, centered around the Sun Dance In addition, they developed the ceremony of the Sacred Arrows, which they carried when they waged tribal-level war.[8]

By the mid-19th century, the Cheyenne had mostly abandoned their earlier sedentary agricultural and pottery traditions because of changed conditions. They fully adopted the classic nomadic Plains culture. They replaced their earth lodges with portable tipis and switched their diet from fish and agricultural produce, to mainly bison and wild fruits and vegetables. Having acquired horses, they adopted a nomadic lifestyle, with their range expanding from the upper Missouri River into what is now Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and South Dakota.

19th century and Indian Wars

Migration south

At the beginning of the 19th century, many Cheyenne lived near the Black Hills, but engaged in hunting and trading for horses as far south as the Arkansas River. They may have ranged into Nuevo Mexico for horse-stealing raids. Some bands followed Kiowa and Arapaho to the southern areas. They traded both with the Spanish and with other American Indian tribes, trading goods and materials obtained on the upper Missouri River with those of southern tribes.

As early as 1820, traders and explorers reported contact with Cheyenne at present-day Denver, Colorado and on the Arkansas River. They were probably hunting and trading in that area earlier. They may have migrated to the south to winter. The Hairy Rope band is reputed to have been the first band to move south, capturing wild horses as far south as the Cimarron River Valley.[9]

In addition to endemic warfare with the Assiniboin to the north, and occasional conflict with the Lakota, the Cheyenne warred with the Crow. They suffered a major defeat at their hands in 1819. The following year, they took many Crow prisoners, who were adpted and incorporated into the tribe. Endemic warfare with the Crow, the Ute, and the Pawnee were a regular pattern of Cheyenne life until the 1860s.[10]

Following reports in the 1820s of Cheyenne and other tribes' raids on parties on the Santa Fe Trail, US Army troops were sent out from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas to protect settlers on the trail.[11] In 1834 Charles Bent and his partners established Bent's Fort on the Arkansas River in southeast present-day Colorado. The Bents had been trading on the upper Missouri River but were unsuccessful. As they were good friends with the Cheyenne, they relocated to the Arkansas, where the Cheyenne and Arapaho traded with them.[12]

Treaty of 1825

In the summer of 1825, the tribe was visited on the upper Missouri by a US treaty commission consisting of General Henry Atkinson and Indian agent Benjamin O'Fallon, accompanied by a military escort of 476 men. General Atkinson and his fellow commissioner left Fort Atkinson on May 16, 1825. Ascending the Missouri, they negotiated treaties of friendship and trade with tribes of the upper Missouri, including the Arikara, the Cheyenne, the Crow, the Mandan, the Ponca, and several bands of the Sioux. At that time the US had competition from British traders on the upper Missouri, who came down from Canada.

The treaties acknowledged that the tribes lived within the United States, vowed perpetual friendship between the US and the tribes, and, recognizing the right of the United States to regulate trade, the tribes promised to deal only with licensed traders. The tribes agreed to forswear private retaliation for injuries, and to return or indemnify the owner of stolen horses or other goods. The commission's efforts to contact the Blackfoot and the Assiniboin were unsuccessful. Along their return to Fort Atkinson at the Council Bluff in Nebraska, the commission had successful negotiations with the Ota, the Pawnee and the Omaha.[13]

Effects of the Emigrant Trail

Increased traffic of emigrants along the related Oregon, Mormon and California trails, beginning in the early 1840s, heightened competition with Native Americans for scarce resources of water and game in arid areas. With resource depletion along the trails, the Cheyenne became increasingly divided into the Northern Cheyenne and Southern Cheyenne, where they could have adequate territory for sustenance.

During the California Gold Rush, emigrants brought in cholera. It spread in mining camps and waterways due to poor sanitation. The disease was generally a major cause of death for emigrants, about one-tenth of whom died during their journeys.

Perhaps from traders, the cholera epidemic reached the Plains Indians in 1849, resulting in severe loss of life during the summer of that year. Historians estimate about 2,000 Cheyenne died, one-half to two-thirds of their population. There were significant losses among other tribes as well, which weakened their social structures. Perhaps because of severe loss of trade during the 1849 season, Bent's Fort was abandoned and burned.[14]

Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851

In 1846 Thomas Fitzpatrick was appointed Indian agent for the upper Arkansas and Platte River. His efforts to negotiate with the Northern Cheyenne, the Arapaho and other tribes led to a great council at Fort Laramie in 1851. Treaties were negotiated by a commission consisting of Fitzpatrick and D.D. Mitchell, US Superintendent of Indian Affairs, with the Indians of the northern plains.

In an attempt to reduce inter-tribal warfare on the Plains, the government officials "assigned" territories to each tribe and pledged mutual peace. In addition, the government secured permission to build and maintain roads through Indian country on the Plains, such as the Emigrant Trail and the Santa Fe Trail, and to maintain forts to guard them. The tribes were compensated with annuities of cash and supplies for such encroachment on their territories. The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 affirmed Cheyenne and Arapaho territory on the Great Plains between the North Platte River and the Arkansas. This territory included what is now Colorado, east of the Front Range of the Rockies and north of the Arkansas River; Wyoming and Nebraska, south of the North Platte River; and extreme western Kansas.[15]

Punitive expedition of 1857

In April 1856, an incident at the Platte River Bridge (near present-day Casper, Wyoming), resulted in the wounding of a Cheyenne warrior. He returned to the Cheyenne on the plains. During the summer of 1856, Indians attacked travelers along the Emigrant Trail near Fort Kearny. In retaliation, the US Cavalry attacked a Cheyenne camp on Grand Island in Nebraska. They killed ten Cheyenne warriors and wounded eight or more.

Cheyenne parties attacked at least three emigrant settler parties before returning to the Republican River. The Indian agent at Fort Laramie negotiated with the Cheyenne to reduce hostilities. But, the Secretary of War ordered the 1st Cavalry Regiment (1855) to carry out a punitive expedition under the command of Colonel Edwin V. Sumner. He went against the Cheyenne in the spring of 1857. Major John Sedgwick led part of the expedition up the Arkansas, and via Fountain Creek to the South Platte River. Sumner's command went west along the North Platte to Fort Laramie, then down along the Front Range to the South Platte. The combined force of 400 troops went east through the plains searching for Cheyenne.[16][17][18]

Under the influence of the medicine man White Bull (also called Ice, and Dark or Grey Beard), the Cheyenne went into battle believing that strong spiritual medicine would prevent the soldiers' guns from firing. When the encounter came on the Solomon River, US troops charged with drawn sabers; the Cheyenne fled from that. This was the first battle which the Cheyenne fought against the US Army. Casualties were few on either side. The troops continued on and two days later burned a hastily abandoned Cheyenne camp, where they destroyed lodges and the winter supply of buffalo meat.[17][18][19]

Sumner continued to Bent's Fort. To punish the Cheyenne, he distributed their annuities to the Arapaho. He intended further punitive actions, but was ordered to Utah because of an outbreak of trouble with the Mormons. (This became known as the Utah War.) The Cheyenne moved below the Arkansas into Kiowa and Comanche country. In the fall the Northern Cheyenne returned to their country north of the Platte.[17][19][20]

The Pikes Peak Gold Rush

Starting in 1859 with the Colorado Gold Rush, European-American settlers moved into lands reserved for the Cheyenne and other Plains Indians. Travel greatly increased along the Emigrant Trail along the South Platte River and some emigrants stopped before going on to California. For several years there was peace between settlers and Indians. The only conflicts were related to the endemic warfare between the Cheyenne and Arapaho of the plains and the Utes of the mountains.

US negotiations with Black Kettle and other Cheyenne favoring peace resulted in the Treaty of Fort Wise: it established a small reservation for the Cheyenne in southeastern Colorado in exchange for the territory agreed to in the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851. Many Cheyenne did not sign the treaty, and they continued to live and hunt on their traditional grounds in the Smokey Hill and Republican basins, between the Arkansas and the South Platte, where there were plentiful buffalo. Efforts to made a wider peace continued, but in the spring of 1864, John Evans, governor of Colorado Territory, and John Chivington, commander of the Colorado Volunteers, a citizens militia, began a series of attacks on Indians camping or hunting on the plains. They killed any Indian on sight and initiated the Colorado War. General warfare broke out and Indians made many raids on the trail along the South Platte which Denver depended on for supplies. The Army closed the road from August 15 until September 24, 1864.[21]

Dull Knife (Cheyenne: Vóóhéhéve or Lakota: Tamílapéšni), Chief of Northern Cheyennes at Battle of Little Bighorn

On November 29, 1864, the Colorado Militia attacked a Cheyenne and Arapaho encampment under Chief Black Kettle, although it flew a flag of truce and indicated its allegiance to the US government. The Sand Creek massacre, as it was known, resulted in the death of between 150 and 200 Cheyenne, mostly unarmed women and children. The survivors fled northeast and joined the camps of the Cheyenne on the Smokey Hill and Republican rivers. There warriors smoked the war pipe, passing it from camp to camp among the Sioux, Cheyenne and Arapaho. They planned and carried out an attack with about 1000 warriors on the stage station and fort, Camp Rankin at Julesburg, in January 1865. The Indians then made numerous raids along the South Platte, both east and west of Julesburg, and a second raid on Julesburg in early February. They captured much loot and killed many European Americans. Most of the Indians moved north into Nebraska on their way to the Black Hills and the Powder River.[22]

Black Kettle continued to desire peace. He did not join in the second raid or in the plan to go north to the Powder River country. He left the large camp and returned to the Arkansas River with 80 lodges, where he intended to seek peace.[23]

Battle of Washita River

Buffalo Hunter Ralph Morrison who was killed and scalped December 7, 1868 near Fort Dodge Kansas by Cheyennes. Lt. Read of the 3rd Infantry and John O. Austin in background. Photograph by William S. Soule. An original print and story can be found at [24]

Four years later, on November 27, 1868, George Armstrong Custer and his troops attacked Black Kettle's band at the Battle of Washita River. Although his band was camped on a defined reservation, complying with the government's orders, some of its members were linked to raiding into Kansas by bands operating out of the Indian Territory. Custer and his men killed more than 100 Cheyenne, mostly women and children.

There are conflicting claims as to whether the band was hostile or friendly. Historians believe that Chief Black Kettle, head of the band, was not part of the war party within the Plains tribes. He did not command absolute authority over members of his band. When younger members of the band took part in raiding parties, European Americans thought the whole band was implicated.

Battle of the Little Bighorn

The Northern Cheyenne fought in the Battle of the Little Bighorn, which took place on June 25, 1876. Together with Lakota and a small band of Arapaho, the Cheyenne killed Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer and much of his 7th Cavalry contingent of Army soldiers. Historians have estimated the population of the Cheyenne, Lakota and Arapaho encampment along the Little Bighorn River was approximately 10,000, making it one of the largest gatherings of Native Americans in North America in pre-reservation times. News of the event traveled across the United States and reached Washington, D.C., just as the nation was celebrating its Centennial. Public reaction arose in outrage against the Cheyenne.

Northern Cheyenne Exodus

Little Coyote (Little Wolf) and Morning Star (Dull Knife), Chiefs of the Northern Cheyennes

Following the Battle of the Little Bighorn, the US Army increased attempts to capture the Cheyenne. In 1877, after the Dull Knife Fight, when Crazy Horse surrendered at Fort Robinson, a few Cheyenne chiefs and their people surrendered as well. The Cheyenne chiefs who surrendered at the fort were Dull Knife, Little Wolf, Standing Elk, and Wild Hog, with nearly 1,000 Cheyenne. Later that year Two Moon surrendered at Fort Keogh with 300 Cheyenne. The Cheyenne wanted and expected to live on the reservation with the Sioux in accordance to an April 29, 1868 treaty of Fort Laramie, which both Dull Knife and Little Wolf had signed.[25]

Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie and his Fourth Cavalry were transferred to the Department of the Platte as part of an increase in troops following the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Stationed initially at Camp Robinson, they formed the core of the Powder River Expedition. It departed in October 1876 to locate the northern Cheyenne villages. On November 25, 1876, his column discovered and defeated a village of Northern Cheyenne in the Dull Knife Fight in Wyoming Territory. Their lodges and supplies destroyed and their horses confiscated, the Northern Cheyenne soon surrendered. They hoped to remain with the Sioux in the north. The US pressured them to locate on the reservation of the Southern Cheyenne in Indian Territory. After a difficult council, they eventually agree to go.

When the Northern Cheyenne arrived at Indian Territory, conditions were very difficult: rations were inadequate, no buffalo survived near the reservation, and, according to several sources, there was malaria. Desperate, in the fall of 1878, a portion of the Northern Cheyenne, led by Little Wolf and Dull Knife, attempted to return to the the north. Upon reaching the northern area, they split into two bands. That led by Dull Knife was imprisoned in an unheated barracks at Fort Robinson without food or water. Escaping on January 9, 1879, many died in the Fort Robinson tragedy. Eventually the Northern Cheyenne were granted a reservation, the Northern Cheyenne Reservation in southern Montana.[26][27][28]

Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation

Northern Cheyenne Indian Nation flag

The Cheyenne who traveled to Fort Keogh (present day Miles City, Montana), including Little Wolf, settled near the fort.[25] Many of the Cheyenne worked with the army as scouts. The Cheyenne scouts were pivotal in helping the Army find Chief Joseph and his band of Nez Percé in northern Montana. Fort Keogh became a staging and gathering point for the Northern Cheyenne. Many families began to migrate south to the Tongue River watershed area, where they established homesteads. The US established the Tongue River Indian Reservation, now named the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, of 371,200 acres by the executive order of President Chester A. Arthur November 16, 1884. It excluded Cheyenne who had homesteaded further east near the Tongue River. Those people were served by the St. Labres Catholic Mission. The western boundary is the Crow Indian Reservation. On March 19, 1900, President William McKinley extended the reservation to the west bank of the Tongue River, making a total of 444,157 acres. Those who had homesteaded east of the Tongue River were relocated to the west of the river.[29] The Northern Cheyenne sharing land of the Lakota at Pine Ridge Reservation were finally allowed to return to the Tongue River on their own reservation. Along with the Lakota and Apache, the Cheyenne were the last nations to be subdued and placed on reservations. (The Seminole tribe of Florida never made a treaty with the US government.)

The Northern Cheyenne earned their right to remain in the north near the Black Hills, land they considered sacred. The Cheyenne also managed to retain their culture, religion and language. Today, the Northern Cheyenne Nation is one of the few American Indian nations to have control over the majority of its land base, currently 98%.

Culture

A Cheyenne sun dance gathering, c. 1909.
Cheyenne courting scenes, by Big Back, before 1882

Over the past 400 years, the Cheyenne have gone through four stages of culture. First they lived in the Eastern Woodlands and were a sedentary and agricultural people, planting corn, squash beans, and harvesting wild rice. Next they lived in present-day Minnesota and South Dakota and continued their farming tradition. They started hunting bison of the Great Plains. During the third stage, the Cheyenne abandoned their farming lifestyle and became a full-fledged Plains horse culture tribe. The fourth stage is the reservation phase.

The traditional Cheyenne government system is a politically unified North American indigenous nation. Most other nations were divided into politically autonomous bands, whereas the Cheyenne bands were politically unified. The central traditional government system of the Cheyenne was the "Council of Forty-Four." The name denotes the number of seated chiefs on the council. Each of the ten bands had four seated chief delegates; the remaining four chiefs were the principal advisers of the other delegates. This system also regulated the Cheyenne military societies that developed for planning warfare, enforcing rules, and conducting ceremonies. By the time the Cheyenne reached the Great Plains, they had developed this government.

Anthropologists debate about Cheyenne society organization. When the Cheyenne were fully adapted to the classic Plains culture, they had a bi-lateral band kinship system. However, some anthropologists reported that the Cheyenne had a matrilineal band system. Studies into whether the Cheyenne developed a matrilineal clan system are inconclusive.

Traditional Cheyenne plains culture

As they abandoned their agricultural villages near the Missouri River and acquired horses, the Cheyenne adopted the Plains Indian culture. In this nomadic life, the men hunted[30] and fought with and raided[31] other tribes. The women dressed and tanned hides for food, clothing, shelter and other uses.[31] and gathered roots, berries and other useful plants,[32] From the products of hunting and gathering, they made lodges, clothing, and other equipment.[33] Their lives were active and physically demanding.[34] The range of the Cheyenne was first the area in and near the Black Hills, but later all the Great Plains from Dakota to the Arkansas River.

Role models

A Cheyenne woman has higher status if she is part of an extended family with distinguished ancestors and gets on well with her female relatives; does not have members in her extended family who are alcoholics or otherwise in disrepute; is hardworking, chaste and modest; is skilled in traditional crafts; knowledgeable about Cheyenne culture and history and speaks Cheyenne fluently. A young woman with these characteristics would have an advantage in a Powwow Princess competition.[35]

Notable Cheyenne

See also

Notes

  1. ^ As of 1990, according to Pritzker, 308
  2. ^ a b Oklahoma Indian Affairs. Oklahoma Indian Nations Pocket Pictorial Directory. 2008:7
  3. ^ "Cheyenne, Southern", Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, accessed 10 Mar 2020
  4. ^ a b Grinnell, The Fighting Cheyenne, p. 2.
  5. ^ "What is the origin of the word "Cheyenne"?". Cheyenne Language Web Site. 2002-03-03. http://www.geocities.com/cheyenne_language/origin.htm. Retrieved September 21, 2007. 
  6. ^ Bright, William (2004). Native American Place Names of the United States. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, pg. 95
  7. ^ Grinnell, The Fighting Cheyenne, p. 1-8.
  8. ^ a b Liberty, Dr. Margot. "Cheyenne Primacy: The Tribes' Perspective As Opposed To That Of The United States Army; A Possible Alternative To "The Great Sioux War Of 1876". Friends of the Little Bighorn. http://www.friendslittlebighorn.com/cheyenneprimacy.htm. Retrieved 13 January 2008. 
  9. ^ Berthrong, pp. 13-21
  10. ^ Berthrong, p. 17
  11. ^ Berthrong, p. 23
  12. ^ Berthrong, pp. 24-26
  13. ^ Page 143, Francis Paul Prucha, American Indian treaties: the history of a political anomaly, University of California Press (March 15, 1997), trade paperback, 562 pages ISBN 0520208951 ISBN 978-0520208957
  14. ^ Berthrong, pp. 113-114
  15. ^ Berthrong, pp. 106-123
  16. ^ Berthrong, pp. 133-140
  17. ^ a b c Grinnell, The Fighting Cheyenne, pp. 111-121
  18. ^ a b Hyde, pp. 99-105
  19. ^ a b Berthrong, pp. 133 to 140
  20. ^ Hyde, pp. 99 to 105
  21. ^ Grinnell, The Fighting Cheyenne, pp. 124 to 158
  22. ^ Hyde, pp. 168 to 195
  23. ^ Grinnell, The Fighting Cheyenne, p. 188
  24. ^ [1]
  25. ^ a b Brown, pp. 332-349
  26. ^ Brown, pp.332-349.
  27. ^ Grinnell, The Fighting Cheyenne, pp. 398-427
  28. ^ In Dull Knife's Wake: The True Story of the Northern Cheyenne Exodus of 1878 by Maddux Albert Glenn, Horse Creek Publications (October 20, 2003), trade paperback, 224 pages, ISBN 0972221719 ISBN 978-0972221719
  29. ^ "WE, THE NORTHERN CHEYENNE PEOPLE: Our Land, Our History, Our Culture", Chief Dull Knife College. Page 30. Accessed September 20, 2009
  30. ^ Grinnell, The Cheyenne Indians, Vol. 1, pp. 258-311
  31. ^ a b Grinnell, The Cheyenne Indians, Vol. 2, pp. 1-57
  32. ^ Grinnell, The Cheyenne Indians, Vol. 1, pp. 247-311
  33. ^ Grinnell, The Cheyenne Indians, Vol. 1, 209-246
  34. ^ Grinnell, The Cheyenne Indians, Vol. 1, pp. 63-71, 127-129, 247-311
  35. ^ Moore, pp. 154-156

References

  • Berthrong, Donald J. The Southern Cheyenne. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1963.
  • Brown, Dee. Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970. ISBN 0805017305.
  • Bourke, John G. Mackenzie’s Last Fight with the Cheyenne. New York: Argonaut Press, 1966.
  • Grinnell, George Bird. The Fighting Cheyenne. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1956. (original copyright 1915, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons). ISBN 0-87928-075-1.
  • Grinnell, George Bird. The Cheyenne Indians: Their History and Ways of Life. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1923. 2 volumes; trade paperback, reprints: The Cheyenne Indians, Vol. 1: History and Society, Bison Books, 1972. ISBN 978-0803257719; The Cheyenne Indians, Vol. 2: War, Ceremonies, and Religion, Bison Books, 1972. ISBN 978-0803257726.
  • Hyde, George E. Life of George Bent: Written From His Letters, ed. Savoie Lottinville, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1968. Reprint, trade paperback, March 1983. ISBN 978-0806115771
  • Moore, John H. (1996). The Cheyenne. The peoples of America. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 9781557864840. OCLC 34412067. http://books.google.com/books?id=R2mGnzKF3uQC. 
  • Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0195138771.

External links

Cheyenne edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Cheyenne [1] is the state capital and largest city (2005 pop. 55,731) of Wyoming. Cheyenne was founded in 1867 by Major General Grenville Dodge, the chief engineer of the Union Pacific Railroad. In 1869, Cheyenne became the capital of the Territory of Wyoming. It became the state capital in 1890.

Get in

By car

Cheyenne is located at the crossroads of Interstates 80 and 25 in southeastern Wyoming, about 40 miles west of the Nebraska border, 180 miles south of Casper, 50 miles east of Laramie, and 8 miles north of the Colorado border.

Cheyenne is 90 miles directly north of Denver. The trip takes approximately 1 ½ hours, depending on Denver traffic. Cheyenne has no traffic problems.

By plane

Denver International Airport [2] (IATA: DEN) is the closest major airport to Cheyenne. Rental cars are available at the airport. Shamrock Airport Express [3] has shuttles from the airport to Cheyenne with drop-offs at the Holiday Inn and the Best Western Hitching Post, via the Harmony Transfer Center in Fort Collins, Colorado.

For the adventurous, small 15-seat prop planes fly from Denver International Airport to the Cheyenne Regional Airport [4] (IATA: CYS). The flight is not recommended for those with weak stomachs or those who hate roller coaster rides. However, if you would like both an aisle and a window seat you are in luck. Great Lakes Airlines [5] operates the 40 minute flights (about 20 minutes of actual flying time) and code shares with Frontier [6] and United [7].

Alternatively, Allegiant Air [8] serves Fort Collins (about 47 miles south of Cheyenne and 61 miles north of Denver) from Las Vegas.

Get around

Cheyenne is pretty good when it comes to getting around-with good car and bikeways not to mention its own public transportation system, [9], getting around in Cheyenne is easy.

  • State Capitol Building [10] Capitol Ave. & 24th St.(307) 777-7220 - Completed in 1888 before Wyoming was a state, the Wyoming State Capitol is a National Historic Landmark and the dominant structure on the Cheyenne skyline. The Capitol is open to the public 8am-5pm Monday – Friday.
  • Wyoming State Museum 2301 Central Ave. (307) 777-7022 - Features artifacts, various collections and gift shop, full of souvenirs and Wyoming books. 9am-4:30pm M-Sa.
  • Union Pacific Railroad Depot 121 W. 15th Street,(307) 632-3905 - Recently renovated National Historic Landmark, home to the Cheyenne Depot Museum [11], a visitor center, and Shadow's Pub & Grill [12]. The plaza in front of the depot hosts concerts and other events during the summer.
  • Old West Museum & Store [13] 4610 North Carey Avenue (307) 778-7290 - Located in Frontier Park on the grounds of Cheyenne Frontier Days [14], the historic rodeo called the “Daddy of ‘em All”®. Includes a large display of horse-drawn carriages and exhibits on the history of the CFD rodeo which was established in 1897.
  • Nelson Museum of the West [15] 1714 Carey Ave. (307) 635-7670 - Western museum with 11,000 square feet of exhibits, including Indian artifacts, cowboy trappings, 19th century weapons and outlaw memorabilia. Open May 1-Oct. 31. 9am-4:30pm M-F.
  • Historic Governors' Mansion [16] 300 East 21st Street, (307) 777-7878 - Home to Wyoming governors from 1905 to 1976. Open 9am-5pm Tuesday – Saturday. No charge.
  • Big Boy Steam Engine 17th St & Morrie Ave. (Holliday Park) - This powerful coal-fired engine was designed to pull a 3600-ton train over steep grades between Cheyenne and Ogden, Utah. The 4004 is one of eight remaining Big Boys on display throughout the country.
  • Cheyenne Botanic Gardens [17] 710 S. Lions Park Dr. (307) 637-6458 - Includes diverse flora and a greenhouse conservatory. The grounds are also home to Historic Locomotive 1242 and the Western Walkway, connecting the Gardens to the Old West Museum. 8:00am-4:30pm M-F, 11am-3:30pm Sa-Su. No charge.
  • Cheyenne Frontier Days [18] - World's largest outdoor rodeo & Western celebration that takes place the "Last Full Week in July"™. This historic rodeo was established in 1897 and is called the “Daddy of ‘em All”®. Events include numerous rodeo events, free pancake breakfasts, night-time concerts, and parades.
  • Historic Trolley Tours - 121 W. 15th Street(800) 426-5009 - Narrated, 90-minute tours of historic Cheyenne. Purchase tickets in the Depot and tours leave from the Depot Plaza. $10 adults/$5 children. There is also a horse-drawn carriage tour option.
  • Terry Bison Ranch [19] 51 I-25 Service Road, (307) 634-4171 - Located 7 miles south of Cheyenne off I-25, this ranch is home to more than 2,000 bison. Take a tour through the herd from the safety of a vehicle. The ranch also has “horses, longhorn steer, camels, llamas, ostriches, emu, chickens, turkeys, turkins (1/2 turkey-1/2 chicken), peacocks, donkeys, goats, and beefalo (1/2 buffalo-1/2 steer).”
  • Frontier Mall [20] Conveniently located near Cheyenne Regional Airport and anchored by Dillard's, JCPenney, Sears, Sports Authority, a nine-screen movie theatre, and a buffet.
  • The Egg & I [21], breakfast. (Chain, Downtown).
  • Silver Mine Subs, sub sandwiches. (Local Chain, $6 per person, South Greeley Highway)
  • Capitol Grille [22], 1600 Central Avenue. (Gourmet restaurant located in the historic Plains Hotel, not a budget choice).
  • Shadow's Pub & Grill [23], 115 W 15th Street. (Located inside the historic Union Pacific Depot, includes microbrewery).
  • Poor Richard’s [24], 2233 E. Lincolnway. (Fine dining specializing in steaks and seafood).
  • Sanford’s Grub & Pub, 115 E. 17th Street (Eclectic décor with a huge menu. Look for the back-end of a pickup truck hanging over the entrance).
  • Sagebrush Sandwich Co, 102 E. 19th Street (Small shop, great chili).
  • Good Friend's Chinese Restaurant, 507 Lincolnway. (Serves Chinese and Japanese).
  • Taco John’s [25], 2220 Carey Avenue. (Why fast food? The chain is headquartered in Cheyenne.)
  • The Albany [26], The Albany Restaurant Bar.
  • Best Western Hitching Post Inn Resort & Conference Center [27], 1700 W Lincoln Way, +1 307 638-3301, Fax: +1 307 778-7194.
  • Fairfield Inn Cheyenne [28], 1415 Stillwater Avenue, +1 307 637-4070, Fax: +1 307 637-4070.
  • Holiday Inn [29], 204 West Fox Farm Road, +1 307 638-4466.
  • Holiday Inn Express Hotel & Suites [30], 1741 Fleischli Parkway, +1 307 433-0751.
  • Motel 6, 1735 Westland Road [31], +1 307 635-6806, Fax: +1 307 638-3017.
  • Little America Hotel & Resort [32], 2800 Lincolnway, +1 307 775-8400.
  • Historic Plains Hotel [33], 1600 Central Ave, +1 307 638-3311.
  • The Cheyenne Motel, 1601 E. Lincolnway (1 Mile East of Downtown on Lincolnway), 307-632-4834, [34]. checkin: 3:00; checkout: 10:30. The Cheyenne Motel is a small, quiet establishment with affordable Nightly and Weekly rates. At The Cheyenne Motel you get friendly service, attentive staff, and low rates you just cant get at the larger chain motels. $40 and up. (41.14,-104.80) edit

Get out

Despite also being in Wyoming, Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks are hundreds of miles away on the opposite side of this fairly large state. Fort Collins, Colorado is only 44 miles to the south.

Routes through Cheyenne
CasperDouglas  N noframe S  Fort CollinsDenver
Rock SpringsLaramie  W noframe E  PaxtonNorth Platte
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

There is more than one meaning of Cheyenne discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia. We are planning to let all links go to the correct meaning directly, but for now you will have to search it out from the list below by yourself. If you want to change the link that led you here yourself, it would be appreciated.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia

Proper noun

Cheyenne (plural: Cheyenne or Cheyennes)

  1. A member of the Cheyenne tribe.
  2. A western member of the Algonquian branch of the Algic language family. Cheyenne is spoken in Oklahoma and on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation in Montana. There are currently (2005) approximately 1,200 Cheyenne-speakers in Montana and 500 in Oklahoma.
  3. The capital of the State of Wyoming.
  4. A female given name, A male given name of modern American usage.

Translations

External links








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