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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Matteo Ricci (left) and Xu Guangqi (徐光啟) (right) in the Chinese edition of Euclid's Elements (幾何原本) published in 1607.

The Chinese Rites controversy was a dispute within the Catholic Church from the 1630s to the early 18th century[1] about whether Chinese folk religion rites and offerings to the emperor constituted idolatry. Pope Clement XI decided in favor of the Dominicans (who argued that Chinese folk religion and offerings to the emperor were incompatible with Catholicism), which greatly reduced Catholic missionary activity in China.

It was related to larger controversies between the Dominicans and Jesuits over the adoption of local practices of other countries, such as the ascetic brahmin practices of India.[citation needed]

Pope Pius XII modified his predecessor's decision in 1939.


Entry into China


Early adaptation to local customs

The Jesuits of the Jesuit China missions made efforts to adopt Chinese customs. Here Nicolas Trigault (1577-1629) in Chinese costume, by Peter Paul Rubens.

Unlike the American continent, which had been conquered by military force by Spain and Portugal, and was evangelized and converted to an unmodified form of Catholic Christianity, European missionaries encountered in Asia united, literate societies that were as yet untouched by European influence or national endeavour.[2] The Chinese Empire viewed itself as the pinnacle of civilisation, and Europeans as unsophisticated barbarians. Alessandro Valignano, Visitor of the Society of Jesus in Asia, was one of the first Jesuits to argue, in the case of Japan, for an adaptation of Christian customs to the societies of Asia, through his Résolutions and Cérémonial.[3] In China, Matteo Ricci reused the Cérémonial and adapted it the Chinese context. At one point the Jesuits even started to wear the gown of Buddhist monks, before adopting the more prestigious silk gown of Chinese literati.[3]

In a decree signed on 23 March 1656, Pope Alexander VII accepted practices "favorable to Chinese customs", reinforcing 1615 decrees which accepted the usage of the Chinese language in liturgy, a notable exception to the contemporary Latin Catholic discipline which had generally forbidden the use of local languages.[4]

In the 1659 instructions given by the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (known as the Propaganda Fide) to new missionaries to Asia, provisions were clearly made to the effect that adapting to local customs and respecting the habits of the countries to be evangelised was paramount:[5]

"Do not act with zeal, do not put forward any arguments to convince these peoples to change their rites, their customs or their usages, except if they are evidently contrary to the religion [i.e., Catholic Christianity] and morality. What would be more absurd than to bring France, Spain, Italy or any other European country to the Chinese? Do not bring to them our countries, but instead bring to them the Faith, a Faith that does not reject or hurt the rites, nor the usages of any people, provided that these are not distasteful, but that instead keeps and protects them."

Reception in China

Emperor Kangxi with a Jesuit astronomer, Adam Schall. "Tapisserie de Beauvais", 1690-1705.

The Kangxi Emperor, considered one of China's greatest, was at first friendly to the Jesuit Missionaries working in China. He was highly grateful for the services they brought to him, in the areas of astronomy, diplomacy and gun manufacture.[8] The contribution of the Jesuits to artillery had allowed the Chinese Emperor to reconquer Taiwan.[9] Jesuit diplomacy, through the negotiations of Jean-François Gerbillon and Tomas Pereira, had allowed him to stop Russian expansionism in the East through the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689.[9] By the end of the seventeenth century, the Jesuits also had made many converts.

In 1692, Kangxi issued an edict of toleration of Christianity:

The Europeans are very quiet; they do not excite any disturbances in the provinces, they do no harm to anyone, they commit no crimes, and their doctrine has nothing in common with that of the false sects in the empire, nor has it any tendency to excite sedition . . . We decide therefore that all temples dedicated to the Lord of heaven [i.e., the Christian God] in whatever place they may be found, ought to be preserved, and that it may be permitted to all who wish to worship this God to enter these temples, offer him incense, and perform the ceremonies practised according to ancient custom by the Christians. Therefore let no one henceforth offer them any opposition.[10]

The problem

The Society of Jesus (Jesuits) was successful in penetrating China and serving at the Imperial court (see Jesuit China missions). They impressed the Chinese with their knowledge of European astronomy and mechanics, and in fact ran the Imperial Observatory. Their accurate methods allowed the Emperor to successfully predict eclipses, one of his ritual duties. Other Jesuits functioned as court painters. The Jesuits in turn were impressed by the Chinese Confucian elite, and adapted to that lifestyle.

Confucius Sinarum Philosophus ("Life and works of Confucius"), by Father Philippe Couplet and Father Prospero Intorcetta, 1687.

The primary goal of the Jesuits was to spread Catholicism, but here they had a problem. The Chinese elite were attached to Confucianism, while Buddhism and Taoism were mostly practiced by the common people and lower aristocracy of this period. Despite this, all three provided the framework of both state and home life. Part of Confucian and Taoist practices involved veneration of one's ancestors.

Besides the Jesuits, other religious orders such as the Dominicans, Franciscans, and Augustinians started missionary work in China during the 17th century, often coming from the Spanish colony of the Philippines. Contrary to the Jesuits, they refused any adaptation to local customs and wished to apply in China the same tabula rasa principle they had applied in other places,[11] and were horrified by the practices of the Jesuits.[12]

They ignited a heated controversy and brought it to Rome.[13] They raised three main points of contention:[11]

  • Determination of the Chinese word for "God", which was generally accepted as 天主 Tian Zhu (Lord of Heaven), while Jesuits were available to allow Chinese Christians to use 天 Tian (Heaven) or 上帝 Shangdi (Lord of Above / Supreme Emperor)
  • Prohibition for Christians to participate in the season rites for Confucius .
  • Prohibition for Christians of the use of tablets with the forbidden inscription "site of the soul", and to follow the Chinese rites for the ancestor worship.

In Rome, the Jesuits tried to argue that these "Chinese Rites" were social (rather than religious) ceremonies, and that converts should be allowed to continue to participate. (The debate was not, as is sometimes thought, about whether the liturgy could be in Chinese rather than in Latin). The Jesuits argued that Chinese folk religion and offerings to the Emperor and departed ancestors were civil in nature and therefore not incompatible with Catholicism, while their opponents argued that these kinds of worship were a normal expression of local religion and therefore they should be incompatible for Chinese Christians.

Pope Clement XI's decree

Pope Clement XI

Although in later European commentary on China it has continued to be claimed that Confucianism is a "philosophy" and not a "religion" - because it does not conform to the model of western religions, Pope Clement XI made the assessment that the Confucian rituals were indeed in conflict with Christian teaching.

In 1705, the Pope sent a Papal Legate to Emperor 康熙 Kang Xi, to communicate to him the interdiction of Chinese rites. The mission, led by Charles-Thomas Maillard De Tournon, communicated the prohibition of Chinese rites in January 1707, but as a result was banished to Macao.[8][14]

Further, the Pope issued the 19 March 1715 Papal bull Ex illa die which officially condemned the Chinese rites:[8]

Pope Clement XI wishes to make the following facts permanently known to all the people in the world....

I. The West calls Deus [God] the creator of Heaven, Earth, and everything in the universe. Since the word Deus does not sound right in the Chinese language, the Westerners in China and Chinese converts to Catholicism have used the term "Heavenly Lord" (Tianzhu) for many years. From now on such terms as "Heaven" and "Shangdi" should not be used: Deus should be addressed as the Lord of Heaven, Earth, and everything in the universe. The tablet that bears the Chinese words "Reverence for Heaven" should not be allowed to hang inside a Catholic church and should be immediately taken down if already there.

II. The spring and autumn worship of Confucius, together with the worship of ancestors, is not allowed among Catholic converts. It is not allowed even though the converts appear in the ritual as bystanders, because to be a bystander in this ritual is as pagan as to participate in it actively.

III. Chinese officials and successful candidates in the metropolitan, provincial, or prefectural examinations, if they have been converted to Roman Catholicism, are not allowed to worship in Confucian temples on the first and fifteenth days of each month. The same prohibition is applicable to all the Chinese Catholics who, as officials, have recently arrived at their posts or who, as students, have recently passed the metropolitan, provincial, or prefectural examinations.

IV. No Chinese Catholics are allowed to worship ancestors in their familial temples.

V. Whether at home, in the cemetery, or during the time of a funeral, a Chinese Catholic is not allowed to perform the ritual of ancestor worship. He is not allowed to do so even if he is in company with non-Christians. Such a ritual is heathen in nature regardless of the circumstances.

Despite the above decisions, I have made it clear that other Chinese customs and traditions that can in no way be interpreted as heathen in nature should be allowed to continue among Chinese converts. The way the Chinese manage their households or govern their country should by no means be interfered with. As to exactly what customs should or should not be allowed to continue, the papal legate in China will make the necessary decisions. In the absence of the papal legate, the responsibility of making such decisions should rest with the head of the China mission and the Bishop of China. In short, customs and traditions that are not contradictory to Roman Catholicism will be allowed, while those that are clearly contradictory to it will not be tolerated under any circumstances.[15]

In 1742 Benedict XIV reiterated in his papal bull Ex quo singulari Clement XI's decree. Benedict demanded that missionaries in China take an oath forbidding them to discuss the issue again.

Kangxi's ban

The Kangxi emperor disagreed with Clement's decree and banned Christian missions in China.

From the Decree of Kangxi (1721):

Reading this proclamation, I have concluded that the Westerners are petty indeed. It is impossible to reason with them because they do not understand larger issues as we understand them in China. There is not a single Westerner versed in Chinese works, and their remarks are often incredible and ridiculous. To judge from this proclamation, their religion is no different from other small, bigoted sects of Buddhism or Taoism. I have never seen a document which contains so much nonsense. From now on, Westerners should not be allowed to preach in China, to avoid further trouble.[16]

Pope Pius XII's decision

The Rites controversy continued to hamper Church efforts to gain converts in China. In 1939, a few weeks after his election to the papacy, Pope Pius XII ordered the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples to relax certain aspects of Clement XI's and Benedict XIV's decrees. After the Apostolic Vicars had received guarantees from the Manchukuo Government that confirmed the mere "civil" characteristics of the so called "chinese rites", the Holy See released, on Dec. 8th 1939, a new decree, known as "Plane Compertum", stating that:

  • Catholics are permitted to be present at ceremonies in honor of Confucius in Confucian temples or in schools;
  • Erection of an image of Confucius or tablet with his name on is permitted in Catholic schools.
  • Catholic magistrates and students are permitted to passively attend public ceremonies which have the appearance of superstition.
  • It is licit and unobjectionable for head inclinations and other manifestations of civil observance before the deceased or their images.
  • The oath on the Chinese rites, which was prescribed by Benedict XIV, is not fully in accord with recent regulations and is superfluous.[17]

This meant that Chinese customs were no longer considered superstitious, but were an honourable way of esteeming one's relatives and therefore permitted by Catholic Christians.[18]. The Government of China established diplomatic relations with the Vatican in 1943, within a short interval. The Papal decree changed the ecclesiastical situation in China in an almost revolutionary way.[19] As the Church began to flourish, Pius XII established a local ecclesiastical hierarchy, and, in 1946, received Archbishop Thomas Tien Ken-sin (田耕莘) SVD, as the first Chinese national, in the Sacred College of Cardinals.[19] and later elevated him to the See of Peking.

See also


  • Hubert Jedin, Kirchengeschichte Vol. VII, Herder Freiburg, 1988
  • Jan Olav Smit, Pope Pius XII, Burns Oates & Washburne, London, Dublin, 1951
  • Mantienne, Frédéric 1999 Monseigneur Pigneau de Béhaine, Editions Eglises d'Asie, 128 Rue du Bac, Paris, ISSN 12756865 ISBN 2914402201
  • Missions étrangères de Paris. 350 ans au service du Christ 2008 Editeurs Malesherbes Publications, Paris ISBN 9782916828107
  • Les Missions Etrangères. Trois siecles et demi d'histoire et d'aventure en Asie Editions Perrin, 2008, ISBN 9782262025717
  • Joseph Metzler, La Congregazione 'de Propaganda Fide' e lo sviluppo delle missioni cattoliche (secc. XVIII al XX), in Anuario de la Historia de la Iglesia, Año/Vol IX, Pamplona, 2000, pp. 145–154


  1. ^ Pacific Rim Report No. 32, February 2004, The Chinese Rites Controversy: A Long Lasting Controversy in Sino-Western Cultural History by Paul Rule, Ph.D.
  2. ^ Manteigne, p.177-178
  3. ^ a b Manteigne, p.178
  4. ^ Mantienne, p.179
  5. ^ Missions, p.4
  6. ^ Missions, p.5. Original French: "Ne mettez aucun zèle, n'avancez aucun argument pour convaincre ces peuples de changer leurs rites, leurs coutumes et leur moeurs, à moins qu'ils ne soient évidemment contraires à la religion et à la morale. Quoi de plus absurde que de transporter chez les Chinois la france, l'Espagne, l'Italie, ou quelque autre pays d'Europe? N'introduisez pas chez eux nos pays, mais la foi, cette foi qui ne repousse ni ne blesse les rites, ni les usages d'aucun peuple, pourvu qu'ils ne soient pas détestables, mais bien au contraire veut qu'on les garde et les protège."
  7. ^ Les Missions Etrangeres, p.77-78
  8. ^ a b c Mantienne, p.180
  9. ^ a b 'Les Missions Etrangeres, p.83
  10. ^ S. Neill, A History of Christian Missions (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books,964), pp. 189l90.
  11. ^ a b Mantienne, p.178
  12. ^ Les Missions Etrangeres, p.82
  13. ^ Mantienne, p.178-179
  14. ^ Crosscurrents in the Literatures of Asia and the West by Alfred Owen Aldridge, Masayuki Akiyama, Yiu-Nam Leung, p. 54 [1]
  15. ^ China in Transition, 1517-1911, Dan. J. Li, trans. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1969), pp. 22-24.
  16. ^ China in Transition, 1517-1911, Dan J. Li, trans. (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1969), p. 22.
  17. ^ S.C.Prop. Fid., 8 Dec., 1939, AAS 32-24
  18. ^ Smit 186-187
  19. ^ a b Smit 188

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