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.Childbirth (also called labour, birth, partus or parturition) is the culmination of a human pregnancy or gestation period with the birth of one or more newborn infants from a woman's uterus.^ Sponsored Results www.ivillage.com Childbirth Childbirth (also called labour , birth , partus or parturition ) is the culmination of a human pregnancy or gestation period with the delivery of one or more newborn infants from a woman 's uterus .
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The meetings in Tarragona, and subsequent meetings in London and Paris have resulted in the creation of a European Preterm Labour Group of investigators to cement collaboration and publicise the need to invest research funds into a better understanding of human parturition and preterm labour, so that most women can benefit from a successful pregnancy and a healthy newborn.
  • Overview. Preterm labour: mechanisms and management 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Water birth is an option chosen by some women for pain relief during labor and childbirth, and some studies have shown waterbirth in an uncomplicated pregnancy to reduce the need for analgesia, without evidence of increased risk to mother or newborn.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The process of normal human childbirth is categorized in three stages of labour: the shortening and dilation of the cervix, descent and birth of the infant, and birth of the placenta.^ The process of human childbirth is categorized in three stages of labour: the shortening and dilation of the cervix, descent and delivery of the infant, and delivery of the placenta.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The stages of normal human birth .
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sculpted Leg Muscles The Three Stages of Childbirth The normal childbirth process has three stages.

[1] .In many cases, with an increasing rate of frequency, childbirth is achieved through caesarean section, the removal of the neonate through a surgical incision in the abdomen, rather than through vaginal birth.^ Overall, family involvement is receiving increased attention by the healthcare systems, and many hospitals now offer birthing rooms and maternity centers to help the entire family.
  • Childbirth - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment 20 September 2009 6:38 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Twice as many women who deliver by cesarean require rehospitalization as women having normal vaginal birth"[11] Hazards of elective repeat c-sections include twice the risk of death than compared to vaginal birth, ectopic pregnancies, three times the risk of placental abruption and placenta previa.
  • MySpace - Physiological childbirth - 27 - Female - MICHIGAN - myspace.com/normalchildbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "natural" mortality rate of childbirth—where nothing is done to avert maternal death—has been estimated as being between 1,000 and 1,500 deaths per 100,000 births.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] In the US and Canada it represents nearly 1 in 3 (31.8%) and 1 in 4 (22.5%) of all childbirths, respectively.[3][4]

Contents

Signs and symptoms

.Labour is accompanied by intense and prolonged pain.^ Secondary inertia arises after prolonged second-stage labour, and may be associated with obstructive dystocia, muscle fatigue, or excessive pain.
  • feline parturition 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.fabcats.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pain levels reported by labouring women vary widely.^ Pain levels reported by labouring women vary widely.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some women report stronger, more painful contractions when their labor is induced with Pitocin.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The duration of labour varies widely, but active phase averages some 8 hours for women giving birth to their first child ("primiparae") and 4 hours for women who have already given birth ("multiparae").
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pain levels seem to be influenced by fear and anxiety levels, experience with prior childbirth, cultural ideas of childbirth and pain[5][6], mobility during labour and the support given during labour.^ Pain levels seem to be influenced by fear and anxiety levels, experience with prior childbirth, cultural ideas of childbirth and pain, mobility during labour and the support given during labour.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He seems to deny that doctors ever supported pain-relieving drugs for fame or monetary gain, which I have difficulty believing.
  • Elena Greene's Notes on History of Pregnancy and Childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.elenagreene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some women experience orgasm during childbirth.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One study found that middle-eastern women, especially those with a low educational background, had more painful experiences during childbirth.^ Some women experience orgasm during childbirth.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pain is only one factor of many influencing women's experience with the process of childbirth.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She is also a nurse and childbirth educator with more than 30 years experience.

[7]
.Pain is only one factor of many influencing women's experience with the process of childbirth.^ Pain is only one factor of many influencing women's experience with the process of childbirth.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Childbirth is a natural process, and it, too, varies among women.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While many women experience joy, relief, and elation upon the birth of their child, some women report symptoms compatible with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after birth.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A systematic review of 137 studies found that personal expectations, the amount of support from caregivers, quality of the caregiver-patient relationship, and involvement in decisionmaking are more important in women's overall satisfaction with the experience of childbirth than are other factors such as age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, preparation, physical environment, pain, immobility, or medical interventions.^ Pain is only one factor of many influencing women's experience with the process of childbirth.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A systematic review of 137 studies found that personal expectations, the amount of support from caregivers, quality of the caregiver-patient relationship, and involvement in decisionmaking are more important in women's overall satisfaction with the experience of childbirth than are other factors such as age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, preparation, physical environment, pain, immobility, or medical interventions.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With more than 14,000 deliveries, his practice maintains a cesarean section rate of less than 10 percent, an episiotomy rate of less than one percent (compared to nearly 35 percent nationally) and virtually no need for pain medications or I.V. fluids.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[8]

Descriptions

.Pain in contractions has been described as feeling like a very strong menstrual cramp.^ A very strong contraction cannot be indented and will feel as hard as the forehead.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The contractions become very strong, are two to three minutes apart, and last 60 – 90 seconds.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PM Still painless contractions but feels like my whole rib cage/back is in a vice that keeps pulling tighter and tighter.
  • A Much Better Blog » Unassisted Childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC blog.amuchbetterway.com [Source type: General]

.Midwives often encourage refraining from screaming but recommend moaning and grunting to relieve some pain.^ In some countries of Europe , doctors commonly prescribe inhaled nitrous oxide gas for pain control; in the UK , midwives may use this gas without a doctor's prescription.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Crowning will feel like intense stretching and burning. .Even women who show little reaction to labor pains often show a reaction to crowning.^ Most women who choose this path of letting nature take its course are aware that a little bit of pain and discomfort are an intrinsic part of giving birth.
  • Herbal Remedies for Natural Childbirth Pain Relief 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some women report stronger, more painful contractions when their labor is induced with Pitocin.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I knew I had to share what I had learnt with other women who may be feeling the pain, stress and anxiety of pregnancy and child birth.

[citation needed]

Psychological

.Childbirth can be an intense event and strong emotions, both positive and negative, can be brought to the surface.^ Childbirth can be an intense event and strong emotions, both positive and negative, can be brought to the surface.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our attachments to our mothers are also very strong, and her experiences as a part of childbirth can have a strong emotional bond with her as well.
  • Enemas & Childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.lifeknox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Enemas & Childbirth 20 September 2009 6:38 UTC www.lifeknox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While many women experience joy, relief, and elation upon the birth of their child, some women report symptoms compatible with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after birth.^ While many women experience joy, relief, and elation upon the birth of their child, some women report symptoms compatible with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after birth.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Posted by ross under Child Birth .
  • Pregnancy - Tips while you are Giving Birth to a Child | Pregnancy Complications and Defects 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.pregnancychildbirth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water birth is an option chosen by some women for pain relief during labor and childbirth, and some studies have shown waterbirth in an uncomplicated pregnancy to reduce the need for analgesia, without evidence of increased risk to mother or newborn.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Between 70 and 80% of mothers in the United States report some feelings of sadness or "baby blues" after childbirth.^ Between 70 and 80% of mothers in the United States report some feelings of sadness or "baby blues" after childbirth.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Country Music Television announced Monday that it will pay $50,000 to the mother of the first baby born in the United States during the Labor Day Weekend (get it?

^ "With 4 million U.S. births annually, a single percentage point represents about 40,000 mothers and babies per year," the report authors say.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.Postpartum depression may develop in some women; about 10% of mothers in the United States are diagnosed with this condition.^ Postpartum depression may develop in some women; about 10% of mothers in the United States are diagnosed with this condition.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women should not have to put up with unnecessary pain for the sake of some fuzzy-minded principle about what's "natural."
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ C-section rates in the United States have increased 50% in the last 10 years.
  • MySpace - Physiological childbirth - 27 - Female - MICHIGAN - myspace.com/normalchildbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Abnormal and persistent fear of childbirth is known as tokophobia.^ Abnormal and persistent fear of childbirth is known as tokophobia .
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Preventive group therapy has proven effective as a prophylactic treatment for postpartum depression.^ The contractual obligation album the cost effectiveness domestic vilence prevention the coastal group in whiteville nc.
  • We show you how to find the cheapest....... 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC cex.c0.pl [Source type: General]

^ Rabbi Baruch and Michal Finkelstein for www.aish.com Excerpted from Delivery from Darkness, A Jewish guide to prevention and treatment of postpartum depression.

[9]
.Childbirth is stressful for the infant.^ Childbirth can be stressful for the infant.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to the normal stress of leaving the protected uterine environment, additional stresses associated with breech birth, such as asphyxiation, may affect the infant's brain.^ Stresses associated with breech birth , such as asphyxiation , may affect the infant's brain.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pethidine (with or without promethazine ) may be used early in labour, as well as other opioids , but if given too close to birth there is a risk of respiratory depression in the infant.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Conditions such as toxemia and gestational diabetes may also warrant an induction to protect the health of both the mother and the baby.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Normal human birth

Mechanism of vaginal birth

.Because humans are bipedal with an erect stance and have, in relation to the size of the pelvis, the biggest head of any mammalian species, human fetuses and human female pelvises are adapted to make birth possible.^ Because humans are bipedal with an erect stance and humans have relatively the biggest head and shoulders to the size of the pelvis of any species, humans fetuses are adapted to make birth possible.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other mammals do not have the large heads we do in relation to our body size, and if they do, they have larger pelvises.
  • Enemas & Childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.lifeknox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Enemas & Childbirth 20 September 2009 6:38 UTC www.lifeknox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the traditional history of home labour that makes The Netherlands an attractive site for studies related to birth.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The erect posture causes the weight of the abdominal contents to thrust on the pelvic floor, a complex structure which must not only support this weight but allow three channels to pass through it: the urethra, the vagina and the rectum.^ The erect posture causes the weight of the abdominal contents to thrust on the pelvic floor, a complex structure which must not only support this weight but allow three channels to pass through it: the urethra, the vagina and the rectum.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to insert the intravaginal anchoring device, the flange portions are retracted and the device is passed through the vulva and into the vagina.
  • Intravaginal parturition alarm and method for use - Patent 4651137 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This sensation is caused by the baby's head in the vagina pressing against the rectum and indicates that delivery is imminent.
  • Emergency Child Birth Instructions and Pictures 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.med-help.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The relatively large head and shoulders require a specific sequence of maneuvers to occur for the bony head and shoulders to pass through the bony ring of the pelvis.^ The relatively large head and shoulders require a specific sequence of manoeuvres to occur for the bony head and shoulders to pass through the bony ring of the pelvis.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because humans are bipedal with an erect stance and humans have relatively the biggest head and shoulders to the size of the pelvis of any species, humans fetuses are adapted to make birth possible.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The vacuum extractor is not as likely as forceps to injure the mother, and it leaves more room for the baby to pass through the pelvis.
  • Childbirth - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment 20 September 2009 6:38 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A failure of these maneuvers results in a longer and more painful labor and can even arrest labor entirely.^ These stronger contractions are also more painful.
  • Childbirth - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment 20 September 2009 6:38 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Epidural analgesia is a safe and effective method of relieving pain in labour, but is associated with longer labour, more operative intervention (particularly instrument delivery), and increases in cost.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But today hospital-based classes tend to focus more on a tour of hospital facilities rather than techniques to cope with labor pain.
  • The End of Childbirth 101? - Well Blog - NYTimes.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC well.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

All changes in the soft tissues of the cervix and the birth canal are entirely dependent on the successful completion of these six maneuvers:
.
  1. Engagement of the fetal head in the transverse position.^ All changes in the soft tissues of the cervix and the birth canal are entirely dependent on the successful completion of these six maneuvers: Engagement of the fetal head in the transverse position.
    • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The baby is looking across the pelvis at one or other of the mother's hips.
  2. Descent and flexion of the fetal head
  3. Internal rotation.^ The baby is looking across the pelvis at one or other of the mother's hips.
    • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Descent and flexion of the fetal head Internal rotation .
    • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Most babies' heads enter the pelvis facing to one side, and then rotate to face down.
    • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

    .The fetal head rotates 90 degrees to the occipito-anterior position so that the baby's face is towards the mother's rectum.
  4. Delivery by extension.^ Position the mother as usual, and prepare her for delivery as usual.
    • Emergency Child Birth Instructions and Pictures 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.med-help.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sometimes, a baby will be facing up, towards the mother's abdomen.
    • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

    ^ Labor and Delivery The Benefits of Gentle Birth for the Infant Birth safety isn't only about live mothers and physically perfected babies.

    .The fetal head passes out of the birth canal.^ In addition to all this, the baby is building up meconium (the first fetal bowel movement), which will be passed a couple of days after birth.
    • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Raise the baby's hips slightly higher than its head for drainage, and lie the baby on its side at the level of the birth canal or lower (do not place the baby on the mother's abdomen at this time).
    • Emergency Child Birth Instructions and Pictures 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.med-help.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Instead the baby's bottom or legs are positioned to enter the birth canal instead of the head.
    • Childbirth - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment 20 September 2009 6:38 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Its head is tilted backwards so that its forehead leads the way through the vagina.
  5. Restitution.^ The baby's head is through the cervix and on its way down the birth canal.
    • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The fetal head turns through 45 degrees to restore its normal relationship with the shoulders, which are still at an angle.
  6. External rotation.^ Still on a High I pushed through my contractions and the head began to crown as I watched in a mirror.
    • Child Birth Videos 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As the baby's head is born, it normally faces down; it then usually turns so that its nose is toward the mother's thigh.
    • Emergency Child Birth Instructions and Pictures 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.med-help.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This suggests that normal fetal pituitary adrenal function is required for the fine-tuning of the timing of parturition but that spontaneous labour can still occur in anencephaly.
    • Overview. Preterm labour: mechanisms and management 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    The shoulders repeat the corkscrew movements of the head, which can be seen in the final movements of the fetal head.
.The fetal head may temporarily change shape substantially (becoming more elongated) as it moves through the birth canal.^ The baby's head is through the cervix and on its way down the birth canal.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Raise the baby's hips slightly higher than its head for drainage, and lie the baby on its side at the level of the birth canal or lower (do not place the baby on the mother's abdomen at this time).
  • Emergency Child Birth Instructions and Pictures 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.med-help.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few minutes later I changed my mind when I felt the baby spin around and drop into my birth canal.
  • Child Birth Videos 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This change in the shape of the fetal head is called molding and is much more prominent in women having their first vaginal delivery.^ Mothers have a longer recovery time after a c/section compared to regular, vaginal delivery, also hemorrhage and emergency hysterectomies are more common in cesareans as well.
  • MySpace - Unassisted Childbirth - 28 - Female - Northwoods, Wisconsin - myspace.com/unassistedchildbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The risks of vaginal delivery with breech presentation are much higher than with a head-first presentation and the mother and attending practitioner will need to weigh the risks and make a decision on whether to deliver via a cesarean section or attempt a vaginal birth.
  • Childbirth - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment 20 September 2009 6:38 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We took the VBAC course at Alta Bates, after having taken our first course at B&B. We felt like the one evening course gave us so much more than the original course did, it was great.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Childbirth Prep Classes 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[10]

Latent phase

.The latent phase of labor, also called prodromal labor, may last many days and the contractions are an intensification of the Braxton Hicks contractions that may start around 26 weeks gestation.^ Labor could start right away or may still be days away.
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

^ "Practice" contractions called Braxton Hicks contractions are common in the last weeks of pregnancy or earlier.
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

^ The latent phase usually lasts the longest and is the least intense phase of labor.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cervical effacement occurs during the closing weeks of pregnancy and is usually complete or near complete, by the end of latent phase.^ Most women are relatively comfortable during the latent phase, and walking around is encouraged, since it naturally stimulates the process.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Proliferation of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts occurs in early pregnancy and decreases as the uterus nears parturition.
  • Gene and protein expression in the myometrium in pregnancy and labor -- Breuiller-Fouche and Germain 131 (5): 837 -- Reproduction 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.reproduction-online.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Torsion is usually presumed to have occurred during jumping or some violent movement which imparts a swinging motion to the heavily gravid uterus.
  • feline parturition 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.fabcats.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Cervical effacement or Cervical dilation is the thinning and stretching of the cervix.^ When regular contractions begin, the baby moves down into the pelvis as the cervix both effaces (thins) and dilates (opens).
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

^ With the initiation of labor, the muscular wall of the uterus begins to contract causing the cervix to open (dilatation) and thin out (efface).
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This phase is characterized by dilatation (opening) of the cervix to 3 – 4 cm along with the thinning out of the cervix (effacement).
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The degree of cervical effacement may be felt during a vaginal examination.^ Neither dilation nor effacement is felt by the woman as they're happening, but doctors and midwives check for these signs during exams.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A 'long' cervix implies that not much has been taken into the lower segment, and vice versa for a 'short' cervix.^ Cervix — A small, cylindrical structure about an inch or so long and less than an inch around that makes up the lower part and neck of the uterus.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Latent phase ends with the onset of active first stage; when the cervix is about 3 cm dilated.^ During the first stage of labor, the cervix dilates (opens) from 0 to 10 centimeters (cm).
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first stage ends with complete dilatation (opening) of the cervix.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This stage has an early, or latent, phase, an active phase, and a transitional phase.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

First stage: dilation

.There are several factors that midwives and clinicians use to assess the labouring mother's progress, and these are defined by the Bishop Score.^ Besides EFM and telemetry, which is usually continuous, there is intermittent monitoring using a hand-held Doppler to assess the FHR. This method gives the mother freedom of movement during labor.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The methods in this book are medically researched and have been used by midwives, mothers and medical practitioners all over the world.

.The Bishop score is also used as a means to predict whether the mother is likely to spontaneously progress into second stage (delivery).^ The second stage is delivery, which involves pushing and the actual birth of the baby.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Normally, delivery of a kitten from the commencement of the second stage may take from 5 to 30 minutes.
  • feline parturition 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.fabcats.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second stage involves pushing and delivery of your baby.
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

.The first stage of labor starts classically when the effaced (thinned) cervix is 3 cm dilated.^ The first stage of labor is known as early labor.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Epidural can prolong the first and second stages of labor.
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

^ Sometimes weeks before she goes into labor, a woman's cervix begins to open, or dilate .
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is variation in this point as some women may have active contractions prior to reaching this point, or they may reach this point without regular contractions.^ Birth control methods work the same for people of any age, although some methods are not recommended for sexually active teenagers or women over 35 who smoke.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some women report stronger, more painful contractions when their labor is induced with Pitocin.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This may cause some pain, so at this point the cat appears to give up trying and waits for, or demands, help.
  • feline parturition 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.fabcats.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The onset of actual labor is defined when the cervix begins to progressively dilate.^ At the hospital, your doctor will monitor the progress of your labor by periodically checking your cervix, as well as the baby's position and station (location in the birth canal).
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

^ Premature rupture of the membranes(PROM) is defined as rupture that occurs before the onset of labor.
  • Pregnancy - Tips while you are Giving Birth to a Child | Pregnancy Complications and Defects 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.pregnancychildbirth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the first stage of labor, the cervix dilates (opens) from 0 to 10 centimeters (cm).
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Rupture of the membranes, or a blood stained 'show' may or may not occur at or around this stage
Uterine muscles form opposing spirals from the top of the upper segment of the uterus to its junction with the lower segment. .During effacement, the cervix becomes incorporated into the lower segment of the uterus.^ Although it is thought that the maternal and fetal tissues are separate, it is possible for fluid to get into the mother’s circulation during procedures, in this case amnioinfusion, and even during normal labor and delivery as tiny tears occur in the lower part of the uterus or the cervix.
  • Pregnancy - Tips while you are Giving Birth to a Child | Pregnancy Complications and Defects 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.pregnancychildbirth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cervix — A small, cylindrical structure about an inch or so long and less than an inch around that makes up the lower part and neck of the uterus.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Transition The process during which the cervix becomes nearly fully dilated and the head of the fetus begins to move into the birth canal.
  • Pregnancy - Tips while you are Giving Birth to a Child | Pregnancy Complications and Defects 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.pregnancychildbirth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During a contraction, these muscles contract causing shortening of the upper segment and drawing upwards of the lower segment, in a gradual expulsive motion.^ In cases of spasm of the limbs, especially the lower extremities, shortly after birth, he had attributed the condition of the limbs to an excess of the tonic contraction of the muscles natural to the foetus in utero, and which gradually disappeared under the influence of volition and the use of the limbs.
  • Neonatology on the Web: Little - On the Influence ... 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.neonatology.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is also the stage of involution, where the segment of the uterus from which the kitten came contracts back into shape and shortens.
  • feline parturition 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.fabcats.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During labor, the interval between contractions gradually diminishes from ten minutes in early labor to two or three minutes in the second stage.
  • Emergency Child Birth Instructions and Pictures 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.med-help.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This draws the cervix up over the baby's head.^ The baby's head is through the cervix and on its way down the birth canal.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As soon as the baby's head is visible, support the head with one hand and pick up the rubber bulb syringe.
  • Emergency Child Birth Instructions and Pictures 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.med-help.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My baby lies on my chest, my just-turned-four-year-old curls up on the couch, head resting on my lap.

.Full dilatation is reached when the cervix has widened enough to allow passage of the baby's head, around 10 cm dilation for a term baby.^ The cervix is fully dilated when it reaches 10 centimeters.
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

^ Thinner, smaller, and redder than a full-term baby, a premature baby also has a larger head in proportion to his body.
  • Emergency Child Birth Instructions and Pictures 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.med-help.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When regular contractions begin, the baby moves down into the pelvis as the cervix both effaces (thins) and dilates (opens).
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

.The duration of labour varies widely, but active phase averages some 8 hours for women giving birth to their first child ("primiparae") and 4 hours for women who have already given birth ("multiparae").^ Most women who choose this path of letting nature take its course are aware that a little bit of pain and discomfort are an intrinsic part of giving birth.
  • Herbal Remedies for Natural Childbirth Pain Relief 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One 'fired' me when I asked him to use a stethoscope instead of the (ultrasound) Doppler.The birth itself was seven hours of mild labour and one hour of overdrive.
  • Child Birth Videos 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now that you know some options for giving birth, let's take a look at childbirth classes and methods.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Active phase arrest is defined as in a primigravid woman as the failure of the cervix to dilate at a rate of 1.2 cm/hr over a period of at least two hours.^ During the transition phase, the cervix fully dilates.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes weeks before she goes into labor, a woman's cervix begins to open, or dilate .
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During active labor, the cervix generally dilates about 1 centimeter an hour.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This definition is based on Friedman's Curve, the gold standard for rates of cervical dilation and fetal descent during active labor.^ Abnormal Fetal Development Effects of Chiropractic Care During Pregnancy on Labor Examine the benefits of chiropractic care during pregnancy has on the actual labor and birth experience itself.

^ The birthing class was enormously helpful too because it familiarized us with all sorts of scenarios & options & definitely helped us when things went crazy during labor & delivery.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Childbirth Prep Classes 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracings represent a condition in which the fetus may not be tolerating labor and oxygen deprivation can occur.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Friedman curve likely represents an ideal, rather than an average, curve. .This study does have limitations (e.g., assessment of cervical dilation is somewhat subjective), and as a result practitioners should use the Friedman Curve as a guideline rather than an absolute indicator of protraction and arrest.^ Limited studies show that the benefits of having a c-section may outweigh the risks when: the mother is carrying more than one baby ( twins, triplets, etc.
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

^ Hospital Stay My Pregnancy and the Decision of Home Birth Giving birth at home should be encouraged rather than discouraged.

^ Although this practice is widely used, studies show that doing so during labor does not help shorten the length of labor.
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

[11] .Women who do not progress at this rate are in no way "abnormal," as every birth is unique.^ Most women who choose this path of letting nature take its course are aware that a little bit of pain and discomfort are an intrinsic part of giving birth.
  • Herbal Remedies for Natural Childbirth Pain Relief 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women who enroll in a childbirth class are more likely to have quit smoking, keep prenatal appointments and to breastfeed after birth, the magazine notes.
  • The End of Childbirth 101? - Well Blog - NYTimes.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC well.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Birth control methods work the same for people of any age, although some methods are not recommended for sexually active teenagers or women over 35 who smoke.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some practitioners misdiagnose "Failure to Progress," either out of impatience or inexperience, and perform an unnecessary Cesarean. .However, as is the case with any misdiagnosis, doing so is severely discouraged due to the extra expense and healing time involved with Cesarean operations.^ However, active management did not reduce the number of cesarean operations performed.
  • Pregnancy - Tips while you are Giving Birth to a Child | Pregnancy Complications and Defects 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.pregnancychildbirth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The risk of maternal death from cesarean is several times that of vaginal birth.
  • Pregnancy - Tips while you are Giving Birth to a Child | Pregnancy Complications and Defects 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.pregnancychildbirth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]

Second stage: expulsion

.This stage begins when the cervix is fully dilated, and ends when the baby is finally born.^ The first stage ends with complete dilatation (opening) of the cervix.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first stage begins with the onset of labor and ends when the cervix is fully opened.
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

^ During the transition phase, the cervix fully dilates.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As pressure on the cervix increases, the Ferguson reflex increases uterine contractions so that the second stage can go ahead.^ Oxytocin has a prominent role in promoting strong uterine contractions in the later stages of labour and in the immediate puerperium, and in facilitating milk ejection during lactation.
  • Overview. Preterm labour: mechanisms and management 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In the final stage of labor, the placenta is expelled by the continuing uterine contractions.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These steroid changes promote increased intrauterine production of prostaglandins, cervical softening and uterine contractions.
  • Overview. Preterm labour: mechanisms and management 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.At the beginning of the normal second stage, the head is fully engaged in the pelvis; the widest diameter of the head has successfully passed through the pelvic brim.^ Transition The process during which the cervix becomes nearly fully dilated and the head of the fetus begins to move into the birth canal.
  • Pregnancy - Tips while you are Giving Birth to a Child | Pregnancy Complications and Defects 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.pregnancychildbirth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first stage begins with the onset of labor and ends when the cervix is fully opened.
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

^ The vacuum extractor is less likely to injure the mother than forceps, and it allows more space for the baby to pass through the pelvis.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Ideally it has successfully also passed below the interspinous diameter. This is the narrowest part of the pelvis. .If these have been accomplished, all that will remain is for the fetal head to pass below the pubic arch and out through the introitus.^ In addition to all this, the baby is building up meconium (the first fetal bowel movement), which will be passed a couple of days after birth.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The AMA set out to create legislation and regulation for all non-physician health care workers that would not allow these workers to practice independently.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First the head passes under the pubic bone.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is assisted by the additional maternal efforts of "bearing down" or pushing.^ When a lady bears down to push, it is with the same abdominal muscles and way that she would bear down to push out either constipated feces or a baby.
  • Enemas & Childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.lifeknox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Enemas & Childbirth 20 September 2009 6:38 UTC www.lifeknox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This time you bear down not to push out the enema, but with a real contraction.
  • Enemas & Childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.lifeknox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Enemas & Childbirth 20 September 2009 6:38 UTC www.lifeknox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The mother bears down as if she's pushing out a bowel movement and holds it for a count of 10 before releasing.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fetal head is seen to 'crown' as the labia part.^ Examine the mother to see whether the crown of the baby's head (or whichever part of the baby comes out first) is bulging out of the vagina.
  • Emergency Child Birth Instructions and Pictures 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.med-help.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At this point, the woman may feel a burning or stinging sensation.^ Delivery is imminent, and without drugs to relieve the pain (which can still be asked for and administered during this phase), the woman may have a chaotic mix of sensations and feelings.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Birth of the fetal head signals the successful completion of the fourth mechanism of labour (delivery by extension), and is followed by the fifth and sixth mechanisms (restitution and external rotation).^ If this is weighed against the chance of fetal injury from a delay in delivery or a difficult birth-both events avoidable by cesarean-the decision in equivocal situations is likely to be in favor of cesarean.
  • Pregnancy - Tips while you are Giving Birth to a Child | Pregnancy Complications and Defects 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.pregnancychildbirth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Your baby may not rotate into a good position for birth or there may be nonreassuring signs in the fetal heart rate patterns.
  • Pregnancy - Tips while you are Giving Birth to a Child | Pregnancy Complications and Defects 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.pregnancychildbirth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fetal head is well flexed, making its birth following the birth of the buttocks and body more likely to succeed without problems.
  • Pregnancy - Tips while you are Giving Birth to a Child | Pregnancy Complications and Defects 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.pregnancychildbirth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A newborn baby with umbilical cord ready to be clamped
The second stage of labour will vary to some extent, depending on how successfully the preceding tasks have been accomplished.

Third stage: placenta

.In this stage, the uterus expels the placenta (afterbirth).^ The third stage is delivery of the placenta or afterbirth.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The third stage involves delivery of the placenta (afterbirth).
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

.The placenta is usually birthed within 15–30 minutes of the baby being born.^ Why the World Health Organization recommends a caesarean birth rate of 15% or less … and the increased risks to mother and baby of growing C-section (over 30% in the US) levels in some Western countries.

^ A few minutes later I changed my mind when I felt the baby spin around and drop into my birth canal.
  • Child Birth Videos 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To watch what normal birth looks like, and to learn more, please watch "The Business of Being Born" by Ricki Lake, available at www.netflix.com or at www.thebusinessofbeingborn.com.
  • MySpace - Physiological childbirth - 27 - Female - MICHIGAN - myspace.com/normalchildbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Maternal blood loss is limited by contraction of the uterus following birth of the placenta.^ The uterus continues to contract for a few minutes to help seal blood vessels.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contractions will begin 5 to 30 minutes after birth, signaling that it's time to deliver the placenta.
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

^ The uterus is a myogenic organ and it contracts spontaneously following waves of electrical activity that result in membrane depolarization, a rise in intracellular calcium and the generation of force.
  • Overview. Preterm labour: mechanisms and management 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Normal blood loss is less than 600 mL.
Breastfeeding during and after the third stage, the placenta is visible in the bowl to the right.
The third stage can be managed either expectantly or actively. Expectant management (also known as physiological management) allows the placenta to be expelled without medical assistance. .Breastfeeding soon after birth and massaging of the top of the uterus (the fundus) causes uterine contractions that encourage birth of the placenta.^ Contractions will begin 5 to 30 minutes after birth, signaling that it's time to deliver the placenta.
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

^ Instead, it is caused by contractions of the uterus that are pushing your baby down and out of the birth canal.
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

^ PDF » Maturation of Spontaneous and Agonist-Induced Uterine Contractions in the Peripartum Mouse Uterus.
  • Failure of Parturition in Mice Lacking the Prostaglandin F Receptor -- Sugimoto et al. 277 (5326): 681 -- Science 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.sciencemag.org [Source type: Academic]

Active management utilizes oxytocic agents and controlled cord traction. .The oxytocic agents augment uterine muscular contraction and the cord traction assists with rapid birth of the placenta.^ In the final stage of labor, the placenta is expelled by the continuing uterine contractions.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When both forceps are in place, the doctor pulls on them to help the baby through the birth canal during a uterine contraction.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A Cochrane database study[13] suggests that blood loss and the risk of postpartum bleeding will be reduced in women offered active management of the third stage of labour.^ This does not necessarily incur increased risk, but some of these women have medical problems such as diabetes and high blood pressure that are less common in younger women.
  • Pregnancy - Tips while you are Giving Birth to a Child | Pregnancy Complications and Defects 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.pregnancychildbirth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, active management did not reduce the number of cesarean operations performed.
  • Pregnancy - Tips while you are Giving Birth to a Child | Pregnancy Complications and Defects 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.pregnancychildbirth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whether or not active management actually reduces the number of cesarean deliveries is unclear, as different studies have reported different findings.
  • Pregnancy - Tips while you are Giving Birth to a Child | Pregnancy Complications and Defects 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.pregnancychildbirth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the use of ergometrine for active management was associated with nausea or vomiting and hypertension, and controlled cord traction requires the immediate clamping of the umbilical cord.^ You should ask your physician or midwife whether they use active management of labor as a routine procedure.
  • Pregnancy - Tips while you are Giving Birth to a Child | Pregnancy Complications and Defects 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.pregnancychildbirth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A sexually active teen (boy or girl) who is not using any birth control has a 90% chance of conceiving a pregnancy within 1 year.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, active management did not reduce the number of cesarean operations performed.
  • Pregnancy - Tips while you are Giving Birth to a Child | Pregnancy Complications and Defects 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.pregnancychildbirth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although uncommon, in some cultures the placenta is kept and consumed by the mother over the weeks following the birth.^ Birth control methods work the same for people of any age, although some methods are not recommended for sexually active teenagers or women over 35 who smoke.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some instances the persistent rigidity of muscles commences or is observed shortly after birth, in others it escapes observation until the lapse of some weeks or months.
  • Neonatology on the Web: Little - On the Influence ... 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.neonatology.org [Source type: Original source]

^ New mothers there had daily large warm enemas for two weeks following birth as per doctors orders.
  • Enemas & Childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.lifeknox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Enemas & Childbirth 20 September 2009 6:38 UTC www.lifeknox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This practice is termed placentophagy.

Station

Refers to the relationship of the fetal presenting part to the level of the ischial spines. When the presenting part is at the ichial spines the station is 0 (synonymous with engagement). If the presenting fetal part is above the spines, the distance is measured and described as minus stations, which range from -1 to -4 cm. If the presenting part is below the ischial spines, the distance is stated as plus stations ( +1 to +4 cm). At +3 and +4 the presenting is at the perineum and can be seen.(Pilliteri, Adele.(2009). .Maternal & Child health nursing:care of the childrearing family.^ Maternal-Newborn Nursing & Women's Health Care , 7th ed.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sister Mary Stella, CNM, introduced the concept of "family-centered maternity care."
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 40s she was a home health care nurse in Philadelphia.
  • Enemas & Childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.lifeknox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Enemas & Childbirth 20 September 2009 6:38 UTC www.lifeknox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lippencott Williams & Wilkins: New York.^ The crank ephrata the crucible's abigail williams the cotswolds company the cotswolds katonah new york the custem of the mistltoe the cosmetic company store.
  • Dear Customers, we are glad to see you at our company`s history site 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC nextvip.c0.pl [Source type: General]

)

Fourth stage

The "fourth stage of labor" is a term used in two different senses:
  • It can refer to the immediate puerperium,[14] or the hours immediately after delivery of the placenta.[15]
  • .
  • It can be used in a more metaphorical sense to describe the weeks following delivery.^ There also may be more cesarean deliveries when induction is used routinely.
    • Pregnancy - Tips while you are Giving Birth to a Child | Pregnancy Complications and Defects 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.pregnancychildbirth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Also a twelve-week follow-up home visit program after delivery.
    • CHILDBIRTH PREPARATION 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www-rohan.sdsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [16]

Afterwards

Many cultures feature initiation rites for newborns, such as naming ceremonies, baptism, and others.
.Mothers are often allowed a period where they are relieved of their normal duties to recover from childbirth.^ They maintained that childbirth is not a disease and that normal deliveries do not require hospitalization and the supervision of an obstetrician.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now they're normally laid on the stomach or chest of the mother while the umbilical cord is clamped and cut.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The length of this period varies. .In many countries, taking time off from work to care for a newborn is called "maternity leave" or "parental leave" and can vary from a few days to several months.^ However, most months aren't four calendar weeks long; they're usually four weeks plus a few days, which accounts for the extra time.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The former class of affections may be described as impairment of volition, with tonic rigidity and ultimately structural shortening, in varying degrees, of a few or many of the muscles of the body.
  • Neonatology on the Web: Little - On the Influence ... 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.neonatology.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Natural family planning (also called fertility awareness) can work if you and your partner are very careful.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Being born in the caul

When the amniotic sac has not ruptured during labour or pushing, the infant can be born with the membranes intact. This is referred to as "being born in the caul." The caul is harmless and its membranes are easily broken and wiped away. .In medieval times, and in some cultures still today, a caul was seen as a sign of good fortune for the baby, even giving the child psychic gifts such as clairvoyance, and in some cultures was seen as protection against drowning.^ Even TV Stars like Ricki Lake have used some of these techniques to achieve a wildly successful and fulfilling natural child birth...

^ Breech Birth The Dangers of Giving Birth Today: The No-Faith Mentality Women today almost expect to be given an epidural and even a C-section.

^ I have seen many childbirth classes that look good but are simply unaffordable to me at this time.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Childbirth Prep Classes 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

The caul was often impressed onto paper and stored away as an heirloom for the child. .With the advent of modern interventive obstetrics, artificial rupture of the membranes has become common, so babies are rarely born in the caul.^ They had their membranes artificially ruptured and were given epidurals.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Rarely do these interventions bring the pregnancy to full term, but any extra time is helpful in giving the baby the best chance of survival.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While very rare, uterine rupture is very dangerous for the mother and baby.
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

Management

Pain control

Non pharmaceutical
.Some women prefer to avoid analgesic medication during childbirth.^ Epidural and spinal blocks allow most women to be awake and alert with very little pain during labor and childbirth.
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

^ Natural Induction has become a hot topic due to more and more women going overdue and wanting to avoid a medical induction.

^ Why women have been using water during labor and childbirth for centuries.

.They still can try to alleviate labor pain using psychological preparation, education, massage, hypnosis, or water therapy in a tub or shower.^ These nondrug means of easing the pain of labor include walking, changing positions, taking showers or warm baths and using breathing exercises, hypnosis, relaxation and massage."
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Also, most medicines used to manage pain during labor pass freely into the placenta .
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

^ Why women have been using water during labor and childbirth for centuries.

.Some women like to have someone to support them during labor and birth, such as the father of the baby, the woman's mother, a sister, a close friend, a partner or a doula.^ Caesarean birth can be life saving for mother and baby in some circumstances.

^ Though some make an effort to learn about birth from other mothers or books, most pregnant women don't have a grasp of the details of childbirth -- things like the physical and emotional stages of labor, the anatomical changes their bodies are experiencing, or the amount of pain they are likely to experience in labor and delivery.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Labor and Delivery The Benefits of Gentle Birth for the Infant Birth safety isn't only about live mothers and physically perfected babies.

.Some women deliver in a squatting or crawling position in order to more effectively push during the second stage and so that gravity can aid the descent of the baby through the birth canal.^ The baby twists and turns through the birth canal.
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

^ The second stage involves pushing and delivery of your baby.
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

^ Specialist obstetricians should sedate women at the onset of labor, allow the cervix to dilate, give ether during the second stage of labor, cut an episiotomy, deliver the baby with forceps, extract the placenta, give medications for the uterus to contract and repair the episiotomy.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The human body also has a chemical response to pain, by releasing endorphins.^ The brain responds to the pain of these contractions by releasing endorphins.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Discover the “pressure points” in the body that instantly flood your body with pain relieving endorphins… and put you in an ecstatic “dream” state during childbirth.

^ The “3 specific points” on your body you can stimulate to release your body’s natural healing and pain relieving mechanism.

.Endorphins are present before, during, and immediately after childbirth.^ Discover the “pressure points” in the body that instantly flood your body with pain relieving endorphins… and put you in an ecstatic “dream” state during childbirth.

^ In accordance with the present invention, the occurrence of fetal stress syndome is effectively identified by virtue of the retention of temperature sensing means within the reproductive tract during the period immediately before parturition.
  • Intravaginal parturition alarm and method for use - Patent 4651137 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[17] .Some homebirth advocates believe that this hormone can induce feelings of pleasure and euphoria during childbirth,[18] reducing the risk of maternal depression some weeks later.^ Some of the tips and pointers your speakers gave really were an eye opener to the techniques that can be used to manage and reduce pain during birth.

^ She did a good job of explaining benefits & risks associated with various interventions during childbirth.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Childbirth Prep Classes 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[17]
.Water birth is an option chosen by some women for pain relief during labor and childbirth, and some studies have shown waterbirth in an uncomplicated pregnancy to reduce the need for analgesia, without evidence of increased risk to mother or newborn.^ Childbirth Pain Relief During Childbirth Are you a first time mother-to-be?

^ Why women have been using water during labor and childbirth for centuries.

^ Some women do fine with natural methods of pain relief alone.
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

[19] .Hot water tubs are available in many hospitals and birthing centres.^ While some hospitals are equipped with birthing tubs, for instance, many more birth centers have them as a matter of normalcy.

^ Many believe that technology, prenatal care, and hospital interventions are the reason why birth is now so safe (and thus that homebirth & freebirth are not safe)...but how true is this really?

^ Hospitals and birthing centres On the other hand, home birth midwives are held personally responsible for any birth difficulty, whether preventable or not.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.Meditation and mind medicine techniques are also used for pain control during labour and delivery.^ Some of the tips and pointers your speakers gave really were an eye opener to the techniques that can be used to manage and reduce pain during birth.

^ She also has couples practice all these different meditation techniques to deal with pain, many of which were very helpful to me during labor.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Childbirth Prep Classes 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Also, most medicines used to manage pain during labor pass freely into the placenta .
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

.These techniques are used in conjunction with progressive muscle relaxation and many other forms of relaxation for the mind and body to aid in pain control for women during childbirth.^ Why women have been using water during labor and childbirth for centuries.

^ These nondrug means of easing the pain of labor include walking, changing positions, taking showers or warm baths and using breathing exercises, hypnosis, relaxation and massage."
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Though some make an effort to learn about birth from other mothers or books, most pregnant women don't have a grasp of the details of childbirth -- things like the physical and emotional stages of labor, the anatomical changes their bodies are experiencing, or the amount of pain they are likely to experience in labor and delivery.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.One such technique is the use of hypnosis in childbirth.^ You can choose to use any one of the 7 simple-to follow techniques (explained in clear everyday language and free from medical jargon) .

^ In short, childbirth classes are likely not perceived as efficient use of one’s time in advance of an event that inevitiable one way or another.
  • The End of Childbirth 101? - Well Blog - NYTimes.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC well.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A new mode of analgesia is sterile water injection placed just underneath the skin in the most painful spots during labor.^ Most pregnant women feel strongly about pain relief during the childbirth process.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most healthy pregnant women with no risk factors for problems during labor or delivery have their babies vaginally.
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

^ Epidural and spinal blocks allow most women to be awake and alert with very little pain during labor and childbirth.
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

A control trial in Iran of 0.5mL injections was conducted with normal saline which revealed a statistical superiority with water over saline. [20]
Pharmaceutical
.Different measures for pain control have varying degrees of success and side effects to the woman and her baby.^ Different birth control methods have different side effects and possible complications.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Birth Mother How My Birth Control Made me Suicidal Side effects that can come with birth-control options.

^ We as mother or potential mother should consider the various effect of drugs that has on our babies.

.In some countries of Europe, doctors commonly prescribe inhaled nitrous oxide gas for pain control, especially as 50% nitrous oxide, 50% oxygen, known as Entonox; in the UK, midwives may use this gas without a doctor's prescription.^ Although LAM has been shown to be 98.5% effective when these conditions are met, many doctors recommend that you use another birth control method.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The control of water in prisons the country shed tj general store the cougar military vahical the country doctor movie the council of hemispheric relations the coolest person.
  • Cheap as Free 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC end.c0.pl [Source type: General]

^ Other health problems that might keep you from using a particular birth control method are relatively rare, especially in young women.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pethidine (with or without promethazine) may be used early in labour, as well as other opioids such as fentanyl, but if given too close to birth there is a risk of respiratory depression in the infant.^ Risks of a caesarean birth includeinfection, an effect on fertility as well as negatively affects the mothers ability to immediately bond and look after her newborn baby.

^ There is no other natural child birth resource like this…anywhere!

^ Similar to forceps deliveries, vacuum-assisted births can only be used with a fully dilated cervix and a well-descended head.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Popular medical pain control in hospitals include the regional anesthetics epidural blocks, and spinal anaesthesia.^ Regional anesthetics include epidurals and spinals.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pain medication offered at this point consists of either a short-term medication, such as Nubain or Stadol, or long-term such as epidural anesthesia.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It covers both medicated and non-medicated pain control options and does not give undue weight to either.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Childbirth Prep Classes 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.Epidural analgesia is a generally safe and effective method of relieving pain in labour, but is associated with longer labour, more operative intervention (particularly instrument delivery), and increases in cost.^ These methods are more effective when they are used every time you have sex and when they are fitted correctly.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You want someone who is going to help YOU make better decisions by informing you of just one more method of pain reduction (not pain relief).
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Childbirth Prep Classes 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ Experts recommend that you use condoms along with another method or spermicide and condoms together to increase their effectiveness.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .One study found that the women receiving epidural analgesia had more fear before the administering of the epidural than those who did not receive it, but that they did not necessarily have more pain.^ Blood Diamonds Natural Childbirth or Epidural: What Moms Need to Know So many women in today's world automatically decide to have an epidural rather than experience the joy of natural childbirth.

^ You want someone who is going to help YOU make better decisions by informing you of just one more method of pain reduction (not pain relief).
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Childbirth Prep Classes 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ We took the VBAC course at Alta Bates, after having taken our first course at B&B. We felt like the one evening course gave us so much more than the original course did, it was great.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Childbirth Prep Classes 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

[22] Medicine administered via epidural can cross the placenta and enter the bloodstream of the fetus.[23] .Epidural analgesia has no statistically significant impact on the risk of caesarean section, and does not appear to have an immediate effect on neonatal status as determined by Apgar scores.^ Risks of a caesarean birth includeinfection, an effect on fertility as well as negatively affects the mothers ability to immediately bond and look after her newborn baby.

^ Breech Birth The Dangers of Giving Birth Today: The No-Faith Mentality Women today almost expect to be given an epidural and even a C-section.

^ A method for performing Caesarean section comprising the steps of determining the attainment of fetal readiness in accordance with the method of claim 9 and subsequently performing said Caesarean section.
  • Intravaginal parturition alarm and method for use - Patent 4651137 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

[24]

Augmentation

Augmentation is a procedure which attempts to speed up the process of labour. .Oxytocin has been to increase the rate of vaginal delivery in those with a slow progress of labor.^ Inducing labor increases a woman's chance of cesarean delivery.
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

^ Most healthy pregnant women with no risk factors for problems during labor or delivery have their babies vaginally.
  • Labor and Birth << Childbirth and Beyond << Healthy Pregnancy << womenshealth.gov 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.womenshealth.gov [Source type: General]

^ This procedure is performed whenever abnormal conditions complicate labor and vaginal delivery that threaten the life or health of the mother or the baby.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25]

Instrumental delivery

.Obstetric forceps or ventouse may be used to facilitate childbirth.^ Joseph DeLee, author of the most frequently used obstetric textbook of the time, argued that childbirth is a pathologic process from which few escape "damage."
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some obstetricians accept the need for a forceps delivery as a way to avoid cesarean birth while other obstetrical services do not use forceps at all.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • The woman will have her legs supported in stirrups.
  • If an anaesthetic is not already in place it will be given.
  • Episiotomy might be needed.
  • A trial forceps might be performed, which is abandoned in favor of a caesarean section if delivery is not optimal.

Multiple births

Twins can be delivered vaginally. .In some cases twin delivery is done in a larger delivery room or in the theatre, just in case complications occur e.g.^ Complications from forceps deliveries can occur, such as nerve damage or temporary bruises to the baby's face.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Both twins born vaginally - one comes normally but the other is breech and/or helped by a forceps/ventouse delivery
  • One twin born vaginally and the other by caesarean section.
  • If the twins are joined at any part of the body - called conjoined twins, delivery is mostly by caesarean section.

Partner and other support

.There is increasing evidence to show that the participation of the woman's partner in the birth leads to better birth and also post-birth outcomes, providing the partner does not exhibit excessive anxiety.^ I gave birth to my daughter at the age of 25, there were no complications of any kind during my pregnancy - I was a very healthy and active woman, both before and during the pregnancy.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ There can be problems in maintaining the suction during the vacuum-assisted birth, however, so forceps might be a better choice if the delivery needs to be expedited.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cesareans lead to more cesareans Once a woman has a primary cesarean, chances are she will have a cesarean for subsequent births.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[26] .Research also shows that when a labouring woman was supported by a female helper such as a family member or doula during labour, she had less need for chemical pain relief, the likelihood of caesarean section was reduced, use of forceps and other instrumental deliveries were reduced and there was a reduction in the length of labour and the baby had a higher Apgar score (Dellman 2004, Vernon 2006).^ With more than 14,000 deliveries, his practice maintains a cesarean section rate of less than 10 percent, an episiotomy rate of less than one percent (compared to nearly 35 percent nationally) and virtually no need for pain medications or I.V. fluids.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ For example, on the use of an epidural injection, while this is one of the most effective ways of reducing the intensity of labor pains, many expectant mothers are not, I suspect, aware that it is likely to prolong the labor process and decrease the likelihood of a vaginal birth without some form of further intervention, which may range from forceps or episiotomy to C-section.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ A smaller but similarly designed unit is suitable for human females and other small mammals, such as ewes.
  • Intravaginal parturition alarm and method for use - Patent 4651137 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.It has been found that fathers can have different roles during birth and that little is said about the conflicts between partners or partners and professionals.^ The conflicts between father and son.
  • We show you how to find the cheapest....... 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC cex.c0.pl [Source type: General]

^ The conflicts between father and son the crawl crimson sands the crater site ames hole the corr music group.
  • We're Glad to See You Here 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC mec.c0.pl [Source type: General]

^ If you have a long-term (chronic) illness or a disability, talk to a health professional about which birth control choices are best for you.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among other findings were also: the interpretation of the presence of fathers during birth as a modern version of the anthropological couvade ritual to ease the woman's pain; the majority of fathers did not perceive any limitation to participate in their childbirth and upper generations did not play an important rule in the transmission of knowledge about birth to those fathers but the wives, feminine acquaintances and midwives.^ Though some make an effort to learn about birth from other mothers or books, most pregnant women don't have a grasp of the details of childbirth -- things like the physical and emotional stages of labor, the anatomical changes their bodies are experiencing, or the amount of pain they are likely to experience in labor and delivery.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ The 3 critically important things all women need to give birth normally… and why modern hospitals and routine interventions almost make it impossible to have a normal birth.

^ Men did not attend births during Colonial times, as it was considered indecent.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.The research was based, mainly, on in-depth interviews, where fathers described what was happening from their partner’s first signals of birth labour until the placenta delivery.^ Breech birth — Birth of a baby bottom-first, instead of the usual head-first delivery.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Partners Where to Find Information Online About Natural Childbirth Natural childbirth is an overarching term used to describe a labor and delivery without medication.

[citation needed]

Collecting stem cell

It's possible to collecting two types of stem cells during childbirth: amniotic stem cells or umbilical cord blood stem cells. .To collect amniotic stem cells is necessary to do amniocentesis before or during the birth.^ I held out a long time before drugs during the birth of my child because of A Lot of material I read that advocated ''drug free'' birth for an optimum delivery.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Childbirth Prep Classes 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ I gave birth to my daughter at the age of 25, there were no complications of any kind during my pregnancy - I was a very healthy and active woman, both before and during the pregnancy.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Westerners - especially city slickers - are incredibly ignorant of how often things go wrong before, during, and after birthing.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.Amniotic stem cells are multipotent and very active, useful both for autologous or donor use.^ The courtyards at mission valley the cons of using stem cells the cottage lesbian the crossings golf ca the consortium townsville.
  • We're Glad to See You Here 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC mec.c0.pl [Source type: General]

^ I gave birth to my daughter at the age of 25, there were no complications of any kind during my pregnancy - I was a very healthy and active woman, both before and during the pregnancy.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

There are private banks in US, the first is Biocell Center in Boston [27][28][29].
Umbilical cord blood stem cells are also active, but less multipotent than amniotic. There are a lot of banks of coord blood, both private and public and for autologous or eterologous use.

Complications

Disability-adjusted life year for maternal conditions per 100,000 inhabitants in 2002.[30]
     no data      less than 100      100-400      400-800      800-1200      1200-1600      1600-2000      2000-2400      2400-2800      2800-3200      3200-3600      3600-4000      more than 4000
Disability-adjusted life year for perinatal conditions per 100,000 inhabitants in 2002.[31]
     no data      less than 100      100-400      400-800      800-1200      1200-1600      1600-2000      2000-2400      2400-2800      2800-3200      3200-3600      3600-4000      more than 4000
.Birthing complications may be maternal or fetal, and long term or short term.^ If you have a long-term (chronic) illness or a disability, talk to a health professional about which birth control choices are best for you.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Labor complications

The second stage of labor may be delayed or lengthy due to:
.Secondary changes may be observed: swelling of the tissues, maternal exhaustion, fetal heart rate abnormalities.^ Non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracings represent a condition in which the fetus may not be tolerating labor and oxygen deprivation can occur.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) involves the use of an electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) monitor to record the baby's heart rate.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dysfunctional labor is commonly caused by one of the three following conditions: maternal structural abnormalities; abnormal fetal presentations; failure to progress.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Left untreated, severe complications include death of mother and/or baby, and genitovaginal fistula.^ This procedure is performed whenever abnormal conditions complicate labor and vaginal delivery that threaten the life or health of the mother or the baby.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Without epidurals, interventions, complications or undue stress on baby, mother… or the happy and relieved father.

.These are commonly seen in Third World countries where births are often unattended or attended by poorly trained community members.^ These easy-to-do movements will give you a fully functioning body in preparation for a pleasant birth… even if you are well into the third trimester phase.

^ The World Health Organization recommends that the rate of cesarean births for any country not exceed 10 percent to 15 percent.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Doyle has attended dozens of hospitals births as a doula and has seen this phenomenon many times.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

Maternal complications

Vaginal birth injury with visible tears or episiotomies are common. .Internal tissue tearing as well as nerve damage to the pelvic structures lead in a proportion of women to problems with prolapse, incontinence of stool or urine and sexual dysfunction.^ If a baby is too large to exit via the birth canal, tearing, internal damage, and hemorrhaging will occur.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.Fifteen percent of women become incontinent, to some degree, of stool or urine after normal delivery, this number rising considerably after these women reach menopause.^ The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention puts the U.S. rate at over twice that: 30.2 percent , and the LM 2 survey suggests this number is on the rise.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ That means fewer than 1 to 3 out of 100 women using these methods will become pregnant in a year.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The LM 2 survey, however, shows that only 2 percent of women received all of these natural pain-relieving measures.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.Vaginal birth injury is a necessary, but not sufficient, cause of all non hysterectomy related prolapse in later life.^ We all ended up with vaginal births and I think I was the only one that was non-medicated - more fluk that planning but there it is.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Childbirth Prep Classes 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

Risk factors for significant vaginal birth injury include:
.
  • a baby weighing more than 9 pounds
  • the use of forceps or vacuum for delivery.^ Complications from forceps deliveries can occur, such as nerve damage or temporary bruises to the baby's face.
    • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In this procedure, a device called a vacuum extractor is used by placing a large rubber or plastic cup against the baby's head.
    • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Similar to forceps deliveries, vacuum-assisted births can only be used with a fully dilated cervix and a well-descended head.
    • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    These markers are more likely to be signals for other abnormalities as forceps or vacuum are not used in normal deliveries.
  • the need to repair large tears after delivery
Pelvic girdle pain. .Hormones and enzymes work together to produce ligamentous relaxation and widening of the symphysis pubis during the last trimester of pregnancy.^ The remodelling and maturation processes that the myometrium undergoes in pregnancy appear clearly as phenomena which last during the full course of gestation.
  • Gene and protein expression in the myometrium in pregnancy and labor -- Breuiller-Fouche and Germain 131 (5): 837 -- Reproduction 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.reproduction-online.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, the remodelling and maturation processes that the uterus undergoes in pregnancy appear clearly as phenomena which last during the full course of gestation.
  • Gene and protein expression in the myometrium in pregnancy and labor -- Breuiller-Fouche and Germain 131 (5): 837 -- Reproduction 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.reproduction-online.org [Source type: Academic]

.Most girdle pain occurs before birthing, and is known as diastasis of the pubic symphysis.^ Had a planned induction and an epidural at the first sign of pain and it was the most peaceful, calm birth of the three.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

Predisposing factors for girdle pain include maternal obesity.
.Infection remains a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity in the developing world.^ Among developed countries, the World Health Organization reports, 29 have better infant mortality rates than the United States, including Slovenia and Cuba, and 41 have better maternal mortality rates .
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.The work of Ignaz Semmelweis was seminal in the pathophysiology and treatment of puerperal fever and saved many lives.^ Until specific cures for puerperal fever were available in the late 1930s, each woman felt she needed preventive treatment.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hemorrhage, or heavy blood loss, is still the leading cause of death of birthing mothers in the world today, especially in the developing world.^ Blood Diamonds Natural Childbirth or Epidural: What Moms Need to Know So many women in today's world automatically decide to have an epidural rather than experience the joy of natural childbirth.

^ Now, with the release of this amazing Natural Child Birth Interview Series with 7 of the world’s leading child birth experts, you too can have a rewarding and enriching birthing experience.

^ Death during childbearing not accurately reported, but one historian estimated that birth was still successful 95 percent of the time.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Heavy blood loss leads to hypovolemic shock, insufficient perfusion of vital organs and death if not rapidly treated.^ This causes an inability to control bodily functions once taken for granted, it can also lead to sepsis and death if not treated quickly.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

Blood transfusion may be life saving. Rare sequelae include Hypopituitarism Sheehan's syndrome. .The maternal mortality (MMR) rate varies from 9/100,000 live births in the US and Europe, to 900/100,000 live births in Sub-Saharan Africa.^ In 2004, the most recent year for which information was available, the maternal death rate in the United States jumped to 13 deaths per 100,000 , according to the National Center for Health Statistics.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ Maternal mortality reached a plateau, with a high of 600 to 700 deaths per 100,000 births, between 1900 and 1930.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This marks a significant increase from just four years earlier when it was 11 deaths per 100,000 births.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

.[1] Every year, more than half a million women die in pregnancy or childbirth.^ The peak year was 1907, when more than 1.2 million came.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This means that of all such women using a diaphragm or cap, 16 out of every 100 get pregnant in a year.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During World War II, more than 3 million women were recruited for war-related jobs.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32]

Fetal complications

Mechanical fetal injury

.Risk factors for fetal birth injury include fetal macrosomia (big baby), maternal obesity, the need for instrumental delivery, and an inexperienced attendant.^ Risks of a caesarean birth includeinfection, an effect on fertility as well as negatively affects the mothers ability to immediately bond and look after her newborn baby.

^ Natural Child Birth Mothering the New Mother: Women's Feelings and Needs After Childbirth Placksin's book, "Mothering the New Mother: Women's Feelings and Needs After Childbirth" is an incredible resource for every family expecting a baby.

^ The rising rates of medical intervention and surgery in birth and their attendant risks are a big part of the answer.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

Specific situations that can contribute to birth injury include breech presentation and shoulder dystocia. .Most fetal birth injuries resolve without long term harm, but brachial plexus injury may lead to Erb's palsy or Klumpke's paralysis.^ If you have a long-term (chronic) illness or a disability, talk to a health professional about which birth control choices are best for you.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plan B emergency birth control in most drugstores without a prescription.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Autonomy Low Birth Weight, Prematurity - Leads to Diabetes in Adolescence Offering an overview of the impact abnormal birth weight may have on the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications in adolescents.

[33]

Neonatal infection

.
Disability-adjusted life year for neonatal infections and other (perinatal) conditions per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004. Excludes prematurity and low birth weight, birth asphyxia and birth trauma which have their own maps/data.
^ And in my own private life, my first child birth was a debilitating and traumatic medicated event… .

^ Be sure to get enough daily calcium and weight-bearing exercise, and discuss your bone health and birth control options after 2 years of Depo-Provera use.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "With 4 million U.S. births annually, a single percentage point represents about 40,000 mothers and babies per year," the report authors say.
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

[34]
     no data      less than 150      150-300      300-450      450-600      600-750      750-900      900-1050      1050-1200      1200-1350      1350-1500      1500-1850      more than 1850
Neonates are prone to infection in the first month of life. .Some organisms such as S. agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus) or (GBS) are more prone to cause these occasionally fatal infections.^ I want my kids to watch some of the episodes too because it's such good black-family wholesome programming, that really lacks on the air these days.
  • Cosby Show [Archive] - GreekChat.com Forums 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.greekchat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Risk factors for GBS infection include:
  • prematurity (birth prior to 37 weeks gestation)
  • a sibling who has had a GBS infection
  • prolonged labour or rupture of membranes
.Untreated sexually transmitted infections are associated with congenital and perinatal infections in neonates, particularly in the areas where rates of infection remain high.^ Unless you know that your partner has no other sex partners and is free of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) , you are at risk for STD infection.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Starting an IUD isn't an option for a woman who has a pelvic infection or a sexually transmitted disease.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a sexually transmitted disease is present at the time the IUD is inserted, the infection can be carried into the uterus.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The overall perinatal mortality rate associated with untreated syphilis, for example, approached 40%.[35]

Neonatal death

.Infant deaths (neonatal deaths from birth to 28 days, or perinatal deaths if including fetal deaths at 28 weeks gestation and later) are around 1% in modernized countries.^ I took her 2-day workshop & thought it was more helpful than the 8-week course I took at Birth & Bonding Ctr.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Childbirth Prep Classes 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.The "natural" mortality rate of childbirth—where nothing is done to avert maternal death—has been estimated as being between 1,000 and 1,500 deaths per 100,000 births.^ Maternal mortality reached a plateau, with a high of 600 to 700 deaths per 100,000 births, between 1900 and 1930.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Childbirth How to Write a Birth Plan Advice and an example of how to write a birth plan for the woman that desires to have a natural, medication-free childbirth.

^ During the 1940s the average income of medical schools tripled to $1.5 million per year from $500,000 per year.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] (See main article: neonatal death, maternal death)
.The most important factors affecting mortality in childbirth are adequate nutrition and access to quality medical care ("access" is affected both by the cost of available care, and distance from health services).^ The cost of health care.
  • Best Online Documentaries 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC mec.c0.pl [Source type: General]
  • Featuring almost everything from new and used products. 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC amy.c0.pl [Source type: General]

^ The country bears movie trailer the country girl nichols the cost of criminal activities the corner office costa mesa ca the cost of health care the copacabana.
  • Dear Customers, we are glad to see you at our company`s history site 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC nextvip.c0.pl [Source type: General]

^ Direct-entry midwives' sharp criticism of the medical profession combined with their physical isolation from the mainstream health care system has made it difficult or impossible for many of them to acquire adequate medical backup.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

."Medical care" in this context does not refer specifically to treatment in hospitals, but simply routine prenatal care and the presence, at the birth, of an attendant with birthing skills.^ The Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia became the first permanent general hospital in America built specifically to care for the sick.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 3 critically important things all women need to give birth normally… and why modern hospitals and routine interventions almost make it impossible to have a normal birth.

^ Hi Sara~ Please be aware that hospital birthing classes are going to perpetuate the idea that normal birth needs to be medicalized, so they are bound to be slanted in agreement with hospital policies.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Childbirth Prep Classes 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.A 1983-1989 study by the Texas Department of Health highlighted the differences in neonatal mortality (NMR) between high risk and low risk pregnancies.^ Maternal mortality reached a plateau, with a high of 600 to 700 deaths per 100,000 births, between 1900 and 1930.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.NMR was 0.57% for doctor-attended high risk births, and 0.19% for low risk births attended by non-nurse midwives.^ It is impossible even to state with accuracy and confidence either the number of direct-entry midwives who are practicing or the number of births they attend.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AAFP stated the belief that all nurse-midwives should work non-independently and that all payments should go through the physician.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Midwives are attending more births—5.5 percent in 1994, compared with 1.1 percent in 1980.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Conversely, some studies demonstrate a higher perinatal mortality rate with assisted home births.[37] Around 80% of pregnancies are low-risk. .Factors that may make a birth high risk include prematurity, high blood pressure, gestational diabetes and a previous cesarean section.^ The cesarean section rate is alarmingly high, especially in the metro cities.

^ The investigators stopped the study after they analyzed the data from the first group and saw the high rate of cesarean section.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These include drugs for urinary incontinence, allergies, high blood pressure, depression, diarrhea and Parkinson's disease.

Intrapartum asphyxia

Intrapartum asphyxia is the impairment of the delivery of oxygen to the brain and vital tissues during the progress of labour. This may exist in a pregnancy already impaired by maternal or fetal disease, or may rarely arise de novo in labour. This can be termed fetal distress, but this term may be emotive and misleading. .True intrapartum asphyxia is not as common as previously believed, and is usually accompanied by multiple other symptoms during the immediate period after delivery.^ Call your health professional if you have symptoms of pregnancy , such as having missed one or more periods or having your period but with a lot less bleeding than usual.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1920, doctors believed that "normal" deliveries were so rare that interventions should be made during every labor to prevent trouble.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Monitoring might show up problems during birthing, but the interpretation and use of monitoring devices is complex and prone to misinterpretation.^ So I include everything I personally used during my second pregnancy and child birth.

^ Some of the tips and pointers your speakers gave really were an eye opener to the techniques that can be used to manage and reduce pain during birth.

^ Other health problems that might keep you from using a particular birth control method are relatively rare, especially in young women.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Intrapartum asphyxia can cause long-term impairment, particularly when this results in tissue damage through encephalopathy.[38]

Professions associated with childbirth

.
Model of pelvis used in the beginning of the 20th century to teach technical procedures for a successful childbirth.
^ Why women have been using water during labor and childbirth for centuries.

^ Debra has an astonishing 70% success rate with her clients, using acupuncture and acupressure techniques based on ancient principles used for centuries.

Museum of the History of Medicine, Porto Alegre, Brazil
.Doulas are assistants who support mothers during pregnancy, labour, birth, and postpartum.^ Witness for yourself this amazing video of a mother during actual child birth.

^ So I include everything I personally used during my second pregnancy and child birth.

^ Samantha birth and postpartum doula for over 8 years Birthways Board Member Signed: Samantha .
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Childbirth Prep Classes 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.They are not medical attendants; rather, they provide emotional support and non-medical pain relief for women during labour.^ Childbirth Pain Relief During Childbirth Are you a first time mother-to-be?

^ A Doula provides the mother-to-be with helpful information, physical and emotional support during labor and childbirth.

^ It covers both medicated and non-medicated pain control options and does not give undue weight to either.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Childbirth Prep Classes 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

Midwives provide care to low-risk pregnant mothers. Midwives may be licensed and registered, or may be lay practitioners. Jurisdictions with legislated midwives will typically have a registering and disciplinary body, such as a College of Midwifery. .Registered midwives are trained to assist a mother with labour and birth, either through direct-entry or nurse-midwifery programs.^ The North American Registry of Midwives ( NARM ) offered its first written examination to test the knowledge needed for safe, beginning-level, direct-entry midwifery practice to implement a process to certify direct-entry midwives.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The MCA began to train qualified public health nurses in midwifery.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ National Certification in nurse-midwifery educational programs was in place.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lay midwives, who are usually not licensed or registered, typically gain experience through apprenticeship with other lay midwives.^ I have talked to other people who took the class from different instructors who had better experiences.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Childbirth Prep Classes 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.Medical doctors who practice obstetrics include categorically specialized obstetricians; family practitioners and general practitioners whose training, skills and practices include obstetrics; and in some contexts general surgeons.^ Sometime during the mid-1800s, some doctors went into "contract practice," which is actually a primitive form of health insurance.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Small MCOs needed generalists and were encouraging family practitioners to re-enter obstetrics.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Doctors who participated in homebirths by offering backups in emergencies were threatened with loss of hospital privileges and even their medical licenses.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These physicians and surgeons variously provide care across the whole spectrum of normal and abnormal births and pathological labour conditions.^ Some birth centers were bought out by MCOs, which threatened to compromise their autonomy as well as the type and quality of care they provided.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although LAM has been shown to be 98.5% effective when these conditions are met, many doctors recommend that you use another birth control method.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Well-to-do families soon came to believe that physicians could provide better care than female midwives could and thus offered the best hope for a successful birth.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Categorically specialized obstetricians are qualified surgeons, so they can undertake surgical procedures relating to childbirth.^ Sterilization is a surgical procedure done for men or women who decide that they do not want to have any (or more) children.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They maintained that childbirth is not a disease and that normal deliveries do not require hospitalization and the supervision of an obstetrician.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some family practitioners or general practitioners are also privileged to perform obstetrical surgery.^ Small MCOs needed generalists and were encouraging family practitioners to re-enter obstetrics.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Obstetrical procedures include cesarean sections, episiotomies, and assisted delivery. .Categorical specialists in obstetrics are commonly dually trained in obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN), and may provide other medical and surgical gynecological care, and may incorporate more general, well-woman, primary care elements in their practices.^ Some birth centers were bought out by MCOs, which threatened to compromise their autonomy as well as the type and quality of care they provided.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1980, the primary concern about medical and other health care had shifted from access and quality to an overriding concern about costs.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using Depo-Provera for 2 or more years can also cause bone loss, which may not be fully reversible after stopping the medication.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Maternal-fetal medicine specialists are obstetrician/gynecologists subspecialized in managing and treating high-risk pregnancy and delivery.
.Obstetric nurses assist midwives, doctors, women, and babies prior to, during, and after the birth process, in the hospital system.^ Less than 5 percent of women gave birth in hospitals.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Upper- and middle-class women wanted doctors, not lower-class midwives.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The shift from using midwives to using doctors started among women in urban middle classes.
  • The History of Midwifery and Childbirth - A Time Line 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.midwiferytoday.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some midwives are also obstetric nurses. Obstetric nurses hold various certifications and typically undergo additional obstetric training in addition to standard nursing training.

Society and culture

In most cultures, a person's age is now defined relative to their date of birth. Historically, in Europe age was once counted from baptism.
.Some families view the placenta as a special part of birth, since it has been the child's life support for so many months.^ Birth Date How to Prepare Your Child to Attend a New Baby's Birth Having your older children present for the birth of their new baby brother or baby sister can be an amazing family experience.

^ Here are some tips and techniques to prepare your child to attend the birth of their new sibling.

^ Natural Child Birth Mothering the New Mother: Women's Feelings and Needs After Childbirth Placksin's book, "Mothering the New Mother: Women's Feelings and Needs After Childbirth" is an incredible resource for every family expecting a baby.

Some parents like to see and touch this organ. .In some cultures, parents plant a tree along with the placenta on the child's first birthday.^ She did take the sibling class which was helpful to her to some degree, but it didn't offer many ideas to parents for how to help the child deal with adjustment.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Childbirth Prep Classes 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

The placenta may be eaten by the newborn's family, ceremonially or otherwise (for nutrition; the great majority of animals in fact do this naturally).[39]
.The exact location in which childbirth takes place is an important factor in determining nationality, in particular for birth aboard aircraft and ships.^ Is it worth taking the chance and ordering “7 Secrets To Natural Childbirth” interview series and unlocking the door to natural and pain free child birth?

^ I highly recommend taking the Kaiser childbirth prep class at the hospital you plan to give birth at.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Childbirth Prep Classes 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright 2006 Columbia University Press.
  2. ^ ChildbirthConnection.org 50% increase in US Caesarean section from 1996-2006
  3. ^ CDD.gov
  4. ^ CTV.ca CTV News on caesarean sections
  5. ^ InterScience.wiley.com S.E. Weber, "Cultural Aspects of Pain in Childbearing Women", Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 67-72 (Jul 2006)
  6. ^ Elsevier.com L. Callister, "The pain of childbirth: perceptions of culturally diverse women . ", Pain Management Nursing , Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 145-154 (2003)
  7. ^ NLM.nih.gov M. Weisenberg, Z. Caspi, "Cultural and educational influences on pain of childbirth.", Journal of Pain Symptom Management, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 13-19, (Mar. 1989)
  8. ^ WKhealth.com Ellen D. Hodnett, "Pain and women's satisfaction with the experience of childbirth: A systematic review. ", American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Vol. 186, No. 5, Supplement: pp. S160-S172. (May 2002)
  9. ^ Zlotnick C, Johnson SL, Miller IW, Pearlstein T, Howard M. Postpartum depression in women receiving public assistance: pilot study of an interpersonal-therapy-oriented group intervention, Am J Psychiatry. 2001 Apr;158(4):638-40. PMID 11282702
  10. ^ Healthline > Types of Forceps Used in Delivery February 2006. Reviewer: Douglas Levine, Gynecology Service/Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.
  11. ^ Medscape.com, Zhang J et al. Reassessing the labor curve in nulliparous women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002 Oct; 187:824-8.
  12. ^ Peisner DB, Rosen MG: Transition from latent to active labor. Obstet Gynecol 68:448, 1986.
  13. ^ Prendiville WJ, Elbourne D, McDonald S. (2000). "Active versus expectant management in the third stage of labour.". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD000007. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000007. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000007. 
  14. ^ Zapardiel I, Delafuente-Valero J, Diaz-Miguel V, Godoy-Tundidor V, Bajo-Arenas JM (2009). "Pneumomediastinum during the fourth stage of labor". Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 67 (1): 70–2. doi:10.1159/000162103. PMID 18843189. 
  15. ^ "Technical Issues In Reproductive Health". http://www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/pubhealth/modules/reproductiveHealth/pregnancy.html. Retrieved 2010-01-24. 
  16. ^ Gjerdingen DK, Froberg DG (January 1991). "The fourth stage of labor: the health of birth mothers and adoptive mothers at six-weeks postpartum". Fam Med 23 (1): 29–35. PMID 2001778. 
  17. ^ a b Brinsmead M; Smith R, Singh B, Lewin T, Owens P (August 1985). "Peripartum concentrations of beta endorphin and cortisol and maternal mood states". Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 25 (3): 194–7. doi:10.1111/j.1479-828X.1985.tb00642.x. PMID 2935137. 
  18. ^ Kindredmedia.com.au, Giving Birth: The Endocrinology of Ecstacy
  19. ^ Eberhard J, Stein S, Geissbuehler V (2005). "Experience of pain and analgesia with water and land births". Journal of psychosomatic obstetrics and gynecology 26 (2): 127–33. doi:10.1080/01443610400023080. PMID 16050538. 
  20. ^ Shohreh BAHASADR. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Volume 46 2006 Issue 2, Pages 102 - 106. 
  21. ^ Thorp JA, Breedlove G (1996). "Epidural analgesia in labour: an evaluation of risks and benefits". Birth (Berkeley, Calif.) 23 (2): 63–83. PMID 8826170. "Epidural analgesia is a safe and effective method of relieving pain in labour, but is associated with longer labour, more operative intervention, and increases in cost. It must remain an option; however, caregivers and consumers should be aware of associated risks. Women should be counseled about these risks and other pain-relieving options before the duress of labour.". 
  22. ^ Informaworld.com Siw Alehagen, Barbro Wijma, Ulf Lundberg, Klaas Wijma, "Fear, pain and stress hormones during childbirth", Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 153-165, (Sep. 2005)
  23. ^ Anesthesiology.org Loftus, John R; Hill, Harlan; Cohen, Sheila E. "Placental Transfer and Neonatal Effects of Epidural Sufentanil and Fentanyl Administered with Bupivacaine during Labour" Anesthesiology, Vol. 83, No. 2, pp 300-308 (August 1995)
  24. ^ Anim-Somuah M (October 19, 2005). "Epidural versus non-epidural or no analgesia in labour.". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 4. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000331.pub2. PMID 16235275. 
  25. ^ Wei SQ, Luo ZC, Xu H, Fraser WD (September 2009). "The effect of early oxytocin augmentation in labor: a meta-analysis". Obstet Gynecol 114 (3): 641–9. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181b11cb8. PMID 19701046. 
  26. ^ BellyBelly.com.au, Men at Birth - Should your bloke be there?
  27. ^ "European Biotech Company Biocell Center Opens First U.S. Facility for Preservation of Amniotic Stem Cells in Medford, Massachusetts | Reuters". http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS166682+22-Oct-2009+PRN20091022. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  28. ^ "Europe's Biocell Center opens Medford office - Daily Business Update - The Boston Globe". http://www.boston.com/business/ticker/2009/10/europes_biocell.html. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  29. ^ "The Ticker - BostonHerald.com". http://www.bostonherald.com/business/general/view/20091022the_ticker. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  30. ^ "Mortality and Burden of Disease Estimates for WHO Member States in 2002" (xls). World Health Organization. 2002. http://www.who.int/entity/healthinfo/statistics/bodgbddeathdalyestimates.xls. 
  31. ^ "Mortality and Burden of Disease Estimates for WHO Member States in 2002" (xls). World Health Organization. 2002. http://www.who.int/entity/healthinfo/statistics/bodgbddeathdalyestimates.xls. 
  32. ^ "Maternal mortality ratio falling too slowly to meet goal". WHO. October 12, 2007.
  33. ^ Warwick, R., & Williams, P.L, ed (1973). Gray’s Anatomy (35th ed.). London: Longman.  pp.1046
  34. ^ "WHO Disease and injury country estimates". World Health Organization. 2009. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/estimates_country/en/index.html. Retrieved Nov. 11, 2009. 
  35. ^ "Sexually transmitted infections: Infections and Transmission". World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs110/en/. 
  36. ^ Van Lerberghe W, De Brouwere V. Of blind alleys and things that have worked: history’s lessons on reducing maternal mortality. In: De Brouwere V, Van Lerberghe W, eds. Safe motherhood strategies: a review of the evidence. Antwerp, ITG Press, 2001 (Studies in Health Services Organisation and Policy, 17:7–33).
  37. ^ "Perinatal death associated with planned home birth in Australia: population based study". BMJ. 317(7155):384-8. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/short/317/7155/384. Retrieved May 28 2005. 
  38. ^ van Handel M, Swaab H, de Vries LS, Jongmans MJ (July 2007). "Long-term cognitive and behavioral consequences of neonatal encephalopathy following perinatal asphyxia: a review". Eur. J. Pediatr. 166 (7): 645–54. doi:10.1007/s00431-007-0437-8. PMID 17426984. PMC 1914268. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=17426984. 
  39. ^ Having a Great Birth in Australia, David Vernon, Australian College of Midwives, 2005 p56

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

The following are some of the Biblical and Talmudical details touching the birth of children:

Contents

In the Bible.

.The child might be brought into the world with or without a midwife (Gen 38:28; Ex 1:15 et seq.; compare Mishnah R. H. ii.^ By giving women the basic information they need to understand the birthing process we can change the way babies are brought into the world and how mothers are born.
  • Joyful Childbirth- Pregnancy Massage, Birth Doulas, Hypnobirthing and more 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.joyfulchildbirth.co.nz [Source type: General]

^ Bringing a child into the world is a long remembered experience.
  • Childbirth Education - Women Services - Hospital Services - Mercy Hospital 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.mercymiami.org [Source type: News]

^ View inspiring movies and clips that truly reveal the beauty of bringing a child into the world.

5; Oh. vii. 6). .The expression in Gen 30:3, "she shall bear upon my knees," and similar phrases fire to be taken literally (see Ploss, "Das Weib," and compare the sayingin Gen.^ We shall see what lies ahead for this baby in my belly… .
  • Childbirth & Beyond...Naturally 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.blogsmonroe.com [Source type: General]

.R. lx., "'Twixt wife and midwife the child of the poor woman perishes"; see also Dukes, "Blumenlese," p.^ Military How many kids can you have before your wife blows up A woman can't blow up from child birth !
  • Child Birth | ChaCha Answers 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.chacha.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps the most famous test says: to see if a woman will or will not bear a child.
  • Egypt: Childbirth and Children in Ancient Egypt, A Feature Tour Egypt Story 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.touregypt.net [Source type: Original source]

128). .Immediately after birth the infant was bathed, rubbed with salt, and wrapped in swaddling-clothes (Ezek 16:4 et seq.).^ Immediately after delivery, the infant placed in a warm bath to ease its transition to life outside the womb.
  • Pregnancy - Tips while you are Giving Birth to a Child | Pregnancy Complications and Defects 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.pregnancychildbirth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Josephus ("Contra Ap." ii. 26) says: "The law does not permit us [the Jews] to make festivals at the birth of our children, and thereby to occasion drinking to excess." The child was usually suckled by its mother, but sometimes by a wet-nurse (Gen 35:8; II kings xi. 2, 3; III Mace. i. 20). .Thirty-three days after the birth of a male child, and sixty-six after that of a female child, the mother offered up a sacrifice of purification (Lev 12:2 et seq.; see Circumicision and Redemption of the First-born).^ Male Birth Conrol Enter Here : → Male Birth Conrol ← The other reason stems from inherent differences in male and female anatomy.
  • Male Birth Conrol 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ DU-A'A 230 If there is no birth of a child within a reasonable time, fast for there three consecutive days and recite verse 74 of Furqan (see du-a'a 229(ii) 21 times before going to sleep.
  • Dua'a for child birth-pregnancy-delivery 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.duas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Dorothy's clients A and L called at 5 PM,they thought she might be in labor (with her first baby)- baby boy Maddox born at 12:01 AM after a quick but intense labor.
  • Your Best Birth Childbirth Services | Facebook 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: General]

The weaning, often long deferred, was accompanied by sacrifices and festivities.
.The cradle is said to have been first used in Isaac's time; it occurs in similes, as with Homer (Gen.^ It is the first-time the 50-year-old has responded to claims that she is using her...
  • Childbirth | Metro.co.uk 20 September 2009 6:38 UTC search.metro.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ In fact 9% of first time mothers and 24% of experienced mothers said they had low levels of pain.

^ "As of right now, we're still in the first, second draft of the script", she said, "So a little bit of time—at least a year."
  • Alicia Keys Gossip 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.celebnextdoor.com [Source type: General]
  • Boston University School of Theology 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC sthweb.bu.edu [Source type: General]

R. liii. 10; lxix. 3; Bacher, Ag. Pal. Amor., pp. 126, 344). On it were hung bells, which generally were employed together with amulets in order to guard children against demons ("Monatsschrift," 1900, p. 382; compare Blau, "Zauberwesen," pp. 90, 160; "Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Jüdische Volkskunde," v. 75, note 5, Hamburg, 1900).
.A woman during confinement is recommended to particular attention; and her death is ascribed to negligence of the duties specially prescribed for Jewish women (Shab.^ Women Should Eat Healthy Before Pregnancy What a woman eats in the days and weeks prior to conception may impact her child's health, in addition to what she eats during pregnancy.
  • Childbirth Pictures and Information : Doctor-Reviewed Articles at Healthline.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.healthline.com [Source type: General]

^ I recommend that every pregnant woman should educate themselves about what happens in your body during childbirth.
  • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder After Childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some women like to have someone to support them during labor and birth, such as the father of the baby, the woman's mother, a sister, a close friend, a partner or a doula .
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

ii. 6; concerning the origin of leprosy among children, compare Lev. R. xv. 5). .New-born children, according to the Talmud as well as the Bible, were sprinkled with salt (Shab.^ Parents are struggling to answer their childrens basic questions about the planet, outer space and the human body according to new research released today.
  • Baby Names, Childbirth Pregnancy Advice, Birthing 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.thebabywebsite.com [Source type: General]

^ Trismus nascentium, well-marked cases of spastic rigidity of new-born children.
  • Neonatology on the Web: Little - On the Influence ... 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.neonatology.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Home Versus Hospital Births Babies born at planned home births with registered midwives are just as likely to survive as babies born in the hospital, according to a new study.
  • Childbirth Pictures and Information : Doctor-Reviewed Articles at Healthline.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.healthline.com [Source type: General]

129b; compare Jerome and Galen in Wiesner, "Scholien," ii. 248); those that made no sound were rubbed with the afterbirth (Wunderbar, in "Orient. Lit." 1850, p. 104; Hamburger, "R. B. T." ii. 256). .Air was breathed into those born apparently inanimate; and a beaker filled with hot coals was held near the mouth of one that refused the breast, to stimulate the action of the facial muscles (Shab.^ In this case, when one or more kittens have been born, the mother will cease straining and rest quite happily, suckling those kittens already born.
  • feline parturition 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.fabcats.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The drugs cross into the baby's bloodstream and, occasionally, the baby may be slow to start breathing when born.

^ Choosing the hospital or birthing center that you will bring your new little one into this world in is one of those choices.

134a). .Operations to assist birth were known (compare Rabbinowicz, "La Médecine du Talmud," l.^ In a 1991 study comparing physician-assisted births with midwife-assisted births, midwives had a 19 percent lower infant mortality rate.
  • CNN - Natural childbirth options - May 20, 1999 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

29). It was considered a heathen custom to fasten a piece of iron on the bed for the protection of the woman (Tosef., Shab. vi. [vii.] .4), as well as, on the night before circumcision, to place on the table viands which should not be touched (Shulḥan 'Aruk Yoreh De'ah, 178, 3, gloss; 179, 17; Compare M. Schuhl, "Superstitions et Coutumes Populaires du Judaïsme Contemporain," p.^ To maintain effectiveness, condoms should be stored in a cool place(not wallet or hip pocket) and they should be inspected for small tears before use.
  • Pregnancy - Tips while you are Giving Birth to a Child | Pregnancy Complications and Defects 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.pregnancychildbirth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Condoms must be rolled on the penis before the penis touches the vagina, and held in place when the penis is removed from the vagina after ejaculation.
  • Pregnancy - Tips while you are Giving Birth to a Child | Pregnancy Complications and Defects 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.pregnancychildbirth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

6). .The use of a Torah scroll as a charm for easing birth (Pithe Teshubah on Yoreh De'ah, 179, 9) and for the protection of the child (Yoreh De'ah, l.c.; Maimonides, "Yad" Hil.^ An experienced attorney knows the right questions to ask, is familiar with medical aspects of birth injury lawsuits, and can help to protect the parents and child throughout the course of the birth injury lawsuit.

^ She had a very large head and got stuck in the birth canal, and the doctor ended up cutting me a little and using forceps to ease her out.
  • Natural Childbirth - LIME 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.lime.com [Source type: General]

^ It totally helped ease the pain in the early stages of labor" - Joanne R "I used an ELLE TENS for the birth of my baby.
  • Canada Childbirth TENS - Calgary, Alberta, Canada 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC canadachildbirthtens.com [Source type: General]

'Akkum, xi. 12) seems to be of early date; and the origin of the ceremony of lighting candles on the "watchnight"—i.e., the night before circumcision—is to be ascribed to the Talmud (Yer. Ket. i. 25c; Sanh. 32b).

Customs and Superstitions.

.In Rumania, as soon as the labor-pains of the woman begin, all the female inmates of the house loosen their hair.^ I labored all though the house.
  • Child Birth Videos 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were forced to a halt by reason of a river, and the woman, feeling the pains of labor approaching, retired to a thicket, and there alone brought forth twins.
  • Rapid Parturition Without Usual Symptoms : Anomalies and Curiosities of Medicine 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.enotalone.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If possible, though, administration of pain medication or anesthetics should be delayed until the active phase of labor begins -- at which point the medication will not act to slow down or stop the labor.
  • Childbirth | Encyclopedia of Medicine | Find Articles at BNET 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

.In Poland, for the purpose of easing birth, all knots in the woman's clothing are untied; and she wraps herself in a "mappah" or "wimpel"; that is, the band which is wound around the Torah.^ The baby was so blue because the umbilical cord was wrapped around its neck, which happens in about one third of all births and is not a crisis most of the time.
  • Natural Childbirth Video — ChildBirth Video 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC childbirthvideo.biz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Birth Conrol Certificate - At BIRTH everyone should receive a Certificate for 1/ 2 of a All that young male testosterone running around?????
  • Male Birth Conrol 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Birth is viewed as a natural, common occurrence that requires time, patience, strength and endurance -- all well within a woman's capabilities.
  • CNN - Natural childbirth options - May 20, 1999 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

In the Caucasus the woman is held in the strictest seclusion. .For seven weeks prior to her expected accouchement no one, except the midwife and the female relatives, is allowed to see her.^ If preterm labor is expected: If a baby is pre-term, two weeks or more prior to due date, water birth is not recommended.
  • American Pregnancy Association : Labor & Birth : Water Birth 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC www.americanpregnancy.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A premature baby is one that weighs less than five and one-half pounds or one that is born before seven months (twenty-eight weeks) of gestation.
  • Emergency Child Birth Instructions and Pictures 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.med-help.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no logic to any of it everyone knows that and no one sees what she is doing but me.
  • Issues around "Mother's Day" ??? ... [Archive] - Christian Recovery Forums 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.christianrecovery.com [Source type: Original source]

.On the night of birth the door of the lying-in room is locked; one light burns near to the mezuzab, and another next to the hearth (Chorny, "Sefer ha-Massa'ot be-Ereẓ Ḳauḳaz," pp.^ While these techniques are not for everyone, they have the potential to open the door to natural birth for all families and allow them to consider the birth experience in terms of "love, light and consciousness."

^ It is interesting that what people call "natural" is a birth surrounded by people the mother never met in a brightly lighted room full of glistening silver tools.
  • Child Birth Videos 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The birthing room should be calm and quiet, with dimmed lights and gentle music.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

196, 296). .Despite the repeated prohibition of their rabbis, the Caucasian Jews practise the superstitious custom of mixing in a glass of water some earth from the grave of one deceased within the last forty (days, and giving it to the parturient woman to drink.^ In the last thirty days of pregnancy, you will notice some physiologic changes in your mare.
  • HP: March 2002 Quarter Horse Issue 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.horse-previews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As stated by one writer, "While it is possible to predict the time of calving within a day or so, advanced prediction of calving time to within an hour or so is impossible.
  • Intravaginal parturition alarm and method for use - Patent 4651137 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Another recommendation I have is to read some books, such as Birthing From Within, Ina Mae Gaskin's new one, Henci Goer's The Thinking Woman's Guide as a Better Birth.
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Childbirth Prep Classes 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.If it is not effective the dose is repeated with earth obtained at a greater depth.^ Some hospital-based educators have advocated effectively using evidence to obtain greater autonomy in teaching.

In Poland and Galicia the custom still obtains that once prevailed in Germany, of making a chalk-mark around the lying-in chamber or of describing black circles on the wall. .It is also the practise in many places to hang Psalm-verses over the woman's bed (the same custom obtains among Christians in Germany; see L. Löw, "Lebensalter," pp.^ An epidural is placed with the woman lying on her side or sitting up in bed with the back rounded to allow more space between the vertebrae.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Childbirth - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment 20 September 2009 6:38 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

75 et seq.). Sometimes. Ps 202 is inscribed on the door, and the following invocation is recited: " May He who harkened to thy mother, harken to thee also!" InHesse a circle is drawn with chalk on the floor, and the verse, "My help cometh from the Lord," etc. (Ps 1212), is written within it. In Kurdistan and elsewhere in the Orient, sweet-smelling herbs are burned in a censer, with which first the synagogue and then the lying-in room are perfumed. In Poland the Book of Raziel is laid under the head of the woman, and white cloths are hung at the windows and around the bed.
In older Jewish recipe-books ("Mitteilungen," v. 58 et seq.) the following directions are given:

Recipes in Old Books.

.Whisper into the ear of the woman in travail: "And Moses spake unto the people, Get thee out, and all the people that follow thee; and after that I will go out.^ Is it true that a bumpy car ride can cause a pregnant woman to go into labor?
  • Labor & Delivery | BabyCenter 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.babycenter.com [Source type: General]

^ In fact, all of my friends who used the CD were completely chilled out when we went into labor.

^ Signs of Going into Labor Every woman, once pregnant, has but one question she seeks an answer to, the question is "what are the signs of going into labor?".
  • Childbirth - Labor and Delivery 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: General]

And he went out" (Ex 11:8; compare Raziel, 43a). .Or write on a "Ränftel" (head) of cheese to be given her to eat, "Satur arepo tenet opera rutas" (made up of "Sator [are] poten [ter] et opera[re] r[ati]o t[u]a s[it]"; compare Steinschneider, " Hebr.^ They're not made up.
  • 6 Terrifying Things They Don't Tell You About Childbirth | Cracked.com 20 September 2009 6:38 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bibl." xvii.60; idem, "Cat. Bodl." No.100). Orwhisper in her right ear: "He went up on Mount Sinai and heard a calling and a crying. And he spoke unto the Lord: 'What meaneth this calling and this crying that I hear?' .The Lord answered him: 'It is the voice of a woman in labor.^ Signs of Going into Labor Every woman, once pregnant, has but one question she seeks an answer to, the question is "what are the signs of going into labor?".
  • Childbirth - Labor and Delivery 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: General]

.Now go and say unto her: "Get thee out!^ Everything worked out well, and now I am going to be a new grandmother soon!
  • Natural Childbirth - LIME 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.lime.com [Source type: General]

The earth demands thee!" .And all these thy servants shall come down unto Me and bow down themselves unto Me.^ I was on all fours between contractions but sitting back on my haunches during the pushing which helped her come down tremendously.
  • A Much Better Blog » Unassisted Childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC blog.amuchbetterway.com [Source type: General]

saying, ."Get thee out, and all the people that follow,"'" etc.^ A quick ride to the hospital followed (he wanted to come out so quickly)… Like all women I just wanted the baby OUT! Finally I got this incredible urge to push.

.Or mix the fat (or milk) of a bitch with water and give it to the woman to drink.^ If she wont eat, try serving her a bowl of warm condensed milk, mixed with an equal amount of water and two raw egg yolks.
  • Doggies.com |Dog Birth 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC www.doggies.com [Source type: General]

^ If a woman was given milk from one who had already borne a male child, and the milk was mixed with melon puree, if it made the woman sick, she was pregnant.
  • Egypt: Childbirth and Children in Ancient Egypt, A Feature Tour Egypt Story 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.touregypt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The remedy went like this: mix the kheper-wer plant (identity now unknown), honey, water of carob, milk, strain and place in the vagina.
  • Egypt: Childbirth and Children in Ancient Egypt, A Feature Tour Egypt Story 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.touregypt.net [Source type: Original source]

Or stand at the door next to the mezuzah and read the "Hafṭarah Shofeṭim" (Isa. li.); then say Gen 21:1, and pronounce the Lord's name thus, (missing hebrew text) (= "Get thee out!"). Or strew ground black pepper under the woman in labor; . . . or place a ram's horn in her hand, or the skin of a snake on her heart: . . . or the eyes and bladder of a .salt herring; or let another woman put her hand on her and say with her Ps 196; or lay upon her a clay vessel on which is inscribed: (missing hebrew text) ; or write on a kosher parchment the magic square (compare Abraham ibn Ezra.^ Despite what the obstetrical texts say about what to expect, there are many variations that make each woman's experience hers alone.
  • childbirth Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

"Yesod Mora," ed. Creizenach, p. 125), and lay it on the spot where the tefillin are laid; or place between her teeth a silver ring on which has been inscribed with a new gravingtool: (missing hebrew text) (compare "Mitteilungen," iii. 67, No. 123). .If the child dies in the womb, the gall of an ox should be mixed with water and given to the woman.^ If a woman was given milk from one who had already borne a male child, and the milk was mixed with melon puree, if it made the woman sick, she was pregnant.
  • Egypt: Childbirth and Children in Ancient Egypt, A Feature Tour Egypt Story 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.touregypt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ With child birth enemas should be just plain water, or perhaps a little salt if your blood pressure is good, or baking soda.
  • Enemas & Childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.lifeknox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Enemas & Childbirth 20 September 2009 6:38 UTC www.lifeknox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is further stated in the same recipe-books that Sannui, Sansannui, and Samangaluf ( (missing hebrew text) (missing hebrew text) ) are known as the great and noble angels whom men call upon to protect women in labor against Lilith, and whose names written in any locality, even if on the wall, serve to exorcise Lilith's brood therefrom.^ Giving Birth A Man's Right to Reproductive Choices This article calls for a solution to the inequality between men and women in making post-conception reproductive choices.

^ Today, many women, as well as mainstream health-care professionals, are speaking up against the current culture of childbirth, and changes are happening, even in hospitals.
  • Childbirth | Crazy Sexy Life 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC crazysexylife.com [Source type: General]

^ The god Thoth was also often called upon for help, and the goddess Hathor , guardian of women and domestic bliss, was believed to be present at every birth.
  • Egypt: Childbirth and Children in Ancient Egypt, A Feature Tour Egypt Story 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.touregypt.net [Source type: Original source]

Therefore, it is effective to write these names in the four cardinal points near the woman, especially at an opening, as at a door or window." This prescription against the beautiful Lilith, Adam's first wife (compare second part of Goethe's "Faust"), was zealously observed (see the satire of Isaac Erter in "Kerem Ḥemed," iii. 106, and Flögel-Ebeling, "Gesch. des Grotesk-Komischen." p. 14).

Lilith and Amulets.

Older amulets for the lying-in chamber contained the following (see illustration to Amulet; compare "Mitteilungen," ii. 79 et seq.; v. 61, 47; on "Zakar," ib. v. 35): "Adam and Eve," within (compare ib. i. 91; "Am Urquell," ii. 144, 196; iv. 95); "Lilith and the first Eve," without, "Sannui, Sansannui, Samangaluf, Shumriel, Ḥasdiel." The text continues: "In the name of the Lord God of Israel, who reigns over the cherubim, whose name is mighty and fearful, Elijah the prophet—may he be mentioned for good!—once went upon his way and met Lilith, with all her kith and kin. And he said unto Lilith, the fiend: Thou unrivaled in impurity, and ye, ye goodly crew, whither are ye going?' .She answered: 'My master Elijah, I am going where I may find a woman in travail.^ Maybe you can go and find some toys to play with," she said patting my leg again before she got up and walked away.

^ My husband and I took the standard child birth class at Alta Bates this past May with a woman named Jennifer (can't remember her last name but it was hyphenated).
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Childbirth Prep Classes 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

.I will cause a deep sleep to come upon her, and I will rob her of her new-born child.^ The Egyptians were always anxious to now the future, and in order to ascertain the destiny of new-born children they relied upon the seven Hathor s, who hovered over a childs cradle and announced his destiny.
  • Egypt: Childbirth and Children in Ancient Egypt, A Feature Tour Egypt Story 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.touregypt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In this case considerable effusion of blood was discovered in both ventricles of brain -- a true apoplexy in the new-born child without mechanical injury.
  • Neonatology on the Web: Little - On the Influence ... 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.neonatology.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At Case 147 he speaks of hematorachis causing tetanus of new-born child.
  • Neonatology on the Web: Little - On the Influence ... 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.neonatology.org [Source type: Original source]

I will drink its blood, and suck its marrow, and devour its flesh.' And Elijah—may he be mentioned for good!—spake angrily: May God, blessed be He! banish you hence! .May you become stiff and stark as stone!'^ You may not need a Pap test and pelvic exam until 2 to 3 years after you become sexually active.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Be aware that an intervention may become necessary even one you assumed you would never need.
  • Pregnancy - Tips while you are Giving Birth to a Child | Pregnancy Complications and Defects 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.pregnancychildbirth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lilith replied: 'For God's sake, spare me, and I will get me hence. .I swear to you by the name of the Lord God of Israel, I will desist from my intent upon the woman and her child; and whenever I hear my name called I will go away.^ And because I’ve had 2 children of my own - both medicated and natural –I know first hand what you’re going through right now.

^ I called out to God with all my might, again and again.

^ I wanted to scream at the top of my lungs to that woman: Just because I'm a child doesn't mean I don't have any feelings of my own!

.Now I will tell unto you my names; and whenever they are spoken, neither I nor those that are mine will have the power to do harm or to go to the house of a woman in labor, or to do her any evil.^ She tells you that you are going to have an enema.
  • Enemas & Childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.lifeknox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Enemas & Childbirth 20 September 2009 6:38 UTC www.lifeknox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When you see the results of that awesome session you had to create the mix of genes that is now the most beautiful thing you have ever seen, none of those crazy details matter.
  • 6 Terrifying Things They Don't Tell You About Childbirth | Cracked.com 20 September 2009 6:38 UTC www.cracked.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Childbirth education classes are often recommended near the sixth or seventh month of pregnancy — but anytime before you go into labor would be helpful.
  • OhioHealth - Childbirth education: Get ready for labor and delivery 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: General]

These are my names: Lilith, Abitu [compare "Mitteilungen," v. 80, (missing hebrew text) (missing hebrew text) of the Mandæans); I. Wohlstein, "Dämonenbeschwörungen aus Nachtalmudischer Zeit," pp. 52, 57, Berlin, 1894; "Zeitschrift für Assyriologie und Verwandte Gebiete," ix. 136], Abihu, Amsarfu, Hagash, Ores, Iḳpodu, Iylu, Tatrota, Abhanuḳtah, Satruna, [probably to be compared with (missing hebrew text) ; "Mitteilungen," v. 57]. Ḳahkatasa, Thilathuy, Piratsha. . . .'"
Amulets such as are described in " Mitteilungen," i. 91 et seq., and others having inscribed on them "Magen David," the signs of the zodiac, and Ps. lxvii., are still in use and may be obtained at any Jewish book-shop. When travail is difficult a Torah-roll is brought into the room.
Old representations show the employment of delivery-chairs (compare Müller-Schlossar, "Haggadah von Sarajevo"). .In Rumania the child stays in the bed with its mother as long as she remains there, and a sefer (any holy book) is placed under its pillow.^ It attempts to avoid overstimulation of the baby and to foster mother-child bonding by placing the baby on the mother's abdomen and having the mother massage him or her immediately after the birth.
  • Childbirth - Definition, Description, Causes and symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment 20 September 2009 6:38 UTC health.stateuniversity.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cord will usually be long enough for you to place the baby on the mother's abdo- men; help her to hold the baby there in a side-lying position.   .
  • Emergency Child Birth Instructions and Pictures 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.med-help.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Emergency Child Birth Steps to Take In an Emergency Child Birth Situation EVALUATING THE MOTHER As a general guideline, there are three cases in which you should not try to transport the mother to a...
  • Emergency Child Birth Instructions and Pictures 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.med-help.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Into its first bath are put pieces of bread and sugar. In Poland the rocking of an empty cradle is avoided. .If any one comes with a basket into a house in which there is a new-born child, a piece is cut from the basket and laid in the cradle, in order that the infant may not be robbed of sleep and rest.^ Pethidine (with or without promethazine ) may be used early in labour, as well as other opioids , but if given too close to birth there is a risk of respiratory depression in the infant.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They believe that this is a more soothing way to come into the world -- going from one watery place to another.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is some space in the house because Theo has moved into an apartment, but Cliff is still less than thrilled.
  • The Cosby Show Episodes - Most Popular 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.tv.com [Source type: General]

.For the same reason care is taken not to remove from such a house utensils of any kind, especially such as hold burning coals.^ To say I’ve never been more relieved is such an understatement it’s kind of a shame; I should probably not be allowed to write until I can actually pass a reasonable stool.
  • childbirth « Exploiting My Baby : A Blog by Teresa Strasser 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC teresastrasser.com [Source type: General]

^ Great care must be taken not to inflict contact burns by having the bottle too hot.
  • feline parturition 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.fabcats.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Women anesthetized, and whose babies are taken away from them at birth do not develop the same attachment as those who bear them in pain and care from them unceasingly at birth.
  • Enemas & Childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.lifeknox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Enemas & Childbirth 20 September 2009 6:38 UTC www.lifeknox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Customs After Birth.

.If the child is born with a caul, the latter is taken as a sign of good luck (the same is the case in Iceland; compare Grinim, "Märchen," ii 59), and is preserved for a talisman.^ Born in Caul , delivery means the baby was born still in the amniotic sac, This is said to be good luck!

^ In medieval times, and in some cultures still today, a caul was seen as a sign of good fortune for the baby, even giving the child psychic gifts such as clairvoyance , and in some cultures was seen as protection against drowning.
  • Childbirth encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this case considerable effusion of blood was discovered in both ventricles of brain -- a true apoplexy in the new-born child without mechanical injury.
  • Neonatology on the Web: Little - On the Influence ... 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.neonatology.org [Source type: Original source]

.A boy is welcomed into the world with the words: (missing hebrew text) (missing hebrew text) ("A boy is born to the world; a blessing has come into the world"), but at a girl's birth the walls weep.^ Montefiore’s highly skilled and compassionate obstetric staff welcomes nearly 4,500 babies into the world each year.

^ In the western world girls are brought up to perceive birth as extremely painful, but women in some other cultures of the world expect to give birth calmly and quietly.

^ They believe that this is a more soothing way to come into the world -- going from one watery place to another.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is a belief in Rumania that until the completion of the first year of its life the child speaks with God and the angels.^ And in my own private life, my first child birth was a debilitating and traumatic medicated event… .

^ He was always there A year later I gave birth to our first child.

^ She was pretty excited to see a human placenta and grandpa later commented that it is the first (and probably only) time in his life that a three year old said “Hey grandpa!
  • A Much Better Blog » Unassisted Childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC blog.amuchbetterway.com [Source type: General]

The latter show it golden fruit in its sleep; if it can grasp the fruit, it laughs; if it can not, it weeps. Elsewhere a child's laughing in its sleep is said to betoken thatit is playing with the angel of death; therefore it is recommended that the child be lightly tapped on the mouth.
A child should not be kissed on the feet, since this is the custom at the "meḥillah prayer"; that is, on asking the dead for forgiveness. .A child must not be held before a mirror, else a second child will be born within the year.^ After just 2 and a half short hours, my second child Luke was born… .

^ One case was that of a negro, a twin, the second born; labour was tedious, the child still-born, several minutes having elapsed before respiration was established.
  • Neonatology on the Web: Little - On the Influence ... 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.neonatology.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Contractions will continue, and the second and subsequent babies should be born within minutes.
  • Emergency Child Birth Instructions and Pictures 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.med-help.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

If the hair be cut, the child will get an elf-lock. Scurf ("pareḥ"; compare Lev 13:12) gives promise of beautiful hair (compare "Mitteilungen," i. 81 on "ḥalaḥah"). .The woman who has been delivered must not be left alone.^ If you ask any woman, who has vaginally delivered a baby, the process of bearing down and having a bowel movement is the same.
  • Enemas & Childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.lifeknox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Enemas & Childbirth 20 September 2009 6:38 UTC www.lifeknox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The part that is left out of the equation is that orgasm is half emotional and for most woman their focus is on delivering a healthy baby not achieving physical pleasure.
  • Orgasms During Childbirth? - Motherlode Blog - NYTimes.com 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parenting.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ As every woman who delivers a child knows, labor and delivery subject the body to forces that are not encountered in any other circumstance.
  • Childbirth and Incontinence - Amy E. Rosenman M.D. 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.rosenmanmd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Under her pillow or under the mattress is laid a knife, without which she may never leave her bed. .Or a dagger is stuck in the ground near her head; and daily for thirty days it is carried three times around her couch.^ Forceps are the spoon-shaped metal instruments that are sometimes inserted into the mother's vagina and placed around the baby's head at the time of delivery.
  • Childbirth and Incontinence - Amy E. Rosenman M.D. 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.rosenmanmd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Combination pills are also taken daily but without as much attention to the time of day.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the time that an episiotomy may be performed or the doctor may use a vacuum or forceps if the baby's head seems to be getting stuck.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In northern Germany this serves to guard against the werwolf (Wuttke, "Der Deutsche Volksaberglaube der Gegenwart," p. 260), or, according to Grimm ("Mythologie," xc.), against the wicked fairies (for the customs among the Romans see Pliny, "Historia Naturalis," xxxiv. 44). While making the circuit with the dagger about the bed the following verses are sung:
"Ich mache einen Kreis Den Gott wohl weiss. . . . Also mancher Ziegel ist auf diesem Dach, Also mancher Engel bei uns wach!"
(Translation.)
.I make a circle (Which God well knows): As many tiles as are on this roof, So many angels keep watch o'er us!^ WHAT WERE YOUR FAVORITE EPISODES? All of them In college, guys would try and make dates with us to come by and watch Cosby together.
  • Cosby Show [Archive] - GreekChat.com Forums 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.greekchat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But also has a lot of obscure medical history-- some many of us would rather not know, perhaps.
  • Elena Greene's Notes on History of Pregnancy and Childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.elenagreene.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do you know how many times I've heard, "Well, you're the Christian and you have do X or think Y".
  • Issues around "Mother's Day" ??? ... [Archive] - Christian Recovery Forums 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.christianrecovery.com [Source type: Original source]

At a hard labor three or four women pray:
"Auf meinem rechten Fuss tret' ich, Gott, den Herrn, bitt' ich, Dass er entbind."
(Translation.)
.I press upon my right foot, God, the Lord, entreating, That He may deliver!^ Though I may never know why this had to happen it does not mean I have to turn my back on God.

^ I may not understand His ways but there is one thing I do know; God loves me, He loves my brother, He loves us all.

.During the same thirty days in which the dagger is carried about the bed the school-children recite the evening prayers in the lying-in chamber, in order to keep off the "Benemmerin" (pixies); that is, elves.^ Ideally, it would be great if we could bear our children at home in the same bed they were conceived in - but sometimes reality bites!
  • What Women Aren't Told About Childbirth | Health and Wellness | AlterNet 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ If not, moving around in the bed - even if you have to use a bed-pan can help to bring about the birth quicker.
  • Natural Child Birth Tips – Pregnancy Education – Postpartum Care 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC childbirth.lifetips.com [Source type: General]

^ I mean, what are the chances that Brooke Shields and her arch-nemesis, Tom Cruise , would welcome new children into the world on the same day (Tuesday)?

.In Hamburg, for the protection of mother and child a skein of red silk is bound about the child's wrists (see "Am Urquell," iv.^ If this is a first child, you will have time to transport unless the mother's vagina is bulging and you can see the crown of the baby's head in the birth canal.
  • Emergency Child Birth Instructions and Pictures 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.med-help.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

96). Of efficacy against "Frau Holle" is the "Holle Kreisch" (compare Löw, l.c. p. 105; Bodenschatz, "Kirchliche Verfassung," iv. 73; "Mitteilungen," iv. 146, v. 7). .Here may be mentioned the custom existing in Breslau of scattering almonds and raisins on the first Simḥat Torah after birth.^ If this is not your first pregnancy, you may want reminders of what is available to you, how to participate fully, and what your support person can do to help during the labor and birth.
  • Denver Childbirth Classes | Baby Classes | Hypnobirthing | Bradley Method 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC oursweetbeginnings.com [Source type: General]

^ The first named is the only one who distinctly enunciates that hemiplegia and idiocy may follow injury received at birth.
  • Neonatology on the Web: Little - On the Influence ... 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.neonatology.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Breast-feeding may work as a form of birth control in the first 6 months after giving birth if you follow specific guidelines.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The night before circumcision (watch-night or wheat-night), and in Palestine every night between birth and circumcision, for the protection of the child the people in the house "study" (compare Grünbaum, in Winter and Wünsche, "Die Jüdische Litteratur," iii.^ I took the VBAC class in October and the Child Birth Refresher course in January, just a week and a half before having a successful VBAC (all at Alta Bates).
  • Berkeley Parents Network: Childbirth Prep Classes 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC parents.berkeley.edu [Source type: General]

^ The best method of birth control is one that protects you every time you have sex.
  • Birth Control - Yahoo! Health 11 September 2009 9:59 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this 7 part natural child birth series your mind will open to a new world of possibilities and options you may not have heard before.

587). At Salonica a ballad is sung on the watch-night (compare "Rev. Etudes Juives," 1896, ii. 138 et seq.). .In Palestine, on the night before the circumcision an oil-lamp with many wicks is brought into the house, and there is general rejoicing.^ There is some space in the house because Theo has moved into an apartment, but Cliff is still less than thrilled.
  • The Cosby Show Episodes - Most Popular 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.tv.com [Source type: General]

^ Doctors weren't brought into the process unless there were complications, which still sometimes resulted in the death of the mother, the baby, or both.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After a short while lots of people that I had never seen before started coming into the house.

In Upper Silesia the knife for circumcision must be in the house the night before the ceremony. The Friday evening before circumcision ("Zakar") a feast is spread, to which every one is welcomed. In Hamburg, peas with pepper, whisky, and cake are provided; among the Portuguese, nasturtium seeds; in Poland, "fristtlech" ("faworiski"; that is, a thin pastry mixed with oil), round peas, and mead ("Mitteilungen," i. 100).
.Most of these customs and superstitions are not of Jewish origin; but, as a review of Grimm's "Mythologie" and Wuttke's work (see bibliography below) shows, they have been borrowed from neighboring peoples.^ PM Originally posted by CrimsonTide4 They showed the grandparents and WOW the granddad has aged.
  • Cosby Show [Archive] - GreekChat.com Forums 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.greekchat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But when most people hear "childbirth classes," they don't think so much about the information aspect.
  • Howstuffworks "How Childbirth Works" 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC health.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AM Originally posted by DELTAQTE And I almost jumped for joy when they showed peter.
  • Cosby Show [Archive] - GreekChat.com Forums 19 September 2009 15:12 UTC www.greekchat.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For parturient women the regulations are the same as for the Niddah. .At the birth of a male the bath (miḳweh) may not be taken before the expiration of eight days; at the birth of a female, not before fifteen days, provided clean white linen has been put on and the seven days of purification have taken place within that time.^ Trying to keep the place reasonably clean for a birth video any day.
  • A Much Better Blog » Unassisted Childbirth 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC blog.amuchbetterway.com [Source type: General]

^ A premature baby is one that weighs less than five and one-half pounds or one that is born before seven months (twenty-eight weeks) of gestation.
  • Emergency Child Birth Instructions and Pictures 10 February 2010 13:19 UTC www.med-help.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As stated by one writer, "While it is possible to predict the time of calving within a day or so, advanced prediction of calving time to within an hour or so is impossible.
  • Intravaginal parturition alarm and method for use - Patent 4651137 12 September 2009 15:59 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

Where it is the custom for the women to visit the miḳweh at the end of forty days after bearing a male, and fifty after bearing a female, regulations are made accordingly (Yoreh De'ah, 19, 4).
Bibliography: A. Lewysohn, Meḳore Minhagim, Berlin, 1846; L. Löw, Die Lebensalter, Szegedin, 1875; Luncz, Jerusalem, i. 21 et seq., Vienna, 1882; Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Jüdische Volkskunde, Hamburg, 1898 et seq.; S. Rubin, Gesch. des Aberglaubens, German translation by I. Stern, Leipsic; Schudt, Jüdische Merkwürdigkeiten, 1714, ii. 6 et seq.; M. Schuhl, Superstitions et Coutumes Populaires du Judaïsme Contemporain. Paris, 1882; J. J. Chorny, Sefer ha-Massa'ot be-Ereẓ Kaukaz, St. Petersburg, 1887; Winer, B. R. s.v. Kinder; Wuttke, Der, Deutsche Volksaberglaube der Gegenwart, Berlin, 1869; S. Schechter. The Child in Jewish Literature, in Studies in Judaism, pp. 343-380, 434-436, London, 1896.
This entry includes text from the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.

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