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Chipmunks
Fossil range: Early Miocene to Recent
Tamias minimus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Rodentia
Suborder: Sciuromorpha
Family: Sciuridae
Tribe: Marmotini
Genus: Tamias
Illiger, 1811
Subgenera, Species & Subspecies

3 subgenera, 25 species

Chipmunks are small squirrel-like rodents of the genus Tamias. They are native to North America and Asia.

Contents

Etymology and taxonomy

Tamias is Greek for "storer," a reference to the animals' habit of collecting and storing food for winter use.[1] The genus includes twenty-five recognized species,[2] with one species, T. sibiricus, in northeastern Asia, one, T. striatus, in eastern North America, and the rest native to western North America.

Some authors have recently suggested that Tamias should be subdivided into three genera, corresponding to currently recognized subgenera Tamias, Eutamias, and Neotamias.[3] This usage, however, has not been widely adopted.

The common name originally may have been spelled "chitmunk" (from the Odawa word jidmoonh, meaning "red squirrel"; c.f. Ojibwe, ajidamoo). However, the earliest form cited in the Oxford English Dictionary (from 1842) is "chipmonk". Other early forms include "chipmuck" and "chipminck", and in the 1830s they were also referred to as "chip squirrels," possibly in reference to the sound they make. They are also called "striped squirrels", "chippers", "munks", "timber tigers", or "ground squirrels", though the name "ground squirrel" usually refers to members of the genus Spermophilus. Tamias and Spermophilus are only two of the 13 genera of ground-living sciurids.

Diet

Chipmunks eat nuts, acorns, seeds, mushrooms, fruit, berries, insects, bird eggs, snails and sometimes small mammals like young mice.[4]

Ecology and life history

Eastern chipmunks mate in early spring and again in early summer, producing litters of four or five young twice each year.[5] Western chipmunks only breed once a year. The young emerge from the burrow after about six weeks and strike out on their own within the next two weeks.[6] Chipmunks have an omnivorous diet consisting of grain, nuts, birds' eggs, small frogs, fungi, worms, and insects.[5] At the beginning of autumn, many species of chipmunk begin to stockpile these goods in their burrows, for winter. Other species make multiple small caches of food. These two kinds of behavior are called larder hoarding and scatter hoarding. Larder hoarders usually live in their nests until spring. Cheek pouches allow chipmunks to carry multiple food items to their burrows for either storage or consumption.[7]

These small mammals fulfill several important functions in forest ecosystems. Their activities harvesting and hoarding tree seeds play a crucial role in seedling establishment. They consume many different kinds of fungi, including those involved in symbiotic mycorrhizal associations with trees, and are an important vector for dispersal of the spores of subterranean sporocarps (truffles) which have co-evolved with these and other mycophagous mammals and thus lost the ability to disperse their spores through the air.[8]

Chipmunks play an important role as prey for various predatory mammals and birds, but are also opportunistic predators themselves, particularly with regard to bird eggs and nestlings. In Oregon, Mountain Bluebirds (Siala currucoides) have been observed energetically mobbing chipmunks that they see near their nest trees.[citation needed]

Chipmunks construct expansive burrows which can be more than 3.5 m in length with several well-concealed entrances. The sleeping quarters are kept extremely clean as shells and feces are stored in refuse tunnels.

Classification

Subgenus: Tamias[9]

  • Tamias striatusEastern Chipmunk
    • Tamias striatus striatus
    • Tamias striatus doorsiensis
    • Tamias striatus fisheri
    • Tamias striatus griseus
    • Tamias striatus lysteri
    • Tamias striatus ohioensis
    • Tamias striatus peninsulae
    • Tamias striatus pipilans
    • Tamias striatus quebecensis
    • Tamias striatus rufescens
    • Tamias striatus venustus

Subgenus: Eutamias

  • Tamias sibiricusSiberian Chipmunk
    • Tamias sibiricus sibiricus
    • Tamias sibiricus asiaticus
    • Tamias sibiricus lineatus
    • Tamias sibiricus okadae
    • Tamias sibiricus ordinalis
    • Tamias sibiricus orientalis
    • Tamias sibiricus pallasi
    • Tamias sibiricus senescens
    • Tamias sibiricus umbrosus

Subgenus: Neotamias

Extinct:

  • Tamias aristus

Notes

  1. ^ John O. Whitaker, Jr.; Robert Elman (1980). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Mammals (2nd edition ed.). New York: Knopf. pp. 370. ISBN 0-394-50762-2. 
  2. ^ Wilson, D. E.; D. M. Reeder (2005). "Mammal Species of the World (MSW)". http://nmnhgoph.si.edu/msw/. Retrieved 2007-06-27. 
  3. ^ Piaggio, A. J. and Spicer, G. S. 2001. Molecular phylogeny of the chipmunks inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase II gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 20: 335-350.
  4. ^ http://www.nhptv.org/natureworks/chipmunk.htm
  5. ^ a b Hazard, Evan B. (1982). The Mammals of Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 52–54. ISBN 0816609527. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=sjoQK1bedB0C&pg=PA53&dq=eastern+chipmunk+mate&as_brr=3&sig=ACfU3U1yqjlcK_T-9SF3IsdkkDH1eEg8EQ#PPA54,M1. 
  6. ^ Schwartz, Charles Walsh; Elizabeth Reeder Schwartz, Jerry J. Conley (2001). The Wild Mammals of Missouri. University of Missouri Press. pp. 135–140. ISBN 0826213596. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=uEWl0ZM6DfUC&pg=PA140&dq=eastern+chipmunk+young&as_brr=3&sig=ACfU3U3WVj2tyvQ4y2C_v8_vo1Hn_iX16A#PPA140,M1. 
  7. ^ West Virginia Wildlife Magazine: Wildlife Diversity Notebook. Eastern chipmunk
  8. ^ Apostol, Dean; Marcia Sinclair (2006). Restoring the Pacific Northwest: The Art and Science of Ecological Restoration in Cascadia. Island Press. pp. 112. ISBN 1559630787. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=CsGyhzFBjyAC&pg=PA112&dq=chipmunk+sporocarps&as_brr=3&sig=ACfU3U3TWxhcMo2rXFWT8kRvbXqIh6Sc2g. 
  9. ^ Tamias, Mammal Species of the World, 3rd ed.

References

  • Nichols, John D. and Earl Nyholm (1995). A Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Famous Chipmunks

External links

Further reading

  • Baack, Jessica K. and Paul V. Switzer. "Alarm Calls Affect Foraging Behavior in Eastern Chipmunks (Tamias Striatus, Rodentia: Sciuridae)." Ethology. Vol. 106. Dec. 2003. 1057-1066.
  • Gordon, Kenneth Llewellyn. The Natural History and Behavior of the Western Chipmunk and the Mantled Ground Squirrel. Oregon: 1943

Simple English

Chipmunks
Fossil range: Early Miocene to Recent
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Rodentia
Family: Sciuridae
Tribe: Marmotini
Genus: Tamias

A chipmunk is a small squirrel-like rodent. About twenty-three species fall under this title, with one species in northeastern Asia, one in the eastern portions of Canada and the US, and all the rest native to the western part of North America.

The name may have originally been spelled "chitmunk" (perhaps from a Native American word meaning "red squirrel"). However, the earliest form comes from the Oxford English Dictionary (in 1842) as "chipmonk". Other early forms include "chipmuck" and "chipminck".

Chip 'n Dale, two Disney cartoon characters, are famous chipmunks in pop culture. Another such trio is Alvin, Simon and Theodore (created by Ross Bagdasarian).








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